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## Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127

www.elsevier.com/locate/cma

## Nonlinear isogeometric spatial Bernoulli beam

A.M. Bauer , M. Breitenberger, B. Philipp, R. Wuchner, K.-U. Bletzinger
Lehrstuhl fur Statik, Technische Universitat Munchen, Arcisstr. 21, 80333 Munchen, Germany

Received 24 August 2015; received in revised form 30 November 2015; accepted 29 December 2015
Available online 1 February 2016

Abstract

A new element formulation of a geometrically nonlinear spatial curved beam assuming Bernoulli theory including torsion
without warping is proposed. The element formulation is derived directly from the 3D-continuum by means of nonlinear
kinematics, thus accounting for large displacements. The geometric description of the proposed element is adapted from the spatial
rod of Greco and Cuomo (2013) and extended to a nonlinear element formulation. The proposed formulation can handle arbitrary
orientations of the cross section along the beam.
In this publication, NURBS are used as basis functions for discretization, since they can easily provide the required
C 1 -continuity between elements. The presented element formulation has four degrees of freedom, three for displacements and one
for the rotation around the center line. In order to prove the accuracy of the developed spatial Bernoulli beam, several numerical
examples are presented and compared to analytic solutions and other element formulations.

Keywords: Spatial thin rod; Bernoulli Beam theory; Nonlinear isogeometric analysis; NURBS; Torsion

1. Introduction

In the last years, isogeometric analysis (IGA), introduced by Hughes et al. [1], has become a broad field of research
in computational mechanics. Its main aim is to combine design and analysis by using the basis functions of Computer
Aided Design (CAD) for approximating the solution in the context of finite element analysis (FEA). IGA is mainly
based on NURBS since they can be seen as the standard in CAD, especially for free-form geometries. A detailed
description of NURBS can be found in the work of Piegl and Tiller [2]. Over the past ten years many publications have
shown the good properties of NURBS for analysis purposes. Meanwhile many isogeometric element formulations for
structural mechanics have been developed. A solid element formulation is presented in [1] and several different shell
and membrane formulations have been introduced in [38], among others.
Recently beam elements gained more attention [911]. However, a geometrically nonlinear beam element based
on Bernoulli assumptions including torsion is not yet available. The present contribution presents such a nonlinear

Corresponding author.
URL: http://www.st.bgu.tum.de (K.-U. Bletzinger).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cma.2015.12.027
102 A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127

## Fig. 1. Definition of the domain and its boundaries.

isogeometric spatial beam element formulation. In contrast to IGA, a whole variety of spatial beam elements [1214]
and particularly KirchhoffLove resp. Bernoulli models [1520] have been introduced, studied and established in
classical FEA.
Even though Gontier and Vollmer have started the research on 2-dimensional beams with Bezier curves as basis
functions [21] based on the theory of Simo et al. [22] already in 1995, there are only few, recently developed spatial
elements with IGA basis functions. To the authors knowledge, these are
the bending-stabilized cable of Raknes et al. [9], which neglects torsional deformations,
the locking-free spatial Timoshenko beam of Auricchio et al. [10], which can be used for small displacements
within the context of isogeometric collocation and
the spatial KirchhoffLove rod for linear kinematics of Greco et al. [11], similar to [16], which uses the natural
frame and curvilinear angle representation.
This work has the following outline. Section 2 reviews the mechanical and geometric background for an
isogeometric element formulation. In Section 3, the element formulation is derived straightforward from the
continuum mechanical equations of the beam. Section 4 discusses some special aspects of the proposed beam element
related to initially curved beams. In Section 5, several benchmark examples are presented in order to verify the
proposed element formulation by comparing the gained numerical results to other literature and analytical results.
Finally, conclusions are drawn in Section 6.

2. Isogeometric analysis

The aim of the isogeometric analysis (IGA) is to merge design (CAD) and analysis (FEA). This is enabled by using
the same basis functions for both processes. Thus no transformation between the models is necessary and considerable
amounts of time can be saved [1].

## 2.1. Structural mechanics

The proposed beam formulation is derived from the Principle of Virtual Work. A virtual displacement u is applied
to the system. The performed work of internal and external forces is zero, if the system is in equilibrium [23]:
W = Wint + Wext = 0. (1)
The internal and external virtual work in the beam are defined as

Wint = S : E d x, (2)

Wext = t : u d x + 0 B : u d x , (3)
N
where describes the domain and the boundary in the undeformed state (see Fig. 1). The boundary consists of
the Dirichlet boundary D and the Neumann boundary N . S denotes the inner stresses, which is the energetically
conjugated quantity to the virtual strains E caused by the virtual displacements u. B are the body forces with the
material density 0 and t represent the boundary forces.
The system needs to be discretized for solving the problem with the Finite Element Method. Applying the chain
rule of differentiation Eq. (1) has to be satisfied for the variation of the discretization variables u r which defines the
components Rr of the residual force vector from
W
W = u r = Rr u r = 0 (4)
u r
A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127 103

## and considering arbitrary variations the set of nonlinear equilibrium equations:

W
Rr = = 0. (5)
u r
An iterative solution by the NewtonRaphson method requires further linearization at the current displacement u ,
introducing the displacement increments u s and the components K r s of the tangential stiffness matrix:

W 2W Rr
LIN(Rr ) =

+ u s = Rr u + u s = 0. (6)
u r u r u s s u s

As a conclusion, the residual force vector and stiffness matrix can be decomposed into contributions of the internal
and external forces:
W Wint Wext
Rr = = + = Frint + Frext (7)
u r u r u r
Rr 2W 2 Wint 2 Wext
s + Kr s .
= K rint ext
Kr s = = = + (8)
u s u r u s u r u s u r u s
In the absence of displacement dependent external forces the related stiffness terms K rext
s vanish which is assumed
in the sequel of the paper. Finally, the linearized equilibrium equations in the standard form display as

K r s u s = Frint + Frext . (9)
s

## 2.2. Non-uniform rational B-SplinesNURBS

As basis functions for isogeometric analysis, commonly Non-Uniform rational B-Splines (NURBS) are used. They
allow describing conic sections like parabola, elliptic entities and hyperbola. Thus, they provide a uniform description
for a large range of shapes. Therefore NURBS are widely used for the geometry description in current CAD systems.
The discrete parameters of a NURBS based geometry are the coordinates of the control points P, which are generally
non-interpolating. The NURBS curve C( ) is defined as the sum over all control points Pi with their respective
NURBS basis function Ri, p :
n

C( ) = Ri, p ( )Pi . (10)
i=1

In contrast to B-Splines, the control points are weighted, which influence the curves velocity and shape. A NURBS
curve is the projection of a B-Spline in R4 onto R3 with homogeneously weighted control points [2].
Ni, p ( )wi
Ri, p ( ) = n . (11)
N j, p ( )w j

j=1

The basis function Ni, p can be computed with the CoxdeBoor recursion formula [2]. It starts with p = 0 with

1, if [i , i+1 [

Ni,0 ( ) = (12)
0, otherwise
and for p 1 it is

i N i+ p+1

i, p1 ( ) + Ni+1, p1 ( ), if [i , i+ p+1 [
Ni, p ( ) = i+ p i i+ p+1 i+1 (13)

0, otherwise.
For a detailed description and further quantities like derivatives, the reader is referred to Piegl and Tiller [2].
104 A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127

Fig. 2. Description of the continuum of the beam for the undeformed and deformed configuration. Here illustrated for a rectangular cross section.

Fig. 3. Different beam geometries for the same center line characterized by a rotation of the trihedral around the center line.

## 3. Structural element formulation

In this section, the element formulation for a spatially curved and geometrically nonlinear beam is derived. The
element is based on Bernoulli kinematics. It follows from Bernoulli theory that the cross sections remain orthogonal
to the center line after deformation and there are no changes of the cross sectional dimensions. The cross section itself
can develop in-plane cross sectional shear deformation, the so-called torsion. In the present contribution, warping
effects will be neglected. Since we develop a spatial beam element, all possible spatial displacements of the curve
u, v, w are used as degrees of freedom (DOFs). In addition a relative rotation around the center line is used as fourth
DOF.

## 3.1. Geometric description

In this work, the continuum of the beam is described by a center line and a moving trihedral. In the following,
upper-case and lower-case letters refer to the undeformed and deformed configuration, respectively. The convective
contravariant coordinates are denoted as i with i {1, 2, 3}. A second index {2, 3} is used as well in the sequel.
The derivative ()
i
will be written as (),i .
The position vector for the continuum of the beam is denoted as X (resp. x):

X 1 , 2 , 3 = Xc 1 + 2 A2 1 + 3 A3 1 (14a)

x 1 , 2 , 3 = xc 1 + 2 a2 1 + 3 a3 1 . (14b)

Xc (resp. xc ) is the position vector of the center line, Ai resp. ai are the base vectors aligned to the moving trihedral.
The cross sections are assumed to be warping free for the development of the element formulation. The base vectors
A resp. a are defined such that they are unit vectors and orthogonal to the center line. The geometric description of
the beam for both configurations is illustrated in Fig. 2.

## 3.1.1. Alignment of the moving trihedral in the undeformed configuration

The moving trihedral is used to describe the orientation of the cross section, since the center line is not able to
provide this information (see Fig. 3).
A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127 105

(a) -operation (see Section 3.1.2). (b) RT -operation (see Section 3.1.3).

Fig. 4. Alignment of the moving trihedral in the undeformed configuration in two steps.

The two components A of the moving trihedral, which are orthogonal to the tangent of the center line, are
described by
A = RT ( ) (T0 , T)A0 , (15)
where the three vectors A0 and T0 define a reference trihedral, see Fig. 4. In a first step, (T0 , T) aligns the reference
trihedral to the tangent at the current position. In a second step, RT ( ) rotates the moving trihedral reference
(T0 , T)A0 to the desired orientation A . Here describes the rotation along the beam, i.e. = 1 . This

## concept is adapted from [11] for the current element formulation.

Since A1 (resp. a1 ) is not a unit vector, the normalized tangent of the center line T (resp. t) is computed as
1 1
T= A1 and t= a1 , (16)
A1 2 a1 2
where ..2 is the Euclidean norm.

## 3.1.2. Mapping matrix

The matrix (N0 , N) is defined such that it maps one vector on the other.
(N0 , N) N0 = N, (17)
where N0 and N are given normalized vectors. The mapping operation will be described using the EulerRodriguez
formula [24] which is generally written as

R = e e + cos I e e + sin e I ,

(18)
where e denotes the normalized rotation axis, the angle of the rotation and I the identity matrix of dimension 3 3.
For our purpose, the variables of R are defined by the following entities:
N0 N
e = , cos = N0 N, sin = N0 N2 . (19)
N0 N2
Note that the definition of the cross product between a vector v and a matrix M is:
(v M)il = i jk v j Mkl , where i jk is the Levi-Civita symbol. (20)
Thus (N0 , N) can be computed as
1 (N0 N)

N0 N
(N0 , N) = (N0 N) I + N0 N2 I + (N0 N) (N0 N) . (21)
N0 N2 N0 N22
With
1 (N0 N) 1 cos 1 cos 1 1
= = = = . (22)
N0 N22 sin
2 1 cos2 1 + cos 1 + N 0N

## Eq. (21) can be simplified as:

1
(N0 , N) = (N0 N) I + (N0 N) I + (N0 N) (N0 N) . (23)
1 + N0 N
106 A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127

(a) -operation (see Section 3.1.2). (b) Rt -operation (see Section 3.1.3).

## 3.1.3. Rotation matrix RN

The RN -matrix is used to rotate a vector V, which is orthogonal to N, around N by an angle . The EulerRodriguez
formula (Eq. (18)) is again used to define this matrix. The rotation axis e is replaced by the normalized vector N in
the EulerRodriguez formula.

## RN () = I cos () + sin () N I + (1 cos ()) N N. (24)

Since this operation is only used to rotate vectors V, which are orthogonal to N, around N, the following holds:
(N N) V = N (N V) = 0, (25)
and thus Eq. (24) reduces to
RN () = I cos () + sin () N I. (26)

## 3.1.4. Alignment of the moving trihedral in the deformed configuration

The same two steps of mapping and rotation, as introduced in Section 3.1.1, can be adapted for describing the
alignment of the moving trihedral from the undeformed to the deformed configuration.
a = Rt () (T, t)A . (27)
The operation (T, t) (see Section 3.1.2) aligns the moving trihedral Ai to the deformed tangent t (Eq. (16)). The
final deformed base vectors a are obtained by applying the rotation matrix Rt () (see Section 3.1.3). It rotates the
deformed reference (T, t) A around the deformed center line, i.e. tangent vector t, with the angle , where 1
is the rotational degree of freedom (see Fig. 5).

## 3.2. Nonlinear kinematics

The kinematics are derived straightforward in this work. The GreenLagrange (GL) strain tensor and the ener-
getically conjugated second PiolaKirchhoff (PK2) stress tensor are used for the nonlinear formulation. A stringent,
consistent derivation until the second variation is derived in the present contribution.

## 3.2.1. Variation of the base vectors

The base vectors of the continuum are defined as Gi = X,i and gi = x,i . So it follows for the configurations
defined in Section 3.1:

G1 1 , 2 , 3 = X,1 1 , 2 , 3 = A1 1 + 2 A2,1 1 + 3 A3,1 1 , (28a)

G2 1 = X,2 1 , 2 , 3 = A2 1 , (28b)

G3 1 = X,3 1 , 2 , 3 = A3 1 , (28c)

g1 1 , 2 , 3 = x,1 1 , 2 , 3 = a1 1 + 2 a2,1 1 + 3 a3,1 1 , (28d)

g2 1 = x,2 1 , 2 , 3 = a2 1 , (28e)

g3 1 = x,3 1 , 2 , 3 = a3 1 . (28f)
A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127 107

Considering Eqs. (15) and (27) the derivatives A,1 resp. a,1 write:

A,1 1 = RT ( ),1 (T0 , T) A0 + RT ( ) (T0 , T),1 A0 (29)

a,1 1 = Rt (),1 (T, t)RT ( ) (T0 , T) + Rt () (T, t),1 RT ( ) (T0 , T)
+ Rt () (T, t)RT ( ),1 (T0 , T) + Rt () (T, t)RT ( ) (T0 , T),1 A0 .

(30)
From Eqs. (23) and (26) the derived terms of Eqs. (29) and (30) can be expressed as:
RT ( ),1 = ( ),1 sin ( ) I + ( ),1 cos ( ) T I + sin ( ) T,1 I, (31)
T0 T,1
(T0 , T),1 = T0 T,1 I + T0 T,1 I (T0 T) (T0 T)

(1 + T0 T)2
1
T0 T,1 (T0 T) + (T0 T) T0 T,1

+ (32)
1 + T0 T
Rt (),1 = (),1 sin () I + (),1 cos () T I + sin () T,1 I, (33)
T,1 t + T t,1
(T, t),1 = T,1 t + T t,1 I + T,1 t + T t,1 I (T t) (T t)

(1 + T t)2
1
T,1 t + T t,1 (T t) + (T t) T,1 t + T t,1 .

+ (34)
1+Tt
Furthermore the derivatives of the normalized tangent vector are:

A1,1 A1 A1,1 A1 a1,1 a1 a1,1 a1
T,1 = and t,1 = . (35)
A1 2 A1 2 3 a1 2 a1 2 3

## 3.2.2. GreenLagrange strain tensor

The GL strain tensor is defined as
1 1
gi j G i j Gi G j , gi j G i j .

E= Ei j = (36)
2 2
The GL strain tensor is calculated for the curvilinear coordinate system. However for the constitutive law, the
strains corresponding to the Cartesian coordinate system are used as common in engineering literature. In the sequel,
variables with respect to the Cartesian coordinate system will be labeled with (..).
Since the base vectors are orthogonal
to each other, the transformation rule is derived as:
Ei j
E i j = . (37)
Gi 2 G j 2
The length Gi 2 of each base vector of the reference configuration is needed:
1
2
G1 2 = A1 + 2 A2,1 + 3 A3,1 = A1 + 2 A2,1 + 3 A3,1 A1 + 2 A2,1 + 3 A3,1

2
1
2
= A1 A1 + 2 2 A2,1 A1 + 2 3 A3,1 A1 A1 2 . (38)

Two simplifications were made for slender beams with h, w L,where h, w and L are the cross sectional
2 2
dimensions and the length of the beam: (i) square order terms O 2 , O 3 , O 2 3 are neglected and
(ii) G1 2 is assumed as G1 2 A1 2 in Eq. (38). Note that, warping effects also vanish with these simplifications.
We can write for the length of the base vectors G2 and G3 :
G 2 = A 2 = 1. (39)
108 A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127

## The first metric coefficients G 11 and g11 are given by:

G 11 1 , 2 , 3 = G1 G1 = A11 1 + 2 2 A2,1 1 A1 1 + 2 3 A3,1 1 A1 1 , (40a)

g11 1 , 2 , 3 = g1 g1 = a11 1 + 2 2 a2,1 1 a1 1 + 2 3 a3,1 1 a1 1 . (40b)

## So the first component of the GL strain tensor E 11 is expressed as:

b2 B2 b3 B3
1 1
E 11 = (g11 G 11 ) = (a11 A11 ) + 2 (a2,1 a1 A2,1 A1 ) + 3 (a3,1 a1 A3,1 A1 )
2 2

21 31
1
= (a11 A11 ) + (b2 B2 ) + (b3 B3 ) .
2 3
(41)
2
The respective strain in the Cartesian coordinate system is

E 11 + 2 21 + 3 31
E
11 = = , (42)
G1 22 A1 2 2
where is the axial strain, 1 is the change in curvature in the direction of the base vectors a . 1 consists of b and
B , which denote the curvature of the respective configuration in the particular direction. The individual curvatures
for each direction in both configurations in Eq. (41) are defined by using the operators introduced in Eqs. (23) and
(26) as

B = RT ( ),1 (T0 , T) A02 + RT ( ) (T0 , T),1 A0 A1 , (43a)

b = Rt (),1 (T, t)RT ( ) (T0 , T) + Rt () (T, t),1 RT ( ) (T0 , T)

+ Rt () (T, t)RT ( ),1 (T0 , T) + Rt () (T, t)RT ( ) (T0 , T),1 A0 a1 . (43b)

Since Bernoulli theory is applied, no change of the cross section is allowed. A2 2 and A3 2 have unit length and
do not change their length in the deformed state, i.e.a 2 = 1. This yields for E 22 and E 33 :

1
E = (g G ) = 0. (44)
2
Next we consider the off-diagonal terms. The torsional shear strain is computed as follows:
G 1 = G1 G = A1 + A,1 A + A,1 A , (45a)

g1 = g1 g = a1 + a,1 a + a,1 a , (45b)
where (, ) {(2, 3), (3, 2)}. This holds for all following equations, if and appear together.
According to the Bernoulli theory it is assumed, that the cross section remains perpendicular to the center line.
This implies:
A1 A = 0, a1 a = 0. (46)

The derivative A,1 ( 1 ) of A ( 1 ) in direction of 1 only consists of two components. One of them is parallel to
A1 ( 1 ) and one is parallel to A ( 1 ) and thus:

## A,1 A = 0, a,1 a = 0. (47)

With the Bernoulli assumption the torsional shear components from Eq. (45) can be written as

## G 1 = A,1 A and g1 = a,1 a . (48)

A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127 109

## Hence, the strain E 1 can be computed as follows:

t T
1 1 1 (49)
= (g1 G 1 ) = (a,1 a A,1 A ) = (t T ) ,

E 1
2 2 2
where:

T = RT ( ),1 (T0 , T) A0 + RT ( ) (T0 , T),1 A0 RT ( ) (T0 , T) A0 , (50a)

t = Rt (),1 (T, t)RT ( ) (T0 , T) + Rt () (T, t),1 RT ( ) (T0 , T) + Rt () (T, t)RT ( ),1

(T0 , T) + Rt () (T, t)RT ( ) (T0 , T),1 A0 Rt () (T, t) RT ( ) (T0 , T) A0 . (50b)

1 is then:

E 1
E
1 = = . (51)
G1 2 G 2 2A1 2

## 3.3. Constitutive equations

Within the Total Lagrangian Formulation, the energetically conjugated stress tensor is required, here the PK2 stress
tensor S [25]. It is elaborated as the derivative of the strain energy W int w.r.t. the GL strain tensor. Stress and strain
tensors are coupled by the material law:
S = C : E. (52)
The elasticity tensor C is a fourth order tensor. Since this work only treats isotropic elastic material, a linear relation be-
tween stress and strain is appropriate and St. VenantKirchhoff material is applied. The 3D continuum is dimensionally
reduced to the center line for the beam formulation. Moreover, the notation is changed to Voigt notation in the follow-
ing description. All quantities within the cross section refer to A2 and A3 , which are the principal axes. This, in com-
bination with the normalized tangent vector T, also implies a change to an orthonormal coordinate system (Eq. (37)).
Under the assumption of vanishing transverse shear forces S23 and S32 and normal forces S22 and S33 perpendicular
to the center line, the full constitutive equation can be reduced by means of static condensation, in order to adapt to
the element formulation of this work. This is in agreement with the classical beam theory.
In the same step, the Lame constants will be replaced by Youngs Modulus E and Poissons ratio , which are more
common in the engineering literature. The shear modulus G = 21 1+ E
is also introduced. The reduced elasticity matrix
11 11
E

S
E 0 0
S 12 = D E 12 , D = 0 G 0. (53)
13 13 0 0 G
S
E

## 3.4. Internal work

The equation of the weak form of the equilibrium has been introduced in Section 2.1. The derived kinematics from
the previous section (Eqs. (42) and (51)) will now be inserted in the equilibrium expression.

Wint = S : E d = S 11 E 11 +
S 12 E 12 +
S 13 E 13 d . (54)
R3 R3
If the base vectors A are the principal axes of the cross section, the equilibrium can be written as:

Wint = E E 11 E 11 + G E 12 E 12 + G E 13 E 13 d
R 3

E GI 1 1
23 d L .

= 4
A + I A3 21 21 + I A2 31 31 + 32 32 + 23
L A1 2 A1 2 2 2 2
(55)
110 A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127

This assumption is valid for most structural applications and provides a simplification of the derivation, since a
decomposition of normal force and bending moments is possible and some terms vanish. Obviously a derivation
for general cross sections is possible, following the same pattern as established here. The variational index of this
element formulation is m = 2. NURBS basis functions are easily set such that they are in H 2 (0, L).

## 3.5. Inner forces

The derivation of the inner forces is also shown for the case of base vectors being principal axes of the cross section.
If this is not the case, the interaction of the single terms in the stress components has to be considered.

## 3.5.1. Normal force N

3
With S 11 = i=1 C 111i E 1i = E E 11 the normal force N is defined as

E E

N= S
11
, , dA =
1 2 3
2
+ 2
21 + 3
31 d 2 d 3 = A, (56)
A A A1 2 A1 2 2
where A is the area of the cross section and E Youngs modulus of the beam.

## 3.5.2. Bending moments M 2 and M 3

For the bending moments, the resulting moment will be divided into two moments around the principal axes of the
cross section. The sign convention is chosen such that a positive moment generates tension at the side of the cross
section of the positive base vector A .
The internal normal forces with their lever arms around the particular axis yield two defined bending moments.
The lever arms are represented by 2 and 3 :

E E
M = S 11 1 , 2 , 3 d A = 2
+ 2
21 + 3

31 d d =
2 3
IA 1 , (57)
A A A1 2 A1 2 2
with the respective moment of inertia IA = A ( )2 d 2 d 3 .

## 3.5.3. Torsional moment M T

The torsional moment is computed from the shear forces and their lever arm to the center line of the beam. So it is
a cross sectional in-plane moment. In this case the constitutive law writes
3 3
E E 13 .
S 12 =
C 121i E 1i = 2E
12 S 13 =
and C 131i E 1i = 2E (58)
i=1
2 (1 + ) i=1
2 (1 + )

We can compute the torsional moment of each arbitrary cross section 1 [0, 1] as follows:

GI 1 1
M T = S 12 1 , 2 , 3 3 +
S 13 1 , 2 , 3 2 d A = 32 + 23 , (59)
A A1 2 2 2
2 2
with the moment of inertia I = A 2 + 3 d 2 d 3 . The changes of the respective in-plane cross sectional
curvatures 32 and 23 have the same absolute value due to A2,1 A3 = A3,1 A2 and can thus be excluded.

## 3.6. Cross section values for selected cases

For selected commonly used types of cross sections here rectangular and circular cross sections the area and
the moments of inertia are given in Table 1.
Note that the given value I for the rectangle is not the result of the preintegration, but the approximated moment
of inertia. This is done in order to be able to compare the results to other values from the literature. For more
accuracy, membrane analogy or shear flow approximation has to be used [26]. Also warping has to be considered
in the geometric assumptions.
A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127 111

Table 1
Cross sectional values for selected cases. r is the radius of a circular cross
section. h denotes the cross sectional height in 2 -direction being larger
than w in 3 -direction.
Cross section Rectangle Circle
A hw r 2
I A2 hw3 r 4
12 4
I A3 h3 w r 4
12 4
I hw3 r 4
3 2

## 3.7. NURBS-based 3-dimensional beam element

The expressions used to obtain the stiffness matrix and the forces for a NURBS-discretized beam are elaborated in
this section. In the following, discrete nodal values will be denoted by (). Each node has 3 displacement DOFs u, v,
w and the rotational DOF around the center line. The variations of the strains and with respect to a global vector
of degrees of freedom u are required.
T
u1 v1 w1 1 ... un vn wn n .

u = (60)
In consequence, the internal forces and the stiffness derived from the internal work in Eq. (55) are defined as follows:
Wint 21 31

E
Frint = dL = A + I A 21 + I A 31
L u r u r u r u r
4 3 2
L A1 2
32 23

GI 1 1
+ 32 + 23 dL (61)
A1 2 2 2 u r 2 u r
2 Wint 21 21 31 31

E
Kr s = dL = A + I A3 + I A2
L u r u s u s u r u s u r u s u r
4
L A1 2
32 32 23 23

1 GI
+ +
2 A1 2 2 u s u r u s u r
2 2 21 2 31

E
+ A + I
A3 21 + I
A2 31
A1 2 4 u r u s u r u s u r u s
2 32 2 23

1 GI
+ 32 + 23 dL. (62)
2 A1 2 2 u r u s u r u s
The beam is reduced to the center line xc , which is defined by the control points and their respective basis function
Ri, p (see Section 2.2) as:

xc = Ri, p x i = Ri, p X i + u i . (63)
i i

Since all parameters of the undeformed geometry are invariant to the variation, the variation of the position vector xc,r
can be written as:

xc,r = Ri, p X i + u i = Ri, p u i,r . (64)
,r
i i

## The second variation of xc vanishes, because the displacements u appear linearly in xc .

xc,r,s = Ri, p u i,r,s = 0. (65)
i
112 A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127

For the membrane strain, only the variation of the center line base vector a1 with respect to the variation parameter
r , which is the r th component of u,
is necessary:

a1,r = x,1,r = R(i, p),1 u i,r . (66)
i

## The variation of (Eq. (41)) is expressed as:

1
,r = a11,r = a1 a1,r . (67)
2
The second variation yields:
1
,r,s = a11,r,s = a1,s a1,r . (68)
2
The next variations with respect to the degrees of freedom are the variations of the curvatures 1 and . The
initial configuration and consequently the base vectors of the cross section A02 and A03 are invariant to u.
Consequently,
B,r and T,r are equal to 0 and hence:
1,r = (b B ),r = b,r ,r = (t T ),r = t,r (69)
1,r,s = (b B ),r,s = b,r,s ,r,s = (t T ),r,s = t,r,s . (70)
The variation and all subvariations are stated in the Appendix. Gauss integration was chosen as integration method.
Studies have shown that reliable results are obtained with p + 1 Gauss points per knot span.

## 4. Special aspects of initially curved beams

One of the most important parts for the element formulation is the strain definition. According to Bernoulli theory,
the reference length for the strain is the center line for the whole cross section. This assumption is valid for a straight
beam. However, if the beam is initially curved, the reference length varies over the cross section with d (R 2 )
(see Fig. 6).
The application of Bernoulli theory on initially curved beams has almost no influence on the displacements (see
Section 5.1). In contrast, the application of Bernoulli theory on inner forces can generate large errors, especially for the
internal normal force. Therefore, the postprocessing of the stresses is adapted in the following. For the two curvature
planes A2 and A3 , as illustrated in Fig. 6, the following equations hold [27]:

du( ) du 0 + d d0 Rd + d

d
( ) = = = = 0 + 0 . (71)
d S( ) d (R + ) d (R + ) d R +
With the relation = E the inner forces can be computed in accordance to Section 3.5:

d
N= E( ) d A = EA0 + E 0
dA (72)
A d A R+

( )2

d
M= E( ) d A = E0 dA + E 0
d A. (73)
A A d A R+

Convergence studies have revealed only very limited influence of the initial curvature on the resulting bending
moment. This can be explained by the fact that in general the treated problems are bending dominated and the
influence of the internal normal force on the bending moment is small. So they do not have to be transferred and
M M is valid, where (..) denotes the corrected value. Consequently, the remaining integral for the moment in
Eq. (73) can be transformed to the remaining integral of the normal force in Eq. (72):

( )2 R

d A =
d A = R
d A. (74)
A (R + ) A (R + ) A R+
A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127 113

Fig. 6. Illustration of the varying reference length over the thickness for curved elements.

## Thus the second term of Eq. (72) can be substituted by

d M
E 0
dA = . (75)
d A R+ R
The adjusted normal force N is therefore given by
M
N = N . (76)
R
Further information concerning curvature effects can be found in [27,28]. Interaction of the two curvature planes
is neglected as an effect of higher order.

5. Numerical examples

Selected examples for different loading scenarios and geometries are presented in this section. In a first step,
different types of interaction are investigated in a linear analysis for an initially curved beam. Two in-plane examples
study the behavior for geometrically nonlinear analysis, followed by two spatial, nonlinear examples with increasing
complexity w.r.t. the initial curvature. This will verify the nonlinear spatial Bernoulli beam formulation and its correct
implementation. In the following, clamped supports are modeled by restraining the displacements of the first two
control points perpendicular to the tangent at the respective end.

## 5.1. Membrane-bending interaction

The first example is a quadrant. It is clamped at one end and loaded in-plane on the tip with a force in negative
y-direction (see Fig. 7). The cross section is defined with A02 = A12 = [0, 0, 1] at both ends. As the cross section
base vector is always perpendicular to the main curvature, it is not rotating around its center line along the beam.
Thus no geometric torsion is activated, basically a plane deformation is activated. The reference points are the tip for
displacements and the clamped end for the forces, respectively.
This configuration is examined with a linear analysis, since the analytical solution for the displacements at the tip
can be derived easily by means of the principle of virtual forces.

tip 2 1 1
ux = (FR cos )(R (1 sin )) + (F cos )( sin )Rd
0 EI 2 EA
FR3

1 FR
= + = 0.300147573786893 m (77)
2 EI 2 EA

tip 2 1 1
uy = (F R cos )(R cos ) + (F cos )(cos )Rd
0 EI 2 EA
FR
3
FR
= + = 0.471470706400852 m. (78)
EI 2 EA 4
114 A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127

Fig. 8. Quadrant for: (a) p-refinement: p = 2, p = 3, p = 4, p = 5, (b) increasing number of elements: 1, 2, 3 and 4 elements.

The reference values of the normal force and the moment at the clamped end are determined with the global
equilibrium of forces:
N = Fy = 1.0 kN (79)
M 3 = Fy R = 1.0 kN m. (80)
This exemplary study has been performed with polynomial degrees from 2 to 8 and a number of elements from 1
to 256. The mesh for the different refinements is shown in Fig. 8
Fig. 9 shows the corresponding results for the displacements at the loaded tip and the inner forces and moments at
the clamped end.

## 5.2. Bendingtorsion interaction

The bendingtorsion interaction is also tested with the quadrant from Section 5.1 (see Fig. 10). Now the point load
points in z-direction. As a consequence, the structure is loaded out-of-plane. Thus bending and torsion moments result
A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127 115

tip tip
Fig. 9. Convergence of the example for membrane-bending interaction: (a) tip-x-displacement u x , (b) tip-y-displacement u y , (c) normal force
N at the clamped edge, (d) bending moment M 3 at the clamped edge.

116 A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127

tip
Fig. 11. Relative error of the example for bendingtorsion interaction for: (a) tip-z-displacement u z , (b) tip-rotation tip , (c) bending moment M 2
at the clamped edge, (d) torsional moment M T at the clamped edge.

The analytical solution for the displacements of the tip can again be derived from the principle of virtual forces
as

tip 21 1
uz = (F R cos )(R cos ) + (F R (1 sin ))(R (1 sin ))Rd
0 EI 3 GI
FR3 FR3 3

= + 2 = 0.1385450005254 m, (81)
4EI 3 GI 4

2 1 1
tip = (F R cos )(R cos ) + (F (1 sin ))(sin )Rd
0 EI 3 G I
FR2 FR2
= + 1 = 0.075801200345745 rad. (82)
4EI 3 GI 4
The reference values of the inner forces at the clamped edge are calculated with the global equilibrium of forces.
M 2 = Fz R = 1.0 kN m (83)
M T = Fz R = 1.0 kN m. (84)
The corresponding results for the proposed element formulation are shown in Fig. 11.
A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127 117

tip
Fig. 12. Convergence of the example for bendingtorsion interaction: (a) tip-z-displacement u z , (b) tip-rotation tip , (c) bending moment M n at
the clamped edge, (d) torsional moment M T at the clamped edge.

Fig. 12 shows the relative error plotted against the number of elements for different polynomial degrees. The
relative error can be computed as:
()exac ()num
= . (85)
()exac
For the displacements, a relative error of 1e10 was reached in this study. The moments reach an accuracy of
1e09.
5.3. Nonlinear analysis of a shallow arch

In this Section, a shallow arch is examined with the displacement-controlled method as a first example for nonlinear
analysis. This geometry is referred to in several publications [2932], and thus it represents a well-established
benchmark example. The example is defined as a segment of a circular arch, which is clamped at both ends. A single
point force is applied in the center of the beam span (see Fig. 13). The reference displacement is the displacement
of the apex. The configuration uses NURBS with polynomial degree p = 3 and 16 elements as well as p = 6 and
8 elements in order to compare the behavior of different parametrizations. The reference curves in Fig. 14 had been
computed with the half of the system using symmetry conditions. Hence 16 elements in this present contribution,
where the whole system is modeled, correspond to 8 elements from the reference curve.
The reference diagram was taken from [29] and the results of the developed beam formulation are added in
Fig. 14(a).
118 A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127

Fig. 13. Initial geometry of the shallow arch with input parameters.

Fig. 14. Comparison of the deflection of the shallow archs apex computed using the present formulation of the spatial Bernoulli Beam (SBB) with
(a) Bathe [29] Fig. 5 [31,32], (b) Lo [30] Fig. 6.

## Fig. 15. Initial geometry of the mainspring with input parameters.

The shallow arch has a nonlinear post-buckling behavior. Fig. 14(b) shows a comparison of the results of the beam
with p = 3 and 16 elements with [30]. Since the displacement throughout the snap-through of the arch nicely matches
the reference solution, one can conclude that post-buckling behavior can correctly be analyzed with the presented
beam formulation.
5.4. Mainspring

As a last plane benchmark, the main-spring example provides a pure bending example. A simple cantilever is
loaded by a bending moment at the tip (see Fig. 15). Loaded by a moment M = L EI, the beam bends to a half
circle. The closed circle is reached for M = 2 L EI. Fig. 16 shows the deformed geometry for several load steps. The
cantilever is modeled with 10 elements and a polynomial degree of p = 6.
The analytical result of the deflection at the tip is determined. The deformed configurations depict circular arches
respectively segments of these. The radius R is defined by the applied moment and the stiffness as R = EI M . The beam
maintains its length since there is no normal stress. Thus the arc length of the circular arch is defined. The analytical
displacements can be computed out of the length L and the radius R.

L L
u = L sin R, v = 1 cos R. (86)
R R
Fig. 17 shows that the numerical results nicely match the analytical reference solution.
A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127 119

Fig. 16. Deformed geometry of the mainspring for 8 load steps: (a) without control points, (b) with control points.

## 5.5. Nonlinear analysis of a 45 -bending-beam

A fully spatial, well-established example in the literature for nonlinear analysis is the 45 -bending-beam, treated
e.g. in [33,30,29,34]. The beam is also a segment of a circular arch with a radius of 100 m, but only clamped at one end
(see Fig. 18). At the other end, a point load is applied out-of-plane similar to the example in Section 5.2. The system
is modeled with a polynomial degree of p = 3 and 16 elements. In Fig. 19(a) the non-dimensional tip-displacements
are compared to [29]. The computed deflection nicely matches the reference solution. The significance of the fully
nonlinear formulation is demonstrated clearly by a comparison to the results gained by a linear beam formulation (see
Fig. 19(a)).

## 5.6. Spatial helicoidal spring

The final example is a completely three-dimensional structure, a helicoidal spring with one loop (see Fig. 20). The
center line is defined by:

10 sin( 1 2 )

## Xc ( 1 ) = 10 cos( 1 2 ) , 1 [0, 1] . (87)

20 1
The control points are obtained by Rhinoceros 5 [35]. The modeling uses 24 elements with p = 3. Since there is
no reference solution available in the literature, another classical FEM-model, namely a co-rotational beam element
formulation presented in [14] is taken as reference solution. Thus the results of the proposed formulation are compared
to a completely independent element formulation and it can be concluded that two matching results verify the element
formulation (see Fig. 21).
120 A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127

## Fig. 18. Initial geometry of the 45 -bending-beam with input parameters.

Fig. 19. 45 -bending-beam: (a) comparison to Bathe [29] Fig. 9, (b) deformed geometry for several load parameters k.

## 6. Conclusions and outlook

A new element formulation for a nonlinear isogeometric spatial Bernoulli beam including torsion has been derived
from the 3D-continuum. The geometric description is adapted from [11] and used for geometrically nonlinear
kinematics. For the post-processing of the inner forces, a correction term has been introduced to obtain reliable results
for the normal force in case of initially curved beams.
The developed element has been implemented in the structural analysis code at the authors Chair. The formulation
has been tested with selected benchmark examples against analytic solutions if available or other nonlinear beam
element implementations. These benchmarks cover linear examples with membrane-bending resp. bendingtorsion
interaction. Nonlinear examples with straight resp. curved initial configurations show the elements behavior for large
deformations. From these benchmarks it can be concluded that the element provides accurate results and that the
above mentioned correction factor has successfully been applied.
For future research, one could extend the beam theory to account for further torsion related effects, e.g. warping,
and material assumptions. Furthermore the consideration of the curvature effects in the stiffness matrix could be
further investigated. The application in a multipatch scenario has to be derived. The spatial beam is also interesting
for dynamic applications, particularly if it is coupled to other elements like membranes or shells. In this case it could
be applied in a B-Rep edge element formulation along trimming curves [36].
A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127 121

Fig. 20. Initial geometry of the spatial helicoidal spring with tip load.

Fig. 21. (a) Comparison of numerical results for the spatial helicoidal spring of the present work and the co-rotational beam element of Krenk [14],
(b) deformed geometry for several load parameters k.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) as part of the SPP project LeichtBauen
mit Beton (BL 306/23-1). The support is gratefully acknowledged.

## A.1. Curvature terms

b,r = Rt (t ),1,r (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ),1 (T, t),r RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0
+ Rt (t ),r (T, t),1 RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),1,r RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0
+ Rt (t ),r (T, t) RT (0 ),1 (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),r RT (0 ),1 (T0 , T) A0
122 A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127

+ Rt (t ),r (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T),1 A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),r RT (0 ) (T0 , T),1 A0 a1

+ Rt (t ),1 (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),1 RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0

+ Rt (t ) (T, t) RT (0 ),1 (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T),1 A0 a1,r (A.1)

b,r,s = Rt (t ),1,r,s (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ),1,s (T, t),r RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0
+ Rt (t ),r,s (T, t),1 RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ),s (T, t),1,r RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0
+ Rt (t ),r,s (T, t) RT (0 ),1 (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ),s (T, t),r RT (0 ),1 (T0 , T) A0
+ Rt (t ),r,s (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T),1 A0 + Rt (t ),s (T, t),r RT (0 ) (T0 , T),1 A0
+ Rt (t ),1,r (T, t),s RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ),1 (T, t),r,s RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0
+ Rt (t ),r (T, t),1,s RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),1,r,s RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0
+ Rt (t ),r (T, t),s RT (0 ),1 (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),r,s RT (0 ),1 (T0 , T) A0

+ Rt (t ),r (T, t),s RT (0 ) (T0 , T),1 A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),r,s RT (0 ) (T0 , T),1 A0 a1

+ Rt (t ),1,r (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ),1 (T, t),r RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0
+ Rt (t ),r (T, t),1 RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),1,r RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0
+ Rt (t ),r (T, t) RT (0 ),1 (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),r RT (0 ),1 (T0 , T) A0

+ Rt (t ),r (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T),1 A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),r RT (0 ) (T0 , T),1 A0 a1,s

+ Rt (t ),1,s (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ),1 (T, t),s RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0
+ Rt (t ),s (T, t),1 RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),1,s RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0
+ Rt (t ),s (T, t) RT (0 ),1 (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),s RT (0 ),1 (T0 , T) A0
+ Rt (t ),s (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T),1 A0

+ Rt (t ) (T, t),s RT (0 ) (T0 , T),1 A0 a1,r (A.2)

t,r = Rt (t ),1,r (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ),1 (T, t),r RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0
+ Rt (t ),r (T, t),1 RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),1,r RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0
+ Rt (t ),r (T, t) RT (0 ),1 (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),r RT (0 ),1 (T0 , T) A0

+ Rt (t ),r (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T),1 A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),r RT (0 ) (T0 , T),1 A0

Rt (t ) (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0

+ Rt (t ),1 (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),1 RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0

+ Rt (t ) (T, t) RT (0 ),1 (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T),1 A0

Rt (t ),r (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),r RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 (A.3)

t,r,s = Rt (t ),1,r,s (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ),1,s (T, t),r RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0
+ Rt (t ),r,s (T, t),1 RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ),s (T, t),1,r RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0
+ Rt (t ),r,s (T, t) RT (0 ),1 (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ),s (T, t),r RT (0 ),1 (T0 , T) A0

+ Rt (t ),r,s (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T),1 A0 + Rt (t ),s (T, t),r RT (0 ) (T0 , T),1 A0

Rt (t ) (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0

+ Rt (t ),1,r (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ),1 (T, t),r RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0
+ Rt (t ),r (T, t),1 RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),1,r RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0
+ Rt (t ),r (T, t) RT (0 ),1 (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),r RT (0 ),1 (T0 , T) A0
A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127 123

+ Rt (t ),r (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T),1 A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),r RT (0 ) (T0 , T),1 A0

Rt (t ),s (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),s RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0

+ Rt (t ),1,s (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ),s (T, t),1 RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0
+ Rt (t ),s (T, t) RT (0 ),1 (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ),s (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T),1 A0
+ Rt (t ),1 (T, t),s RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),1,s RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0

+ Rt (t ) (T, t),s RT (0 ),1 (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),s RT (0 ) (T0 , T),1 A0

Rt (t ),r (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),r RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0

+ Rt (t ),1 (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),1 RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0

+ Rt (t ) (T, t) RT (0 ),1 (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T),1 A0

Rt (t ),r,s (T, t) RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ),s (T, t),r RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0

+ Rt (t ),r (T, t),s RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 + Rt (t ) (T, t),r,s RT (0 ) (T0 , T) A0 . (A.4)

## Rt (t ),r = t,r sin t I3 + t,r cos t t I3 + sin t t,r I3 (A.5)

RT (0 ),r = 0 (A.6)
Rt (t ),1,r = t,1,r sin t I3 t,1 t,r cos t I3 + t,1,r cos t t I3 t,1 t,r sin t t I3
+ t,1 cos t t,r I3 + t,r cos t t,1 I3 + sin t t,1,r I3 (A.7)
RT (0 ),1,r = 0 (A.8)
Rt (t ),r,s = t,r,s sin t I3 t,r t,s cos t I3 + t,r,s cos t t I3 t,r t,s sin t t I3
+ t,r cos t t,s I3 + t,s cos t t,r I3 + sin t t,r,s I3 (A.9)
RT (0 ),r,s = 0 (A.10)
Rt (),1,r,s = t,1,r,s sin t I3 t,1,r t,s cos t I3 t,1,s t,r cos t I3
t,1 t,r,s cos t I3 + t,1 t,r t,s sin t I3
+ t,1,r,s cos t t I3 t,1,r t,s sin t t I3
+ t,1,r cos t t,s I3 t,1,s t,r sin t t I3
t,1 t,r,s sin t t I3 t,1 t,r ,s cos t t I3
t,1 t,r sin t t,s I3 + t,1,s cos t t,r I3
t,1 t,s sin t t,r I3 + t,1 cos t t,r,s I3
+ t,r,s cos t t,1 I3 t,r t,s sin t t,1 I3
+ t,r cos t t,1,s I3 + t,s cos t t,1,r I3 + sin t t,1,r,s I3 (A.11)
RT (0 ),1,r,s = 0. (A.12)

## A.3. Mapping matrix

T t,r
(T, t),r = T t,r I3 + T t,r I3 (T t) (T t)

(1 + T t)2
1
T t,r (T t) + (T t) T t,r

+ (A.13)
1+Tt
124 A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127

## (T0 , T),r = 0 (A.14)

(T, t),1,r = T,1 t,r + T t,1,r I3 + T,1 t,r + T t,1,r I3

2 T,1 t + T t,1 T t,r
+ (T t) (T t)
(1 + T t)3
T,1 t,r + T t,1,r
(T t) (T t)
(1 + T t)2
T,1 t + T t,1
T t,r (T t) + (T t) T t,r

(1 + T t) 2
T t,r
(T (T

T ,1 t + T t,1 t) + t) T,1 t + T t,1
(1 + T t)2
1
T,1 t,r + T t,1,r (T t) + T,1 t + T t,1 T t,r

+
1 + T t
+ T t,r T,1 t + T t,1 + (T t) T,1 t,r + T t,1,r

(A.15)
(T0 , T),1,r = 0 (A.16)

2 T t,r T t,s
(T, t),r,s = T t,r,s I3 + T t,r,s I3 + (T t) (T t)

(1 + T t)3
T t,r,s T t,r
(T t) (T t) T t,s (T t)

(1 + T t) 2
(1 + T t) 2
T t,s
+ (T t) T t,s + T t,r (T t) + (T t) T t,r

(1 + T t) 2
1
T t,r,s (T t) + T t,r T t,s

+
1 + T t
+ T t,s T t,r + (T t) T t,r,s

(A.17)
(T0 , T),r,s = 0 (A.18)
(T, t),1,r,s = T,1 t,r,s + T t,1,r,s I3 + T,1 t,r,s + T t,1,r,s I3

6 T,1 t + T t,1 T t,r T t,s
(T t) (T t)
(1 + T t)4

2 T,1 t,s + T t,1,s T t,r + 2 T,1 t + T t,1 T t,r,s
+ (T t) (T t)
(1 + T t)3

2 T,1 t + T t,1 T t,r
T t,s (T t) + (T t) T t,s

+
(1 + T t) 3

2 T,1 t,r + T t,1,r T t,s
+ (T t) (T t)
(1 + T t)3
T,1 t,r,s + T t,1,r,s
(T t) (T t)
(1 + T t)2
T,1 t,r + T t,1,r
T t,s (T t) + (T t) T t,s

(1 + T t) 2

2 T,1 t + T t,1 T t,s
T t,r (T t) + (T t) T t,r

+
(1 + T t) 3

## T,1 t,s + T t,1,s

T t,r (T t) + (T t) T t,r

(1 + T t) 2

T,1 t + T t,1
T t,r,s (T t)

(1 + T t) 2

## + T t,r T t,s + T t,s T t,r + (T t) T t,r,s

2 T t,r T t,s
T,1 t + T t,1 (T t)

+
(1 + T t) 3
A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127 125

+ (T t) T,1 t + T t,1

T t,r,s
T,1 t + T t,1 (T t) + (T t) T,1 t + T t,1

(1 + T t) 2

T t,r
T,1 t,s + T t,1,s (T t) + T,1 t

(1 + T t) 2

+ T t,1 T t,s
+ T t,s T,1 t + T t,1 + (T t) T,1 t,s + T t,1,s

T t,s
T,1 t,r + T t,1,r (T t) + T,1 t

(1 + T t) 2

+ T t,1 T t,r
+ T t,r T,1 t + T t,1 + (T t) T,1 t,r + T t,1,r

1
T,1 t,r,s + T t,1,r,s (T t)

+
1+Tt

+ T,1 t,r + T t,1,r T t,s

+ T,1 t,s + T t,1,s T t,r + T,1 t + T t,1 T t,r,s

+ T t,r,s T,1 t + T t,1 + T t,r T,1 t,s + T t,1,s
+ T t,s T,1 t,r + T t,1,r + (T t) T,1 t,r,s + T t,1,r,s .

(A.19)

## A.4. Normalized tangent t resp. T

a1,1,r a1 a1,r a1,1 3 a1 a1,1 a1 a1 a1,r
t,1,r = 3
+ 5
a1 2 a
1 2 a1 2
a1 a1,1,r + a1,r a1,1 a1 a1 a1,1 a1,r
3
(A.20)
a1 2 a1 32
2
a1,1,1 a1 a1,1 a1,1 3 a1 a1,1 a1
t,1,1 = 3
+ 5
a1 2 a
1 2 a1 2
a1 a1,1,1 + a1,1 a1,1 a1 a1 a1,1 a1,1
(A.21)
a1 32 a1 32

a1,r a1 a1,s a1,s a1 a1,r + a1 a1,s a1,r 3 a1 a1,r a1 a1 a1,s
t,r,s = + (A.22)
a1 32 a1 32 a1 52

a1,1,r a1 a1,s a1 a1,r a1,1,s + a1,s a1,r a1,1 3 a1 a1,r a1,1 a1 a1,s
t,1,r,s = 3
3
+
a1 2 a1 2 a1 52
a1,s a1,r a1 a1,1 a1 + a1 a1,r a1,s a1,1 + a1 a1,1,s a1
+3
a 1 52
a1 a1,r a1 a1,1 a1,s a1 a1,r a1 a1,1 a1 a1 a1,s
+3 15
a1 52 a1 72
a1,s a1,1,r + a1,1,s a1,r a1
3
a1 2
a1 a1,1,r + a1,1 a1,r a1,s a1 a1,1,r + a1,1 a1,r a1 a1 a1,s
3
+3 5
a
1 2 a1 2
a1,s a1,1 + a1 a1,1,s a1,r a1 a1,1 a1,r a1 a1,s
+3 . (A.23)
a1 32 a1 52
126 A.M. Bauer et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 303 (2016) 101127

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