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Review Article
Collapsible Tube for Pharmaceutical Use
Saurav Anand and Digambar Mane
PGD Packaging technology, Company Famy care Ltd, Mumbai, India.

This article is based on collapsible tube requirement for pharmaceutical use. Since pharmaceutical
product are very much sensitive towards degradation with respect to moisture and air. After product
reaction with air (oxygen) and moisture their self life is reduced and may not be used as medication.
The Alumunium collapsible tube are impervious for moisture and air (oxygen) also its collapsible or
dead fold property does not allow to keep air inside tube, that again reduce the chance of reaction.
Quality & uniformity of lacquer coating in collapsible tube, is very important for product compatibility
and quality for long term study and use.

Keywords: Collapsible tube, Lacquer coating, Impact extrusion process, Printing.

INTRODUCTION causing it to dry out is minimized. Internal

Collapsible tubes made of tin, tin alloy or coating may be necessary to prevent chemical
aluminium as they are commonly used for reaction1.
containing and delivering liquid, viscous or The tube itself is absolutely scent-neutral and
pasty products such as tooth pastes are can be sterilized and coated with an inert
generally fitted with a lid so as to be perfectly internal lacquer. Aluminium permanently
air tight. The majority of medical creams and prevents the penetration of oxygen. This
ointments are marketed in collapsible tubes essential barrier property makes the aluminium
made from aluminium. Manufacturing the tube a most appropriate and well established
collapsible metal tube comprises: Spray packaging in the food, cosmetic and
coating a dispersion of fine spherical particles pharmaceutical markets8.
of a metal adhesive thermoplastic resin on the The ductile metals used for collapsible tubes
inside wall surface of a metal body portion are tin (15%), aluminum (60%), and lead
open at one end of a collapsible tube (25%). Tin is the more expensive than lead.
comprising the metal body portion plastically Tin is the most ductile of these metals.
deformed without difficulty, and a neck portion Laminates of tin-coated lead provide better
connected to the other end of the body portion appearance and will be resistant to oxidation.
, to form a coating of uniform thickness and They are also cheaper compared to tin alone.
heating the coating to fuse the fine spherical The tin that is used for this purpose is alloyed
particles of the resin, thereby forming a metal- with about 0.5% copper for stiffening. When
adhesive thermo-plastic resin layer9. When lead is used, about 3% antimony is added to
internally lined with the appropriate lacquer, increase hardness8.
collapsible aluminium tubes serve as a stable
10 7
corrosion-free packaging . Metal tubes are Products description
impermeable to moisture, gas, odour and light Material Aluminium Slugs with or without holes
provided they are adequately closed1. Alloy AA1070, Purity 99.70% minimum, Grain
Aluminum has superior dead fold Sizes Grain 5, and Hardness 16 to 19 HB
characteristics, which give it the ability to Thickness 3.00 mm. to 10.00 mm
remain bent or folded without rupturing. This Diameters: The following are the different
quality is necessary for a container that is diameters that can be readily available
designed to be squeezed and folded as the 20mm, 25 mm, 27mm, 40mm, 45 mm, 50 mm,
dispensing method11. They are convenient for 54 mm, 63.5 mm, 74 mm,75 mm, 85 mm,
a customer or patient to use and as the 89 mm 90 mm and 116 mm.
contents are expelled by squeezing the tube,
there is no tendency for the walls to recover Chemical Composition (%maximum
their original shape when the pressure is allowed by element)7
released. Consequently the risk of air entering >% Si -0.1,>% Fe -0.2,>% Cu -0.04,>% Zn -
the pack and reacting with the product or 0.04,>% Mg -0.03,>% Mn -0.03,>% Ti -0.03

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>% Other -0.01 Linings
If the product is not compatible with bare
METALS metal, the interior can be flushed with wax-
TIN type formulations or with resin solutions,
Tin containers are preferred for foods, although the resins or lacquers are usually
pharmaceuticals, or any product for which sprayed on. A tube with an epoxy lining costs
purity is an important consideration. about 25% more than the same tube
uncoated. Wax linings are most often used
Advantages with water-base products in tin tubes, and
Metal is very resistant to chemical attack. phenolics, epoxides, and vinyls are used with
Readily coats a number of the metals e.g. tin- aluminum tubes, giving better protection than
coated lead tubes combine the softness of wax, but at a higher cost. When acidic
lead with the inertness of tin and for this products are packed, phenolics are used and
reason it was formerly used for packaging for alkaline products, epoxides are used.
fluoride toothpaste.
Disadvantages The impact extrusion process is used to
Tin is the most expensive metal among tin, produce open-ended collapsible tubes from
lead, aluminium and iron. softer metals such as tin and lead. When
aluminium is used, it work-hardens during the
ALUMINIUM forming process and the resultant tubes must
Aluminum tubes offer significant savings in be annealed to regain flexibility. Alternatively
product shipping costs because of their light aluminium tubes may be left in their work-
weight. They provide good appearance. hardened state as rigid containers. Impact
extrusion is a particularly useful process to
Advantages produce containers with a high length to
Aluminium is a light metal hence the diameter ratio, e.g. up to 7:12.
shipment cost of the product is less. The basic extrusion process used for metal
They provide attractiveness of tin at somewhat collapsible tubes is identical with that used to
lower cost. produce rigid aluminium containers except that
The surface of aluminium reacts with the slugs used are rings rather than discs and
atmospheric oxygen to form a thin, tough, the female die which holds the slug is shaped
coherent, transparent coating of oxide, of so that the metal is forced downwards into the
atomic thickness, which protects the metal die to form the shoulder and nozzle as well as
from further oxidation. upwards around the plunger (Figure 1.0). The
formed tubes then pass to a trimming machine
Disadvantages where they are cut to length, a thread cut or
Any substance that reacts with the oxide rolled on the nozzle, and the face of the nozzle
coating can cause corrosion e.g. products with orifice cleaned. The shoulder, which is
the oxide coating can cause corrosion e.g. relatively rigid, may be decorated, e.g. with
products of high or low pH, some complexing concentric rings, if required. The tubes are
agents etc. then ready for the finishing operations of
As a result of corrosion process H2 may internal coating, enamelling, printing and
evolve. capping. Whereas rigid containers can only be
produced from aluminium, collapsible tubes
LEAD can be produced from any of the softer metals
Lead has the lowest cost of all tube metals and such as aluminium, tin, lead and tin/lead
is widely used for nonfood products such as alloys. Aluminium tubes must be annealed
adhesives, inks, paints, and lubricants after forming and finishing, otherwise they are
too springy this process also serves to remove
Advantages all traces of lubricant. Tin is the least reactive
Lowest cost of all the metals used in of the metals available, is very bright and is
pharmaceutical containers. also non-toxic. However, it is inherently
Soft metal. expensive and its usage is therefore restricted
to pharmaceuticals such as antibiotic and
Disadvantages some ophthalmic ointments where maximum
Lead when taken internally there is risk of lead protection is required. Lead-based tubes are
poisoning. now not recommended for pharmaceutical
So lead containers and tubes should always products, for toxicity reasons. The majority of
have internal lining of inert metal or polymer. collapsible tubes are made from aluminium,

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which is relatively cheap but subject to attack of the nozzle. After the internal coating has
by some acidic or alkaline products. The been applied the tubes are enamelled
widespread use has been made possible by externally, baked, printed and the print dried
the development of internal coating systems by heating again. It is essential that the
which are sprayed into the tube immediately enamel and printas well as the internal
after forming it. A wide range of coatings are coating be flexible or the tube may become
used including vinyl, epoxy and phenolic unsightly when the product is dispensed. The
resins. The use of epoxy and phenolic resins is finished tubes are then capped automatically
restricted to aluminium tubes due to the high and packed into shipping outers for dispatch to
curing temperatures required. Most internal the packers. Tubes are normally packed open
lacquering systems involve two coatings, the end upwards, for ease of removal, in fully
first being partially dried before applying a divisional slip lid fibreboard outers, sufficiently
second coat and drying completely. Needless rigid to protect the tubes from denting in transit
to say, where lacquers are used it is essential and impeding the filling and closing operation.
that they be pinhole-free for the whole length It is also important to avoid contamination of
of the inside of the tube, including the interior the open tubes during transit and in storage .

Fig. 1: Collapsible metal tubes produced by impact extrusion1

Use of coatings for collapsible packaging4 Influence mobility (friction) of the

Collapsible tube packagings are normally article during filling operations
coated on one or both sides. The inside By reducing tool wear for tin-free steel
(product contact) coating is referred to as an (TFS) substrates. Tin on the surface of
internal coating, lacquer or enamel and the steel (electrolytic tinplate ETP)
outside as external coating, enamel, ink or lubricates the metal during
varnish4. deformation, whereas steel without a
tin layer is very abrasive and the
Collapsible tube packaging is coated for presses used for forming would rapidly
many reasons such as wear out.
Internal (product contact) coatings By assisting tooling for aluminium
Provide protection of the contents substrates.
from the metal. Coatings are applied to metal and after
Provide protection of the tube from the thermal treatment (cure schedule or staving)
contents of the tube e.g. acidic, form a dry (final) film on the metal. Most
alkaline or sulphur product may couse coatings are applied as a wet film. The major
problem. constituents in a coating as applied to the
metal include:
External (non-food contact) coatings Resin(s)
Provide protection of the metal from Cross-linking agents (almost always present)
the environment e.g. atmospheric Additives
corrosion Solvents (not always present).
Support decoration, labelling and The first three components are incorporated
consumer information into the dry (final) film. In case a solvent is

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used, it evaporates during the cure schedule. shallow drawn cans). Because internal
The film, which is in contact with food, must lacquers are primarily intended for protection,
comply with relevant food regulations as the cure schedules for internal lacquers tend
discussed in the chapter on regulatory aspects to be more severe and longer than those used
Unlike most plastics, the majority of coatings for external systems. Typically, industry
only attain their final properties after the wet defines the cure schedule necessary to ensure
(applied) film has undergone further chemical a specified performance as peak metal
reactions, normally during the cure schedule. temperature (pmt). This is the minimum metal
Typically the resin(s) would react with one or temperature at which a coating must be held
more cross-linking agents (or resins), which for a specified time and is often given as a
join individual resin molecules together to form cure window, e.g. 195205C for 1012 min
a three-dimensional cross-linked network. It is for a sheet-fed product and perhaps 1020 s
this network and the density of crosslinks in at 270230C for a coil-coated product. Each
combination with the different molecules used coil line is different and requires different
in the resins that give the corrosion resistance conditions. The amount of a coating applied to
and flexibility, amongst other properties, of the the metal packaging is quoted in weight per
final film4. area (e.g. g/m2) or weight per can (e.g.
mg/can). This weight refers to the coating
Applying and curing coatings remaining on the metal after curing. Weight
Internal coatings for metal packaging are per area is normally used for sheets, i.e. for
typically applied by either roller coating or food applications, whereas weight per can
spraying before undergoing a cure schedule would be used for preformed objects such as
(staving or baking). The metal to be coated beverage cans. For food, the range is typically
can be shaped as a sheet, coil or preformed 515 g/m2 and for beverages weights in the
object. As in many cases the coatings are range 110180 mg/33cl can would be typical,
applied before deformation of the metal to depending on whether the can was aluminium
form the container or cap, the coating has to or ETP and whether beer or soft drinks were to
withstand severe mechanical deformations be packed4.
(e.g. for lug closures, crowns, ends and some

Table 1: Types and properties of resins used in internal can coatings4

Type Nature Flexibility Main end-uses
High molecular weight epoxy resins Universal gold lacquer for
Epoxy-phenolic cross-linked with phenolic resole Good Very good three-piece cans Shallow
resins drawn cans
PVC dispersed in an appropriate Drawn cans
varnish and conventionally stabilised Easy-open ends
Organosol with a low molecular weight epoxy Very good Very good Often used over epoxy
resin or novolac epoxy resin. phenolic basecoat.
Epoxidised oils can also be used
High molecular weight epoxy resins Internal white for three-
Epoxy-anhydride cross-linked with anhydride Good Very good piece cans
High molecular weight epoxy resins
Universal lacquer for beer
cross-linked with amino resins. Also
and beverage cans
Epoxy-amino Side seam stripes epoxy acrylic Good Limited
(water reducible)
water- Some food systems based
spray internals for B&B DWI
May not be suitable for
Polyester resins cross-linked with
Pack - very acidic and amino or
Polyester Resins. May contain lower Molecular Very good
dependent phenolic aggressive
weight Epoxy resin
Very poor, but film Drums and pails where
Phenolic resin(s) Which self- particularly for
Phenolic quality is weight- flexibility is not a
crosslink (Cure) aggressive
Oleoresinous Naturally occurring Variable Very limited uses

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The single most widely used class of resin in addition of titanium dioxide, often in an epoxy
use today for metal packaging, with epoxy anhydride coating or sometimes an organosol.
phenolic coatings finding the largest Aluminium is added to a coating to give a grey
application. Epoxy resins are cross-linked aluminiumised appearance to the final film .
through both their hydroxyl and oxirane
functionalities, using phenolic or amino resins 1.0 Lacquer damage
and occasionally an anhydride oligomer. All of Three main types of damage are common with
the roles currently met by epoxy-based impact extrusions, particularly with collapsible
systems. Polyester based coatings can be tubes, all of which substantially impair the
thermoplastic, as used in side seam stripes, or corrosion resistance of the aluminium itself,
they can undergo cross-linking reactions and the lacquer films.
(typically through their hydroxyl functionality) These are as follows:--
with a number of systems, such as phenolic
resins, amino resins (particularly melamine 1. 1 Excessive extrusions Marks
formaldehyde resins) or poly-isocyanates. The Processing lines are inevitable but are to a
higher the number of hydroxyl groups large extent dependent on the condition of the
available for reaction, the greater the potential tools used in extrusion, and should be shallow
cross-linked density of the cured film. and smooth. Deep torn marks cut through the
Increasing cross-link density typically lacquer film when enamellings and printing
decreases flexibility, but increases chemical pressures applied, and it is quite usual to see
resistance. Amino resins are based on the a lacquered tube or container which has
reaction products of urea, melamine or corroded along the whole length of a deep
benzoguanamine with formaldehyde and extrusion line5.
frequently a low molecular weight aliphatic
alcohol. Their prime use in coatings for metal 1.2 Cross scoring
packaging is as a cross-linking resin for either These are a very potent source of trouble.
epoxy or polyester resins. Amino resins are Where these transverse scratches intersect
normally complex mixtures, partly because extrusion lines, little "sore spots" of broken
they typically undergo some degree of self- metal are formed which act as nucleic of
condensation reaction during their corrosion on unlacquered metal, and which
manufacture. During the curing process, they give weak area so fun supported film in the
react with functionalities in the other resins case of lacquered containers5.
present in the coating, as well as undergoing
some self-condensation reactions, which can 1.3 Knurl marks
give rise to clusters of amino resin moieties These apply mainly to tubes, but can also
in the cured coating. Phenolic resins are occur it narrow necked rigid containers, and
based upon the reaction products of phenolic are caused by the use of steel knurled points
monomers such as phenol, cresols, xylenols or printing fingers, which grip the container
or mixtures of these with formaldehyde and internally in the nozzle or container neck,
frequently a low molecular weight aliphatic leaving deep cuts or torn metal. It is possible
alcohol. Their prime use in coatings for metal to obviate these by using alternative devices5.
packaging is as a cross-linking resin or A second factor associated with knurl point
adjuvant; however, they can undergo self- damage is that fragment so if metal may be
condensation (cross-linking or curing) partially detached from the neck area and
reactions without any other resins being protrude through the lacquer film. Heavy areas
present. Phenolic resins are complex mixtures, of copper deposited on otherwise f lawless
partly due to self-condensation reactions films during electro-chemical sting, are nearly
occurring during their manufacture. Whilst always located where small particles of swarf
phenolic resins will self-condense to give a are trapped in the dry lacquer .
chemically resistant film, the resulting flexibility The next factor to be considered is the
is very limited and for most applications adhesion of protective films to container walls.
phenolic resins are plasticised with epoxy All the modern lacquers in use have excellent
resins, with which they react yielding a cured adhesion, but can fail drastically in this respect
film. Epoxy phenolic coatings normally after contact with product under certain
generate a gold colour when cured due to conditions and it is a fact that a film which
the chromophores in the phenolic resin. gives adequate protection when adhering
Indeed, epoxy phenolics are often referred to strongly to the metal substratum will afford
as gold lacquers and colour can be used as little or no protection, even though its
an indication of degree of cure for a given continuity and cohesion remain unaffected
system. The white coatings are made by the then it becomes detached. In other words, it is

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possible for the lacquer film to become a loose 2.3 Oxide Films on the metal
membranous bag, and whilst still containing The type of oxide film formed on aluminium
the product, it allows component so penetrate containers is dependent on the annealing
and attack the metal. One of the very early process in the case of collapsible tubes; the
signs that this type of attack is starting, is a types of degreasing used, and on subsequent
pronounced increased stiffness of the drying in the case of rigid containers and in
product5. both cases on the length of time the containers
are exposed to atmosphere before application
2.0. There are three main causes of loss of of the lacquer. All these conditions should be
adhesion in use, assuming at the coating controlled to give the optimum oxide film for
material is not at fault in this respect, and maximum adhesion. Rigid aluminium
that optimum staving conditions have been containers may be anodized to give maximum
observed corrosion resistance and lacquer adhesion.
2.1 Lubricant Residues remaining under The point should also be made in connection
the dried lacquer film with collapsible tubes concerning the difficulty
It is very easy to be misled, as tests on newly in obtaining adequate coatings in the nozzle o
applied coatings which have not been in wing to the restricted diameter, and it should
contact with product invariably give equal be noted in connection with very aggressive
results to those obtained with specimens free products that lacquer films in the nozzle area
from lubricant residues. It is only after ageing are invariably much weaker than on the
contact with the product, that adhesion losses remainder of the tube. From the foregoing
become apparent. Much controversy has general outlines, two main conclusions can
raged about the part played by the lubricant be drawn.
itself, bearing in mind that the best lubricants 1. It is possible to draw up a code of
for impact extrusion are, quite frequently, good practice for producing containers
those which are the most difficult to remove, using a one lacquer
and in the case of collapsible tubes, no actual system i e., one lacquer irrespective of
degreasing is used--the lubricant is intended to the number of coats employed.
be removed by annealing. Further, that 2. It is possible to develop further
whatever lubricant is used is very strongly systems for dealing with corrosive
attached to the metal surface, and if any products to overcome the defects
appreciable time elapses before annealing in inevitable with system
the case of collapsible tubes or degreasing in Dealing with system (1), the following simple
the case of rigid containers, it become almost rules should be observed:--
impossible to guarantee complete lubricant a) The lacquer itself must be suitable
removal. Many instances are known of chemically.
adhesion failures in service of containers b) Them minimum optimum film Weight
which have been subjected to, and passed must determine and the degree of
stringent coating tests when newly produced. cure of the film. These must be
There is little doubt that these are due to the controlled to fine limits by a properly
fairly long term effects of lubricant residues5. designed inspection scheme.
c) The lubricant used for impact
2.2 Film Penetrators in the product extrusion should be purely organic.
certain ingredient used in many products Metallic soaps, such as zinc stearate
packed in tubes and containers are known to should be avoided, and if water
rapidly penetrate the lacquer films particularly soluble compounds e, .g. ethoxylated
epoxy based lacquers. These materials rapidly lanolines can be used, so much the
destroy the adhesive forces at the better, as subsequent degreasing is
metal/lacquer interface. Chief among these going to be more effective.
are the following:-- d) There must be minimum delay
Irish moss and associated gums. between extruding and annealing or
Sodium alginate under certain conditions degreasing.
Menthol e) With rigid containers solvent
Methyl salicylate and similar esters degreasing should be avoided.
Usually this particular difficulty can be Aqueous treatments giving a
overcome by slight reformulation of the chemically clean surface and slight
product. With the gums, by substituting etch should be used, and there should
tragacanth, karaya, locust bean, sodium be no delay between final rinse and
carboxymethyl cellulose or methyl cellulose all drying.
of which are innocuous .

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f) The containers themselves should be much to be desired. Development work in this

free from deep extrusion lines and torn connection is mainly directed at substituting
metal. thermoplastic polymers for wax, and flush
g) Cross scoring should be absent. coating plastisols or organosols based on high
h) Knurl Marks should be absent from molecular weight vinyl resins, in place of spray
the nozzles of collapsible tubes. coated vinyl lacquers. In this way, very thick
i) The containers should be processed films of inert solids can be built up as a final
on plastic covered spindles for coat5.
Operations subsequent to lacquering.
j) There should be minimum delay Printing process of Collapsible tube:
between annealing or decreasing and Rotary dry offset letterpress
internal lacquering. Metal containers produced by impact extrusion
k) The nozzle diameter of a collapsible must be decorated as the last stage rather
tube should be as large as possible to than the first stage. The process normally
permit effective lacquering, or used is rotary dry offset letterpress2.
alternatively, a plastic nozzle may be This is a relief printing process in which the
used. image areas are raised above the level of the
In addition, with aluminium collapsible tubes non-image areas and transferred from the
the annealing conditions should be such that inked printing plate to the metal surface by
there is maximum lubricant removal as well as means of an intermediate resilient rubber
the formation of the optimum oxide film for surface1.
lacquer adhesion. This involves something of A dry offset process using either thermally or
a compromise, as cleaning of the surface is UV-cured inks. The tube is pushed on a
more efficient at higher temperatures whilst mandrel and rolled past a curved printing
the type of oxide film formed at the set blanket, which applies up to six colors
temperatures is not the one that gives simultaneously2.
maximum adhesion. Dealing with our second A base coat of white enamel is first applied to
conclusion, it is very obvious that one of the the container by roller coating and set by
main drawbacks to present one-lacquer partial baking, which aids keying of the inks at
systems is the fact that the lacquer is applied the printing stage. The base coat can also
at an early stage of the container's production, extend marginally around a corner radius, e.g.
i.e., following annealing or degreasing and that at the base of a rigid tube or over a bead or
no matter how many coats are applied how shoulder where present. However, the next
good the film build, damage and possibly operation of printing itself is restricted to the
contamination must occur during subsequent cylindrical surface as the actual (relief) printing
operations. Secondly t here is a limit to the film plate is wrapped around a cylinder in a similar
thickness which can be applied without manner to a lithographic plate. Each tube is
brittleness. Finally, high speed automatic supported separately on a mandrel which can
spraying leaves something to be desired in the rotate freely on its axis. The inking stations
way of continuity. Recent systems overcome apply their separate images to the same
these defects by utilizing two coats of rubber-faced blanket cylinder and the
dissimilar materials, the second coat being composite image is transferred to the tube in a
applied at the final stage of the container's single revolution of the latter. The printed
production. This type of system gives very tubes are then dried again. The tubes are held
good protection, for apart from compensating on pins for both the initial base coat baking
for flaws in the first lacquer coat, the barrier cycle and the print baking cycle. A period of 4
provided by a laminate of dissimilar organic min at 170230C is normally adequate,
materials has very high resistance to depending on the nature of the enamel and
penetration. Flush coated wax and spray the inks. Where there is a possibility of the
coated vinyl-based lacquers are at present in product reacting with the decoration, an over-
production sea s final coats for use with varnish is applied by roller coating, and set by
corrosive products although wax itself, and baking2.
spray coating in the case of the vinyls leave

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Fig. 2: Caps for collapsible tubes1

Closures and closuring folding it over on itself and crimping it. In

The majority of reclosable tubes are fitted with general the effectiveness of the closure
screw closures or flip-top variants on screw increases with the number of folds. However, it
closures. The choice of liner facing depends should be borne in mind that the more
on satisfying product compatibility complex folds require a greater length of tube.
requirements. Injection moulded polyethylene A saddle fold requires 10 mm more than a
and polypropylene closures have gained double fold (Figure 3.0) .
ground. This is achieved by shaping the tube,

Fig. 3: Metal tube-end closures: typical folds1

Nozzles 2. The Wily encyclopedia of Packaging

Collapsible tubes are produced in a range of Technology, Edited by Kit L. Yam,
standard diameters, the length being selected 545-546, 1267-1270.
to suit the required fill volume and method of 3. This Packaging users handbook
closing. The nozzle and orifice size are edited by Frank a paine, Page nos.
governed by the viscosity of the product and 281-283.
the amount to be dispensed per 4. ILSI Europe report Series, Packaging
application.Many pharmaceutical products materials: Metal Packaging for
require special applicator to dispense the Foodstuffs by Peter K.T. Oldring and
products from nozzles1. Ulrich Nehring, Page nos. 14 18.
5. Article on protective lacquer system
CONCLUSION for aluminium containers from journal
The Aluminum collapsible tube very important of the society of cosmetic chemists,
application in the field of pharmaceutical Page nos. 5 10.
industry. It provides best option for semi solid 6.
formulation that is very sensitive towards 7. http://www.aluminium-
degradation due to small exposure of
environmental stress. It provide best s.pdf
packaging for semi-solid because it is 8.
impermeable to moisture, gas, odour and m/
light.It is mitigating the risk of air entering the 9.
pack and reacting with the product or causing llapsible-metal-tubes.htm
it to dry out is minimized. 10.
1. Pharmaceutical packaging technology, content/uploads/2011/07/CTL_Design-
Edited by D A Dean, E R Evans I H for- Recovery_Aluminum_web.pdf
Hall. Page nos. 293-298.

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