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1. Type of waves:
(A) Transverse wave

i. perpendicular to the direction of the wave propagation.

ii. Example: gamma ray, water wave, slinki spring

(B) Longitudinal wave

i. direction of vibration parallel to direction of propagation

ii. when crest meets with crest or trough meets with trough, resultant
amplitude becomes maximum. Constructive interference occurs.
iii. Important of longitudinal wave:
(a) Oscillations of wave particles parallel to the direction of the wave motion.
(b) Consists of compression and rarefactions
(c) Vibrating turning fork

2. Wave:

3. Crest - high point on a wave

4. Tough - low point on a wave

5. Amplitude, A - maximum displacement of a particle from its equilibrium


6. Wavelength, - distance between two successive crests/two successive


7. Period, T - time taken for a complete cycle of oscillation

8. Frequency, f - number of complete oscillations made per seconds.

9. Calculation:

10. The speed of wave: v=f

11. Damping - loss of energy due to dissipative forces/ a situation when the
amplitude of the oscillation decreases.
(a) External: due to air friction

12. Resonance occurs when a system is forced to oscillate at its natural


13. Ripple tank

(a) produce water waves

(b) hand stroboscope - to freeze the wave pattern seen on the white paper.
(c) This cause the parallel light rays from the lamp to converge forming bright
spots & diverge forming dark regions.
(e) Wave pattern seen on white paper:

(f) Wavelength decrease but speed constant

Reflection of waves
1. Characteristic:

(a) The speed is the same

(b) The wave direction change
(c) no change in wave speed
(c) The frequency (velocity) and wavelength are unchanged
(d) eg, sonar system

2. Submarine
(a) Use ultrasonic waves:
- higher f
- travel long distance & can be reflected

3. V = 2d / t
Refraction of waves
1. Change of direction of waves / bending of light when the waves go from
one medium to another with different density

2. Depth increases, speed of wave increases, wavelength increases.

frequency - not effect
3. Patterns of the waves with different density of medium:

Diffraction of waves
1. Diffraction of waves - change in direction / spreading of waves as they
pass through a small gap or obstacle, aperture or barrier.
2. Characteristics:
(a) Direction change.
(b) Wavelength constant.
(c) Frequency, f remain same.
(d) Velocity same as velocity of incident waves.

3. Plane waves
a. Narrow aperture (size )

Spherical waves. Clear diffraction. The curvature of the bending is more

b. Wide aperture (size > )

Plane waves with curvature ends .Blur diffraction.

c. Small barrier (size )

Split waves, combine fast become plane waves. Clear diffraction.

d. Large barrier (size > )

Split waves, takes longer way to combine become plane waves. Blur

4. At the seashore, fisherman build a retaining wall & a new location of

(a) Structure of retaining wall
i. Can withstand the impact of wave, not easy to crack
ii. Slopping at the below to decrease water wave as depth decrease
iii. Diffraction will occur; the smaller amplitude of the diffracted wave causes
the sea to be calm
iv. Must be height to ensure no overspill of the waves

(b) Location of new jetty

i. Build in the region of the bay
ii. The wave in bay are calmer (amplitude is lower) than in the cape
iii. The amplitude & size of the wave are smaller at the bay

Interference of Waves
1. Is the effect of superposition between two coherent waves.

2. Coherent sources produce waves of the same frequency, amplitude and

constant phase difference.

3. The principle of superposition states that at any time, the combined

wave forms of two or more interfering waves is given by the sum of the
displacement of the individual wave at each point of the medium

4. When a crest meets another crest or a trough meets another trough, a

maximum crest or trough is formed and constructive interference occur

5. When a crest meets a trough, the resultant displacement is zero &

destructive interference occurs.

6. When distance between the two coherent sources increases, then the
distance between two consecutive antinodes decrease.
7. The interference pattern of water wave:

(i) a increases x decreases.

8. Formula:
= ax / D

9. Loud speaker
(a) The distance between two loud speaker increase, the distance between
consecutive loud / soft sound increase.
(b) The f increase, the decrease

10. Interference of light waves can show with Youngs double slit

11. In Youngs double slit experiments, red fringes are formed.

(a) When red light is replaced by blue light. The distance between fringes
(b) When red light is replaced by green light, the distance between fringes
Sound waves
1. Amplitude modulation - amplitude of the carrier wave varies as the
audio frequency signal to be transmitted whiles its frequency a constant.

i. When the prongs of the turning fork move outward, it produce a region of
ii. When the prongs of the turning fork move inward, it produce a region of

2. Sound wave is a) longitudinal wave.

b) need medium to travel
c) cannot be polarized

3. Compare:
4. Wave sound
(a) The distance between the two waves sources when loud sound are heard
will decreased.
(b) Increases the frequency of the sound wave, wavelength is reduced.
(c) is directly proportional to x.

5. The specifications of a radar system:

(a) Diameter of the parabolic disc large receive more signals
(b) Distance of the signal receiver from the centre of the parabolic disc is the
same as the focal length reflected signal will be focused to the signal
(c) Microwave is used has a higher frequency / energy; less energy loss

6. Application of sound wave (reflection):

(a) Industries
i. Sonar equipment emits pulses of sound waves which reflect a shoal of fish.
ii. to determine thickness of layer oil (use higher frequency)

(b) Medicine (ultrasound):

i. used for the scanning of a foetus in the womb.
Electromagnetic waves
1. Consists of vibrating electric fields and magnetic fields which are
perpendicular to each other and to the direction of travel of the wave.

2. Properties:
(a) undergo reflection, refraction, diffraction and interference.
(b) Travel at the speed of light, c= 3.0 X 108 m s-1 in a vacuum.
(c) Do not need a medium to propagate.

3. Has short wavelength and carry high energy & high frequency.