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# GLASGOW CALEDONIAN UNIVERSITY MSc in Mechanical Engineering

## SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING, SCIENCE & (Design)

DESIGN

FINAL EXAMINATION
FIRST DIET

## 9 JANUARY 2006 SESSION 2005/06

1000-1200

APPLIED THERMOFLUIDS
AND
COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS
(ESDM502)

2 HOURS

## Attempt TWO questions:

ONE question from Section A and ONE question from Section B

## To be supplied: Manuscript Book (unlined)

Electronic Calculator (allowed)
Dictionary (allowed)
Section A
Attempt ONE question

Q.1 (a) i) Describe briefly, in your own words, the basis for the mathematical
formulation of Governing Equations in computational fluid
dynamics (CFD).


## ii) State a version of the mass and momentum conservation equations.



iii) Discuss the meaning of each of the terms in the equations in part ii)
above.


## (b) i) The basis for approximating differentials by finite difference is the

Taylor series. Consider the variation of the function y(x) with x:
By the Taylor series, the value of the function at x0 +x in terms of
the value at x0 and the derivatives evaluated at x0 is

x 2 x 3
y ( x0 x ) y ( x0 ) y ( x0 ) x y( x0 ) y ( x0 ) ...
2! 3!

numerically.


## ii) Use illustrative equations to explain forward and central

differencing schemes.

Q.2 (a) i) Describe, in simple terms and with the aid of appropriate sketches,
how the Finite Volume Method is used in CFD codes.


CFD analysis?


## (b) i) Discuss the principal sources of errors and inaccuracies in a

practical CFD analysis


ii) What steps would you take to check the results from a CFD
analysis?

Section B
Attempt ONE question



## (b) Given that the equation:

1 Ma 2 .dMa
f .dx
( 1) 2m
Ma 3 1 Ma 2
2

applies to the flow of gas through a duct, explain briefly how the Mach
number is affected by flow conditions.


(c) Air flows through a duct with an initial velocity of 670 m/s. Assuming that
a shock wave is formed at a point in the duct where the pressure and
temperature are 19 kN/m2 and 17 C respectively, determine:

## i) the Mach number before the shock wave;

ii) the maximum permissible temperature to produce a shock wave;
iii) the pressure, temperature and Mach number after the shock wave
given that the velocity is 250 m/s.

Q.4 (a) A Bingham plastic fluid having a density of 940 kg/m3, plastic viscosity
0.16 Ns/m2 and a yield stress of 2.9 N/m2 is to be pumped through a
horizontal pipeline of length 480 m and bore 250 mm. Determine the
pumping power corresponding to a Reynolds number of 1900.

dv yd
Formulae: Re e p
e 6v


(b) Given that a power law fluid of density 950 kg/m3 obeying the equation
n
dv
k where k = 0.15 Nsn/m2 and n = 1.3, is to be pumped through
dr
the pipeline, determine for laminar flow, the mass flow rate corresponding
to a power of 2 kW.

R 3 w 2
Formula: Q
3 0 f ( ).d
w