Shigeru Ban

Shigeru Ban Architects 5-2-4 Matsubara, Setagaya-ku Tokyo 156-0043 Phone +81-3-3324 6760 Fax +81-3-3324 6789 tokyo@ShigeruBanArchitects.com 1984 Received Bachelor of Architecture from Cooper Union 1985 Established private practice in Tokyo 1993-95 Adjunct Professor of Architecture at Tama Art University 1995-00 Consultant of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 1995 Established NGO (VAN) 1995-99 Adjunct Professor of Architecture at Yokohama National University 1996-00 Adjunct Professor of Architecture at Nihon University 2000 Visiting Professor of Columbia University 2000 Visiting Fellow of Donald Keen Center, Columbia University 2001- Professor of Keio University

www.shigerubanarchitects.com Established 1985 Owner-Shigeru Ban Partner-Nobutaka Hiraga

Paper House

Paper Log Houses

Picture Window House

Naked House

Curtain Wall House

Walls-less House

e-ch the european concept house

shigeru ban, malinova, peykova

Shigeru Ban, Paper House
The public today has an image of Shigeru Ban as the ’’paper architect’’. He became interested in paper tubes,that is the tubes that areused in paper mills as cores for rolled paper,around the time he returned to japan from the us. He first used the material in the ‘’alvar alto exhibition ‘’ to create freestanding walls and celling. Paper tubes have a texture different from that of wood,and arranged in row they suggest that ancient and beautiful architectural feature,the colonade. Ban used paper tubes as an architectural material in exibition and event sites in 1989 and 1990. The use of the tubes in the main structure of a building was still not permitted by the building standard law. Ban’s first paper-tube building after getting authorization was ‘’Paper House’’ 1995, a villa for himself. This vila is based on a certain geometry two spaces of different size were defined by 110 paper tubes(2.7 high,275 mm in diameter and 148 mm thick) arranged in an s-shape above a squere 10 meters to a side. This was the first project in which paper tubes were authorized for use as a structural basis in a permanent building. Ten paper tubes support the vertical load and the eighty interior tubes bear the lateral forces. The cruciform wooden joints in the bases of the columns are anchored to the foundation by lug screws and cantilevered from the floor. The large circle formed by the interior tubes forms a big area. A freestanding paper tubes column with a 1.2m diameter in the surrounding gallery contains a toilet. The exterior paper tubes surrounding the courtyard stand apart from the structure and serve as a screen. The living area in the large circle is without furnishing or detail other than an isolated kitchen counter, sliding doors, and movable closets. When the perimeter sashes are opened, the roof, supported by the colonnade of paper tubes, is visually emphasized and a spatial continuity is created between the surrounding gallery space and the outdoor terrace. The sliding doors on the four sides of the equare are detached from the structure, and the relationship between exterior and interior spaces can be freely altered by opening or closing these doors.

First floor

View toward the outside

Exterior view from the southwest

The living area, surrounded by paper

e-ch the european concept house

shigeru ban, malinova, peykova

Shigeru Ban, Paper Log Houses
Paper architecture is based on the idea of using a standardized element generated by a production process, namely paper tubes. Transferring the technology behind an everyday material to another made possoble a change in thinking. The idea inevitably led to search for a place that most requires such a low-cost, simple material. In 1994 ban conceived the idea of making prototypes for refugee shelters out of paper. Japan: These are temporary Paper Log Houses built for the victims of the earthquakes in Kobe, Kaynasli and Bhuj. The foundation consists of donated beer crates loaded with sandbags. The walls are made from 106mm diameter, 4mm thick paper tubes, with tenting material for the roof.The 1.8m space between houses was used as a common area. For insulation, a waterproof sponge tape backed with adhesive is sandwiched between the paper tubes of the walls. The cost of materials for one 52 square meter unit is below $2000. The unit are easy to dismantle, and the materials easily disposed or recycled. Turkey: Based on the shelter in Kobe, Japan, some improvements were applied to fit in with the environment in Turkey. One unit, for example, was 3 x 6m, a different and slightly larger configuration, which was due to the standard size of plywood in Turkey and also to the country‘s larger average family size. Secondly, there was more insulation. Shredded wastepaper was inserted inside the tubes along the walls and fiberglass in the ceiling, and also cardboard and plastic sheets were used for more insulation, depending the Turkey applied to the rib vaults and whole bamboo to the ridge beams. A locally woven cane mat was placed over the bamboo ribs, followed by a clear plastic tarpaulin to protect against rain. Ventilation was provided through the gables, where small holes in the mats allowed air to circulate. This ventilation also allowed cooking to be done inside, with the added benefit of repelling mosquitoes. resident‘s needs. India: What makes the India‘s log house unique is the foundation and the roof. Rubble from destroyed building was used for the foundation instead of beer crates, which could not be found in this area. It was coated with a traditional mud floor. For the roof, split bamboo was applied to the rib vaults and whole bamboo to the ridge beams. A locally woven cane mat was placed over the bamboo ribs, followed by a clear plastic tarpaulin to protect against rain, then another cane mat. Ventilation was provided through the gables, where small holes in the mats allowed air to circulate. This ventilation also allowed cooking to be done inside, with the added benefit of repelling mosquitoes. For the roof, split bamboo was

Japan

India

e-ch the european concept house

shigeru ban, malinova, peykova

Shigeru Ban, Picture Window House
A gentle hill continues up from the ocean‘s edge, and near its peak is the location of the site; a place that, amazingly in Japan, is uncluttered by any unsightly distractions. Shigeru Ban - „The first time I set foot on the site, my immediate response was to frame the wonderful view of the ocean stretching horizontally. That is to say that the building itself should become a picture window. Also, to prevent the architecture from becoming an obstacle disrupting the natural sense of flow from the ocean, I‘ve thought of maintaining that continuity by passing it through the building up to the woods at the top of the hill. Thus, the whole upper storey became a truss spanning 20 meters, and below, a 20 meter by 2.5 meter picture window was created.“

Structure: The main structure consist of two glass membranes anchored ba metal wall panels at either end.when the room‘s sliding glass doprs are opened are pushed back, the interior transforms into a conduit for light,air,and sound,all flowing freely. The main room opens onto a poarch,which is a rail-less platform and is inspired by traditional engawa verandas. a double -hight entry foyer with a bathroom and a two -story pottery studio with a study flank the main space.doubling as a stuctural supports,the two end pieces carry the house‘s vertical load to th eground. They tie into the second floor‘s steel-and-concreat floor slab and trusslike web of columns,beams,anddiagona l braces-designed like a bridge to span the lower level‘s unobstructed openings.

1. living room 2. kitchen 3. studio 4. entry 5. bedroom 6. storage 7. bathrooms

Technik: The building required variouse of measures:screens ti keep out insects;supplementing passive measures,heated floors and an electric heat pump,a symphony of blinds curtains,and a roof overhang to reduce summer heat gain while letting still letting in a warming wintwr rays. Aluminum blinds may be deployed above or retructed left.

e-ch the european concept house

shigeru ban, malinova, peykova

Shigeru Ban, Naked House
Reduced to the archetypal function of a dwelling, Shigeru Ban‘s Naked House is a pure enclosing skin. It is his tenth study in building and materials, an architectural experiment set in the countryside, which site sits by a river, surrounded by paddy fields, and in close proximity to a number of dilapidated huts and isolated greenhouses. Not unlike these structures, the elongated volume of this simple, functional building encloses a single, two-storey-high space. Only the bathroom is divided off. The kitchen, utilities and storage areas are articulated by curtains. Flexible containers on rollers fulfit the function of individual spaces, within which the occupants have their sleeping quarters and zones for withdrawal. The tops of these containers are used as elevated working or play areas. To reduce weight and optimize mobility, these rooms are not very large and hold a minimum of belongings and fittings. They can be moved accordingly to the needs of their use. The basic construction of the house consists of slender timber frames that support the segmental arched roof and the facade. The narrow ends are glazed, affording views out to the surrounding landscape. The plasticclad lond facades are closed and translucent, with only occasional ventilation openings. Extruded white polyathylene strands were chosen as the insulation for the translucent skin of the building. Normally used as packing materail for transporting fruit, the strands were treated by hand with a fire-resisting substance by the architect‘s own assistants and sealed in 500 plastic envelopes. Flexible containers on rollers Shigeru Ban: „What the client wanted was described as a house that „provides the least privacy so that the family mambers are not secluded from one another, a house that gives everyone the freedom to have individual activities in a shared atmosphere, in the middle of a unified family“... This house is, indeed, a result of my vision of enjoyable and flexible living...“. These were divided into smaller cells to prevent the filling down inside the envelopes. The cushion-like elements are fixed to the timber structure with steel clips. The external facade covering consists of two layers of corrugated, glassfibre-reinforced plastic sheets, which form the weather-resisting skin. Internaly, the wall is sealed with a nylon membrane that can be removed for cleaning when required. A layer of plastic between the insulation and the membrane prevents the development of condensation in the internal space and also protects against the ingress of insects. Wholly in the tradition of Japanese architecture, an even level of subdued daylight enters the internal space. This modern enclosure is reminiscent of the typical paper screens found in Japanese houses.

The containers can be moved accordingly to the needs of use.

Internal side of the wall

e-ch the european concept house

shigeru ban, malinova, peykova

Shigeru Ban, Curtain Wall House
The house is intended to be a reflection of the owner‘s lifestyle. The client of this house has long enjoyed an open and free „downtown-culture“ lifestyle in this formerly Japanese-style house. The house is intended to be opened up as much as possible to the exterior so that the owner can maintain this kind of attitude in contemporary life with the use of contemporary materials. Wide deck spaces are attached on the east and south sides of the second-floor living room and tent-like curtains are hung on the outer facade spanning between the second and third floors. Interior conditions such as view, light, and wind are controlled by opening and closing this Japanese-style „curtain wall“. In winter, the exernal glazed doors and the curtains can be completely closed for insulation and privacy. This thin membrane takes the place of shoji screens, fusuma doors, shutters, and sudare screens in the traditional Japanese house. The Curtain Wall House consists of an elegantly spare two-floor block of open living spaces sandwiched between a large, overhanging triangular roof and deck that extend almost to the curb line. Around the perimeter of the triangle he hung billowing white curtains that can be opened or closed to regulate the degree of transparency between interior and exterior.

„Mies van de Rohe invented the glass curtain wall“, Ban explained,“but I just used a curtain“. Southwest exterior, seen when the curtains are entirely opened.

In winter, the curtains can completely enclose the house.

Second-floor terrace on the southeast corner

The exterior curtains are fluttering in the wind, seen from the first floor.

Interior view of LDK on the second floor

e-ch the european concept house

shigeru ban, malinova, peykova

Shigeru Ban, Walls-less House
The house is built on a sloping site, and in order to minimize the excavation work the rear half of the house is dug into the ground, the excavated earth being used as fill for the front half, creating a level floor. The floor surface at the embedded rear part of the house curls up to meet the roof, naturally absorbing the imposed load of the earth. The roof is flat and is fixed rigidly to the upturned slab freeing the 3 columns at the front from any horizontal loads. As a result of bearing only vertical loads these columns could be reduced to a minimum 55 mm in diameter. In order to express the structural concept as purely as possible all the walls and mullions have been purged leaving only sliding panels. The house consists of a ‘universal floor’ on which the kitchen, bathroom and toilet are all placed without enclosure.

Section, scale 1/150

Downward view from the northeast

The room can be sub-divided by the use of movable closet units with a height of 2,10 mm.

View from the south. All the glazed doors on both sides can be slid into the wall.

View toward the southwest, seen from the dining area. The east, the west, and the south sides are entirely opened by the use of movable glazed doors.

e-ch the european concept house

shigeru ban, malinova, peykova

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