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GLASGOW CALEDONIAN UNIVERSITY MSc in Mechanical Engineering

SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING, SCIENCE & (Design)


DESIGN

FINAL EXAMINATION
FIRST DIET

9 JANUARY 2006 SESSION 2005/06

1000-1200

APPLIED THERMOFLUIDS
AND
COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS
(ESDM502)

2 HOURS

Attempt TWO questions:


ONE question from Section A and ONE question from Section B

All questions carry equal marks

To be supplied: Manuscript Book (unlined)


Electronic Calculator (allowed)
Dictionary (allowed)
Section A
Attempt ONE question

Q.1 (a) i) Describe briefly, in your own words, the basis for the mathematical
formulation of Governing Equations in computational fluid
dynamics (CFD).
[3]

ii) State a version of the mass and momentum conservation equations.


[2]

iii) Discuss the meaning of each of the terms in the equations in part ii)
above.
[7]

(b) i) The basis for approximating differentials by finite difference is the


Taylor series. Consider the variation of the function y(x) with x:
By the Taylor series, the value of the function at x0 +x in terms of
the value at x0 and the derivatives evaluated at x0 is

x 2 x 3
y ( x0 x ) y ( x0 ) y ( x0 ) x y( x0 ) y ( x0 ) ...
2! 3!

Show that by using this approach a derivative can be approximated


numerically.
[5]

ii) Use illustrative equations to explain forward and central


differencing schemes.
[8]
Q.2 (a) i) Describe, in simple terms and with the aid of appropriate sketches,
how the Finite Volume Method is used in CFD codes.
[5]

ii) What properties would you expect of an appropriate mesh for a


CFD analysis?
[8]

(b) i) Discuss the principal sources of errors and inaccuracies in a


practical CFD analysis
[7]

ii) What steps would you take to check the results from a CFD
analysis?
[5]
Section B
Attempt ONE question

Q.3 (a) State the meaning of the term Fanno flow.


[3]

(b) Given that the equation:

1 Ma 2 .dMa
f .dx
( 1) 2m
Ma 3 1 Ma 2
2

applies to the flow of gas through a duct, explain briefly how the Mach
number is affected by flow conditions.
[6]

(c) Air flows through a duct with an initial velocity of 670 m/s. Assuming that
a shock wave is formed at a point in the duct where the pressure and
temperature are 19 kN/m2 and 17 C respectively, determine:

i) the Mach number before the shock wave;


ii) the maximum permissible temperature to produce a shock wave;
iii) the pressure, temperature and Mach number after the shock wave
given that the velocity is 250 m/s.
[16]
Q.4 (a) A Bingham plastic fluid having a density of 940 kg/m3, plastic viscosity
0.16 Ns/m2 and a yield stress of 2.9 N/m2 is to be pumped through a
horizontal pipeline of length 480 m and bore 250 mm. Determine the
pumping power corresponding to a Reynolds number of 1900.

dv yd
Formulae: Re e p
e 6v
[12]

(b) Given that a power law fluid of density 950 kg/m3 obeying the equation
n
dv
k where k = 0.15 Nsn/m2 and n = 1.3, is to be pumped through
dr
the pipeline, determine for laminar flow, the mass flow rate corresponding
to a power of 2 kW.

R 3 w 2
Formula: Q
3 0 f ( ).d
w
[13]