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1. The drag characteristics of a torpedo are to be studied in a water tunnel using a 1:5 scale
model. The tunnel operates with freshwater at 20 0C, whereas the prototype torpedo is to
be used in seawater at 15.6 0C. To correctly simulate the behavior of the prototype
moving with a velocity of 30 m/s, what velocity is required in the water tunnel?

2. The drag on a 2-m-diameter satellite dish due to an 80-km/hr wind is to be determined

through a wind tunnel test using a geometrically similar 0.4-m-diameter model dish.
Assume standard air for both model and prototype. (a) At what air speed should the
model test be run? (b)With all similarity conditions satisfied, the measured drag on the
model was determined to be 170 N. What is the predicted drag on the prototype dish?

3. An incompressible fluid oscillates harmonically (V=V0 sin t, where V is the velocity)

with a frequency of 10/rad s in a 4-in.-diameter pipe. A scale model is to be used to
determine the pressure difference per unit length, pl (at any instant) along the pipe.
Assume that:

where D is the pipe diameter, the frequency, t the time, the fluid viscosity, and the
fluid density. (a) Determine the similarity requirements for the model and the prediction
equation for pl. (b) If the same fluid is used in the model and the prototype, at what
frequency should the model operate?

4. The drag characteristics of an airplane are to be determined by model tests in a wind

tunnel operated at an absolute pressure of 1300 kPa. If the prototype is to cruise in
standard air at 385 km/hr, and the corresponding speed of the model is not to differ by
more than 20% from this (so that compressibility effects may be ignored), what range of
length scales may be used if Reynolds number similarity is to be maintained? Assume the
viscosity of air is unaffected by pressure, and the temperature of air in the tunnel is equal
to the temperature of the air in which the airplane will fly.

5. A prototype automobile is designed to travel at 65 km/hr. A model of this design is tested

in a wind tunnel with identical standard sea-level air properties at a 1:5 scale. The
measured model drag is 400 N, enforcing dynamic similarity. Determine (a) the drag
force on the prototype and (b) the power required to overcome this drag.

6. Flow patterns that develop as winds blow past a vehicle, such as a train, are often studied
in low-speed environmental (meteorological) wind tunnels. Typically, the air velocities in
these tunnels are in the range of 0.1 m/s to 30 m/s. Consider a cross wind blowing past a
train locomotive. Assume that the local wind velocity, V, is a function of the approaching
wind velocity (at some distance from the locomotive), U, the locomotive length, l, height,
h, and width, b, the air density, , and the air viscosity, . (a) Establish the similarity
requirements and prediction equation for a model to be used in the wind tunnel to study
the air velocity, V, around the locomotive. (b) If the model is to be used for cross winds
gusting to U = 25 m/s, explain why it is not practical to maintain Reynolds number
similarity for a typical length scale 1:50.