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Electrostatic meter can detect ac voltages

Thermocouple gets warm when current flows through it

Electromagnet meter more rugged than pmmc

Voltmeters have large internal resistance

FETVM draws less current from a circuit under test


1.To make it impossible to use appliances which are too

large for a given circuit
2.To limit the amount of power that a circuit can deliver
3.To make sure the current is within safe limits

Frequency counter accurate to 6 digits or more

VU meter never measures energy

Illumination meter measures current

100 ohms, 10 W = 4x4 matrix of 1W, 100 ohms

In a voltage divider network, total resistance should be as

small as the power supply will allow

The max voltage output from a voltage divider is equal to the

supply voltage

Current-limiting resistors protects transistors from

needless overheating

Bleeder resistors connected across the capacitor in a power

supply; protect anyone against danger of electric shock

Carbon-composition resistors are comparatively non-reactive

Wire-wound resistor used in high-power DC circuits;

dissipates a large amount of DC power

Metal-film resistor has less reactance than wire-wound

Linear-taper potentiometer used in meter-sensitivity control

Logarithmic-taper potentiometer used in volume control

Battery chemical energy is changed to kinetic energy when

cell is used

Weston cell used as a voltage reference source

The voltage in a battery is more than the voltage in a cell of
the same kind

Physical size determines the energy in a cell or battery

Lantern battery used in 2-way portable radios; has more

energy capacity than transistor battery

Transistor battery for use in electronic calculators

Lithium battery for use in microcomputer memory backup

Flat discharge curve shows constant current delivery until

the cell dies

NiCd satellite, portable player, radio transceiver; should

never be used until it dies

Memory effect (in NiCd only) does not occur very often; it
describes one very specific situation in which certain NiCd
batteries gradually lose their maximum energy capacity if they
are repeatedly recharged after being only partially
discharged. The battery appears to "remember" the smaller

Mercury cell pollutes the environment

Connect solar cells in parallel to increase current

Interactive solar power system allows a homeowner to sell

power to the utility

Geomagnetic field makes a compass work; flux is horizontal

at the geomagnetic equator

Ferromagnetic can be permanently magnetized

Magnetic flux attributed to motion of charged particles;

originates at a north magnetic pole

Wb/m2 (or Tesla) and Gauss unit of magnetic flux density

Maxwell unit of overall magnetic field

At, gilbert unit of mmf; 1 gilbert = 0.4At

Geomagnetic storm does not affect microwave links; can

disrupt the earths magnetic field

AC electromagnet attracts pure, unmagnetized iron

DC electromagnet has constant polarity

Commutator reverses magnetic field polarity to keep a DC

motor rotating

High tape recorder motor speed used in video

Bubble memory used in large computers

Analog meter preferred (instead of digital) as a signal

strength indicator in a radio receiver

Total resistance of combined resistors in parallel is LESS

THAN the value of the smaller resistor in the combination

NOTE! a SCHEMATIC diagram does not show component values; a

WIRING diagram does.

Hot-wire ammeter can measure both AC and DC

Loudness meter calibrated in dB

Peak value >= Average value

Coulometer primitive device for indicating presence of


Static charge is built up without current flow

Alkaline cell works at lower temperatures

Angular frequency, = 2f

3-phase AC has 3 waves all identical in magnitude

Type of natural energy source does not affect the power

output of an AC generator

DC source in series with AC source produces pulsating DC

Air works well as a dielectric mainly due to low loss

Mica capacitor high efficiency, handles high voltages, low


Disk ceramic capacitor 100 pF

Paper capacitor 0.01 uF

Air variable capacitor 1 pF to 100 pF

AC wave has a definite frequency

Sine wave derivative representation of the rate of change

Vector diagram length of vector represents peak amplitude

Inductance is directly proportional to number of turns.

Inductance is inversely proportional to current flowing

through it.

Inductor blocks AC and allows DC. Therefore, reactance

decreases with decreasing frequency (since XL = 2fL).

Each point in the RL/RC plane corresponds to a unique combo of

resistance and reactance (R + jXL, R - jXC) (ELI, ICE)
(imagine the plane!).

Purely reactive 90 degrees phase angle

Purely resistive 0 degree phase angle

Reactance is (+) if inductive and is (-) if capacitive.

If reactance equals resistance, phase angle is 45 degrees; (+)

if inductive; (-) if capacitive

Plate area is directly proportional to capacitance, but

reactance is inversely proportional to capacitance [XC = 1/

Susceptance = negative inverse of reactance

FALSE: Characteristic impedance IS complex.

S = apparent power

P = true/active/real power

Q = reactive power

S2 = P2 + Q2

PF = P / S = cosine of phase angle = R / Z

Phase angle = arctangent of X / R

Impedance2 = Resistance2 + Reactance2

P = power factor * S
Reactive factor = 1 PF = sine of phase angle = Q / S

Standing waves can cause inaccuracy in power measurement, feed

line overheating, and excessive power loss, among others.

HALF WAVE DIPOLE LENGTH: Lft = 468 / fMHz; Lm = 142.65 / fMHz

The capacitance between the primary and the secondary windings

of a transformer can be minimized by placing the windings on
opposite sides of a toroidal core.

Inductor works by storing energy as a magnetic field

Diameter of wire does not affect inductance of a coil

Small inductance energy is stored but is released quickly

Ferromagnetic core increases inductance

Permeability tuning moving the core further into a

solenoid coil increases inductance

Toroidal-core inductor (advantage over solenoid core is

that) the magnetic flux in it is practically all within the
core; it confines the magnetic flux; used in 400 Hz;
essentially self-shielding

Pot-core-wound inductor (advantage is) large inductance in

small volume

Air-core inductor has excellent efficiency; 95 MHz


Air Core vs. Ferromagnetic Core:

1.Air works at higher frequencies than ferromagnetics.

2.Ferromagnetics are lossier than air.

3.A ferromagnetic-core unit needs fewer turns of wire than

an equivalent air-core unit.

Eddy currents cause an increase in core loss.

Shell method of winding provides maximum coupling

Ferromagnetic pot-core provides large inductance

Toroid vs. Solenoid Core see inductor outline above

High voltage used in long-distance power transmission

because I2R losses are less

Autotransformer has only one winding, tapped winding;

portion of the same winding acts a part of both primary and
secondary windings; 3 taps minimum

Center tap found in balanced winding

= sqrt (Zs / Zp)

ZO = sqrt (ZIN*ZL)

Parallel RLC absolute impedance: Z2 = RX/(R2+X2)

Parallel RC: V in RMS

Parallel RL: V in RMS

NOTE: Frequency does not affect the capacitance of a

capacitor. It is not present in the capacitance equation.

The inductance of a coil can be continuously varied by varying

the net core permeability.

NOTE: A sine wave contains energy at just one frequency.

Harmonics do not contain energy.

The rate of change (derivative) of a sine wave is itself a

wave that leads the original wave by 90 degrees of phase.

Disadvantage of GaAs expensive to produce

Selenium used in photocells

CMOS IC susceptible to static damage

Doping gives a semiconductor material certain properties

Holes flow the opposite way from electrons because charge

carriers are passed from atom to atom.
If the reverse bias exceeds the avalanche voltage in a PN


Zener voltage = avalanche voltage

A diode limiter can cause objectionable signal distortion.


PIN diode intrinsic layer minimizes diode CAPACITANCE

Cats whisker detector is an early electronic component

consisting of a thin wire that lightly touches a crystal of
semiconducting mineral to make a crude contact-junction
rectifier; detector in early crystal radios; was the first
type of semiconductor diode, and in fact the first
semiconductor electronic device

Gunn diode (transferred electron device) negative resistance

Optoisolator if you want a circuit to be stable with a

variety of amplifier impedance conditions

Infrared emission of energy electron energy-level changes



Full wave, center-tap rectifier provides HIGH POWER at LOW


Voltage multiplier has poor regulation

Current surge takes place when a power supply is first

turned on because the filter capacitor(s) must be initially

TVS diode transient voltage suppression diode; used to

protect sensitive electronics (e.g. a diode) from voltage
spikes induced on connected wires; the device operates by
shunting excess current when the induced voltage exceeds the
avalanche breakdown potential. It is a clamping device,
suppressing all overvoltages above its breakdown voltage. Like
all clamping devices, it automatically resets when the
overvoltage goes away, but absorbs much more of the transient
energy internally than a similarly rated crowbar device
Quick-break fuse made of straight wire only

Bleeder resistor connected in parallel with filter

capacitors to discharge the energy stored in them

PNP collector is negative w/ respect to emitter (just

remember that in PNP configuration, -VDD is connected to it)

Dual diode model shows that the transistor emitter

corresponds to either of the diode cathodes

With no signal input, collector current IC is least when B-E

junction is reverse-biased (cut-off).

Linear (active) region greatest gain

Common emitter input at base, output at collector (amp)

Common collector input at base, output at emitter (buffer;

high ZIN)

Common base input at emitter, output at collector (current

follower; stable RF amplifier; is not affected by Miller

Saturation brings reduced efficiency

JFET current channel is affected by:

1.Drain voltage

2.Gate voltage

3.Gate bias

And is not affected by transconductance

JFET N-CH pinch off due to very negative bias

JFET P-CH drain is negative wrt source (-VDD); just like PNP

JFET is sometimes biased AT/BEYOND pinch off in a POWER AMP

JFET gate high impedance

JFET circuit essentially never has a forward-biased PN


JFET pinch off transconductance is zero with no signal

JFET characteristic curve VD versus ID

JFET channel is open when zero-biased

E-MOSFET when at zero-bias, ID is zero with no signal;

schematic symbol: broken vertical line inside a circle

dB unit of relative signal strength

Resistor bet. NPN base and +VDD for proper bias

Class A not good for TV transmitter PA; least distorting

Class AB2 has some signal distortion during most of the


Class B needs the most driving power

Graphic equalizer form of tone control

Broadband PA generally easy to use

Tuned PA must always be adjusted for max power output;

loading control provides impedance matching between transistor
and load

Negative feedback reduces gain

RF choke allows DC; blocks AC; a coil

Air-core coils have better thermal stability than

ferromagnetic coils; good for use in RF oscillators

Oscillators might fail to start due to:

1.Low power supply voltage

2.Low output impedance

3.Low stage gain

Crystal oscillator low drift (as opposed to VFO); thickness

Multivibrator common-emitter configuration

Deviation for FM usually 5 kHz

Digitized voice signals 8 states or levels

Teleprinter uses audio FSK (AFSK) to transmit data over
telephone lines

RTTY (radioteletype) uses FSK instead of ASK for reduced

number of misprints; consists of 2/more electromechanical
teleprinters in different locations, later superseded by PCs
running software to emulate teleprinters, connected by radio
rather than a wired link

SSTV (slow scan TV; narrowband TV) transmission of static

pictures via radio in monochrome or color; frame time is 8
sec; max BW is 3 kHz; operates on VF; transmission via HF,
VHF, UHF radio

Narrow BW of fax signal achieved through sending the data at

a slow rate

Coax keeps the signal confined

Reflected waves travel FARTHER than the direct wave; arrives

in a variable phase compared with the direct wave

D-layer absorbs radio waves

BFO used in SSB and CW demodulation

Diode + Capacitor for AM detection

Envelope detector e.g. diode detector

Dynamic range ability of a receiver to perform in the

presence of strong signals

Slope detector an AM receiver than can demodulate FM; occurs

when the radio is tuned above or below the nominal broadcast

Ratio detector has built-in limiting

TDM often done with PM

Product detector receives CW

Low IF not practical w/ single-conversion receiver because

sensitivity would be impaired

TTL least susceptible to noise

Magnetic audio tape tracks are PARALLEL to the EDGES

Tube Grid = FET Gate

Gas-filled regulator maintains constant voltage drop with

changes in current

Tube with directly-heated cathode filament serves as the


Tube with cold cathode there is no filament

Screen grid enhances tube operation by DECREASING the grid-

to-plate capacitance

Pentode tube with three grids, 1 plate, 1 cathode

Grounded-grid PA has good stability

Electrostatic deflection electron beam in CRT bent by an

electric field

Vidicon noted for sensitivity

Magnetron increase in freq brings decrease in power output

Longitudinal magnetic flux causes the electron paths in a

magnetron to be spiral

Klystron high achievable output power

Multicavity klystron electrons have variable speed

JK has predictable outputs (unlike RS)

Frequency synthesizer uses divider

Oscillators have good output-to-input coupling

D-layer absorbs signals below 7 MHz at daytime

Improper bias when source-to-gate junction conducts

[Signal+Noise]-to-Noise ratio equates to SENSITIVITY

Magnetic fields within ICs can store data in a device called

BUBBLE memory

Voltage-doubler power supply used in ckts that need low

current at high voltage
Synchronizing pulses keep the image from tearing or rolling

200 Hz to 2000 Hz midrange AF

Relative phase of 2 acoustic waves can affect how loud the

sound seems and the direction from which the sound seems to be

Tape recording head converts AF currents to a fluctuating

magnetic field

Phase quadrature creates the illusion of 4-channel stereo

when there are really only two channels

Short waves 10 m to 100 m

Radiolocation use of direction-finding equipment to

determine coordinates of a radio transmitter

Base station aka repeater

Hard-wired telephone (advantage over wireless is) privacy

Audiotones represent highs and lows when data is sent over

long-distance telephone circuits

Thermal printer for someone who travels a lot

1980 use of 2G robots

Resolution extent to which a machine vision system can

differentiate between two objects

Edge detection keeps a robot travelling down a specific lane

Expert system is rule-based system

Manipulator aka robot arm

Android for environment with children

Proximity sensing akin to distance measurement

Telechir telepresence

Haptics tactile sensing

Speed of light limit of distance over which teleoperation is


Teleoperation somewhat like remote control operation

Rodney Brookes insect robots

Epipolar navigation can be done from a single observation

frame; stereo vision in 3D space

Clinometer used by robots to determine the steepness of a


Binocular vision system uses two cameras to allow a robot to


VU meter measures relative dB

Fleet of insect robots low individual intelligence but high

group intelligence

Sensitivity quantitative measure of vision system to detect

dim light

3D RANGE plotting done in spherical coordinates

LEO polar orbit (just remember IRIDIUM which travels from

pole to pole)

Hexaphonic sound for 3D hi-fi audio apps, though not common

Range sensing and plotting basically the same except for

number of dimensions involved

Degree of rotation robot arm flexibility

Cryotechnology can reduce noise level in a wireless receiver

Enhanced sensitivity sacrifices image resolution

Turntable uses belt drive

Sound waves (in air) consist of vibrating molecules

390 to 750 nm EM radiation can be seen by the naked eyes

Machine vision can see at wavelengths to which human eyes

are blind

Antenna efficiency more important in transmitting systems

than in receiving systems

Electromagnet bar of iron inside a cylindrical coil of wire

Electroluminescence emitting photons from a SEMICONDUCTIVE

Reverse-breakdown region normal operating region of Zener


Schottky diodes aka hot-carrier diodes; used in fast-

switching ckts; operates only with majority carriers; formed
by joining a doped semiconductor region with a metal

Laser diodes emits coherent, monochromatic light

Tunnel diode negative resistance

Varactor diodes for tuning ckts; always operates in reverse

bias; is doped to maximize the capacitance of depletion region

Zener breakdown zener diodes with breakdown voltages less

than 5V

Avalanche breakdown zener diodes w/ breakdown voltages

greater than 5V

LEDs made of gallium

Current regulator diode that maintains constant current

Step recovery diode employs graded doping

DC Load line shows active, saturation, cutoff regions

DC = hFE; varies w/ temperature and IC

PNP for normal operation, C-B-E is to Positive-Negative-


Heaviest to lightest-doped E-C-B

For BJT IE = IC + IB

IC = DCIE = DC/(DC+1)

To operate in active region (for Si) 0.7V < VCE < VCE(MAX)

General purpose or Small signal transistors: TO 18, 39, 52, 92

Voltage-divider bias relatively stable Q-point; most stable

bias; most common; provides good Q-point stability with a
single-polarity supply voltage
Collector bias relatively stable Q-point achieved through
using (-) FB from collector to base

Base bias poor stability due to that Q-point varies widely

with DC

Emitter bias provides good Q-point but requires (+) and (-)
supply voltages

Clipping results from:

1.Input signal too large

2.Transistor driven into saturation

3.Transistor driven into cutoff

As DC changes IC, VCE, Q-point also does change

The input resistance at the base of a voltage-divider biased

transistor can be neglected only if the base current is much
larger than the current through R2 (the lower bias resistor).

At saturation IC = IC(SAT) and VCE = 0

DC input resistance at base DC RE

CE high gain for voltage, current, power, but low ZIN

CE amps emitter bypass cap for maximized gain, but only

little effect

CE amps swamping for reducing effects of re (hre / hoe)

CC (buffer; emitter follower) high ZIN, high current gain,

low voltage gain; provides no amplification

Differential amplifier 2 inputs, 2 outputs

Darlington pair high ZIN, low voltage gain; provides beta

multiplication for increased ZIN

For VGS = 0: Vpinch-off is bet. ohmic and constant current regions

Vpinch-off is the value of VDS at which ID becomes essentially


VGS(off) value of VGS that makes ID approximately zero

JFET high ZIN due to reverse-biased GS junction

Dual-gated MOSFET either a D-MOSFET or an E-MOSFET