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Attempt to use the equations of flight to analyze a boeing 747 aircraft

Attempt to use the equations of flight to analyze a boeing 747 aircraft

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Jazz Lindquist1

Aircraft Flight Dynamics (14:650:271), New Brunswick, NJ, 08901

Abstract

A Boeing 747 aircraft was analyzed in regards to its stability. First, it was determined

whether the aircraft was statically stable. Then it was ascertained whether the dynamic

response of the aircraft supported the prediction. The Euler force and moment equations

for an aircraft were used, along with the decoupled longitudinal and lateral forms. Matlab

was used to both solve and graph the models. It was found that the equations in their

original form proved difficult to simulate, with errors abounding in the results obtained.

Using the decoupled equations proved to be largely successful, with the behavior proving

that the aircraft was indeed statically stable.

Abstract: a concise summary

Introduction

The Boeing 747 aircraft was one of the most innovative designs of its time. Often heralded as a

masterpiece of industrial design, the Boeing 747 was twice the size of any previous airliner. It

was the result of a four year development to production cycle (in comparison to the largely

successful Boeing 707s 8-year cycle)5, and pushed the limits of what airliners of the time could

do. In addition to breaking records, it became so popular that it is one of the most easily

recognizable airplanes of the modern era. Part of this is due to its unique upper deck hump, but

more is owed to the success it has enjoyed for over three decades. Its accomplishments include

holding the passenger capacity record for 37 years (1970-2007), being modified to serve as Air

Force One for the commander-in-chief of the United States government7, and serving as a shuttle

carrier for NASA8. This paper aims to determine the flight characteristics of this iconic aircraft.

To that end, the stability of the aircraft will be determined, both static and dynamic, longitudinal

and lateral. In addition to this, MATLAB will be used to model some of the aircrafts response to

various perturbations.

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

General Nomenclature of Aircraft

Before the Boeing 747 can be adequately analyzed, a general knowledge of the standards

used in flight dynamics is required. Aircraft flight studies concerning aircraft are rather complex,

and a knowledge of the comprehensive nomenclature goes a long way in understanding the

capabilities of any aircraft. It is assumed that the reader has a certain familiarity with the subject,

but for the sake of simplicity, a brief overview will be given here.

The coordinate systems used with the respective forces, moments, and angles will be

given here as a reference. Two coordinate systems are used to describe the position and

orientation of the aircraft at a given time: an inertial reference frame and the body frame of the

aircraft. For an inertial reference frame, a coordinate system fixed to the earth will be used. It is

usually set so that the x-axis point north, the y-axis points to the east, and the z-axis points

downward toward the earth. On the aircraft itself, a second coordinate system referred to as the

body frame is employed. Its x-axis (also called the centerline) lies along the fuselage of the

aircraft, the y-axis of the coordinate system is along the right wing of the aircraft, and the z-axis

points towards the bottom of the aircraft. It is also important to note that the xz-plane forms a

plane of symmetry along the aircraft.

In terms of these two coordinate systems, the following is a list of the various variables

and forces acting on the aircraft:

Axial Force, the force acting on the aircraft along the x-axis

Side Force, the force acting on the aircraft along the y-axis

Normal Force, the force acting along the aircraft along the z-axis

Lift Force The force the aircraft generates to keep itself in the air

Thrust Force Force the aircraft generates to propel itself in the positive x-

direction.

Drag Force force that opposes the thrust force due to the shape of the aircraft and

the flow it generates

Weight Refers to the force of gravity on the aircraft, always acts towards the earth

Rolling Moment, the moment of the aircraft about the x-axis

Pitching Moment, the moment of the aircraft about the y-axis

Yawing Moment, the moment of the aircraft about the z-axis

(Note that when dealing with the coefficients of the roll, pitch, and

yaw moments, lowercase letters are used to avoid confusion)

velocity of the aircraft along the x-axis

velocity of the aircraft along the y-axis

velocity of the aircraft along the z-axis

direction of flight or resultant velocity, true direction of the aircraft given

by the sum of the velocity components

angular rate along the x-axis

angular rate along the y-axis

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

angular rate along the z-axis

angle of attack, angle between projected onto the xz plane and the

centerline of the aircraft

flight path angle, angle between the direction of flight and the local

horizontal

sideslip angle, angle between projected onto the xy plane and the

centerline of the aircraft

yaw angle, angle between the projection of the centerline onto the

horizontal plane and north

heading angle, angle between projected onto the horizontal plane and

north

pitch angle, angle between local horizontal and the centerline

roll angle, angle between the true vertical and the z-axis of the aircraft

flight dynamic pressure, equal to 0.5rho*Vinfinity^2

reference area, taken to be the wing planform area

characteristic length, which is the wingspan for the rolling and yawing

moment and the mean chord for the pitching moment

For further understanding, three diagrams are provided, as it is often easier to visibly see the

difference between various parameters. Figure 1 displays the body frame of the aircraft along

with the the angular rates, velocities, moments, and total velocity. Each axis has a force, moment,

and angular rate associated with it. Moving on to Figure 2, the pitch, angle of attack, and flight

path angle can be seen. The lift, drag, and thrust forces are also shown, as well as the pitching

moment, velocity, and total velocity . Figure 3 simply provides a visual representation of

the yaw, sideslip, heading, and roll angles.11

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

Figure 2. Pitch, Angle of Attack, and the Flight Path Angle17

For this paper, all of the information obtained about the Boeing 747 is listed in Appendix

1. The format used for the dimensionless coefficients is as follows: the first subscript determines

the type of coefficient it is and the second subscript, if there is one, details the variable that the

derivative of the coefficient is taken with respect to. Take, for example, . The m denotes

that it is the coefficient related to the pitching moment, whereas the second subscript details

how the coefficient has had the partial derivative with respect to alpha taken.

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

Problem Statement

One of the most important criteria for an aircraft is how stable it is. This mainly means

its ability to hold constant, steady flight conditions after a disturbance. Steady flight conditions,

also known as trim conditions, requires that the sum of the forces on the airliner as well as the

sum of the moments acting on the airliner are both equal to zero. This disturbance can come from

the atmosphere surrounding the airplane or the pilots actions, but the aircraft must be able to

adequately respond to both disturbances on its own. Although an aircraft does not have to be

inherently stable to successfully fly, it soon becomes exhausting on the part of the pilot to

constantly correct the state of the aircraft. It is also incredibly unsafe to do so, assuming that the

pilot is in the aircraft as well. Interestingly enough, an airplane can perform remarkably and still

be deemed of poor quality if the stability and control are subpar. As such, stability studies are, to

reiterate, an important subject. Stability is comprised of two parts: static and dynamic stability.

An aircrafts stability at equilibrium is its static stability, whereas its time response after a

disturbance is known as its dynamic stability.

A. Static Stability

designed to achieve trim condition, no aircraft can maintain trim condition. Eventually,

something will occur to alter the aircraft from its initial trim condition. A force or moment will

be induced on the aircraft, and can be caused by things such as a gust of wind, the effects of

thrust generated, a change of the angle of attack of the aircraft, or even a bird flying into the

aircraft. After the aircraft is perturbed, the beginning tendency of the aircraft to return to its

equilibrium state is known as the static stability. If the aircraft is statically stable, then it will

attempt to return to the equilibrium state it began at. If the aircraft is statically unstable, it will

continue further from the state of equilibrium after a disturbance. The static stability between

these two states is that of being statically neutral. If the aircraft were statically neutral, once it is

disturbed it would enter a new equilibrium state with different trim conditions than the one it

began at.

The Boeing 747 will be analyzed to determine whether it is statically stable, statically

unstable, or statically neutral. But stability of the aircraft as a whole often prove difficult to

calculate, so first the longitudinal and then the lateral-directional stability will be looked at. The

longitudinal axis is parallel to the fuselage and divides the plane in half, with its positive

direction going towards the nose of the plane. Conversely, the lateral axis is aligned with the

wings of the aircraft (not exactly parallel because the wings are usually swept), with its positive

direction going towards the right wing of the plane. Both axis have their origin at the center of

gravity of the aircraft.

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

The primary criteria for an aircraft to possess longitudinal static stability is the nature of

its pitching moment with respect to the angle of attack. Rather than deal with the pitching

moment, it is preferred to use the dimensionless coefficient of the pitching moment instead.

Simplifying the analysis, dimensionless coefficients also allow for easy comparison between

aircraft.12 The relationship between the pitching moment and the angle of attack is key in

determining how statically stable the If the pitching moment coefficient increases as the angle of

attack increases, then the airplane is statically unstable. Looking at Figure 2, Airplane 2 would

develop a positive pitching moment that would only move the aircraft further from the

equilibrium point at B. Conversely, Airplane 1 would develop a negative pitching moment that

would attempt to move the aircraft back towards equilibrium. Hence, if the pitching coefficient

with respect to alpha is negative, the plane can be considered statically stable.

Along with a negative , the aircraft also needs to have positive pitching moment coefficient

when the angle of attack is zero. Known as , the pitching moment at zero angle of attack

determines the trim angle of attack. A positive trim angle of attack is desired so as to generate

adequate lift to keep the aircraft aloft.10 Considering Equation 1, it can be seen that the a positive

will yield a the a positive angle of attack (for will be negative for the criteria of static

stability).

6

Aircraft Flight Dynamics

Figure 4. Yaw Moment Coefficient against Sideslip Angle16

stability. Rather than stability about the y-axis, the stability about the z-axis is of concern. For the

z-axis, the primary moment is that of the yaw moment, denoted by . Again, it is desirable to

have an aircraft tend to move back towards its original position after a perturbation. As shown in

Figure 4, as the sideslip angle increases, the yaw moment needs to increase in a positive direction

as well (counterintuitively, a positive yaw will be opposite in direction to that of positive

sideslip). Conversely, a negative sideslip angle requires that the yaw moment is negative as well.

Therefore, a positive is the only condition for directional static stability. Note that the value

of is equal to zero at zero sideslip, because at trim condition the plane needs to fly in a

straight line, not veering to one side or the other due to a positive or negative sideslip angle. This

is unlike the longitudinal static stability, where it is desired that at trim the angle of attack is

positives so that the nose of the aircraft is pointing upward for adequate lift.

B. Dynamic Stability

stability relies on the response of various moments to changes in the orientation of the aircraft,

and the conditions can be constrained to the derivatives of a few coefficients. Dynamic stability

is much more complex, as it the time response of an aircraft after a disturbance, not just whether

or not the aircraft will return to equilibrium conditions. The behaviour of an aircraft depends on

many factors, ranging from the moments and forces acting on the airplane to its relative

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

orientation an observer. Again, the longitudinal and then the lateral-directional dynamic stability

will be analyzed. First, the state response of the whole system will be modelled using the

kinematic and dynamic equations. It will output both longitudinal and lateral responses.

Following this, the dynamic equations will be decoupled into longitudinal and lateral sets.

Finally, the simplest form of analyzing the response of the system will be used: first and second

order differential equations that model the system through several approximations. The full

derivation of the essential equations used will not be recounted here. Instead, the main results

will be listed, with basic explanations as to how they were obtained.

To obtain the kinematic and dynamic equations, the rigid body equations of motion must

first be determined for an aircraft in general. It begins, with all equations involving forces, with

Newtons Second Law of Motion. As the name implies, it is assumed that the aircraft is

completely rigid, which greatly simplifies the mathematics. While generally true, the main

violator of this assumption is the shifting mass of fuel within an aircraft. Its contribution to the

overall body of the airliner is relatively small though, and really only comes into play when

analyzing the behavior of rockets.

Once the rigid body equations of motion are determined, they are then defined in terms of

the Euler angles of the aircraft. This allows the force and velocity components to not only be

described to the pilot within the aircraft, but also to the flight director (or any other party) who

remains on the ground. Euler angles are divided into the pitch, roll, and yaw angles of the

aircraft, with the reference frame being that of the earth coordinate system previously described.

They are then simplified using the fact that the gravitational and thrust force components can be

described using the Euler angles as well. This leads to the kinematic and dynamic equations of

motion seen in Table 1. A full description of the derivation can be found in the link provided in

the bibliography.15

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

Table 1. Summary of Kinematic and Dynamic Equations16

Even though the equations are much simpler than when the analysis began, it is

impossible to solve analytically. There are twelve equations and twelve different variables,

making the process of an analytical solution a long and difficult one. Instead, the equations were

solved numerically with the use of MATLAB software. To plot the response of the system, these

equations were then rearranged so as to have the derivatives of each variable on one side. Having

it in this form was beneficial for using MATLAB to solve the system of differential equations

using ode23 (an ordinary differential equation solver for non-stiff differential equations).

these variables are determined by initial conditions before the disturbance. , , and were

set arbitrarily, as well as the initial p, q, and r angular rates.. , , and were then

determined with the coefficients of the aircraft through the method in Equation 3. Then the

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

programs listed in Appendix 2 were listed were used to plot the response of the system for each

state.

Before the dynamic equations can be separated into longitudinal and directional-lateral

forms, they are simplified using small disturbance theory. The fundamental assumption of small

disturbance theory is that the magnitude of a disturbance to the aircraft is much, much smaller

than the magnitude of the various variables at equilibrium condition. Every variables final

condition is first defined as the initial condition plus the change in that variable, as shown in

Equations 2.

Then, this is substituted into the dynamic equations, and the resulting equation is simplified

using several key initial conditions. The initial conditions, known as the reference flight

conditions, is defined as symmetric, and the propulsive forces are assumed to be unchanging.

This allows several reference conditions to be equal to (Equation 6).

Additionally, the x-axis is initially aligned so that it is along the airplanes velocity vector so as

to eliminate . Since the disturbance is also small, the products of the small disturbances are

are considered to be negligible (of an order of magnitude much less than the rest of the variables)

then eliminated from the resulting equations. The last assumption made is that of small angle

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

approximation, and since the disturbance is small the resulting changes in angles will be small as

well. Therefore the sine values of the initial angles and disturbance angles will be as follows:

A similar argument could be made for the cosine identities as well. All of this simplifies the

dynamic equations to much simpler linear values, shown in Figure 5.

Now that the dynamic equations have been linearized, they can be rearranged into state

space form. State space form will model the response of each variable so that they are a function

of input, output, and state variables. The change in response that include the change in the

normal force due to the pitch angular rate and the derivative of the z-velocity are considered to

be insignificant, and as such are ignored in the final analysis. These equations are then organized

into state space form to first be numerically solved and then analyzed for the eigenvalues of each

system. MATLABs ode43 differential equation solver can then be used to solve each system of

equations and then show the response of the system both laterally and longitudinally.

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

Figure 6. Linearized Longitude Equations16

The eigenvalues of each A matrix give information about the response. Through

comparison to a mass spring system, the damping ratio the undamped natural frequency of the

response can be determined. The damping ratio will determine how quickly the response either

increases or decreases, while the natural frequency gives the period of the oscillation. Both

factors determine the time until the magnitude of the response is either half or double the original

value through the system damping. The motion associated with each damping ratio is listed in

Figure 8.

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

Equation Set 9. Damping Ratio ( ), Natural Frequency ( ), Damped Natural Frequency ( ), and

System Damping ( ) fom Complex Root ( )16

Figure 9. Long (phugoid) and Short Period Approximations of the Damping Ratio and Natural

Frequency16

Estimates using the long period and short period forms of the longitudinal state-space equation

eigenvalues will be obtained with the equations in Figure 8. To obtain these estimates, the

assumption of fixed controls is made. That is to say that there is no additional control input to the

response. Although usually this wouldnt be the case while the aircraft is being operated, doing

so allows quick analysis to be made. The two approaches will be compared to see if the estimate

is an accurate one.

To solve and then subsequently model the dynamic equations, MATLAB was used. The

programs were developed with the aid of the Mathworks website18, through guides to ode

solvers, state space variables, and systems of ordinary differential equation solvers. All of the

programs are listed in Appendix 3 for reference. In all of the equations above, the constants for

the Boeing 747 aircraft were obtained from the text Flight Stability and Automatic Control.16

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Results

Static stability can easily be proved from observation of the data in Appendix 1.

and are both negative, implying that the plane will return to equilibrium after a

disturbance. All of the graphs outputted by the MATLAB program are listed in Appendix 1 for

continuity (there are several pages worth of graphs). To begin with, the Euler Force and Moment

Equation program was formed. The inputs for the systems of equations ( , , , , , and

) were all set to 0 with the exception of , which was set to 1000 lbf, , , and whos

values were determined by Equation 3. A controls fixed model was employed, with the elevator,

rudder, and aileron set to 1, 3, and 5 degrees respectively. Initial sideslip and angle of attack

angles were all also set to 0. Several different combinations of initial conditions were used, but

the results were all equally unreliable.

Although the program was checked several times, it seems that the results obtained from

the euler force and moment equations are inaccurate. Much was done to eliminate as much error

as possible, including cross referencing with other programs, research sources, and manipulating

of the variables, but the results obtained from running the program seem to be riddled with

mistakes. The velocities are all exhibiting ridiculous behavior. and are wildly oscillating

between positive and negative values while increasing in value, which is physically impossible.

The x and y positions are decreasing at incredible rates, while the plane soars upwards with an

increasing z position. Moving on to the angles and angular rates, for whatever reason the angular

rates and are damped as it they should be. Meanwhile, is just constantly decreasing. The

angles continue this trend of odd behavior, with all of the angles except for just oscillating

around different values. If an aircraft actually behaved in this manner, it would be plummeting

towards the ground.

Moving on to the Longitudinal and Lateral Decoupling Equations, there seems to be a

moderate amount of accuracy here. Thankfully, the mistakes seen in the Euler Force and Moment

Equations seem to be absent here. First, the free response of the longitude were modelled. The

initial pitch of the aircraft was fixed at 5, while , , and were slightly varied. Following the

initial disturbance values, all of the variables damped to zero. The manner of damping was

slightly sinusoidal in the case of , , and , whereas the pitch was decreased to 0

exponentially. Next, the elevator was fixed at 5 degrees and the program was run again.

According to the graphs, the elevator seems to have a great effect on the variables. When it is

fixed at 5 degrees, all of the variables reach the same state regardless of the initial state.

As for the lateral decoupled equations, the initial conditions only seem to increase or

decrease the magnitude of the response. The response behavior remains largely the same over all

four states simulated. While the rudder is maintained at 0 deflection, sideslip, , and all

dampen sinusoidally. There is some small variation to the sinusoidal behavior towards the end of

the test sample where the values decrease very slightly exponentially, with its magnitude

changing in response to the initial conditions. The roll exhibits damping motion closest to

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

exponential overdamping. Once the rudder is deflected at an angle of positive 5 degrees, the roll

and change their steady state values from 0 to negative values, and the exponential decay seen

at the end of each response graph is more evident. As the aileron is deflected 5 degrees, the

system response changes drastically. All of the responses become underdamped exponentially

decaying sinusoidal motion to varying degrees when the sideslip is negative or 0. For the other

states, the sideslip and return to their original behavior. still reaches a steady state that

differs with the initial values as well.

Finally the eigenvalues were calculated with MATLAB for both the longitudinal and

lateral states. When the equations of motions are in state space form, the eigenvalues are

determined from the Matrix A. Comparing these to the values obtained from the approximations,

there seems to be no agreement. Between the two, the values calculated are correct. For the

approximations, the only values used were obtained from the text, so it is unclear where the

source of error is, other than a mistake within the calculations themselves. According Figure 8,

the eigenvalues from the program do match with the results obtained through the graphs.

Considering the decoupled equations, they support the fact that the aircraft in question is

a finished vehicle licensed for use. Using the data from the text yields an aircraft that damps

disturbances to maintain trim conditions, proving that it is indeed statically stable. This is exactly

what one would expect from a commercial airliner, where a smooth, safe ride is desirable. When

the elevator, rudder, and/or aileron are deflected, the change can be seen in the direction and

moments acting on the aircraft. After an initial disturbance, keeping these control factors

displaced results in changing the position of the aircraft, which exhibits the effect that controls

have on the aircraft. Path and orientation can be adjusted depending on outside stimuli with the

alteration of these factors.

Conclusion

The goal of this paper was to ascertain the viability of the Boeing 747 aircraft. First, the

requirements for static stability were considered. Then through the use of the Euler force and

moment equations, along with their simplifications, it was seen if the aircraft would return to

equilibrium. In their original form, efforts to adequately model the behavior of the aircraft

proved largely unsuccessful. Despite this, decoupling the equations and observing the

eigenvalues showed that the aircraft did indeed possess static stability. Moving forward, care

needs to be taken in regards to properly modeling the system. The complexity of flight stability

was grossly underestimated, but this study has proved useful in providing insight into how

aircraft modeling is done.

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

Appendix 1

MATLAB Code Results

Euler Force and Moment Equations

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

17

Aircraft Flight Dynamics

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

Decoupled Lateral Equations, Free Response

u=10, w=10, q=5, theta=5

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

u=5, w=5, q=0, theta=5

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

u=15, w=0, q=5, theta=5

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

u=0, w=5, q=15, theta=5

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Decoupled Longitudinal Equations, Elevator at 5 Degrees

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

u=5, w=5, q=0, theta=5

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

u=15, w=0, q=5, theta=5

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

u=0, w=5, q=15, theta=5

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

Decoupled Lateral Equations, Free Response

sideslip=-10, p= 20, r=10, roll= 5

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

sideslip=15, p= 0, r=5, roll= 10

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sideslip=5, p= 5, r=0, roll= 15

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

sideslip=0, p= 5, r=5, roll= 15

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Decoupled Lateral Equations, Rudder at 5 Degrees

sideslip=-10, p= 20, r=10, roll= 5

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

sideslip=15, p= 0, r=5, roll= 10

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

sideslip=5, p= 5, r=0, roll= 15

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

sideslip=0, p= 5, r=5, roll= 15

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

Decoupled Lateral Equations, Aileron at 5 Degrees

sideslip=-10, p= 20, r=10, roll= 5

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sideslip=15, p= 0, r=5, roll= 10

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Aircraft Flight Dynamics

sideslip=5, p= 5, r=0, roll= 15

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sideslip=0, p= 5, r=5, roll= 15

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Eigenvalue Approximations

Longitudinal Eigenvalues

Response

-0.3465

-0.1720

-0.1720

Frequency

-1.5420

0.4861

0.1460

-0.1460

Lateral Eigenvalues

Response

1.3825

1.3825

-0.1381

Damped 0 0.6092

Frequency

2.9789

-2.9789

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Appendix 2

Constants of the Aircraft

Flight coefficients and Parameters of the Boeing 747 Aircraft

(Coefficients are given in terms of radians)

Longitudinal

M=0.25 at sea level M=0.90 at 40,000 ft.

11.1 0.5

0.102 0.042

5.70 5.5

0.66 0.47

-1.26 -1.6

6.7 0.006

Q*S*Cyb/m -3.2 -9.0

5.4 6.58

-20.8 -25.0

-0.81 0.2

0.0 0.25

0.27 -0.10

0.338 0.3

-1.34 -1.2

Lateral

M=0.25 at sea level M=0.90 at 40,000 ft.

-0.96 -0.85

-0.221 -0.10

0.150 0.20

-0.45 -0.30

-0.121 0.20

0.101 0.20

-0.30 -0.325

0.0461 0.014

0.0064 0.003

0.175 0.075

0.007 0.005

-0.109 -0.09

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Center of Gravity and Mass Characteristics

Weight:

Center of Gravity (CG) at 25% Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC)

Rolling Moment of Inertia:

Pitching Moment of Inertia:

Yawing Moment of Inertia:

Product of Inertia about xz-axis:

Reference Geometry

Chord Length: ft

Wing Planform Area (Reference Area):

Wing Span:

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Appendix 2

MATLAB Code

Static Stability Proofs

%Constants for Mach 0.25, sea level% 'alpha \nis %.2f and the slope of the Cm vs. CL

V_inf1=281.332; %v_infinity in fps curve is %.2f'],...

rho1=0.002377; %density of air in slug/ft^3 Cmalpha2, Cm_CL2)

Q1=0.5*rho1*V_inf1^2; %dynamic pressure

V_inf2=281.332; %v_infinity in fps

rho2=0.000587; %density of air in slug/ft^3 %Mach 0.25 at sea level%

Q2=0.5*rho2*V_inf2^2; %dynamic pressure CLdel_e1=0.338; %slope of coefficicent of lift vs.

elevator deflection

%Aircraft Dimensions Cmdel_e1=-1.34; %slope of pitching coefficient vs.

c=27.31; %chord length in ft elevator deflection

S=5500; %reference area (wing planeform area) in Cm01=0; %pitching coefficient at zero angle of

ft^2 attack

b=195.68; %wing span in ft %Mach 0.90 at 40,000%

CLdel_e2=0.3; %slope of coefficicent of lift vs.

elevator deflection

%%%Longitudinal Static Stability and Control%%% Cmdel_e2=-1.2; %slope of pitching coefficient vs.

elevator deflection

%%Static Stability%% Cm02=0; %pitching coefficient at zero angle of

attack

%Mach 0.25 at sea level%

Cmalpha1=-1.26; %slope of the pitching moment alpha=(0:0.1:30)*pi/180;

coeffecient vs. angle of delta_e=0;

%attack curve

%Mach 0.25 at sea level%

CLalpha1=5.70; %slope of the coefficient of lift CL1=CLalpha1*alpha+CLdel_e1*delta_e;

Cm_CL1=Cmalpha1/CLalpha1; %coefficient of lift

fprintf(['\nAt Mach = 0.25 and an altitude of sea

level,the slope of'... Cm1=Cm01+Cmalpha1*alpha+Cmdel_e1*delta_e;

' Cm vs. \nalpha is %.2f and the slope of the Cm %pitch coefficient

vs. CL'...

' curve is %.2f'],Cmalpha1, Cm_CL1) %Mach 0.90 at 40,000%

CL2=CLalpha2*alpha+CLdel_e2*delta_e;

%Mach 0.90 at 40,000 ft%

Cmalpha2=-1.60; %slope of the pitching moment Cm2=Cm02+Cmalpha2*alpha+Cmdel_e2*delta_e;

coeffecient vs. angle of

%attack curve.

subplot(2,2,1)

CLalpha2=5.50; %slope of the coefficient of lift plot (alpha,CL1, alpha, CL2)

Cm_CL2=Cmalpha2/CLalpha2; subplot(2,2,2)

fprintf(['\n\nAt Mach = 0.90 and 40,000 ft.,the slope plot (alpha,Cm1, alpha, Cm2)

of Cm vs.'... hold on

48

Aircraft Flight Dynamics

subplot(2,1,1)

plot(beta,Cn1,beta,Cn2)

alpha=0; %rudder deflection comparison%

delta_e=(0:0.1:30)*pi/180; beta=0;

delta_r=0:0.1:30;

%Mach 0.25 at sea level%

CL1=CLalpha1*alpha+CLdel_e1*delta_e; Cn1=beta*Cnbeta1+delta_r*Cndel_r1;

Cn2=beta*Cnbeta2+delta_r*Cndel_r2;

Cm1=Cm01+Cmalpha1*alpha+Cmdel_e1*delta_e; subplot(2,1,2)

plot(delta_r,Cn1,delta_r,Cn2)

%Mach 0.90 at 40,000%

CL2=CLalpha2*alpha+CLdel_e2*delta_e;

%%Roll Control%%

Cm2=Cm02+Cmalpha2*alpha+Cmdel_e2*delta_e;

%sideslip angle%

subplot(2,2,3) beta=0:0.1:30;

plot (delta_e,CL1, delta_e, CL2) delta_a=0; %aileron deflection angle

subplot(2,2,4)

plot (delta_e,Cm1, delta_e, Cm2) %Mach 0.25 at sea level%

hold off Clbeta1=-0.221; %slope of roll coefficient vs. the

sideslip angle

Cldel_a1=0.0461;

Clbeta2=-0.10; %slope of roll coefficient vs. the

sideslip angle

%%Directional Stability and Control%%

Cldel_a2=0.014;

Cl1=beta*Clbeta1+delta_a*Cldel_a1;

beta=0:0.1:30; %sideslip angle

Cl2=beta*Clbeta2+delta_a*Cldel_a2;

delta_r=0; %rudder deflection angle

subplot(2,1,1)

%Mach 0.25 at sea level%

plot(beta, Cl1, beta, Cl2)

Cnbeta1=0.150; %slope of yaw coefficient vs. the

hold on

sideslip angle

%Mach 0.90 at 40,000%

Cnbeta2=0.20; %slope of yaw coefficient vs. the %aileron deflection angle%

sideslip angle beta=0;

delta_a=0:0.1:30; %aileron deflection angle

%Mach 0.25 at sea level%

Cndel_r1=-0.109; %slope of yaw coefficient vs. the %Mach 0.25 at sea level%

rudder deflection angle Cldel_a1=0.0461; %slope of roll coefficient vs.

%Mach 0.90 at 40,000% aileron deflection angle

Cndel_r2=-0.09; %slope of yaw coefficient vs. the %Mach 0.90 at 40,000%

rudder deflection angle Cldel_a2=0.014; %slope of roll coefficient vs. aileron

deflection angle

Cn1=beta*Cnbeta1+delta_r*Cndel_r1;

Cn2=beta*Cnbeta2+delta_r*Cndel_r2; Cl1=beta*Clbeta1+delta_a*Cldel_a1;

Cl2=beta*Clbeta2+delta_a*Cldel_a2;

49

Aircraft Flight Dynamics

plot(delta_a, Cl1, delta_a, Cl2)

subplot(2,1,2) hold off

FUNCTION DESCRIBING EQUATIONS

function dxdt = RBEM(t,x)

%Aircraft Constants

c = 27.31;

S = 5500;

b = 195.68;

g = 32.2;

m=636600/32.2;

Ixx = 18.2*10^6;

Iyy = 33.1*10^6;

Izz = 49.7*10^6;

Ixz = 0.97*10^6;

%Coefficients

Cm_alp = -1.26;

Cm_de = -1.34;

Cm_q = -20.8;

Cl_bet = -0.221;

Cl_dr = 0.007;

Cl_da = 0.0064;

Cl_p = -0.45;

Cl_r = 0.101;

Cn_bet = 0.150;

Cn_dr = -0.109;

Cn_da = 0.0064;

Cn_p = -0.121;

Cn_r = -0.30;

%Atmospheric Conditions

rho=0.002377; %density of air in slug/ft^3

%Specified Initial Conditions

d_ele = 1*pi/180;

d_ail = 3*pi/180;

d_rud = 5*pi/180;

alpha = 0*pi/180;

beta = 0*pi/180;

v0=281.332; %v_0 in fps

Q=0.5*rho*v0^2; %dynamic pressure

p = 0;

q = 0;

r = 0;

X = 1000;

Y = 0;

Z = 0;

L = (Cl_bet*beta + Cl_dr*d_rud + Cl_da*d_ail + (Cl_p*Q+Cl_r*Q)*b/(2*v0))*0.5*rho*S*v0^2;

M = (Cm_alp*alpha + Cm_de*d_ele + Cm_q*Q*c/(2*v0))*0.5*rho*S*v0^2;

N = (Cn_bet*beta + Cn_dr*d_rud + Cn_da*d_ail +(Cn_p*Q+Cn_r*Q)*b/(2*v0))*0.5*rho*S*v0^2;

dxdt = zeros(12,1);

dxdt(1) = X/m - g*sin(x(11))+ x(9)*x(2) - x(8)*x(3); %udot

50

Aircraft Flight Dynamics

dxdt(2) = Y/m + g*sin(x(10))*cos(x(11)) - x(9)*x(1) + x(7)*x(2); %vdot

dxdt(3) = Z/m + g*cos(x(10))*cos(x(11)) + x(8)*x(1) - x(7)*x(2); %wdot

dxdt(4) = (cos(x(11))*cos(x(12)))*x(1) + (-cos(x(10))*sin(x(12)) + sin(x(10))*sin(x(11))*cos(x(12)))*x(2) +

(sin(x(10))*sin(x(12)) + cos(x(10))*sin(x(11))*cos(x(12)))*x(3); %xdot

dxdt(5) = (cos(x(11))*cos(x(12)))*x(1) + (cos(x(10))*sin(x(12)) + sin(x(10))*sin(x(11))*cos(x(12)))*x(2) +(-

sin(x(10))*sin(x(12)) + cos(x(10))*sin(x(11))*cos(x(12)))*x(3); %ydot

dxdt(6) = (-sin(x(11)))*x(1) + (sin(x(10))*cos(x(11)))*x(2) + (cos(x(10))*cos(x(11)))*x(3); %zdot

dxdt(7) = (Izz*L + Ixz*N - (Ixz*(Iyy - Ixx - Izz)*x(7) + (Ixz^2 + Izz*(Izz - Iyy))*x(9))*x(8))/ (Ixx*Izz - Ixz^2); %pdot

dxdt(8) = (M - (Ixx - Izz)*x(7)*x(9) - Ixz*(x(7)^2-x(9)^2))/Iyy; %qdot

dxdt(9) = (Ixz*L + Ixx*N - (Ixz*(Iyy - Ixx - Izz)*x(9) + (Ixz^2 + Ixx*(Ixx - Iyy))*x(7))*x(8))/(Ixx*Izz - Ixz^2); %rdot

dxdt(10) = x(7) + (x(8)*sin(x(10)) + x(9)*cos(x(10)))*tan(x(11)); %phidot

dxdt(11) = x(8)*cos(x(10)) - x(9)*sin(x(10)); %thetadot

dxdt(12) = (x(8)*sin(x(10)) + x(9)*cos(x(10)))*sec(x(11)); %psidot

End

SOLVER AS WELL AS PLOTTING

%initial values of the derivative plot(tspan,X(:,6))

X0=[281.332 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ]; xlabel('time(sec)')

%time span ylabel('z')

tspan= linspace(0,100,101); grid on

figure

odefun = @RBEM; plot(tspan,X(:,7))

[t,X] = ode45(odefun,tspan,X0); xlabel('time(sec)')

ylabel('p')

grid on

figure

figure

plot(tspan,X(:,1))

plot(tspan,X(:,8))

xlabel('time(sec)')

xlabel('time(sec)')

ylabel('u')

ylabel('q')

grid on

grid on

figure

figure

plot(tspan,X(:,2))

plot(tspan,X(:,9))

xlabel('time(sec)')

xlabel('time(sec)')

ylabel('v')

ylabel('r')

grid on

grid on

figure

figure

plot(tspan,X(:,3))

plot(tspan,X(:,10))

xlabel('time(sec)')

xlabel('time(sec)')

ylabel('w')

ylabel('phi')

grid on

grid on

figure

figure

plot(tspan,X(:,4))

plot(tspan,X(:,11))

xlabel('time(sec)')

xlabel('time(sec)')

ylabel('x')

ylabel('theta')

grid on

grid on

figure

figure

plot(tspan,X(:,5))

plot(tspan,X(:,12))

xlabel('time(sec)')

xlabel('time(sec)')

ylabel('y')

ylabel('psi')

grid on

grid on

figure

FUNCTION DESCRIBING EQUATIONS

function dX = LzedLong(t,X) Iyy = 33.1*10^6;

51

Aircraft Flight Dynamics

c = 27.31; Cmde=-1.34;

S = 5500;

m=636600/32.2;

g=32.2;

Xu= -(CDu+2*CD0)*Q*S/(m*u0);

rho=0.002377;

Xw= -(CDa-CL0)*Q*S/(m*u0);

u0=281.332;

Zu= -(CLu+2*CL0)*Q*S/(m*u0);

Q=0.5*rho*u0^2;

Zw= -(CLa-CD0)*Q*S/(m*u0);

Mu= Cmu*(Q*S*c)/(u0*Iyy);

CDu=0; Mw= Cma*(Q*S*c)/(u0*Iyy);

CD0=0.102; Mq= Cmq*(Q*S*c^2)/(2*u0*Iyy);

CDa=0.66; Mwd= Cmad*(Q*S*c^2)/(2*u0^2*Iyy);

CLu=0;

CL0=11.1;

A=[Xu Xw 0 -g;Zu Zw u0 0;(Mu+Mwd*Zu)

CLa=5.70;

(Mw+Mwd*Zw) Mq+Mwd*u0 0;0 0 1 0];

Cmu=0;

B=[0 0; 0 0; (Cmde*(Q*S*c))/Iyy 0; 0 0];

Cma=-1.26;

N=[5;0];

Cmad=-3.2;

dX=A*X+B*N;

Cmq=-20.8;

end

%u=10, w= 10, q=5, pitch=5 %u=15, w= 0, q=5, pitch=5

i=[10 10 5 5]; i=[15 0 5 5];

Y=[1 1 pi/180 pi/180]; Y=[1 1 pi/180 pi/180];

X0=i.*Y; X0=i.*Y;

t0=0; [ts,X] = ode45(@LzedLong,tspan,X0);

tf=50; figure

N=101; plot(ts,X(:,1))

tspan=linspace(t0,tf,N); xlabel('time(sec)')

[ts,X] = ode45(@LzedLong,tspan,X0); ylabel('u')

grid on

figure figure

plot(ts,X(:,1)) plot(ts,X(:,2))

xlabel('time(sec)') xlabel('time(sec)')

ylabel('u') ylabel('w')

grid on grid on

figure figure

plot(ts,X(:,2)) plot(ts,X(:,3))

xlabel('time(sec)') xlabel('time(sec)')

ylabel('w') ylabel('q')

grid on grid on

figure figure

plot(ts,X(:,3)) plot(ts,X(:,4))

xlabel('time(sec)') xlabel('time(sec)')

ylabel('q') ylabel('pitch')

grid on grid on

figure

plot(ts,X(:,4)) %u=5, w= 5, q=0, pitch=5

xlabel('time(sec)') i=[5 5 0 5];

ylabel('pitch') Y=[1 1 pi/180 pi/180];

grid on X0=i.*Y;

[ts,X] = ode45(@LzedLong,tspan,X0);

52

Aircraft Flight Dynamics

figure Y=[1 1 pi/180 pi/180];

plot(ts,X(:,1)) X0=i.*Y;

xlabel('time(sec)') [ts,X] = ode45(@LzedLong,tspan,X0);

ylabel('u') figure

grid on plot(ts,X(:,1))

figure xlabel('time(sec)')

plot(ts,X(:,2)) ylabel('u')

xlabel('time(sec)') grid on

ylabel('w') figure

grid on plot(ts,X(:,2))

figure xlabel('time(sec)')

plot(ts,X(:,3)) ylabel('w')

xlabel('time(sec)') grid on

ylabel('q') figure

grid on plot(ts,X(:,3))

figure xlabel('time(sec)')

plot(ts,X(:,4)) ylabel('q')

xlabel('time(sec)') grid on

ylabel('pitch') figure

grid on plot(ts,X(:,4))

xlabel('time(sec)')

%u=0, w= 5, q=15, pitch=5 ylabel('pitch')

i=[0 5 15 5]; grid on

FUNCTION DESCRIBING EQUATIONS

function dX = LzedLat(t,X) Clda=0.0461;

%pitch=5, rudder Cldr=0.007;

Izz = 49.7*10^6; Cnda=0.0064;

Ixx = 18.2*10^6; Cndr=-0.109;

Iyy = 33.1*10^6;

c = 27.31; Yb=Q*S*Cyb/m;

S = 5500; Yp=Q*S*b*Cyp/(2*m*u0);

b = 195.68; Yr=Q*S*b*Cyr/(2*m*u0);

m=636600/32.2; Yv=0;

g=32.2; Lb=Q*S*b*Clb/Ixx;

rho=0.002377; Lp=Q*S*b^2*Clp/(2*Ixx*u0);

u0=281.332; Lr=Q*S*b^2*Clr/(2*Ixx*u0);

Q=0.5*rho*u0^2; Nb=Q*S*b*Cnb/Iyy;

theta0=5; Np=Q*S*b^2*Cnp/(2*Izz*u0);

Nr=Q*S*b^2*Cnr/(2*Izz*u0);

Cyb=-0.96;

Cyp= 0; Ydr=Q*S*Cydr/m;

Cyr= 0; Lda=Q*S*b*Clda/Ixx;

Clb=-0.221; Ldr=Q*S*b*Cldr/Ixx;

Clp=-0.45; Nda=Q*S*b*Cnda/Izz;

Clr= 0.101; Ndr=Q*S*b*Cndr/Izz;

Cnb= 0.150;

Cnp=-0.121;

A=[Yb/u0 Yp/u0 -(1-Yr/u0) g*cos(theta0)/u0; Lb Lp Lr 0;

Cnr=-0.30;

Nb Np Nr 0; 0 1 0 0];

B=[0 Ydr/u0; Lda Ldr; Nda Ndr; 0 0];

Cydr=0.175; N=[0;0];

53

Aircraft Flight Dynamics

dX=A*X+B*N; end

i=[-10 20 10 5]; figure

Y=[pi/180 pi/180 pi/180 pi/180]; plot(ts,X(:,4))

X0=i.*Y; xlabel('time(sec)')

t0=0; ylabel('roll')

tf=250; grid on

N=251;

tspan=linspace(t0,tf,N); i=[5 5 0 15];

[ts,X] = ode45(@LzedLat,tspan,X0); Y=[1 1 pi/180 pi/180];

X0=i.*Y;

figure [ts,X] = ode45(@LzedLat,tspan,X0);

plot(ts,X(:,1)) figure

xlabel('time(sec)') plot(ts,X(:,1))

ylabel('sideslip') xlabel('time(sec)')

grid on ylabel('sideslip')

figure grid on

plot(ts,X(:,2)) figure

xlabel('time(sec)') plot(ts,X(:,2))

ylabel('p') xlabel('time(sec)')

grid on ylabel('p')

figure grid on

plot(ts,X(:,3)) figure

xlabel('time(sec)') plot(ts,X(:,3))

ylabel('r') xlabel('time(sec)')

grid on ylabel('r')

figure grid on

plot(ts,X(:,4)) figure

xlabel('time(sec)') plot(ts,X(:,4))

ylabel('roll') xlabel('time(sec)')

grid on ylabel('roll')

grid on

i=[15 0 5 10];

Y=[1 1 pi/180 pi/180]; i=[0 5 15 15];

X0=i.*Y; Y=[1 1 pi/180 pi/180];

X0=i.*Y;

[ts,X] = ode45(@LzedLat,tspan,X0); [ts,X] = ode45(@LzedLat,tspan,X0);

figure figure

plot(ts,X(:,1)) plot(ts,X(:,1))

xlabel('time(sec)') xlabel('time(sec)')

ylabel('sideslip') ylabel('sideslip')

grid on grid on

figure figure

plot(ts,X(:,2)) plot(ts,X(:,2))

xlabel('time(sec)') xlabel('time(sec)')

ylabel('p') ylabel('p')

grid on grid on

figure figure

plot(ts,X(:,3)) plot(ts,X(:,3))

xlabel('time(sec)') xlabel('time(sec)')

ylabel('r') ylabel('r')

grid on grid on

54

Aircraft Flight Dynamics

figure ylabel('roll')

plot(ts,X(:,4)) grid on

xlabel('time(sec)')

Eigenvalues and Damping of Decoupled Equations

LONGITUDINAL

Iyy = 33.1*10^6; Mwd= Cmad*(Q*S*c^2)/(2*u0^2*Iyy);

c = 27.31;

S = 5500; Za=0;

m=636600/32.2; Ma=u0*Mw;

g=32.2; Mad=u0*Mwd;

rho=0.002377;

u0=281.332;

Q=0.5*rho*u0^2;

A=[Xu Xw 0 -g;Zu Zw u0 0;(Mu+Mwd*Zu)

(Mw+Mwd*Zw) Mq+Mwd*u0 0;0 0 1 0];

CDu=0;

[e,v]=eig(A);

CD0=0.102;

eigen=diag(v)

CDa=0.66;

DampResp=real(eigen)

CLu=0;

DampFreq=imag(eigen)

CL0=11.1;

Period=2*pi./DampFreq

CLa=5.70;

t_hd=0.693./abs(DampResp)

Cmu=0;

Ncyc=0.11*abs(DampFreq)./abs(DampResp)

Cma=-1.26;

Cmad=-3.2;

Cmq=-20.8; fprintf('Approximations\nLong Period (phugoid)\n')

NatFreqL=sqrt(-Zu*g/u0);

DampRatioL=-Xu/(2*NatFreqL);

DampRespL=-DampRatioL*NatFreqL

Xu= -(CDu+2*CD0)*Q*S/(m*u0); DampFreqL=NatFreqL*sqrt(1-DampRatioL^2)

Xw= -(CDa-CL0)*Q*S/(m*u0);

Zu= -(CLu+2*CL0)*Q*S/(m*u0);

fprintf('Approximations\nShort Period\n')

Zw= -(CLa-CD0)*Q*S/(m*u0);

NatFreqS=sqrt(Za*Mq/u0-Ma);

Mu= Cmu*(Q*S*c)/(u0*Iyy);

DampRatioS=-(Mq+Mad+Za/u0)/(2*NatFreqS);

Mw= Cma*(Q*S*c)/(u0*Iyy);

DampRespS=-DampRatioS*NatFreqS

Mq= Cmq*(Q*S*c^2)/(2*u0*Iyy);

DampFreqS=NatFreqS*sqrt(1-DampRatioS^2)

LATERAL

Izz = 49.7*10^6; Cyp= 0;

Ixx = 18.2*10^6; Cyr= 0.175;

Iyy = 33.1*10^6; Clb=-0.221;

c = 27.31; Clp=-0.45;

S = 5500; Clr= 0.101;

b = 195.68; Cnb= 0.150;

m=636600/32.2; Cnp=-0.121;

g=32.2; Cnr=-0.30;

rho=0.002377;

u0=281.332; Cydr=0.175;

Q=0.5*rho*u0^2; Clda=0.0461;

theta0=0; Cldr=0.007;

Cnda=0.0064;

Cyb=-0.96; Cndr=-0.109;

55

Aircraft Flight Dynamics

eigen=diag(v)

Yb=Q*S*Cyb/m; DampResp=real(eigen)

Yp=Q*S*b*Cyp/(2*m*u0); DampFreq=imag(eigen)

Yr=Q*S*b*Cyr/(2*m*u0); Period=2*pi./DampFreq

Yv=0; t_hd=0.693./abs(DampResp)

Lb=Q*S*b*Clb/Ixx; Ncyc=0.11*abs(DampFreq)./abs(DampResp)

Lp=Q*S*b^2*Clp/(2*Ixx*u0);

Lr=Q*S*b^2*Clr/(2*Ixx*u0); %Spiral and Roll Modes

Nb=Q*S*b*Cnb/Iyy; Lspiral=(Lb*Nr-Lr*Nb)/Lb

Np=Q*S*b^2*Cnp/(2*Izz*u0);

Nr=Q*S*b^2*Cnr/(2*Izz*u0); Lroll=Lp

Lda=Q*S*b*Clda/Ixx; DampRespE=real(eigen(2))

Ldr=Q*S*b*Cldr/Ixx; DampFreqE=imag(eigen(2))

Nda=Q*S*b*Cnda/Izz;

Ndr=Q*S*b*Cndr/Izz;

NatFreqDR=sqrt((Yb*Nr-Nb*Yr+u0*Nb)/u0);

DampRatioDR=-(1/(2*NatFreqDR))*((Yb+u0*Nr)/u0);

A=[Yv/u0 Yp/u0 -(1-Yr/u0) g*cos(theta0); Lb Lp Lr 0; Nb DampRespDR=-NatFreqDR*DampRatioDR

Np Nr 0; 0 1 0 0]; DampFreqDR=NatFreqDR*sqrt(1-DampRatioDR)

[e,v]=eig(A);

56

Aircraft Flight Dynamics

References

1

Boeing. (2016). Historical Snapshot. Retrieved from

http://www.boeing.com/history/products/707.page

2

Clarke, Chris. (2015, September 1). 30 Most Important Airplanes of All Time. Retrieved from

http://www.popularmechanics.com/flight/g2142/the-30-most-important-airplanes-of-all-time/

3

Boeing. (2016). Historical Snapshot. Retrieved from

http://www.boeing.com/history/products/747.page

4

Kull, Kris. (2016, October 22). The Legendary Men Behind the Boeing 747. Retrieved from

http://www.airlinereporter.com/2014/10/legendary-men-behind-historic-boeing-747/

5

AviationExplorer. (2016). Boeing 747 Aircraft Airliner Facts, Dates, Pictures,

and History for all Boeing 747 Variants. Retrieved from

http://www.aviationexplorer.com/747_facts.htm

6

van Hitte, Ed. (2016). The Unexpected Success of the Boeing 747. Retrieved from

https://worksthatwork.com/2/boeing-747

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(2016). Air Force One. Retrieved from https://www.whitehouse.gov/1600/air-force-one

8

Gibbs, Yvonne. (2014, September 24) Nasa Armstrong Fact Sheet: Shuttle Carrier Aircraft

https://www.nasa.gov/centers/armstrong/news/FactSheets/FS-013-DFRC.html

9

Lednicer, David. (2010, September 15). The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage http://m-

selig.ae.illinois.edu/ads/aircraft.html

10

Caughy, David. (2011). Introduction to Aircraft Stability and Control

Course Notes for M&AE 5070. https://courses.cit.cornell.edu/mae5070/Caughey_2011_04.pdf

11

Arninc. (2015, April 9). Aviation Reference Material.Retrieved from

http://arninc.blogspot.com/search/label/Aircraft?updated-max=2015-04-09T08:30:00-

07:00&max-results=20&start=5&by-date=false

12

Stanford. Nondimensionaliztion. Retrieve from

http://adg.stanford.edu/aa208/dynamics/nondimen.html

13

The Engineering Toolbox. The U.S. Standard Atmosphere. Retrieved from

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/standard-atmosphere-d_604.html

14

Saedraey, Mohammad. (2012, September). Aircraft Design: A Systems Engineering Approach.

Retrieved from http://faculty.dwc.edu/sadraey/Elevator%20Design.pdf

15

Aerostudents. Deriving the Equations of Motion. Retrieved from

http://aerostudents.com/files/flightDynamics/derivingTheEquationsOfMotion.pdf

16

Nelson, Robert. (1998). Flight Stability and Automatic Control. New York City, New York.

:McGraw-Hill

17

Bai, Xiaoli. (2016, September). Aircraft Flight Dynamics Lectures 1-19. [pdf]

http://sakai.rutgers.edu.portal

18

Mathworks (2016). ODE Solver. Retrieved from

https://www.mathworks.com/help/matlab/math/choose-an-ode-solver.html

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