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Gretel Tabares

OT981 History and Archeology of the ANE Box 481

C O M PA R AT I V E T I M E L I N E
OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST PART I

Egypts 2nd
EB I 3 ED II 16 Egypts 1st 27 Inter. Period Neo-Babylonian
Iron II A 9
c.33003050 c.2700 BC Inter. Period c.6 00 -5 56
+ Hyksos 29 c.1 00 0 92 5
c.2 18 0 20 40
c.1 73 0 15 50

5000 4000 3000 2800 2600 2400 2200 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600
BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC

ED I 15
c.2900 Egypts 3rd
Iron II BC 10 Exilic Period 11
EB II - III 4 ED III 17 EB IV/MB I 5 Ur III 19 Inter. Period 31
c.9 25 5 86 c.9 25 5 86
c.3050-2300 c. 26 00 c. 23 00 2 00 0 c.2 112-2004 c.1 08 0-66 4

Chalcolithic LB 7 Iron I 8

c.4300-3300 1 c.1500- c.1200-


The Levant EB Period c.3300-2300 2 MB Period c. 2300-1550 6 1200 1000

Mesopotamia Ubaid Uruk 13 ED 14 Agade 18 Old Babylonian 20 Middle Babylonian Neo-Assyrian


c.4000 12 4000-2900 c.2900-2600 c.2340-2159 c.2004-1595 c.1595-1000 Empire
c.910-610

Egypt
Predynastic Early Dynastic Old Kingdom MK New Kingdom
c.5000-3100 c.3100-2686 c.2686-2181 c.2040-1730 c.1550-1080
Gretel Tabares
Box 481

C O M PA R AT I V E T I M E L I N E
OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST PART II

Narmers Palette 33 Abrahams Life 21 Jacobs Life 23 Hammurabis Reign 30 Exodus from Egypt 26
c.3000 c. 21 66 -1991 c.2 00 6- 1859 c. 17 92 -1750 c.1 44 6

3300 3100 2900 2700 2500 2300 2100 2000 1900 1800 1700 1600 1500 1400 1300
BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC

Naqada III Tomb 32 Sargon of Akkad 28 Isaacs Life 22 Joseph in Egypt 24 Shamshi-Adads Reign 31 Tuthmosis III 37
c.3300-3100 c. 23 40 -2284 c. 20 66 1 88 6 c. 17 30 1 44 5 c.1 74 8-17 16 c.1 50 4-14 50

The Levant Slavery In Egypt 25 Tuthmosis III


c.1 73 0-14 45 Campaigns 38
c.1 48 3-14 50

Mesopotamia Akkadian Empire 27 Mari Kingdom 29


c. 2370-2200 c.1 83 0- 1760

Egypt
Egypt Dyn III-VII 34 Egypt Dynasties XI-XIII 35 Hyksos Rule 36 Amarna Age 39
c.2686-2613 c.2 04 0- 1650 c.1 65 0-15 50 c.1 40 0-13 00
Gretel Tabares
Box 481

C O M PA R AT I V E T I M E L I N E
OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST PART III

Senacherib captures
Peace Treaty
Lachish/Deportation in Battle of Charchemish 51
Ramsses II & Hattusili III 53 Saul as king 41 Davids Reign 42 Battle of Qarqar 47
N. Kingdom 50 c.6 05
c.1280 c.1050 c.1011-971 c. 85 3
c.7 01
Nebuchadnezzar II Reign
c.6 05 -5 62

1250 1200 1150 1100 1000 950 900 850 800 750 700 650 600 550 500
BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC

Ramsses in Egypt 52 Merneptah in Egypt 54 Solomons Temple Built 43 Omri & Ahab 46 Fall of N. Kingdom 48 Battle of Megiddo 56 Fall of Judah 49
c.1290- 1224 c.1236-1223 c.9 59 c. 88 2- 851 c. 72 2 c.6 09 c.5 86

Conquest of Canaan 40 United Kingdom 44 Divided Kingdom in Israel 45 Neo-Babylonian Period


c.12 90-1200 c.1050-930 c.9 31 -722 NK/ 586 SK c.6 26 -5 38

Neo-Assyrian Period
c. 911-609

Shishak in Egypt 55
c.9 45 -924
1

ANNOTATIONS

PART I
1. Chalcolothic Period (4300-3300 BC): Known as the Copper Period. The settlement patterns during
this period tend to favor the semi-arid areas rather than the most fertile areas of the
Mediterranean. Key site Teleilan Ghassul, located in the northern shore of the Dead Sea.1
2. Early Bronze Period: Includes three subdivisions: EBI, EBII-III, and EB IV/MBI. See explanation of each
subdivision below.
3. Early Bronze I: This period shows a continuation of certain Calcolithic elements in that the sites
continued to be unfortified agricultural villages. However, there is a shift in the settlement pattern
when it comes to the geographical area. The arid areas of are abandoned, and new sites emerge in
fertile areas such as the Shephelah and Jordan Valley. Key sites of this period are Megiddo, Beth
Yerah, and Tel Erani.2
4. Early Bronze II-III: This period marks the beginning of urbanization in Palestine. A large amount of
people gather in cities and build great temples, palaces, granaries etc. Some of the most
impressive sites of this period are Hazor, Megiddo, Yarmuth, and Beth Yerah in the Levant. Other
important sites in Northern Syria and Mesopotamia are Aleppo, Byblos, and Ebla.
5. Early Bronze IV-Middle Bronze I: After the end of the Urban culture Palestine continued to be
occupied by some pastoralists. Some sites like Hazor and Megiddo find continuity in this phase,
but only as small, unfortified villages. Naturally, many scholars place Abraham, a pastoral nomad,
during this period.3
6. Middle Bronze: This period includes the rise of the Old Babylonian and Assyrian Empires. Amorite
dynasties take control of Mesopotamia during the 20th and 19th centuries. As a result
international relations and trade thrive between Mesopotamia and the Levant.
7. Late Bronze: Egypt exercised significant control of Canaan during the LB Age. Population as a
whole declined and some sites were abandoned. Its important to note that there seems to be
almost no fortifications in the sites corresponding to this period.

Amihay Mazar, Archeology of the Land of the Bible 10, 000-586 B.C.E (New York: Doubleday,
1

1990), 63.
2 Ibid., 96
3 Ibid.,108-170
2

8. Iron I (1200-1000 BC): Characterized by the emergence of several ethnic groups in Palestine such
as the Philistines, Israelites, Edomites, Moabites, and Amonites. 4 This time is concurrent to the time
of the Judges in Israel and the resettling of Canaan.
9. Iron IIA - Israel transitions from a tribal life to a centralized Monarchy. Concurrent with the time of
the United monarchy in Israel (Saul, David, Solomon). Key sites: Hazor, Megiddo, Dan, and Beth-
Shean.
10. Iron IIBC - Israel transitions to the time of the Divided Kingdom. The Neo-Assyrian and Neo-
Babylonian empires also emerge during this period and conflict ensues in the ANE.
11. Exilic Period - Israel is captured by the Assyrians in the North and later Judah is captured in the
south by Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon. The temple at Jerusalem is destroyed and the Israelites
are taken into exile for approximately 70 years. This is until the Persian king allows them to go back
and reconstruct the temple and city walls (time of Nehemiah and Ezra).
12. Ubaid Period: Preceeded the Uruk period in Mesopotamia. Findings at Eridu have provided
evidence of cultural continuity from one period to the next.5
13. Uruk Period: Transition into Uruk period is marked by a change in pottery from the painted Ubaid
wares to the fairly plain wheel-made ware. The period is also characterized by long distance trade
as evidenced by the bevel-rimmed bowl discovered at level twelve of Uruk as well as in Southern
Mesopotamia, Northern Iraq, Northern Syria, and Telbaraq.
14. Early Dynastic Period: A highlight of this period are the The Royal Tombs (Early Dynastic IIIa period)
which contained luxury items that would have required to be imported from long distances. This
confirms Ur's economic importance during the EB Age.
15. ED I: Type site for this period is Nippur.
16. ED II: Ur is the type site for this period.
17. ED III: Type cities for this period are Shuruppak (modern Fara) and Salabikh.
18. Agade Period: It takes its name after the capital city of Sargons empire. The period is characterized
by development of writing, spread of bilingualism, and sociopolitical developments never before
seen.
19. Ur III Period: The famous Sumerian King List was written during this period. Type city Ur, and most
famous king is Ur-Nammu
20. Old Babylonian: There is a large amount of material documenting this period such as the Mari
archives and the Kultepe archives (Ancient Kanesh). Isin-Larsa dynasties emerged during the Old

4Amihay Mazar, Archeology of the Land of the Bible 10, 000-586 B.C.E (New York: Doubleday,
1990). 297
5Amlie Kuhrt, The Ancient Near East, C. 3000-330 BC, 1 edition (London; New York: Routledge,
1997), 22.
3

Babylonian age. Probably the most important king was Shamshi-Adad. There was expansion of
trade all the way to Anatolia.

PART II

21. Abrahams Life: Originally from the Summerian city of Ur of the Chaldees. He later relocates to
Palestine at Yahwehs command. Note more than one reference to Abraham in Egypt in the book of
Genesis.
22. Isaacs Life: It should be noted that even though he is native to Palestine, his father Abraham
chooses a foreign bride from him. Her family is related to the Arameans who lived in Northern
Syria.
23. Jacobs Life: His twelve sons are the ancestors of the twelve tribes of Israel. He dies in Egypt but is
buried in Canaan.
24. Joseph in Egypt: Some place Joseph in Egypt during the XII and XIII dynasties.6
25. Slavery In Egypt: There is no specific mention of Israelites working as slaves in Egyptian literature.
However, the Biblical narrative can be partly corroborated by the mention of Israel in Egyptian
sources just before 1200 BC, as well as the abundance of Semites among the multicultural XIX
dynasty Egyptian court.7
26. Exodus from Egypt: See previous note.
27. Akkadian Empire: The empire was founded by Sargon of Akkad as an attempt to centralize power
in Mesopotamia under one dynasty. Both, Summerian and Akkadian were spoken in the kingdom.
28. Sargon of Akkad: as founder of the Agade dynasty he legitimized his kingship through an
extraordinary birth-legend story. Sargon drove imperialism/territorial expansion. Under his rule
the Akkadian empire thrived.
29. Mari Kingdom: Mari was an important city during the 19th century as the capital of the Amorites. It
controlled the trade route between Anatolia and Mesopotamia, and had access to the Levant
through Northern Syria. Famous for the royal palace of Zimri-Lim, which contained over 300 rooms
and was possibly the largest of its time. Also famous for the state archives were also built during
this time.

K. A. Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament, annotated edition edition (Grand
6

Rapids, Mich.: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2006), 344.

7 Ibid., 311
4

30. Hammurabis Reign: Hammurabi is famous for a law code and for founding the Old Babylonian
kingdom. He conquered all southern Mesopotamian cities including Isin, Larsa, Ur, Uruk, Lagash,
Eshnunna, as well as Ebla, Mari and Elam.
31. Shamshi Adads reign: This king established a short-lived empire by capturing the cities of Ashur,
Mari and Ninevah. He was an Amorite.
32. Naqada III tomb: A necropolis dating to the Predynastic period in Egypt.
33. Narmers Palette: This piece provides one of the earliest known depictions of an Egyptian king. It
speaks to the unification of Egypt and establishment of kingship during the early dynastic period
in Egypt.
34. Egypt Dynasties III-VII: These dynasties correspond to the Old Kingdom Period.
35. Egypt Dynasties XI-XIII: These dynasties correspond to the Middle Kingdom Period.
36. Hyksos Rule in Egypt: These were foreign invaders who dominated Egypt during the Second
Intermediate Period for approximately 200 years. Both the Turin Canon and Manetho attest to the
rule of the Hyksos. Their defeat gave way to the New Kingdom period in Egypt.
37. Tuthmosis III: 6th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty. Co-regent with Hatshepsut until her death.
38. Tuthmosis III Campaigns in the Levant: He set a series of campaigns against the kingdoms (vassal
states) in the area of Canaan.
39. Amarna Age: This period takes its name from the city of Amarna which used to be Akhetaten the
capital of pharaoh Amenhotep IV. This king introduced a period of religious reforms by introducing
the cult to the sun-disk god. He also changed his name to Akhenaten. He was removed from
Egyptian records after his death.

PART III

40. Conquest of Canaan: Israel conquers Canaan under the leadership of Joshua. What follows is the
time of the Judges, seen as a period of decline not only for Israel, but also for the rest of the
Ancient Near East. There is a visible regression in terms of art and architecture marked by the fall of
the Hittite empire as well as a political weakening of Egypt.8
41. Saul: 1st King of Israel, from the tribe of Benjamin. Fought against the Philistines several times.
42. David: Most famous king of Israel. He was successful in pushing out the Philistines and annexed
the Northern part of Philistia.

Amihay Mazar, Archeology of the Land of the Bible 10, 000-586 B.C.E (New York: Doubleday,
8

1990), 361.
5

43. Solomons Temple: The plan of this temple is based on the religious architecture of Canaan and
Northern Syria in the 2nd Millennium BC (Temples at Ebla, Hazor, and Megiddo). 9masseur 212
&376-7
44. United Kingdom: For the most part, a period of spiritual and political stability and prosperity in
Israel under the rule of Saul, David, and Solomon.
45. Divided Kingdom: For the most part a period of political, economical, and spiritual instability in
Israel and Judah (Northern and Southern Kingdoms). The Northern Kingdom is characterized by
disobedient kings, worshipper of idols. The Southern Kingdom fluctuates between good and bad
kings, and the spiritual health of the country depends on the leadership of the king.
46. Omri & Ahab: Omri establishes a dynasty in the Northern Kingdom of Israel around 884 BC. It
included monarchs such as Ahab, Joram, and Athaliah. Ahab, one of the most famous kings, He
finishes the construction of Samaria and moves the capital there. He also takes part in the battle of
Qarqar against the Assyrians.10
47. Battle of Qarqar: The Assyrians had become a threat to Israel and neighboring nations during the
9th century. Some of the kings of southern Syria and Palestine (Ahab included) formed an alliance
and fought against Shalmaneser III. Assyria was defeated.
48. Fall of Northern Kingdom (Israel): Israel is captured by the Neo-Assyrian empire and its people are
resettled to other areas within the empire.
49. Fall of Southern Kingdom (Judah): Jerusalem is captured by Neo-Babylonian empire under
Nebuchadnezzars rule. The temple is burned and the people are taken into exile.
50. Senacherib captures Lachish & 1st Deportation of Israel
51. Battle of Charchemish: This battle was fought between the Babylonians, the Assyrians, and the
Egyptian armies. Nabuchadnezzar defeated both the Assyrian and Egyptian armies. After this the
Assyrian empire ceased to exists and the Egyptians were no longer a threat in the ANE.
52. Ramesses in Egypt: Known as the most famous king of the NK period in Egypt. His mortuary
temple Ramesseum is a statement of the greatness of Egypt under his rule.
53. Peace treaty between Ramesses II and Hattusili III- Centuries of enmity between Egypt and Hatti
were put to rest by this peace treaty between the kings. The treaty was sealed by the marriage of
Ramesses to Hattusilis daughter.
54. Merneptah in Egypt- This pharaoh fought against the Lybians and the Sea Peoples. His
accomplishments were immortalized in prose at the temple complex of Karnak. He also erected a
Stele that is famous because it mentions the destruction of Israel prior to his 5th year in Palestine.

9Amihay Mazar, Archeology of the Land of the Bible 10, 000-586 B.C.E (New York: Doubleday,
1990), 212; 3767.
10 Ibid., 406.
6

55. Shishak in Egypt: This pharaoh mounted a campaign against Judah as recorded in 1 Kings 14 and 2
Chronicles 12.
56. Battle of Megiddo: In this battle paraoh Tuthmosis III fought against a rebellious coalition of
Canaanite city states at the city of Kadesh. The details of the battle have been inscribed in
hieroglyphics at the temple of Amun at Karnak.
7

Bibliography

Brand, Chad, Charles Draper, Archie England, Steve Bond, E. Ray Clendenen, Trent C. Butler, and

Bill Latta, eds. Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary. Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers, 2003.

Chad Brand et al., eds., Nahor, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary (Nashville, TN: Holman Bible

Publishers, 2003), 1169.

Kitchen, K. A. On the Reliability of the Old Testament. Annotated edition edition. Grand Rapids,

Mich.: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2006.

Kuhrt, Amlie. The Ancient Near East, C. 3000-330 BC. 1 edition. London; New York: Routledge,

1997.

Mazar, Amihay. Archeology of the Land of the Bible 10, 000-586 B.C.E. New York: Doubleday,

1990.