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Have you pulled your car up to the gas pump lately and been shocked by the high price of
gasoline? As the pump clicked past $20 or $30, maybe you thought about trading in that SUV for
something that gets better mileage. Or maybe you are worried that your car is contributing to the
greenhouse effect. Or maybe you just want to have the coolest car on the block.

Currently, there is a solution for all this problems; its the hybrid electric vehicle. The vehicle is
lighter and roomier than a purely electric vehicle, because there is less need to carry as many
heavy batteries. The internal combustion engine in hybrid-electric is much smaller and lighter
and more efficient than the engine in a conventional vehicle. In fact, most automobile
manufacturers have announced plans to manufacture their own hybrid versions.

How does a hybrid car work? What goes on under the hood to give you 20 or 30 more miles per
gallon than the standard automobile? And does it pollute less just because it gets better gas
mileage. In this seminar we will study how this amazing technology works and also discuss
about TOYOTA & HONDA hybrid cars.


Any vehicle is hybrid when it combines two or more sources of power. In fact, many people have
probably owned a hybrid vehicle at some point. For example, a mo-ped (a motorized pedal bike)
is a type of hybrid because it combines the power of a gasoline engine with the pedal power of its

Hybrid electric vehicles are all around us. Most of the locomotives we see pulling trains are
diesel-electric hybrids. Cities like Seattle have diesel-electric buses -- these can draw electric
power from overhead wires or run on diesel when they are away from the wires. Giant mining
trucks are often diesel-electric hybrids. Submarines are also hybrid vehicles -- some are nuclear-
electric and some are diesel-electric. Any vehicle that combines two or more sources of power
that can directly or indirectly provide propulsion power is a hybrid.

The most commonly used hybrid is gasoline-electric hybrid car which is just a cross between a
gasoline-powered car and an electric car. A gasoline-electric hybrid car or hybrid electric
vehicle is a vehicle which relies not only on batteries but also on an internal combustion engine
which drives a generator to provide the electricity and may also drive a wheel. In hybrid electric
vehicle the engine is the final source of the energy used to power the car. All electric cars use
batteries charged by an external source, leading to the problem of range which is being solved in
hybrid electric vehicle.


You can combine the two power sources found in a hybrid car in different ways. One way,
known as a parallel hybrid, has a fuel tank, which supplies gasoline to the engine. But it also has
a set of batteries that supplies power to an electric motor. Both the engine and the electric motor
can turn the transmission at the same time, and the transmission then turns the wheels.

Fig.1.1 Parallel hybrid car

Figure 1 shows a typical parallel hybrid. We'll notice that the fuel tank and gas engine connect to
the transmission. The batteries and electric motor also connect to thetransmission independently.
As a result, in a parallel hybrid, both the electric motor and the gas engine can provide
propulsion power.

Fig.1.2. Series hybrid car

Another way of combining the power sources found in a hybrid car is by series hybrid. In a series

hybrid (Figure 2 above) the gasoline engine turns a generator, and the generator can either charge

the batteries or power an electric motor that drives the transmission. Thus, the gasoline engine

never directly powers the vehicle. Take a look at the diagram of the series hybrid, starting with the

fuel tank, and you'll see that all of the components form a line that eventually connects with the



Components used in hybrid electric vehicles are given below:

4.1 Gasoline engine - The hybrid car has a gasoline engine much like the one you will find on
most cars. However, the engine on a hybrid will be smaller and lighter, and is more efficient than
the engine in a conventional vehicle, because the engine runs at a relatively constant speed, and
does not need to provide direct power for acceleration, which is the biggest reason for large
engines. Use advanced technologies to reduce emissions.

4.2 Fuel tank - The fuel tank in a hybrid is the energy storage device for the gasoline engine.
Gasoline has a much higher energy density than batteries do. For example, it takes about 1,000
pounds of batteries to store as much energy as 1 gallon (7 pounds) of gasoline.

4.3 Electric motor - The electric motor on a hybrid car is very sophisticated. Electric motor used
in hybrid cars are usually dc series motor since its versatile and ease with which a variety of
speed-torque characteristics can be obtained, and wide range of speed control is also possible in
this. Advanced electronics allow it to act as a motor as well as a generator. For example, when it
needs to, it can draw energy from the batteries toaccelerate the car. But acting as a generator, it
can slow the car down and return energy to the batteries.

4.4 Generator - The generator is similar to an electric motor, but it acts only to produce
electrical power. It is used mostly on series hybrids. Generator used in hybrid electric vehicle is
alternator since cooling is easy and hence maximum output and also the output/weight ratio is
higher than that of the DC generator.
4.5 Power split device The power split device is a clever gearbox that hooks the internal
combustion engine and D.C.motor together. The power split device helps the vehicle to
accelerate to a speed of about 15km/hr before switching on the gasoline engine. The engine starts
only after the vehicle attains a certain speed. Once the engine starts it operates on a

narrow speed band. The power split device allows the engine to stay in its most efficient load and
speed range most of the time.

4.6 Batteries - The batteries in a hybrid car are the energy storage device for the electric motor.
Unlike the gasoline in the fuel tank, which can only power the gasoline engine, the
electric motor on a hybrid car can put energy into the batteries as well as draw energy from them.
The batteries used in HEV is Ni-Cd cells since its lighter than the lead acid cells and its also
mechanically strong and can stand very rough use.

4.7 Transmission - The transmission on a hybrid car performs the same basic function as the
transmission on a conventional car. Some hybrids, like the Honda Insight, have conventional
transmissions. Others, like the Toyota Prius, have radically different ones, which well talk about


The figure gives the internal view of IC engine. The different components in the IC engine are
given below.

The core of the engine is the cylinder. The piston moves up and down inside the cylinder. The
engine described here has one cylinder. That is typical of most lawn mowers, but most cars have
more than one cylinder (four, six and eight cylinders are common). In a multi-cylinder engine the
cylinders usually are arranged in one of three ways: inline, V or flat. Different configurations
have different smoothness, manufacturing-cost and shape characteristics that make them more
suitable in some vehicles.

The spark plug supplies the spark that ignites the air/fuel mixture so that combustion can occur.
The spark must happen at just the right moment for things to work properly.

The intake and exhaust valves open at the proper time to let in air and fuel and to let out exhaust.
Note that both valves are closed during compression and combustion so that the combustion
chamber is sealed.

A piston is a cylindrical piece of metal that moves up and down inside the cylinder.

Piston rings provide a sliding seal between the outer edge of the piston and the inner edge of the
The rings serve two purposes:

They prevent the fuel/air mixture and exhaust in the combustion chamber from leaking into the
sump during compression and combustion.
They keep oil in the sump from leaking into the combustion area, where it would be burned and

Most cars that "burn oil" and have to have a quart added every 1,000 miles are burning it because
the engine is old and the rings no longer seal things properly.

The combustion chamber is the area where compression and combustion take place. As the
piston moves up and down, you can see that the size of the combustion chamber changes. It has
some maximum volume as well as a minimum volume. The difference between the maximum
and minimum is called the displacement and is measured in liters or CCs (Cubic Centimeters,
where 1,000 cubic centimeters equals a liter). So if you have a 4-cylinder engine and each
cylinder displaces half a liter, then the entire engine is a "2.0 liter engine." If each cylinder
displaces half a liter and there are six cylinders arranged in a V configuration, you have a "3.0
liter V-6." s. A cylinder that displaces half a liter can hold twice as much fuel/air mixture as a
cylinder that displaces a quarter of a liter, and therefore you would expect about twice as much
power from the larger cylinder (if everything else is equal). So a 2.0 liter engine is roughly half
as powerful as a 4.0 liter engine. You can get more displacement either by increasing the number
of cylinders or by making the combustion chambers of all the cylinders bigger (or both).

Connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft. It can rotate at both ends so that angle can
change as the piston moves and the crankshaft rotates.
The crank shaft turns the pistons up and down motion into circular motion just like a crank on a
jack-in-the-box does.



Most cars require a relatively big engine to produce enough power to accelerate the car quickly.
In a small engine, however, the efficiency can be improved by using smaller, lighter parts, by
reducing the number of cylinders and by operating the engine closer to its maximum load.

There are several reasons why smaller engine are more efficient than big ones:

The big engine is heavier than the small engine, so the car uses extra energy every time it
accelerates or drives up a hill.

The pistons and other internal components are heavier, requiring more energy each time they
go up and down in the cylinder.

The displacement of the cylinders is larger, so more fuel is required by each cylinder.

Bigger engines usually have more cylinders, and each cylinder uses fuel every time the
engine fires, even if the car isn't moving.

This explains why two of the same model cars with different engines can get different mileage. If
both cars are driving along the freeway at the same speed, the one with the smaller engine uses
less energy. Both engines have to output the same amount of power to drive the car, but the small
engine uses less power to drive itself


An electric motor is all about magnets and magnetism: A motor uses magnets to create motion.
We know the fundamental law of all magnets: Opposites attract and likes repel. So if you have
two bar magnets with their ends marked "north" and "south," then the north end of one magnet
will attract the south end of the other. On the other hand, the north end of one magnet will repel
the north end of the other (and similarly, south will repel south). Inside an electric motor, these
attracting and repelling forces create rotational motion.
DC series motor used in hybrid electric vehicle is a versatile and flexible machine. It can satisfy
the demands of load recurring high starting, accelerating and retarding torques. A DC machine is
also easily adaptable for drives with a wide range of speed control and fast reversals. In the
diagram shown below we can see two magnets in the motor: The armature (or rotor) is an
electromagnet, while the field
magnet is a permanent
magnet (the field magnet
could be an electromagnet
as well, but in most small
motors it isn't in order to
save power). Different parts
used in a simple DC
motor are as shown in the
diagram below:

7.1. Parts of an electric motor

Armature or rotor
Field magnet

The magnetic circuit of a DC consists of the armature magnetic material (core), the air-gap, field
poles and yoke. The yoke of a DC machine is a annular ring to the middle of which is bolted
field poles and the interlopes. The interlopes or commutation poles are narrow poles fixed to the
yoke, midway between the main field poles. The use of an electric field winding, which supplies
electric energy to establish a magnetic field in the magnetic circuit , result in the great diversity
and a variety of performance characteristics. The armature winding is connected to the external
power source through a commutator brush system, which is a mechanical rectifying (switching)
device for converting the alternating currents and induced emf of the armature to the DC form.

The cylindrical-rotor or armature of a machine is mounted on a shaft, which is supported on the

bearing. One or both ends of the shaft act as input or output terminal of the machine and would
be coupled mechanically to a load (motoring machine) or to a prime-mover (generating
machine).Usually parallel-sided axial slots (evenly spaced normally) are used on the rotor
(armature winding) surface. The magnetic material between the slots is the teeth. The slot cross-
section influences significantly the performance characteristics of the machines and parameters
such as armature coil inductance, magnetic saturation in the teeth, eddy-current loss in the stator
poles and the cost and complexity of laying armature winding.


Controlled slowing or stopping of a motor and its driven load is as important as starting in many
applications. Braking methods based on friction , electromechanical action, eddy current, etc are
independent of the motor but sometimes electric braking is better justified owing to its greater
economy and absence of brake wears.


An electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy .it
produce alternating currents. It works on the principle of electromagnetic induction which states
that when a coil is rotated about an axis perpendicular to the direction of uniform magnetic
field, an induced emf is produced across it. Alternator requires a magnetic field as well as a
rotating coil. The coil is wound in a special manner know as armature. To produce current either
this armature or magnetic field can be rotated. The only thing is that it should cut the magnetic
field. Usually the armature winding is stationary (called stator) and the field winding is rotating
(know as rotor). An alternator consist of

Frame or housing



Slip ring and brushes

Frame or housing: Frame is an important part of alternator. This encloses the entire alternator
assembly and is made of aluminum. Frame is made up of two parts. The front part of the frame
has ball bearing, and the rear part contains roller bearing for supporting the rotor. The front part
usually known as drive end housing and rear part is known as brush end housing.

8.1 Stator: The armature is an iron ring framed of laminated special magnetic iron or steel alloy
having slots on its inner periphery to accommodate armature conductors and is known as stator.
Stator is the stationary part of the alternator. Field rotates between the stator so that the fluxing of
the rotating field cuts the core of the stator, which includes the required emf.

8.2 Rotor: It consists of an iron core around the rotor shaft. Many turns of the copper wire
coated with varnish are wound around the core. On both sides of the rotor winding are the

thick metal plates bent over the winding with triangular fingers called poles. These metal plates
are called pole pieces. The pole pieces are placed interfacing each other so that when the current
flows through the winding, these poles pieces acquire opposite polarity. This will result in
alternating north and south magnetic poles on the pole fingers. This creates magnetic fields
between the alternating pole fingers.

8.3 Slip rings and brushes: Due to the cutting of the magnetic field, an emf and hence a current
is produced in the rotor winding. Since the coil is rotating, its not possible to take current from
the coil using wires. But special arrangements are necessary for carrying current to outside. The
current from the rotor winding is usually carried through the copper slip rings and the carbon
brushes. As these brushes carry only the field current (2.5A), it has longer life.

8.4 Why an alternator in used in a hybrid electric vehicle?

In conventional cars, the kinetic energy developed during running is wasted as heat energy while
braking which waste a lot of energy as heat. Here the alternator converts the kinetic energy into
useful electric energy, which can be stored in the batteries. The alternator is connected to the
propeller shaft and rotates all the time. When braking is needed the field of the generator is
charged using a rheostat. This produces a flux in the coils and the electricity is produced. The
rheostat can be avoided by using electronic circuit, which can provide excellent variation in
braking as needed. The alternator can also be employed at light loads when traveling at high
speeds when the battery charge is low. The electric energy thus produced is sufficient to run the
motor. This eliminates the need of external recharging. This contributes to the overall efficiency
of the vehicle.


The first hybrid electric car was engineered by Ferdinand Porsche in 1928.since then, hobbyists
have built such cars but no such cars can put into production until the waning year of the 20 th
century .However hybrid technology has been in use on railroad ever since 1930s, when the
locomotives on early streamliners ran on gasoline-electric and diesel-electric systems at greater
efficiencies than the stream engines of the days.

Automotive hybrid technology became commercially successful in the 1990s when the Honda
Insight and Toyota Prius became available these vehicles have a direct linkage from the internal
combustion engine to the drive, so that the engine can provide acceleration power. Prototypes of
plug-in hybrid cars, with large battery packs that can be recharged from the power grid ,have
been built in the U.S.,and one production PHEV, the Renault Kangoo,went on sale in France in
2003 ,and Daimler Chrysleris currently building a small number of PHEVs based on the
Mercedes Sprinter

The hybrid is a compromise. It attempts to significantly increase the mileage and reduce the
emissions of a gas-powered car while overcoming the shortcomings of an electric car.

9.1. The Problem with Gas-powered Cars

To be useful for all, a car must meet certain minimum requirements. The car should be able to:

Drive at least 300 miles (482 km) between re-fueling

Be refueled quickly and easily

Keep up with the other traffic on the road

A gasoline car meets these requirements but produces a relatively large amount of pollution and
generally gets poor gas mileage. An electric car, on the other hand, produces almost no pollution,
but it can only go 50 to 100 miles (80 to 161 km) between charges. And the problem has been
that it is very slow and inconvenient to recharge.

A driver's desire for quick acceleration causes our cars to be much less efficient than they could
be. You may have noticed that a car with a less powerful engine gets better gas mileage than an
identical car with a more powerful engine. Just look at the window stickers on new cars at a
dealership for a city and highway mpg comparison.

The amazing thing is that most of what we require a car to do uses only a small percentage of its
horsepower! When you are driving along the freeway at 60 mph (96.6 kph), your car engine has
to provide the power to do three things:

Overcome the aerodynamic drag caused by pushing the car through the air

Overcome all of the friction in the car's components such as the tires, transmission,
axles and brakes

Provide power for accessories like air conditioning, power steering and headlights

For most cars, doing all this requires less than 20 horsepower! So, why do you need a car with
200 horsepower? So you can "floor it," which is the only time you use all that power. The rest of
the time, you use considerably less power than you have available.


You can get the best mileage from a hybrid car by using the same kind of driving habits that give
you better mileage in your gasoline-engine car:

10.1 Drive slower - The aerodynamic drag on the car increases dramatically the faster you
drive. For example, the drag force at 70 mph (113 kph) is about double that at 50 mph (81
kph). So, keeping your speed down can increase your mileage significantly.
10.2 Maintain a constant speed - Each time you speed up the car you use energy, some of
which is wasted when you slow the car down again. By maintaining a constant speed, you
will make the most efficient use of your fuel.
10.3 Avoid abrupt stops - When you stop your car, the electric motor in the hybrid acts like a
generator and take some of the energy out of the car while slowing it down. If you give the
electric motor more time to slow the vehicle, it can recover more of the energy. If you stop
quickly, the brakes on the car will do most of the work of slowing the car down, and that
energy will be wasted.



Using the concept of Hybridization of cars results in better efficiency and also saves a
lot of fuel in todays fuel deficit world. Though at present the concept has been put in to
maximum utilization by Honda & Toyota, it is indeed an important research avenue for other car
manufacturing units as well. A hybrid gives a solution to all the problems to some extent. If
proper research and development is done in this field, hybrid vehicle promises a practical,
efficient, low pollution vehicle for the coming era. One can surely conclude that this concept
and the similar ones to follow with even better efficiency & conservation rate are very much on
the anvil in todays energy deficit world.

IEEE spectrum July 1995

IEEE spectrum March 2001

IEEE spectrum May 2001

IEEE power & energy magazine May 2004

Automotive technology by JACK ERJAVEC

Automotive electrical equipments byP.L.KOHLI