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Mehek Desai

Lesley Evangelista
Eduardo Gonzalez
Alex Walters
Dr. Alvarado
Sociology 1
22 January 2017

Social Structure and Interaction

1. Ascribed status, the social status a person is assigned at birth or assumed later in life.
Characteristics that fall within this category can be gender, race, economic status. Achieved
status however, is somewhere we have gotten to due to hard work or no work. It is a position that
can be earned or chosen. Being a part of certain assigned groups helps people identify who we
are and have a feeling of what to expect from us. Different cultures vary on status for example
from birth they are expected to achieve their status and aren't born into it. On the other hand their
are people born into wealthy families or royalty where they are expected to behave or act a
certain way. They are held to higher standards. It
Reference groups are groups that someone or a group of people would compare
themselves to. I believe reference groups are experienced in society daily. We are constantly
observing others and seeing the way the lifestyle that is fitting in and trying to fit in ourselves or
going according to norms.(Eduardo Gonzalez)

2. A social role is a way of identifying someone in society by their pattern of behavior. For
example, a parent is someone who is nurturing and has kids. Parents do things a certain way that
puts them into that category, and it it obvious to everyone else. If you take on a role, there may
even be a role set attached to it, which is a group of roles. A violation of a role is fairly self
explanatory, if you as a person are not cut out for a role, you are violating it. A role exit is
something that happens as you go through life and consider more roles as you grow older.
Primary groups interact on a very personal level, while secondary groups tend to be less
personal. (Alex Walters)

3. Subcategories of primary and secondary groups, in-groups and out-groups refer to the two
kinds of people who are separated by the difference in values, norms, and goals. These
differences create boundaries, thereby categorizing people as insiders or outsiders. An In-
group comprises a category of people who believe that they belong in the group and that being
part of the group is a fundamental aspect of her/his identity. Members of an in-group have an us
vs. them outlook, often accompanying a sense of superiority (for belonging in that group). An
out-group, in relation to the in-group, consists of a category of people who dont belong or fit
in. The in-group is related to the primary group insofar that both groups advocate a sense of
belonging and identity; primary groups promote quasi-familial bonds, much like in-groups.
Inversely, out-groups are related to secondary groups in that they are both groups without a sense
of belonging, with little to no social intimacy. (Mehek Desai)

4. To successfully survive, a society must first fulfill five functional prerequisites first. Firstly the
society must be ready to replace its members, without this, the society would slowly deteriorate
and die. The new members of a society must socialize with other members of that same society
and this socialization can happen through many different platforms - like education or religion. A
successful society must also produce services and goods and be distributed in ways that can help
shape an economy. The fourth is preserving order, which means providing protection for the
society from either internal or external threats, much like a police force or a military can do. The
last is a goal for every member to try and attain. Without a purpose, the selfishness of members
can destroy the society. In regards to organic and mechanical solidarity, there are some
differences. Mechanical solidarity is based on similarities between members and is usually found
in smaller/older societies. The members all work together for the benefit of others and
interpersonal relationships are important in mechanical solidarity. Organic solidarity is found
mostly in modern/larger societies, and relationships between members are usually workplace-
esque. Everyone works different jobs and interact with others in the same position as them.
(Lesley Evangelista)