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# GLASGOW CALEDONIAN UNIVERSITY MSc in Mechanical Engineering

## SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING, SCIENCE & (Design)

DESIGN

FINAL EXAMINATION
FIRST DIET

## 21 JANUARY 2005 SESSION 2004/05

0930-1130

APPLIED THERMOFLUIDS
AND
COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS
(ESDM502)

2 HOURS

## Attempt TWO questions:

ONE question from Section A and ONE question from Section B

## To be supplied: Manuscript Book (unlined)

Electronic Calculator (allowed)
Dictionary (allowed)
Section A
Attempt ONE question

Q.1 (a) Describe briefly, in your own words, the difference between laminar and
turbulent flow, where and when turbulence is likely to occur and the effects
that it produces.
[5]

## (b) Modelling turbulence continues to be a challenge in CFD analysis. Name

four well known classes of turbulence model and state the advantages and
[20]
Q.2 (a) Describe with the aid of appropriate sketches how the Governing
Equations are solved using the Finite Volume Method.
[10]

(b) Describe the S.I.M.P.L.E scheme of Pantankar and the errors and
limitations this algorithm was designed to overcome.
[15]
Section B
Attempt ONE question

n
Many non-Newtonian fluids can be defined by a Power Law k
dv
Q.3 (a)
dr
over a wide range of shear rate. Stating all definitions and assumptions,
show that for a pipe of inside radius R and length L, the pressure drop is
given by the expression:

n
2kL v(3n 1)
p
R nR

[10]

(b) A fluid of density 890 kg/m3 which obeys the power law relationship
1.25
dv
0.12 , is pumped through a pipeline from tank A to tank B as
dr
shown in Figure Q3(b). Given that the specific energy output from the
pump is 205 J/kg, assuming laminar flow conditions and using the given
data, determine:

## i) the fluid velocity in the two pipes;

ii) the mass flow rate of the fluid.
[15]

Pipe Data:
Pipe Length (m) Diameter (mm)
CD 82 125
DE 76 85

E
12.5 m
D
A
Pump

Figure Q3(b)

R 3 w 2
Formula: Q
3 0 f ( ).d
w
Q.4 (a) Stating all assumptions and definitions, show that for a straight uniform
cross-section fin of infinite length, the heat flow into the fin is given by the
expression:

q = kao
[10]

(b) The very long fin shown in Figure Q4(b) has a 7.5 mm diameter and its
base temperature is maintained at 110oC. The cylindrical surface of the rod
is exposed to ambient air at 20oC with a convective heat transfer coefficient
of 95 W/m2K.

## i) Assuming an infinite length of fin, plot the steady-state temperature

distributions along rods manufactured from pure copper, tungsten
and carbon steel, commenting on the graphs obtained.
ii) Calculate the corresponding heat transfer rates and comment on
their relationship to the graphs obtained in (b)i) above.
[15]

Data:

## Pure Copper = 400 W/mK

Tungsten = 174 W/mK
Carbon Steel = 61 W/mK

Air
h, Tf
Dia,d

Tb .
Length, L

Figure Q4(b)