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A. ergonomics

1. Ergonomics and Ergonomics Concept

The word ergonomics comes from the Greek, which ergos meaning work and nomos
which means the rules, the rules or the law, of the two words in the definition of freedom in
accordance with its development, which is a rule or rules are followed in the work
environment. Ergonomics is a term meaning the science and its applications are trying to
harmonize the work and environment of the people or vice versa with the aim of achieving
the productivity and efficiency of the highest through optimal utilization of human-
optimanya (Nurmianto, 1996). Ergonomics can be translated as the science learn about work
or the working system, including the workers, equipment and the workplace of workers
(Occupational Health and Safety second edition, 1994).

Cushman et al (1983), provide an understanding of ergonomics, which focuses on

how works affecting workers. Workers will undergo physiological changes during facing up
heat, illumination, noise, pollution, and others. Ergonomics aims to reduce fatigue (fatigue)
or discomfort (discomfort). Therefore, it is necessary to design tasks, workplace and working
tools in accordance with the capacity.

Many other definitions of ergonomics issued by experts in their fields, among others:

a. Ergonomics is the science or multidisciplinary approach that aims to optimize the man-
work system, in order to reach the tools, methods and work environment that is healthy,
safe, convenient, and efficient (Manuaba, A, 1981).

b. Ergonomics is the imu, art, and the application of technology to harmonize or balance
between all facilities used in both the long and the break with the capabilities and
limitations of human beings both physically and mentally so the overall quality to life to
be better (Tarwaka. Et al, 2004).

c. Ergonomics is the science of man in an effort to improve comfort in the workplace

(Nurmianto, 1996).

d. Ergonomics is the science and its applications are trying to harmonize the work and
environment of the people or vice versa with the aim of achieving the productivity and
efficiency of the highest through optimal utilization of human-optimal (Suma 'mur,

e. According Corleet and Clark (1995), ergonomics is the study of human abilities and
characteristics that affect the design of equipment and work systems.

f. According to Annis and McConville (1996), ergonomics is the ability to apply

information about human factors, capacity and limits the design task, the engine system,
the living space and the environment so that people can live, work and play safely,
comfortably and efficiently.

g. According to Bridger (2003), ergonomics is the study of the interaction between man and
machine and other factors that influence it.

h. According to M anuaba (2004), ergonomics is the science, art and technology practices to
harmonize or balance between all facilities used both in the long and mentally so that the
quality of life for the better keseluruhn.

i. International Labour Organization (ILO), defines ergonomics is the application of

knowledge of human biology with engineering knowledge to achieve a number of
adjustments and feedback from workers, both women and men in the conduct of its work,
the benefits can be measured from efiensi, health, and welfare.

j. International Ergonomics Association (IEA, 2010), defines ergonomics is the study of

anatomical, physiological and psychological aspects of human work in the neighborhood.
This context has nothing to do with efficiency, health, safety, and comfort of people at
work, at home, and a number of games. It generally requires the study of the system and
the fact bodily man, machines and the environment are interconnected with the purpose
of the adjustment.

k. According to the US Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health

Administration (OSHA), ergonomics can be defined simply as the study of the work. In
more detail, ergonomics is the science of designing work according to the needs of
workers than the physical body according to his work.

Based on the various definitions of the above, it can be concluded that ergonomics is
the study of multidisciplinary science that is rooted ranging from neurology, anatomy,
physiology, kinesiology, and biomechanics of the human body, psychology, hygiene,
anthropometry, computational mathematics, the (natural / artificial), engineering,
programming and process-oriented art and synergistic products with tools or machines are
used safely, comfortably and give their confidence high safety risk through specific methods.

McCormicks and Sander (1987), emphasizing ergonomics in terms of three aspects,

as follows:

a. The main focus

Consideration of human factors in the design of artificial stuff, working

procedures and the working environment. Attention ergonomics related to human
interaction with artificial stuff as a product, work equipment, working facilities,
procedures performed in the work routine.

b. Aim

The main objective is to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of work, such as
repairing security and safety, reduce fatigue and stress, improve the comfort of
work, improve the quality of life in the working environment.

c. Approach
Systematic application of the relevant information regarding the advantages,
limitation, characteristics, behavior, and human motivation to design products and
procedures used and the working environment on the user-made goods.

The International Ergonomics Association ((IEA), 2000) identifies categories of

specialization ergonomics, namely:

a. Physical Ergonomics related with human anatomy, such as anthropometric,

physiological and biological mechanical characteristics related to physical

b. Cognitive Ergonomics related with mental processes, such as perception, memory,

reasoning, and response motoric, because it affects the interaction between
humans and other parts Darri system.

c. Ergonomics organization related with optimization of socio-technical systems,

including their organizational structures, policies, and processes.

d. Ergonomics environment with regard to human interaraksi with environment. The

physical environment characterized by climate, temperature, pressure, vibration,

Physical and cognitive ergonomics consists of what is regarded as

mikroergonomi, such as research and practice in physical and cognitive ergonomics
traditionally focuses on human-machine interaction system. Ergonomics organization
also known as makroergonomi and related sociotechnical systems theory (Waterson,
2013), is otherwise related to the design of a larger sociotechnical system.

Hendrick (1986; 1991; 2000), defines makroergonomi as top-down action of the

sociotechnical systems approach to system design work, which is in line with the macro
interface system (eg, human-employment, human-organization). The purpose of this
approach is the design of the work system that allows for the simultaneous achievement
of the individual employee and organizational goals. Such a situation, the individual
employee is able to achieve high performance in a safe working environment, while the
organization is able to increase market share and profitability.

Hendrick and Kleiner (2002), confirms that makroergonomi concerns the design
of the overall system work and the proposed model to help researchers as a guide in to
identified job prominent and variable levels of the organization to learn some theory or
model explicitly provide causal pathways and mechanisms of inter-system work.

Review of aspects of the scientific approach to ergonomics and human factor

engineering, there are people who look the same as the reasons both studies had
information that describes the interaction between private workers with the demands of
the task which aims at reducing or eliminating barriers that can interfere with the work
bersifata both physically and mentally. Nonetheless, makroergonomi has a specific,
human factors engineering focuses on relationships or human interaction with machines
or tools, workplace environment.

The main aim to reduce mistakes made by employees (human error), through
labor requirements with relative physical capabilities and workplace design. Viewed from
the technological point of view, is the application of information needs of people for the
purpose of production of the goods made, and akticitas man as a working system in
achieving work objectives effectively and efficiently.

Hawthorne Work of Wertern Electric in the United States conducted a study

known as the "Hawthorne Effects", whose results contributed to the development of the
concept of motivation illustrates the direct physical connection between man and

Basic understanding presented give undertakings have in common ergonomic

emphasis that can be classified as a discipline of science and technology which have the
object, purpose, method, and function.
2. developments Ergonomics

Ergonomics has fused with human culture since ancient megalithic, in the design and
manufacture of objects such as working tools and goods made in accordance with human
needs in his day. We can observe objects megalithic era, how these objects provide
information about the existence of implicit meaning of function and beauty.

First entered the modern lexicon when Wojciech Jastrzebowski in his 1857 article Rys
ergonomji czyli Nauki o pracy, na opartej prawdach poczerpnietychz Przyrody Nauki (The
Outline of Ergonomics, ie Science Work). The terms of ergonomic and then gaining
popularity after World War II, especially in Europe (the UK) by Hywel psychologist Murrel
in 1949 with a book entitled "Ergonomic".

N. Marmara Poulaskakis and Papakostopulos V (1999), wrote ergonomic science

foundation seems to have been put in the context of ancient Greek culture. Much evidence
suggests that civilization in the 5th century BC used ergonomic principles are evident in the
design of tools, how to do the work and the workplace. One example can be found in
Hippocrates description of how a surgeon to do the work, it is necessary to design a tool that
will be used.

A special approach in the ergonomic discipline is the systematic application of all

relevant information relating to the characteristics and human behavior in the design of
equipment, facilities, and a work environment that is used. Ergonomic analysis and review
covers matters relating, namely:

a. Anatomy (structure), physiology (the operation), and anthropometry (size of the

human body).

b. Physiological psychology regarding the functioning of the brain and nervous

system that play a role in human behavior.

c. Working conditions that can harm both in the short and long, or wreck a human
and otherwise working conditions that create comfortable human labor.
Ergonomics has a very big role in the work environment. This is evidenced by all
areas of work are always applying the concept of ergonomics. This ergonomic applied to
the world of work so that employees feel comfortable and secure in their work. With a
sense of comfort and security, the labor productivity will be increased. In general
ergonomics in the workplace will pay attention to the following matters:

a. Methods / ways worker doing his job

b. Positions and movements of the body that are used when working

c. What equipment is used

d. The effect of the above factors to the health and comfort of workers.

3. Scope of Ergonomics

Work activities in the office prosecuted in accordance with the capabilities and
limitations of employees. Therefore, the designers of system services perform various tasks
associated with this type of analysis, body movement is required and limits the ability to
receive the load. Judging from the practical interests, human resource management in the
industry are as follows:

a. Determine the prerequisites associated with bodily candidates.

b. Efforts to increase the capacity of the workers bodily harmony with the demands
of the job competencies, through education and specific training.

c. Performance improvement efforts in accordance with the identification and

assessment of workers.

d. Readiness improvement efforts and vigilance in implementing occupational safety

and health.

e. Maintaining physical and mental well-being as the source and destination of

workers in achieving productivity.
Judging from scientific interest to contribute to the industry through the praxis of
research include the following:

1. research Interface

Interface (between the device) that identify, analyze and review the information
on an environment and describe the symbols, signs, symbols, and numbers, maps,
and variable (time, distance) as well as other constants.

2. Physical strength Workers

Research on service activity systems work by measuring and analyzing physical

movements, load received and the equipment used in the work object. The data
obtained be used as the design of work equipment in accordance with the average
physical abilities of the workers.

3. Dimensions and Forms Workplace

Research on the dimensions and shape of the room work, dimensional

measurement needs of workers, type of work, and the factors that affect the
characteristics of work activities.

4. Work environment

Research on the environmental conditions of the workplace, such as setting the

lighting, air ventilation settings, and physical factors that affect workers, such as
noise, vibration, temperature and chemical liquid waste.

Hope praxis of the application of ergonomics are as follows:

1. The achievement of physical and mental wellbeing through the prevention of

injuries and occupational diseases form a synergistic manner, consistent and
continuous between the policies and rules of the employer and the recipient of the
2. The achievement of social welfare and human dignity of workers through social
interaction of increasing quality in line with the functions of human resource
management, in line with a commitment to social security for workers based
continuum of tenure (productive time until retirement).

3. Creation of a balance between the demands of technical, economic, work systems,

workplace culture, work environment factors advantages and limitations of
humanity in order to obtain the quality of working life boils down to productivity
(Kuswana, 2013).

Control ergonomics can help workers at a workplace ergonomic issues through

understanding, it is important for workers techniques to reduce occupational risk factors.

4. Ergonomics methods

Several methods are commonly used by Stanton, N., Salmon, P., Walker G.,
Baber, C., And Jenkins, D. (2005), the Human Factors Methods; A Practical Guide For
Engineering and Design. Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing Limited are as

1. Ethnographic A nalysis (ethnographic analysis), which refers to the ethnographic

method, the process focuses on observations of the use of technology in the
workplace. Emphasis on qualitative methods are experience the "real world" and
the pressure and the use of technology in the workplace or the environment. This
process is best used early in the design process.

2. Focus Groups discutions (FGD) is another form of qualitative research, that an

individual will facilitate the discussion to obtain opinions about the technology or
the process under investigation. It can be implemented in an interview or in a
group dynamic sessions. Moreover, it can be used to get a large amount of data in
depth qualitative despite the small sample size.
3. Iterative Design (designing), known as the prototype, iterative design process
seeks to engage users at several stages of the design in order to fix the problem
when it appears in reality. As a prototype of the design process, should be subject
to other forms of analysis and hasilnnya then retrieved and incorporated into the
new design. Trends among users for further analysis redesigned product.

4. Meta-analysis (meta-analysis) is an additional techniques used to examine the

kinds of data existing body of literature in order to acquire or tendency or form
hypotheses to help design decisions. As part of the survey literature, meta-analysis
can be performed in order to see the collective tendency of individual variables.

5. Subjects-in-Tandem (subject in tandem), the two subjects were asked to work

together on a series of tasks while observation analysis. It was observed by
researchers and can be used to find it difficult.

6. Surveys and Questionnaires, a technique commonly used, survey and

kuisionermemiliki profits, which can be given to a large group of people and
relatively low cost, allowing researchers to gain large amounts of data.

7. Task Analysis, a process that is rooted in the theory of activity; task analysis is a
systematic way describe human interaction with the system or process to
understand how they fit the demands of the system or process for their abilities.
The complexity of this process is generally proportional to the complexity of the
task is analyzed so that it can vary in cost and time involvement.

8. Think Aloud Protocol (TAP), known as "verbal protocol together", a process by

asking the user (users) to perform a series of tasks or using technology while
continuing to verbalize their thoughts so that researchers can gain insight into the
analytical process from the user.

9. User Analysis (user analysis), this process is based on designing a user attribute or
operator needs, establish and define the characteristics and create a charm for the
user. This process is very appropriate for the beginning of the design process; user
analysis will try to predict the most common and characteristics that will be
assumed to have in common.

10. Wizard of Oz, the techniques used in mobile devices. Based on the Wizard of Oz
experiments, this technique involves the remote operator to control the operation
of the device in order to mimic the response of the actual computer program.

11. Methods of Analysis, the process of studying the appropriate workers' tasks step
by step investigation for performing the task. Each task is broken down into small
steps until every movement of workers described in detail. The possibility of
doing the job properly observed on repetitive tasks.

12. Study Time, which is the process of determining the time required for a worker to
complete each task. Study time is often used to analyze the work cycle.

13. Work Sampling, is a work method that samples at random to determine the
proportion of total time spent on a particular task. This process provides insight
into how often the workers perform tasks that can cause strain on their bodies.
System time specified is a method for analyzing time spent by workers on a
particular task. One of the most widely used system of predetermined time is
called Methods-Time-Measurement (MTM).

14. Cognitive Walkthrough, an inspection method uses evaluatornya can assign a user
perspective to the task scenarios to identify design problems. As applied to
makroergonomi, evaluators are able to analyze the usefulness of the system
design work to identify how well the system work is organized and how well
integrated workflow.

15. Kansei method, a method that turns the consumer response to new products into
the design specifications. As applied to makroergonomi. This method can
translate employee response to changes in the work system into design
16. High Integration of Technology, organization, and People (HITOP), a manual
procedure is done step by step to implement technological changes in the
workplace. This allows managers to be more aware of the human and
organizational aspects of their technology plans that allow them to efficiently
integrate technology in this context.

17. Top Modeler, helping manufacturing companies identify the organizational

changes. This model is needed when new technologies are being considered for a
particular process.

18. Computer Integrated Manufacturing, Organization, and People System Design

(CIMOP), allows the computer to evaluate an integrated manufacturing.
Organization and work system design based on knowledge of the system.

19. Anthropotechnology, this method assumes the modification of analysis and system
design to be transferred to more efficient technology from one culture to another.

20. System Analysis Tool (SAT), a systematic method to perform trade-off evaluation
of alternative investment system work.

21. Macroergonomic Analysis of Structure (MAS), a method with the process of

analyzing the structure of the system work according to their compatibility with
sociotechnical aspects.

22. Macroergonomic Analysis and Design (MEAD), a method to assess the work
process systems by using a particular process step.

23. Virtual Manufacturing and Response Surface Methodology (VMRSM), a method

using computerized tools and statistical analysis for the design workstation.

5. Principles of Ergonomics

Understanding the principles of ergonomics will facilitate the evaluation of any task or
job though science continues to progress in ergonomics and technologies used in the work is
constantly changing. The principle of ergonomic guidelines in applying ergonomics in the
workplace, where there are 12 ergonomic principles, namely:

1. Working in a normal position or posture

2. Reducing the burden of excessive

3. Placing the equipment in order to stay within reach

4. Working in accordance with the height dimension of the body

5. Reduce repetitive motion and overuse

6. Minimize static movement

7. Minimizing the loading point

8. Covers a distance of space

9. Creating a comfortable working environment

10. Movement, exercise, and stretching while working

11. Make that display and easily understood examples

12. Reduce stress.

6. Grouping Field of Study Ergonomics

Grouping field of study of ergonomics that fully grouped by Dr. Ir. Iftikar
Sutalaksana Z. (1979) as follows:

1. Work Faal, the field of study of ergonomics that examines the human energy
expended in a job. Objectives and fields of this study is to design a working
system that can minimize the consumption of energy expended while working.
2. Anthropometry, ergonomics is the field of study relating to the measurement of
the dimensions of the human body to be used in the design of equipment and
facilities that fit the wearer.

3. Biomechanics is the field of ergonomics studies related to the mechanism of the

body to do a job, for example, human muscle involvement in the work and so on.

4. Sensing, which is the field of study of ergonomics that is closely related to the
problem of human senses, both senses of sight, smell, taste and so on.

5. Occupational psychology, ergonomics is the field of study relating to the

psychological effects and a job to the worker, for example, the stress s and so

In practice, in evaluating a work system is ergonomic, five areas of study are used
synergistically to obtain an optimal solution so that the entire field of ergonomic studies
is an integrated system that is solely aimed at improving the human condition workers.

7. Specialization Field of Ergonomics

Specialization field of ergonomics include: physical ergonomics, cognitive

ergonomics, social ergonomics, ergonomics organizations, environmental ergonomics and
other appropriate factors. Evaluation of ergonomics is the study of the application of
ergonomics in a working system that aims to know the advantages and disadvantages of the
application of ergonomics, so we get a draft ergonomical the best.

1. Physical Ergonomics: related to the human anatomy, anthropometry,

biomechanics characteristics and related fisiolgi with physical activity.
The topics that are relevant in physical ergonomics, among others: the
working posture, material removal, movement continously, workplace
layout, safety and health.

2. Cognitive Ergonomics: menta l related to the process of human beings,

including; perception, memory, and reaction, as a result of human
interaction on the use of elements of the system. The topics that are
relevant in cognitive ergonomics, among others; workload, decision-
making, performance, human-computer interaction, human reliability, and
work stress.

3. Ergonomics Organization: sosioteknik related to system optimization,

including organizational structures, policies and processes. The topics that
are relevant in ergonomi organizations include: communication, design
work, design work time, timwork, design participation, community
ergonomics, organizational culture, virtual organizations, etc.

4. Ergonomics Environment with regard to lighting, temperature, noise, and

vibration. The topics that are relevant to environmental ergonomics,
among others; design workspace, acoustic systems, etc.

8. Applications / Application of Ergonomics

There are several applications / application in the implementation of the science of

ergonomics. Application / implementation include:

1. Work position

Consists of sitting and standing position, sitting where the feet are not
weighed down with body weight and a stable position during work. While
standing position where the vertical position of the spine and the weight is
concentrated in balance on two legs.

2. Work process

The workers can reach work equipment in accordance with the position of
working time and in accordance with the size anthropometrinya. Anthropometric
measure must be differentiated from the west and east.

3. Layout Workplace
Display should be clearly visible when performing work activities. While
the prevailing international symbol is used more than words.

4. lifting Load

A variety of ways in the weight lifting, with head, shoulders, hands and
back. Weight that is too heavy can cause spinal injuries, muscle tissue and joints
due to excessive movement.

9. Ergonomics risks

Ergonomic risk is a risk of causing injury due to work, it includes the following matters.

a. The use of force or strength (lifting, pushing, pulling, and others).

b. Repetition, doing the same type of activity of a job by using a muscle or

limb repeatedly.

c. Body flexibility (bending, punter, range top).

d. Work static, stationary in one position at a certain time period.

e. Vibration machines.

f. Contact voltage when obtaining a sharp object surface of a tool or

workpiece against part or body.

10. Signs System Not Working Ergonomics

a. The work (quality and quantity) unsatisfactory

b. Frequent accidents of work or events that almost form of accident

c. Workers often make mistakes ( human error )

d. Workers complain of pain or pain in the neck, shoulders, back, or hip

e. Work tool or machine that is not in accordance with the physical characteristics of

f. Workers are tired and need a long break

g. Poor working posture, such as frequent bending, reaching or squatting

h. The work environment is disorganized, noisy, stuffy, or dim

i. Workers complained about the workload (physical and mental) is excessive

j. Commitment low job

k. Lack of participation of workers in the brainstorming system or loss of caring

attitude towards work even apathy.

B. Work physiology

Work physiology, the field of study of ergonomics that examines the human
energy expended in a job. Objectives and fields of this study is to design a working
system that can minimize the consumption of energy expended while working ( Dr. Ir.
Iftikar Z. Sutalaksana, 1979 ).

According Sutalaksana, work is a human activity changing the particular

circumstances of the natural environment that aims to preserve and maintain its viability.
The study of ergonomics is to do with human labor in this regard is shown for evaluating
and redesigning the working procedures that must be applied, in order to provide
increased effectiveness and efficiency as well as comfort or safety for humans as workers

In physiology, work is the result of co-operation in coordination properly of dria

(eyes, ears, touch, taste, etc.), the composition of the brain and nerves in the central and
peripheral, as well as the muscles. Furthermore, to exchange substances are required and
must be disposed still required circulation of blood to and from the muscles. In this case,
the heart, lungs. liver, intestines, and others support the work process.
At first coordination of sensory, nervous system, muscles. and other tools run hard
and they must be accompanied by the necessary efforts. This fact is seen in a new
workforce undergoing training. Gradually, the movement became a ref1eks, so that work
becomes automatic. The faster the reflexes and automatic nature of which accompanied
the better coordination and the work, the higher also the skilled person.

The muscles are one of the most important organ especially for physical work.
Muscles worked with the contractions and limp. Strength is determined by a large
number of fibers, and the rapid contraction force contracted. Before contraction (shrinks),
blood between muscle fibers or outside vessels pinched muscles, so that blood
circulation, so also the exchange of substances is disrupted and it thus became the cause
of muscle fatigue. Thus, wrinkles that are interspersed pelemasan, called the dynamic
contraction, it is appropriate for the operation of muscles.

Thus for example the works of pedaling, bicycle, play. wheel, hit the bell, hoeing
and lain.lain. Working continuously from a muscle, though is dinamic, always followed
by fatigue, which need to rest for recovery. On the basis of the fact that, when a break in
the work or after work is very important. Muscle fatigue physically among other things as
a result of metabolic waste substances such as lactic acid, CO 2 , and so on. However,
fatigue, according to the mechanism of action, is not only determined by the state of the
muscles themselves, but there is a psychological mental component that often also a big
influence. The muscles are exhausted would indicate a lack of strength from it, increases
the length of time later contractions and relaxes time, decreased coordination, and muscle
shaking ( tremor ).

Muscle and bone are two very important tool in the work. Wrinkles and relaxation
of the muscles to the bones transferred into movements of flexion, abduction, rotation,
supination and lain.lain. Thus the importance of both of these tools as a whole, then
developed the science of biomechanics, the science of the movement of muscles and
bones, that with pengetrapannya expected, in order to force the smallest achievable work
as much as possible. Biomechanics provide insights about the movements and the use of
force on the neck and head, spine, arms, hands, legs, fingers and so on.
Muscles and bones are the most important factors for body measurements, height
and size of the body or its parts. These measures also determine the physical capabilities
of the workforce. Equipment and machinery necessary harmony with the measures so as
to work as much as possible. Then developed ilrnu called anthropometry, the science of
body measurements, either in a state of static or dynamic. Which is very important for the
work are the sizes:

Standing height, shoulder height, high elbow, hip height, the front and long

Seat height, the length of the upper arm, forearm and hand length, knee height,
distance curve of knee-gar is back, knee-distance curve of the foot.

Division of work

Division of labor is a job management system or can be referred to as the division of

labor. In general, the type of work can be divided into two parts, namely the physical work
and mental work.

a. physical work

Energy expenditure is relatively more, than mental work requires effort and
considerable energy and physical labor are distinguished or divided into two kinds,

1. static work

It does not produce motion

Muscle contraction is isometric

Fatigue occurs sooner

2. dynamic work
generate motion

Muscle contraction is isotonos

Muscle contractions are rhythmic

Fatigue relatively longer occur

b. mental Work

Relatively little energy expenditure and the work is relatively lighter than the
physical work that requires more energy and quite difficult to mngukur exhaustion.
The work of man is influenced by various factors, among others:

The factors of the individual, covering attitudes, physical, motivational,

gender, education, skills, experience, and so forth.

Facto r Factors situational, include the physical environment, machinery,

equipment, work methods, and so forth.

In addition to the division of labor, there are also the criteria that can be used to
determine the effect of work on people in a working system. Those criteria are:

1. criteria Faal

Covering heart rate, oxygen consumption, blood pressure,

evaporation rate, body temperature, chemical composition in the blood
and urine, and so on. The goal is to determine changes in the function
of organs during the work.

2. Physiological criteria work

Covering saturation, emotions, motivations, attitudes, and so
on. The goal is to determine the psychological changes that arise
during the work.

3. Criteria's work

Include measurement results obtained from the workers work

during the work. The goal is to determine the effect of working
conditions by looking at the benefits earned from work.