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# Electrostatic meter can detect ac voltages

Fuse:

## 1.To make it impossible to use appliances which are too

large for a given circuit
2.To limit the amount of power that a circuit can deliver
3.To make sure the current is within safe limits

## In a voltage divider network, total resistance should be as

small as the power supply will allow

supply voltage

## Current-limiting resistors protects transistors from

needless overheating

## Bleeder resistors connected across the capacitor in a power

supply; protect anyone against danger of electric shock

## Wire-wound resistor used in high-power DC circuits;

dissipates a large amount of DC power

cell is used

## Weston cell used as a voltage reference source

The voltage in a battery is more than the voltage in a cell of
the same kind

## Lantern battery used in 2-way portable radios; has more

energy capacity than transistor battery

the cell dies

## NiCd satellite, portable player, radio transceiver; should

never be used until it dies

Memory effect (in NiCd only) does not occur very often; it
describes one very specific situation in which certain NiCd
batteries gradually lose their maximum energy capacity if they
are repeatedly recharged after being only partially
discharged. The battery appears to "remember" the smaller
capacity.

## Interactive solar power system allows a homeowner to sell

power to the utility

## Geomagnetic field makes a compass work; flux is horizontal

at the geomagnetic equator

## Magnetic flux attributed to motion of charged particles;

originates at a north magnetic pole

## Geomagnetic storm does not affect microwave links; can

disrupt the earths magnetic field

## AC electromagnet attracts pure, unmagnetized iron

DC electromagnet has constant polarity

motor rotating

## Total resistance of combined resistors in parallel is LESS

THAN the value of the smaller resistor in the combination

## NOTE! a SCHEMATIC diagram does not show component values; a

WIRING diagram does.

current

## Alkaline cell works at lower temperatures

Angular frequency, = 2f

## Type of natural energy source does not affect the power

output of an AC generator

loss

## Air variable capacitor 1 pF to 100 pF

AC wave has a definite frequency

through it.

## Inductor blocks AC and allows DC. Therefore, reactance

decreases with decreasing frequency (since XL = 2fL).

## Each point in the RL/RC plane corresponds to a unique combo of

resistance and reactance (R + jXL, R - jXC) (ELI, ICE)
(imagine the plane!).

## If reactance equals resistance, phase angle is 45 degrees; (+)

if inductive; (-) if capacitive

## Plate area is directly proportional to capacitance, but

reactance is inversely proportional to capacitance [XC = 1/
(2fC)].

## FALSE: Characteristic impedance IS complex.

S = apparent power

P = true/active/real power

Q = reactive power

S2 = P2 + Q2

## Impedance2 = Resistance2 + Reactance2

P = power factor * S
Reactive factor = 1 PF = sine of phase angle = Q / S

## Standing waves can cause inaccuracy in power measurement, feed

line overheating, and excessive power loss, among others.

## The capacitance between the primary and the secondary windings

of a transformer can be minimized by placing the windings on
opposite sides of a toroidal core.

## Permeability tuning moving the core further into a

solenoid coil increases inductance

## Toroidal-core inductor (advantage over solenoid core is

that) the magnetic flux in it is practically all within the
core; it confines the magnetic flux; used in 400 Hz;
essentially self-shielding

small volume

Transformer:

## 3.A ferromagnetic-core unit needs fewer turns of wire than

an equivalent air-core unit.

## Shell method of winding provides maximum coupling

Ferromagnetic pot-core provides large inductance

## High voltage used in long-distance power transmission

because I2R losses are less

## Autotransformer has only one winding, tapped winding;

portion of the same winding acts a part of both primary and
secondary windings; 3 taps minimum

## = sqrt (Zs / Zp)

ZO = sqrt (ZIN*ZL)

## NOTE: Frequency does not affect the capacitance of a

capacitor. It is not present in the capacitance equation.

## The inductance of a coil can be continuously varied by varying

the net core permeability.

## NOTE: A sine wave contains energy at just one frequency.

Harmonics do not contain energy.

## The rate of change (derivative) of a sine wave is itself a

wave that leads the original wave by 90 degrees of phase.

## Holes flow the opposite way from electrons because charge

carriers are passed from atom to atom.
If the reverse bias exceeds the avalanche voltage in a PN
junction, THE JUNCTION WILL CONDUCT CURRENT.

## Cats whisker detector is an early electronic component

consisting of a thin wire that lightly touches a crystal of
semiconducting mineral to make a crude contact-junction
rectifier; detector in early crystal radios; was the first
type of semiconductor diode, and in fact the first
semiconductor electronic device

## Optoisolator if you want a circuit to be stable with a

variety of amplifier impedance conditions

cell.

VOLTAGE

## Current surge takes place when a power supply is first

turned on because the filter capacitor(s) must be initially
charged

## TVS diode transient voltage suppression diode; used to

protect sensitive electronics (e.g. a diode) from voltage
spikes induced on connected wires; the device operates by
shunting excess current when the induced voltage exceeds the
avalanche breakdown potential. It is a clamping device,
suppressing all overvoltages above its breakdown voltage. Like
all clamping devices, it automatically resets when the
overvoltage goes away, but absorbs much more of the transient
energy internally than a similarly rated crowbar device
Quick-break fuse made of straight wire only

## Bleeder resistor connected in parallel with filter

capacitors to discharge the energy stored in them

## PNP collector is negative w/ respect to emitter (just

remember that in PNP configuration, -VDD is connected to it)

## Dual diode model shows that the transistor emitter

corresponds to either of the diode cathodes

## With no signal input, collector current IC is least when B-E

junction is reverse-biased (cut-off).

high ZIN)

## Common base input at emitter, output at collector (current

follower; stable RF amplifier; is not affected by Miller
capacitance)

1.Drain voltage

2.Gate voltage

3.Gate bias

## JFET N-CH pinch off due to very negative bias

JFET P-CH drain is negative wrt source (-VDD); just like PNP
BJT

junction

## JFET pinch off transconductance is zero with no signal

applied
JFET characteristic curve VD versus ID

## E-MOSFET when at zero-bias, ID is zero with no signal;

schematic symbol: broken vertical line inside a circle

cycle

## Tuned PA must always be adjusted for max power output;

loading control provides impedance matching between transistor

## Air-core coils have better thermal stability than

ferromagnetic coils; good for use in RF oscillators

## Digitized voice signals 8 states or levels

Teleprinter uses audio FSK (AFSK) to transmit data over
telephone lines

## RTTY (radioteletype) uses FSK instead of ASK for reduced

number of misprints; consists of 2/more electromechanical
teleprinters in different locations, later superseded by PCs
running software to emulate teleprinters, connected by radio
rather than a wired link

## SSTV (slow scan TV; narrowband TV) transmission of static

pictures via radio in monochrome or color; frame time is 8
sec; max BW is 3 kHz; operates on VF; transmission via HF,

a slow rate

## Reflected waves travel FARTHER than the direct wave; arrives

in a variable phase compared with the direct wave

## Dynamic range ability of a receiver to perform in the

presence of strong signals

## Slope detector an AM receiver than can demodulate FM; occurs

when the radio is tuned above or below the nominal broadcast
frequency

## Low IF not practical w/ single-conversion receiver because

sensitivity would be impaired

## TTL least susceptible to noise

Magnetic audio tape tracks are PARALLEL to the EDGES

## Gas-filled regulator maintains constant voltage drop with

changes in current

cathode

## Screen grid enhances tube operation by DECREASING the grid-

to-plate capacitance

electric field

## Longitudinal magnetic flux causes the electron paths in a

magnetron to be spiral

BUBBLE memory

## Voltage-doubler power supply used in ckts that need low

current at high voltage
Synchronizing pulses keep the image from tearing or rolling

## Relative phase of 2 acoustic waves can affect how loud the

sound seems and the direction from which the sound seems to be
coming

magnetic field

## Phase quadrature creates the illusion of 4-channel stereo

when there are really only two channels

## Radiolocation use of direction-finding equipment to

determine coordinates of a radio transmitter

## Audiotones represent highs and lows when data is sent over

long-distance telephone circuits

## Resolution extent to which a machine vision system can

differentiate between two objects

## Proximity sensing akin to distance measurement

Telechir telepresence

practical

## Teleoperation somewhat like remote control operation

Rodney Brookes insect robots

## Epipolar navigation can be done from a single observation

frame; stereo vision in 3D space

slope

sense

## Fleet of insect robots low individual intelligence but high

group intelligence

dim light

pole to pole)

## Range sensing and plotting basically the same except for

number of dimensions involved

are blind

## Antenna efficiency more important in transmitting systems

than in receiving systems

## Electromagnet bar of iron inside a cylindrical coil of wire

FLOYD
Electroluminescence emitting photons from a SEMICONDUCTIVE
material

diode

## Schottky diodes aka hot-carrier diodes; used in fast-

switching ckts; operates only with majority carriers; formed
by joining a doped semiconductor region with a metal

## Varactor diodes for tuning ckts; always operates in reverse

bias; is doped to maximize the capacitance of depletion region

than 5V

greater than 5V

Positive

## Heaviest to lightest-doped E-C-B

For BJT IE = IC + IB

IC = DCIE = DC/(DC+1)

To operate in active region (for Si) 0.7V < VCE < VCE(MAX)

## Voltage-divider bias relatively stable Q-point; most stable

bias; most common; provides good Q-point stability with a
single-polarity supply voltage
Collector bias relatively stable Q-point achieved through
using (-) FB from collector to base

## Base bias poor stability due to that Q-point varies widely

with DC

Emitter bias provides good Q-point but requires (+) and (-)
supply voltages

## The input resistance at the base of a voltage-divider biased

transistor can be neglected only if the base current is much
larger than the current through R2 (the lower bias resistor).

little effect

## CC (buffer; emitter follower) high ZIN, high current gain,

low voltage gain; provides no amplification

## Darlington pair high ZIN, low voltage gain; provides beta

multiplication for increased ZIN

constant

## JFET high ZIN due to reverse-biased GS junction

Dual-gated MOSFET either a D-MOSFET or an E-MOSFET