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28 views105 pagesTelecommunications Engineering, Modulation, Amplitude modulation (AM), Frequency modulation (FM), Phase modulation (PM), OFDM, QAM, RF, Double-sideband (DSB) modulation, DSB-AM, Single-sideband (SSB-AM), vestigal sideband (VSB), DSB- LSB- USB-AM, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Angle modulation, Bessel function, Bessel functions of the first kind, Digital modulation, Channel capacity, Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), Digital carrier modulation, Digital modulation, QPSK – Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, QAM – Quadrature Amplitude Modulation, Ethernet, Digital encoding, Manchester encoding, Multiplexing, multiple access, Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM), Composite signal, Stereo FM spectrum, Subcarrier system, RDS, RBDS, Subsidiary Communications Authority (SCA) services, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Multiple Access (MA), Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Spread spectrum -- Frequency Hopping and Direct Sequence, Pseudo-random sequence, Spread-Spectrum FSK (SSFSK), FSK, Frequency Shift Keying, FSK-FH Time Waveforms, Spread-Spectrum QPSK, QPSK, Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, QPSK-DSSS time waveforms, QPSK-FHSS time waveforms

Feb 15, 2017

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Telecommunications Engineering, Modulation, Amplitude modulation (AM), Frequency modulation (FM), Phase modulation (PM), OFDM, QAM, RF, Double-sideband (DSB) modulation, DSB-AM, Single-sideband (SSB-AM), vestigal sideband (VSB), DSB- LSB- USB-AM, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Angle modulation, Bessel function, Bessel functions of the first kind, Digital modulation, Channel capacity, Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), Digital carrier modulation, Digital modulation, QPSK – Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, QAM – Quadrature Amplitude Modulation, Ethernet, Digital encoding, Manchester encoding, Multiplexing, multiple access, Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM), Composite signal, Stereo FM spectrum, Subcarrier system, RDS, RBDS, Subsidiary Communications Authority (SCA) services, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Multiple Access (MA), Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Spread spectrum -- Frequency Hopping and Direct Sequence, Pseudo-random sequence, Spread-Spectrum FSK (SSFSK), FSK, Frequency Shift Keying, FSK-FH Time Waveforms, Spread-Spectrum QPSK, QPSK, Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, QPSK-DSSS time waveforms, QPSK-FHSS time waveforms

Attribution Non-Commercial No-Derivs (BY-NC-ND)

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Telecommunications Engineering, Modulation, Amplitude modulation (AM), Frequency modulation (FM), Phase modulation (PM), OFDM, QAM, RF, Double-sideband (DSB) modulation, DSB-AM, Single-sideband (SSB-AM), vestigal sideband (VSB), DSB- LSB- USB-AM, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Angle modulation, Bessel function, Bessel functions of the first kind, Digital modulation, Channel capacity, Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), Digital carrier modulation, Digital modulation, QPSK – Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, QAM – Quadrature Amplitude Modulation, Ethernet, Digital encoding, Manchester encoding, Multiplexing, multiple access, Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM), Composite signal, Stereo FM spectrum, Subcarrier system, RDS, RBDS, Subsidiary Communications Authority (SCA) services, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Multiple Access (MA), Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Spread spectrum -- Frequency Hopping and Direct Sequence, Pseudo-random sequence, Spread-Spectrum FSK (SSFSK), FSK, Frequency Shift Keying, FSK-FH Time Waveforms, Spread-Spectrum QPSK, QPSK, Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, QPSK-DSSS time waveforms, QPSK-FHSS time waveforms

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Telecommunications

Engineering I

Jorma Kekalainen

154

Telecommunications

Engineering I

Modulation

155

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

What is modulation?

music or data bits.

This is called the modulating signal (intelligent

signal).

If we want to transmit this over air or wire, we need

a frequency that will propagate (travel through) this

medium.

The signal is carried on a carrier wave.

Somehow we combine the modulating signal with

the carrier wave to form a modulated signal.

156

What is modulation

Idea is to change one or more of the waveform parameters

amplitude, phase, frequency

in a radio-frequency carrier, in response to the signal we want

to transmit.

In other words, we superimpose or combine one signal on

another.

The trick is how to do this so that the original signal can be

recovered at the receiver.

Also desire

minimal cost/complexity,

minimal power wastage,

maximum quality of the recovered signal,

minimum susceptibility to interference (electrical noise and

interference).

157

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Types of modulation

There are many different types of modulation:

Amplitude modulation (AM) changes the amplitude of a

high frequency carrier in response to the low-frequency

modulating signal;

Frequency modulation (FM) changes the frequency of a

high frequency carrier in response to the low-frequency

modulating signal;

Phase modulation (PM) changes the phase of a high-

frequency carrier in response to the low-frequency

modulating signal;

Also there are many other combinations (usually of

amplitude and phase), which give higher throughput

(data rate) for digital data systems.

158

Overview of modulation

159

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Example

160

Concept of modulation

Somehow we combine the modulating signal with

the carrier wave to form a modulated signal.

There are many types, eg. FM, OFDM (used in

wireless networks), QAM (digital modulation), etc.

The modulation has to occur at the transmitter.

Getting the modulating (audio) signal back out of the

modulated (radio) signal is called demodulation.

161

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Modulation types

Amplitude Modulation (AM) is where we change the

amplitude of the carrier according to the modulating signal.

Frequency Modulation (FM) is where we change the

frequency of the carrier according to the modulating signal.

Phase Modulation (PM) is where we change the phase of the

carrier according to the modulating signal.

162

AM, FM and PM

163

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

AM uses simple electronics.

Used since early 1900s, after telegraph era.

AM used for analog terrestrial

FM is not as susceptible to noise.

Electronics is a bit more complicated (especially in receiver).

FM used for satellite (because its less affected by the atmosphere),

some telemetry systems (remote controls).

PM was not used much until we needed it for digital

transmission.

Digital modulation uses a combination of AM and PM to get

high bitrates.

Technology is much more complex than simple AM or PM.

164

Amplitude modulation

design the transmitter.

Basically, the receiver needs to strip away the higher

frequency (carrier) at RF, and leave the audio (AF).

What if we multiply the modulating audio by the

radio frequency carrier?

The receiver will need to know the carrier frequency,

so we add a bit of that in to the waveform.

165

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Amplitude modulation

Mathematically

Let the carrier be

This is usually audio, could be video or data.

To make the Amplitude Modulated (AM) waveform, multiply

and add

Note what the equation is doing.

166

167

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Waveforms combined for standard amplitude modulation

carrier waveform sinct.

Many references use a

cosine wave instead. It

does not matter, just

changes the maths a bit.

168

Note how the carrier is a higher frequency.

It is always sine (or cosine)

We have shown the modulation as a sine wave.

Sine (or cosine) is OK for a test signal.

But in practice, modulation is not sine but a complex

signal like voice, video, or a data stream (1s and 0s

represented by high and low voltages, i.e., square

wave)

In practice the carrier is a much higher frequency.

169

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

170

Envelope

171

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

We need to know a few things about this AM-waveform.

What are the frequency components that we end up with?

This is important for the channel bandwidth, so several channels can

co-exist and not interfere with each other.

We would like to be able to work out the parameters of the

waveform

Also we would like to know how much power the transmitter

needs.

We start our analysis with a plain sine wave test signal.

172

AM-analysis

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

AM-analysis

174

AM-analysis

175

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

AM-analysis

AM waveform showing B as maximum

of envelope, and A as minimum

176

Analysis

177

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Analysis

178

Analysis

179

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Changing modulation index

Frequency analysis

AM waveform?

This is important to know, since it tells us

how wide the channel needs to be.

Or equivalently, how many channels we can

fit in a given spectrum allocation.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Frequency analysis

182

Frequency analysis

183

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Trigonometric formulas

184

Frequency analysis

185

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Frequency analysis

186

Spectrum summary

187

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Examples

188

Power

189

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Power

If = 0, there is only carrier (of course).

Efficiency

carrier (and there is no modulation, not very useful in information transfer). 191

When = 1, the efficiency is 1/3.

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Conclusions

A lot of power is wasted in the carrier

which carries no information;

the sidebands are what we really need

The bandwidth is twice the highest modulating

frequency.

192

Double-sideband (amplitude)

modulation

Spectrum for fixed frequency signal m(t) at

frequency m will be at c - m.

193

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

DSB-AM

194

Single-sideband AM

sideband.

Leaves only one sideband.

Harder to generate: can use low-pass filtering

of DSB, or else phase shift method.

Often use vestigal sideband vestige of

carrier to aid synchronization in demodulator.

195

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

196

197

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

198

the other.

Used in analog TV, also digital TV in US (but

not Australia/Europe, which uses OFDM)

199

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

SSB

200

Multiplexing (OFDM)

Another variant that uses both sine and cosine

at the same time.

Very efficient in bandwidth

Used in digital TV in Australia/Europe (but

not in US)

Used in wireless networks and ADSL

modems.

201

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Telecommunications

Engineering I

Angle modulation

202

Angle modulation

What else than amplitude can be changed?

Frequency and phase of a waveform.

These methods are called angle modulation.

Most common example in practice is frequency

modulation (FM).

Phase modulation (PM) often used in digital

communications

203

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Frequency modulation

a little bit either way (plus or minus)

Amplitude changes are ignored.

Define instantaneous frequency as i(t), then change

the waveform according to

204

Compare with

But if it changes over time, we write it as (t).

205

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Phase modulation

206

Frequency modulation and phase modulation are similar.

Mathematically,

207

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Frequency modulation and phase modulation are similar.

We had earlier

ie. c + kfm(t)

208

Frequency modulation

Now remember that frequency equals rate of change of phase,

So from

It could be written as

209

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Frequency modulation

210

Time waveforms

Frequency and Phase modulation

211

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

FM Analysis

FM signal for modulation m(t) is

with

212

Note: This is only for a single-tone modulation. In reality the modulation is a complex

signal, but for analysis we use a single test tone.

FM Analysis

Single-tone FM signal

213

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

FM Analysis

Single-tone FM signal

component and is the deviation ratio or the modulation index.

214

FM Analysis

the amplitudes of the frequency components.

Graphical interpretation: draw a line at the

modulation index on the Bessel function plot

and read off amplitudes of harmonics.

Remember that harmonics are on either side

of the carrier, ie., it is symmetrical.

215

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Jn()

Modulation index

216

Modulation

Index

217

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Example Effect of

=1

218

Example Effect of

=2

219

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Example Effect of

=4

220

FM Analysis

squared.

221

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Telecommunications

Engineering I

Digital modulation

Modulation

Digital modulation

digital data is translated into an analog signal (baseband)

ASK, FSK, PSK

differences in spectral efficiency, power efficiency, robustness

Analog modulation

shifts center frequency of baseband signal up to the radio carrier

Motivation

smaller antennas (e.g., /4)

Frequency Division Multiplexing

medium characteristics

Basic schemes

Amplitude Modulation (AM)

Frequency Modulation (FM)

Phase Modulation (PM)

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

analog

baseband

digital

signal

data digital analog

101101001 modulation modulation radio transmitter

radio

carrier

analog

baseband

digital

signal

analog synchronization data

demodulation decision 101101001 radio receiver

radio

carrier

Digital modulation

Need to encode 0 and 1 streams serially

Distinguish:

Passband: modulate onto a carrier.

Baseband: encode 0/1 directly with no carrier.

225

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

limits

How do we maximize the number of bits per

second (kbps, Mbps, Gbps)?

Depends on:

How we encode each bit

Amount of noise in the channel (eg., telephone

line, optic fiber, radio)

226

bandwidth.

capacity in bits per second using channel

bandwidth B with M levels per symbol is

M Number of levels used for each signaling element

bps Bits per second

227

Note: log is to base 2, because it is binary information

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Telephone Network

Bandwidth B ~ 3kHz

With one bit per signalling interval (symbol) M = 2

Using C = 2B log2M,

C = 230001 = 6 kbps

228

Law.

Capacity in bits per second with given channel bandwidth B, SNR

S/N and using white noise assumption is

S Signal Power (W)

N Noise Power (W)

bps Bits Per Second

229

Note: Here S/N is not expressed in dB

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Given a noisy channel with capacity C and information transmitted at a line

rate R, then if

R<C

there exists a code which allows the probability of error at the receiver to

be made arbitrarily small.

This means that theoretically, it is possible to transmit information nearly

without error up to nearly a limit of C bits per second.

If

R>C

the probability of error at the receiver increases without bound as the rate is

increased.

So no useful information can be transmitted far beyond the channel

capacity. 230

Example: PSTN/POTS

SNR = 10log10103 = 30 dB

231

Note: 210 = 1024, so log to base 2 of 1000 is approx. 10.

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Digital modulation

amplitude, frequency or phase

Only need 2 levels.

Digital Carrier Modulation Amplitude

Digital Carrier Modulation Frequency

Digital Carrier Modulation Phase

232

Digital modulation

Modulation of digital signals known as shift keying

Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK): 1 0 1

very simple

low bandwidth requirements

t

very susceptible to interference

1 0 1

Frequency Shift Keying (FSK):

needs larger bandwidth

t

more complex

robust against interference

t

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Amplitude

Amplitude modulation of binary signal

234

Frequency

Frequency modulation of binary signal

235

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Phase modulation of binary signal

236

several bits at once

Encode two bits together (called a dibit)

as 4 distinct amplitude levels or

as 4 distinct frequencies or

as 4 distinct phases

237

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

238

239

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Digital modulation

combinations of amplitude and phase.

QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying.

Multiple phase angles allowed

QAM Quadrature Amplitude

Modulation.

Changes both phase and amplitude.

240

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

241

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

242

Advanced FSK

Bandwidth needed for FSK depends on the distance between

the carrier frequencies

Special pre-computation avoids sudden phase shifts

MSK (Minimum Shift Keying)

bit separated into even and odd bits, the duration of each bit

is doubled

depending on the bit values (even, odd) the higher or lower

frequency, original or inverted is chosen

the frequency of one carrier is twice the frequency of the

other

Even higher bandwidth efficiency using a Gaussian low-pass

filter GMSK (Gaussian MSK), used in GSM

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Example of MSK

1 0 1 1 0 1 0

data bit

even 0101

even bits odd 0011

value - - ++

frequency n: low frequency

+: original signal

-: inverted signal

high

frequency

MSK

signal

t

No phase shifts!

interval

The Q means Quadrature we can generate

these waveforms from sine and cosine added

together

Quadrature means 90 phase.

245

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Advanced PSK

Q

BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying):

bit value 0: sine wave

bit value 1: inverted sine wave I

1 0

very simple PSK

low spectral efficiency

robust, used e.g. in satellite systems 10 Q 11

QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift

Keying):

2 bits coded as one symbol I

symbol determines shift of sine wave

needs less bandwidth compared to

00 01

BPSK

more complex A

Often also transmission of relative,

not absolute phase shift: DQPSK -

Differential QPSK t

11 10 00 01

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)

combines amplitude and phase modulation

it is possible to code n bits using one symbol

2n discrete levels, n=2 identical to QPSK

Bit error rate increases with n, but less errors compared

Q to

0010

comparable PSK schemes 0001

Symbols 0011 and 0001 have a I

the same phase , but different 1000

different phase, but same amplitude.

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Hierarchical modulation

DVB-T modulates two separate data streams onto a single DVB-T stream

High Priority (HP) embedded within a Low Priority (LP) stream

Multi carrier system, about 2000 or 8000 carriers

QPSK, 16 QAM, 64QAM

Example: 64QAM

good reception: resolve the entire

Q

64QAM constellation

poor reception, mobile reception:

resolve only QPSK portion

6 bit per QAM symbol, 2 most 10

significant determine QPSK I

HP service coded in QPSK (2 bit),

LP uses remaining 4 bit

00

000010 010101

Baseband: no carrier as such

Eg., Manchester used on Ethernet 10Mbps (bps = bits per

second).

Variations for higher rates (100Mbps, 1Gbps, ...)

Fundamental problem: need to detect where a bit

starts and stops.

Receiver needs to keep track of phase, to work out

where bits start and end

Encoding means that a long string of 0s or 1s dont

cause receiver to lose synchronization

249

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

encoding

Encodes 0 as L-H transition

Encodes 1 as H-L transition

Manchester encoding

250

out where bits start and end

Encoding means that a long string of 0s or

1s dont cause receiver to lose

synchronization

Received waveforms are not perfect

Square edges knocked off due to channel

filtering effects (capacitance/inductance)

May also have noise coupled in

251

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Received waveforms

Received waveforms are not perfect.

Square edges knocked off due to channel filtering effects

(capacitance/inductance)

May also have noise coupled in

Manchester waveforms after going through simple theoretical channel

252

Summary

carrier.

There are many different types of modulation.

Modulation issues include complexity of

transmitter, complexity of receiver, bandwidth

required, immunity to noise, etc.

Spectrum depends on type of modulation.

Squeeze more bits per second by exploiting

combinations of amplitude and phase.

253

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Telecommunications

Engineering I

Multiplexing and Multiple

Access

254

255

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Multiplexing

Multiplexing in 4 dimensions channels ki

space (si) k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6

time (t) c

frequency (f) t c

code (c) t

s1

f

s2

Goal: multiple use f

of a shared medium c

t

f

Frequency multiplexing

Separation of the whole spectrum into smaller frequency bands

A channel gets a certain band of the spectrum for the whole

time

Advantages

no dynamic coordination

k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6

necessary

c

works also for analog signals

f

Disadvantages

waste of bandwidth

if the traffic is

distributed

unevenly t

inflexible

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

FDM: Principle

Each channel carried on different frequency

258

259

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

FDM

Carrier at different frequencies.

Modulation can be anything

260

FDM: Sub-channels

Filter responses

No channel overlap Channels overlap

261

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Frequency-division multiplexing

262

FDM system

263

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Composite signal

264

Example: Stereo FM

265

Note: Compatibility is usually needed in upgrades, e.g., black and white TV colour TV

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Stereo transmitter

266

Stereo FM spectrum

267

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Stereo FM receiver

268

Subcarrier system

269

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Subcarrier system

270

271

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

(SCA) services

272

Complete FM transmitter

273

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Complete FM receiver

274

275

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

quadrature

276

Multiplexing (OFDM)

277

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

OFDM

Multiply and integrate.

Clock synchronization not OFDM recovery

shown.

If equal get a larger product

If not equal low (ideally zero)

product

If all input frequencies are

orthogonal, they will yield zero

for all local frequencies not equal

to the local one.

Thus signals can be recovered,

and can coexist.

278

A channel gets the whole spectrum for a certain amount of

time

Advantages

only one carrier in the

medium at any time k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6

throughput high even

for many users c

f

Disadvantages

precise

synchronization

necessary t

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Combination of TDM and FDM

A channel gets a certain frequency band for a certain amount

of time

Example: GSM

Advantages k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6

better protection against

c

tapping (eavesdropping)

f

protection against frequency

selective interference

but: precise coordination

required

t

Implements space division multiplex (SDM)

base station covers a certain transmission area (cell)

Mobile stations communicate only via the base station

higher capacity, higher number of users

less transmission power needed

more robust, decentralized

base station deals with interference, transmission area etc. locally

Problems

fixed network needed for the base stations

handover (changing from one cell to another) necessary

interference with other cells

Cell sizes from <100 m in cities to, e.g., 35 km on the country side (GSM) -

even less for higher frequencies

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Frequency reuse

Frequency reuse only with a certain distance between the base stations

Standard model using 7 frequencies:

f3

f5 f2

f4 f6 f5

f1 f4

f3 f7 f1

f2

Fixed frequency assignment:

certain frequencies are assigned to a certain cell

problem: different traffic load in different cells

Dynamic frequency assignment:

base station chooses frequencies depending on the frequencies already

used in neighbor cells

more capacity in cells with more traffic

assignment can also be based on interference measurements

Frequency reuse

f3 f3 f3 f2 f3 f7

f2 f2 f5 f2

f1 f1 f1 f4 f6 f5

f3 f3 f1 f4

3 cell cluster f3 f7 f1

f2 f2 f2

f1 f1 f2 f3

f3 f3 f3 f6 f5 f2

7 cell cluster

f2 f2 f2

f1 f f f f3

3 h 1 f3 h2 1

h1 2

g 2 h3 g 2 1 h3

h

g2 3 cell cluster

g1 g1 g1

g3 g3 g3 with 3 sector antennas

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Each channel has a unique code k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6

Advantages

bandwidth efficient

no coordination and synchronization f

necessary

good protection against interference

and tapping

Disadvantages

t

varying user data rates

more complex signal regeneration

Implemented using spread spectrum technology

CDM systems: cell size depends on current load

Additional traffic appears as noise to other users

If the noise level is too high cell size is decreased (in other

words excess users are dropped out of cell.

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

If we have a dedicated link (or channel) between the sender and the receiver, then

we only need data link control, a mechanism which provides a link with reliable

communication.

On the other hand, if we use e.g. our cellular phone to connect to another phone, the

channel is not dedicated and we need some method to resolve access to the shared

media

We can consider the data link layer as two sublayers.

The upper sublayer is responsible for data link control, and

the lower sublayer is responsible for resolving access to the shared media.

If the channel is dedicated, we do not need the lower sublayer. network

link

physical

Multiple-access control

286

control is called the logical link control (LLC) layer.

The lower sublayer that is mostly responsible for multiple-

access resolution is called the media access control (MAC)

layer.

When nodes or stations are connected and use a common link, called a

multipoint or broadcast link, we need a multiple-access protocol to

coordinate access to the link.

When two or more devices are connected to the same link

(multiple access), data link layer protocols are necessary to

determine which device has control over the link at any given

time.

287

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

When hosts communicate over a shared medium, a protocol is

needed so that the signals sent by multiple senders do not

interfere at the receivers.

Medium access protocols can be classified:

channelization or channel partitioning,

random access, and

controlled access or taking turns.

288

MAC: Different nodes must gain access to the shared

medium (for instance a wireless channel) in a

controlled fashion (otherwise there will be collisions).

:

FDMA Assigning channels in frequency domain

LLC

TDMA Assigning time slots in time domain

MAC

CDMA Assigning code sequences in code domain

PHY

CSMA Assigning transmission opportunities in

time domain on a statistical basis

289

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

which the available bandwidth of a link is

shared in time, frequency, or through code,

between different stations.

In this section, we discuss three channelization

protocols: FDMA, TDMA, and CDMA.

290

Many telecommunications systems are point-to-point.

However many are shared.

Best example is mobile phone system (cell-phone, hand-phone)

How do many users share the same system?

Alternatives:

Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA).

Simplest.

Can use for analog or digital.

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA).

Digital transmission required.

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA).

Much more advanced digital methods required.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Analogy

is a room (channel) in which people wish to

communicate with each other.

To avoid confusion, people could take turns

speaking (time division), speak at different

pitches (frequency division), or speak in

different languages (code division).

292

(FDMA)

Where transmission and reception from each user is

given a different frequency.

Each device has its own frequencies (one for

uplink, one for downlink).

Geographic area divided up into cells, so frequencies

can be re-used.

Need to plan cells carefully so no

overlap/interference between nearby cells.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

(FDMA)

In Frequency-Division Multiple Access (FDMA), the available

bandwidth is divided into frequency bands.

Each station is allocated a band to send its data.

In other words, each band is reserved for a specific station, and

it belongs to the station all the time.

Each station also uses a bandpass filter to bound the

transmitter frequencies.

To prevent station interferences, the allocated bands are

separated from one another by small guard bands.

294

(FDMA)

295

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

FDMA

Channel spectrum divided into frequency bands

each station assigned fixed frequency band

unused transmission time in frequency bands go idle

example: 6-station LAN, 1,3,4 have packet, frequency bands

2,5,6 idle

frequency bands

FDM cable

296

In time-division multiple access (TDMA), the

stations share the bandwidth of the channel in time.

Each station is allocated a time slot during which it

can send data.

Each station transmits its data in assigned time slot.

Base-station needs to send synchronization signal to

users.

Possible problem: where we need real-time

transmission (voice/video), we must govern

maximum wait time for our slot to come around

again.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

298

TDMA

access to channel in "rounds"

each station gets fixed length slot (length = single packet

can be transmitted during a slot time) in each round

unused slots go idle

example: 6-station LAN, 1,3,4 have packet, slots 2,5,6 idle

6-slot

frame

1 3 4 1 3 4

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Synchronization

The main problem with TDMA lies in achieving

synchronization between the different stations.

Each station needs to know the beginning of its slot and the

location of its slot.

This may be difficult because of propagation delays introduced

in the system if the stations are spread over a large area.

To compensate for the delays, we can insert guard times.

Synchronization is normally accomplished by having some

synchronization bits (normally referred to as preamble bits) at

the beginning of each slot.

300

We also need to emphasize that although TDMA and TDM

conceptually seem the same, there are differences between

them.

TDM is a physical layer technique that combines the data

from slower channels and transmits them by using a faster

channel.

The process uses a physical multiplexer that interleaves data

units from each channel.

TDMA, on the other hand, is an access method in the data link

layer.

The data link layer in each station tells its physical layer to use

the allocated time slot.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

(CDMA)

We spread the transmission out over a wide

frequency range.

Technique is called spread spectrum.

It is much more complicated than FDMA and

TDMA

Code division multiple access (CDMA) belongs to

the family of channelization or channel partitioning

protocols.

CDMA and its modifications are common in

wireless LAN and cellular technologies.

302

method utilized by various radio communication.

CDMA employs spread-spectrum technology and a special

coding scheme (where each transmitter is assigned a code) to

allow multiple users to be multiplexed over the same physical

channel.

CDMA is a form of spread-spectrum signaling, since the

modulated coded signal has a much higher bandwidth than

the data being communicated.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

several decades ago.

Recent advances in electronics have finally made its

implementation economically possible.

CDMA differs from FDMA because only one

channel occupies the entire bandwidth of the link.

It differs from TDMA because all stations can send

data simultaneously; there is no timesharing.

304

Problem of radio transmission: frequency dependent fading can

wipe out narrow band signals for duration of the interference

Solution: spread the narrow band signal into a broad band signal

using a special code

protection against narrow band interference

power interference spread power signal

signal

spread

detection at interference

receiver

f f

Side effects:

coexistence of several signals without dynamic coordination

tap-proof

Alternatives: Direct Sequence (DS), Frequency Hopping (FH)

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Spread Spectrum

spectrum?

Immunity from various kinds of noise and

multipath distortion

Can be used for hiding and encrypting signals

Several users can independently use the same

higher bandwidth with very little

interference

306

despreading with interference

dP/df dP/df

user signal

i) ii) broadband interference

narrowband interference

f f

sender

dP/df dP/df dP/df

iii) iv) v)

f f f

receiver

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

channel

quality

2 narrowband channels

1 5 6

3

4

frequency

narrow band guard space

signal

channel

quality

2

2 spread spectrum channels

2

2

2

1

spread frequency

spectrum

Spread spectrum

Instead of transmitting on one or a few frequencies, the

modulator deliberately tries to use a much wider channel

bandwidth.

It is used:

military communications,

cellular communications (where the term CDMA is used),

interference-prone environments

Frequency Hopping and

Direct Sequence

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Military use: Want to

Keep our transmissions secret from enemy.

Stop enemy jamming our transmissions with high-power

RF.

Minimize effect of interference from others.

Minimize our interference on others.

Share bandwidth with others (instead of TDMA or

FDMA).

Mobile communications are a big driver.

310

The origins of spread spectrum are in military field and navigation systems.

Techniques developed to counteract intentional jamming have also proved

suitable for communication through dispersive channels in cellular applications.

In CDMA each user is assigned a unique code sequence it uses to encode its

information-bearing signal.

The receiver, knowing the code sequences of the user, decodes a received signal

after reception and recovers the original data.

This is possible since the cross-correlations between the code of the desired user

and the codes of the other users are small.

Since the bandwidth of the code signal is chosen to be much larger than the

bandwidth of the information-bearing signal, the encoding process enlarges

(spreads) the spectrum of the signal and is therefore also known as spread-

spectrum modulation.

The resulting signal is also called a spread-spectrum signal, and CDMA is often

denoted as spread-spectrum multiple access (SSMA).

N 1

Rxy (k ) = lim

1

Definition of cross-correlation function:

N N

x

n=0

n yn k

311

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Correlation

Each user in a CDMA system uses a different code to modulate their

signal.

Choosing the codes used to modulate the signal is very important in the

performance of CDMA systems.

The best performance will occur when there is good separation between the

signal of a desired user and the signals of other users.

The separation of the signals is made by correlating the received signal

with the locally generated code of the desired user.

If the signal matches the desired user's code then the value of correlation

function will be high and the system can extract that signal.

If the desired user's code has nothing in common with the signal the

correlation should be as close to zero as possible (thus eliminating the

signal).

If the code is correlated with the signal at any time offset other than zero,

the correlation should be as close to zero as possible.

This is used to reject multi-path interference (operation is referred to as

auto-correlation).

312

Synchronous CDMA

In general, CDMA belongs to two basic categories: synchronous (orthogonal codes)

and asynchronous (pseudorandom codes).

Synchronous CDMA exploits mathematical properties of orthogonality between

vectors representing the data strings.

For example, binary string "1011" is represented by the vector (1, 0, 1, 1).

Vectors can be multiplied by taking their dot product, by summing the products of

their respective components.

Example: if u=(a,b) and v=(c,d), the dot product uv = a*c + b*d.

If the dot product is zero, the two vectors are said to be orthogonal to each other

If vectors a and b are orthogonal, then

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Synchronous CDMA

orthogonal to the other users' codes to

modulate their signal.

Orthogonal codes have a cross-correlation

equal to zero; in other words, they do not

interfere with each other.

E.g. 64 bit Walsh codes are used to encode the

signal to separate different users.

Since each of the 64 Walsh codes are orthogonal to

one another, the signals are channelized into 64

orthogonal signals. 314

Asynchronous CDMA

Since it is not mathematically possible to create sequences that are

orthogonal for arbitrarily random starting points, unique pseudo-random or

pseudo-noise (PN) sequences are used in Asynchronous CDMA systems.

A PN code is a binary sequence that appears random but can be reproduced

in a deterministic manner by intended receivers.

These PN codes are used to encode and decode a user's signal in

Asynchronous CDMA in the same manner as the orthogonal codes in

synchronous CDMA.

These PN sequences are statistically uncorrelated, and the sum of a large

number of PN sequences results in Multiple Access Interference (MAI) that

is approximated by a Gaussian noise process.

If all of the users are received with the same power level, then the variance

(the noise power) of the MAI increases in direct proportion to the number

of users.

In other words, unlike synchronous CDMA, the signals of other users will

appear as noise to the signal of interest and interfere slightly with the

desired signal in proportion to number of users.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Processing gain

All forms of CDMA use spread spectrum processing gain (spreading factor) to

allow receivers to partially discriminate against unwanted signals.

Signals encoded with the specified PN sequence (code) are received, while signals

with different codes (or the same code but a different timing offset) appear as

wideband noise reduced by the process gain.

Since each user generates MAI (Multiple Access Interference) , controlling the

signal strength is an important issue with CDMA transmitters.

A Synchronous CDMA, TDMA or FDMA receiver can in theory completely reject

arbitrarily strong signals using different codes, time slots or frequency channels due

to the orthogonality of these systems.

This is not true for Asynchronous CDMA; rejection of unwanted signals is only

partial.

If any or all of the unwanted signals are much stronger than the desired signal, they

will overwhelm it.

This leads to a general requirement in any Asynchronous CDMA system to

approximately match the various signal power levels as seen at the receiver

(Near-far problem).

In CDMA cellular, the base station uses a fast closed-loop power control scheme

to tightly control each mobile's transmit power.

316

Most modulation schemes try to minimize the bandwidth of this signal

since bandwidth is a limited resource.

However, spread spectrum techniques use a transmission bandwidth that is

several orders of magnitude greater than the minimum required signal

bandwidth.

One of the initial reasons for doing this was problematical military

applications including guidance and communication systems.

These systems were designed using spread spectrum because of its security

and resistance to jamming.

Asynchronous CDMA has some level of privacy built in because the signal

is spread using a pseudorandom code; this code makes the spread spectrum

signals appear random or have noise-like properties.

A receiver cannot demodulate this transmission without knowledge of the

pseudorandom sequence used to encode the data.

CDMA is also resistant to jamming.

A jamming signal only has a finite amount of power available to jam the

signal.

The jammer can either spread its energy over the entire bandwidth of

the signal or jam only part of the entire signal.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Characteristics of CDMA

CDMA can also effectively reject narrowband interference.

Since narrowband interference affects only a small portion of the spread spectrum

signal, it can easily be removed through notch filtering without much loss of

information.

Convolution encoding and interleaving can be used to assist in recovering this lost

data.

CDMA signals are also resistant to multipath fading.

Since the spread spectrum signal occupies a large bandwidth only a small portion of this

will undergo fading due to multipath at any given time.

Like the narrowband interference this will result in only a small loss of data and can be

overcome.

Another reason that CDMA is resistant to multipath interference is because the

delayed versions of the transmitted pseudorandom codes will have poor

correlation with the original pseudorandom code, and will thus appear as another

user, which is ignored at the receiver.

In other words, as long as the multipath channel induces at least one chip of delay,

the multipath signals will arrive at the receiver such that they are shifted in time by

at least one chip from the intended signal.

The correlation properties of the pseudorandom codes are such that this slight

delay causes the multipath to appear uncorrelated with the intended signal, and

it is thus ignored.

318

A spreading code assigned to each station is also called chip sequence.

Characteristics of CDMA

Some CDMA devices use a rake receiver, which exploits

multipath delay components to improve the performance of the

system.

A rake receiver combines the information from several correlators,

each one tuned to a different path delay, producing a stronger version

of the signal than a simple receiver with a single correlator tuned to the

path delay of the strongest signal.

Frequency reuse is the ability to reuse the same radio channel

frequency at other cell sites within a cellular system.

In the FDMA and TDMA systems frequency planning is of paramount

importance.

The frequencies used in different cells need to be planned carefully in

order to ensure that the signals from different cells do not interfere with

each other.

In a CDMA system the same frequency can be used in every cell

because channelization is done using the pseudorandom codes.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Conventional transmission:

to transmit on one channel, and

receive on the same channel, of course.

Suppose we start transmitting on a channel called CH4.

Then after a short time, swap to CH7.

Then swap to CH13, then CH1, then finally back to CH4.

So the transmitter hops on channels 4, 7, 13, 1, 4, 7, 13, 1, ...

Obviously the receiver has to follow this sequence.

The set (4,7,13,1) is called the hopset.

320

Tx and Rx need to (a) know the hopset, and (b) know

where/when to start.

This is the synchronization issue.

If an interceptor of our RF transmission does not know the

start and sequence, it would be difficult to eavesdrop.

Also, another Tx/Rx pair could use the same channels, in a

different order.

If we use a large number of channels (eg., 79 in Bluetooth),

even if two communicating pairs happen to collide, the amount

of interference is small (1 in 79).

Hop rate determines performance, complexity (eg., Bluetooth

1600 hops/sec)

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

The actual sequence is pseudo-random.

That is, it only looks random, but repeats after a large number

of hops.

System just described is SS-FH (Frequency Hopping).

Hop rate is relatively slow (thousands per second)

Another approach is Direct Sequence (SS-DS).

Several hops per bit.

Much higher rate (M hops/sec).

More complicated system & synchronization more demanding.

SS-DS is used in CDMA mobile.

Advantage of SS: efficient use of RF spectrum.

322

Signal is broadcast over seemingly random series of radio frequencies

A number of channels allocated for the FH signal

Width of each channel corresponds to bandwidth of input signal

Signal hops from frequency to frequency at fixed intervals

Transmitter operates in one channel at a time

Bits are transmitted using some encoding scheme

At each successive interval, a new carrier frequency is selected

323

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Discrete changes of carrier frequency

sequence of frequency changes determined via pseudo random number

sequence

Two versions

Fast Hopping:

several frequencies per user bit

Slow Hopping:

several user bits per frequency

Advantages

frequency selective fading and interference limited to short period

simple implementation

uses only small portion of spectrum at any time

Disadvantages

not as robust as DSSS

simpler to detect

tb

user data

0 1 0 1 1 t

f

td

f3 slow

f2 hopping

(3 bits/hop)

f1

td t

f

f3 fast

f2 hopping

(3 hops/bit)

f1

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Hopping (FH)

326

narrowband

spread

signal

transmit

user data signal

modulator modulator

frequency hopping

synthesizer sequence

transmitter

narrowband

received signal

signal data

demodulator demodulator

hopping frequency

sequence synthesizer

receiver

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Spectrum

There are basic techniques to spread the bandwidth:

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS).

Direct-sequence spread-spectrum transmissions multiply the data being

transmitted by a "noise" signal.

This noise signal is a pseudorandom sequence of 1 and 1 values, at a

frequency much higher than that of the original signal, thereby spreading

the energy of the original signal into a much wider band.

The resulting signal resembles white noise.

However, this noise-like signal can be used to exactly reconstruct the

original data at the receiving end, by multiplying it by the same

pseudorandom sequence (because 1 1 = 1, and 1 1 = 1).

This process, known as "de-spreading", mathematically constitutes a

correlation of the transmitted PN sequence with the PN sequence that the

receiver believes the transmitter is using.

328

on the channel is called processing gain.

This effect can be made larger by employing a longer

PN sequence and more chips per bit.

If an undesired transmitter transmits on the same

channel but with a different PN sequence (or no

sequence at all), the de-spreading process results in

no processing gain for that signal.

This effect is the basis for the code division multiple

access (CDMA) property of DSSS, which allows

multiple transmitters to share the same channel within

the limits of the cross-correlation properties of their

PN sequences.

329

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

330

(DSSS)

multiple bits in the transmitted signal

Spreading code spreads signal across a wider

frequency band

Spread is in direct proportion to number of bits

used

One technique combines digital information

stream with the spreading code bit stream

using exclusive-OR

331

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Spectrum

332

Note: Exclusive-OR

XOR of the signal with pseudo-random number (chipping sequence)

many chips per bit (e.g., 128) result in higher bandwidth of the signal

Advantages

reduces frequency selective tb

in cellular networks 0 1 XOR

base stations can use the tc

same frequency range chipping

sequence

several base stations can

01 1 01 01 01 1 01 01 =

detect and recover the signal

soft handover resulting

signal

(soft changing from one cell to another) 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0

Disadvantages

tb: bit period

precise power control necessary tc: chip period

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

(DS)

334

(DSSS)

spread

spectrum transmit

user data signal signal

X modulator

chipping radio

sequence carrier

transmitter

correlator

lowpass sampled

received filtered products sums

signal signal data

demodulator X integrator decision

radio chipping

carrier sequence

receiver

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

DSSS system

Multiply BPSK signal,

sd(t) = A d(t) cos(2 fct)

by c(t) [+1, -1] to get

s(t) = A d(t)c(t) cos(2 fct)

A = amplitude of signal

fc = carrier frequency

d(t) = [+1, -1]

At receiver, incoming

signal multiplied by c(t)

Since, c(t) x c(t) = 1,

incoming signal is

recovered

336

Direct Sequence CDMA In DS-CDMA

the modulated information-bearing signal (the

data signal) is directly modulated by a digital

(discrete-time, discrete-valued) code signal.

The data signal can be either analog or digital;

in most cases it is digital.

In the case of a digital signal the data

modulation is often omitted and the data

signal is directly multiplied by the code

signal and the resulting signal modulates the

RF carrier. 337

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

DSSS-CDMA

338

10 KHz bandwidth chip rate (BW) chip rate (BW) 10 KHz bandwidth

0 fc fc 0

Transmission Reception

Coding

Baseband Walsh Code Walsh Code Deinterleaving Baseband

and

Information Bits Spread Correlator and Decoding Information Bits

Interleaving

9,6 kbps 19,2 kbps chip rate chip rate 19,2 kbps 9,6 kbps

-113 dBm (1,23 MHz) Spurious Signals chip rate (BW) chip rate (BW)

fc fc fc fc

Thermal Noise External Interference Interference from other Interference from users 339

cells within the system within the same cell

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

CDMA

Receiver for User 1

m1(t)+

Transmitter for User 1 Wireless m2(t)c1(t)c2(t) m1(t)+e1(t)

m1(t)

m1(t) m1(t)c1(t) Channel TSym bol

m2(t)c2(t)

m2(t) m2(t)c2(t) m2(t)+

m1(t)c1(t)c2(t) m2(t)+e2(t)

TSym bol m2(t)

c2(t)

0

c2(t)

The value of ei(t) depends on the ci(t): Spreading code of user i

cross correlation properties ei(t): Interference sensed at

between c1 & c2 receiver of user i 340

ei(t)=0 if c1 & c2 are orthogonal mi(t): Message detected at receiver

After the signal is created by the source, the spreading process uses a

spreading code and spreads the bandwidth.

The spreading code is a series of numbers that look random, but are

actually a pattern.

low cross-correlation properties to minimize multiple access

interference (MAI).

autocorrelation properties to minimize inter-symbol interference

due to multi-path channels

zero

341

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Data Symbol

Symbol Detection

Channel

342

PN sequences

PN generator produces periodic sequence that

appears to be random

PN Sequences

Generated by an algorithm using initial seed

Sequence is not statistically random but will pass many

test of randomness

Sequences referred to as pseudorandom numbers or

pseudonoise sequences

Unless algorithm and seed are known, the sequence is

impractical to predict

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Pseudo-random sequence

Can generate the pseudo-random sequence (PN, Pseudo-Noise) using shift registers

with feedback.

Low the register with initial starting point.

The parallel output of the registers can be used to select the carrier frequency in

Frequency Hopping system.

The single bit output of one register can be used to select the plus/minus multiplier

in Direct Sequence system (0 binary for -1 volt, 1 binary for +1 volt)

344

Important PN properties

Randomness

Uniform distribution

Independence

Correlation property

The periodic autocorrelation of a 1 m-sequence is

1 = 0, N, 2N, ...

R ( ) = 1

otherwise

N

Where N=2m-1 is sequence length of m-stage register

Maximal length sequences are not perfectly orthogonal

Maximal length sequences have good auto-correlation properties

Unpredictability

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Definitions

Correlation

The concept of determining how much similarity

or resemblance one set of data has with another

Range between 1 and 1

1 The second sequence matches the first sequence

0 There is no relation at all between the two sequences

-1 The two sequences are mirror images

Cross correlation

The comparison between two sequences from

different sources rather than a shifted copy of a

sequence with itself

346

Orthogonal codes

Orthogonal codes

All pairwise cross-correlations are zero

Fixed- and variable-length codes used in CDMA systems

For CDMA application, each mobile user uses one

sequence in the set as a spreading code

Provides zero cross-correlation among all users

Types

Walsh codes

Variable-Length orthogonal codes

dimensions a power of 2, the entries of which are +1 or 1, and the property that

the dot product of any two distinct rows (or columns) is zero. The Walsh matrix

(and Walsh functions) are used in computing the Walsh transform and have 347

applications in the efficient implementation of certain signal processing operations.

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Chipping sequence

In a CDMA protocol, each bit being sent is encoded by

multiplying the bit by a signal or spreading code (the chipping

sequence) that changes at a much faster rate (known as the

chipping rate) than the original sequence of data bits.

Suppose that the rate at which original data bits reach the

CDMA encoder defines the unit of time; that is, each original

data bit to be transmitted requires a one-bit slot time.

Let di be the value of the data bit for the ith bit slot.

For mathematical convenience, we represent a data bit with a 0

value as -1.

Each bit slot is further subdivided into M mini-slots.

The CDMA code used by the sender consists of a sequence of

M values, cm, m = 1, . . . ,M, each taking a +1 or -1 value.

348

CDMA example

349

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

CDMA example

350

Recap: CDMA

satellite, etc) standards

unique code assigned to each user; i.e., code set

partitioning

all users share same frequency, but each user has own

chipping sequence (i.e., code) to encode data

encoded signal = (original data) X (chipping sequence)

decoding: inner-product of encoded signal and chipping

sequence

allows multiple users to coexist and transmit

simultaneously with minimal interference (if codes are

orthogonal)

351

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

(SSFSK)

Normally just transmit binary 0 with one

frequency, binary 1 with another frequency.

Now after some bits are sent, we hop to the

next pair of frequencies.

352

FSK = Frequency Shift Keying

Conventional FSK

FSK time waveforms

353

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Spectrum

FSK-FH Time Waveforms

354

Frequency spectra

FSK and FHFSK

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Can be any combination, for example

Bits 00 waveform phase 45.

Bits 01 waveform phase 135.

Bits 10 waveform phase 225.

Bits 11 waveform phase 315.

Within each bit pair (symbol), the frequency is

changed.

This is called a chip.

356

QPSK = Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

357

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Spectrum

QPSK-DSSS time waveforms

358

Frequency spectra

QPSK-DSSS frequency spectra

359

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Spread Spectrum

QPSK-FHSS time waveforms

360

Frequency spectra

Frequency spectra: QPSK and FHQPSK

361

Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Summary

important technique for maximizing utilization

of a channel.

There are three main Multiple Access (MA)

techniques.

Spread-Spectrum (SS) techniques have several

advantages, especially for multiple-access and

interference mitigation.

362

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