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TORONTO.

THE ENGLISH REGALIA


THE ENGLISH
REGALIA
BY CYRIL DAVENPORT

LONDON
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER
AND COMPANY, LIMITED
1897
This edition consists of Five hundred copies.
V

THE ENGLISH
REGALIA
BY CYRIL DAVENPORT
F.S.A.

LONDON
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER
AND COMPANY, LIMITED
2. 1897

cv
G7D3

Edinburgh : T. and A, CONSTABLE, Printers to Her Majesty


TO HER
MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY

VICTORIA
OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND

QJLJ EE N
EMPRESS OF INDIA
THIS BOOK IS BY SPECIAL PERMISSION

DEDICATED
BY HER LOYAL AND FAITHFUL
SUBJECT AND SERVANT
THE AUTHOR

CORONATION DAY

JUNE 28TH, 1897


PREFACE
N the summer of was allowed, by Her
1896 I

Majesty's gracious permission, to examine and


photograph the Regalia out of their cases, and
without this privilege it would have been im-
possible to obtain plates of the excellence and
reliability of those illustrating this work, as the
light in the Jewel House is most unfavourable.
I am also much indebted to the two
Keepers of
i the Regalia who have been the victims of my search after knowledge.
General Sir Michael A. S. Biddulph, G.C.B., himself an admirable artist,
and his successor, Lieut.-General Sir Frederick D. Middleton, K.C.M.G.,
C.B., have both most patiently and courteously given me every facility
in their
power, as well for my photographs as for my sketches,
and indeed I believe they have both taken a personal interest in my
researches into the history and the details of the decoration of the
treasures intrusted to their care.
On the occasion of seeing the Regalia out of their cases I
my
obtained permission to take with me Mr. William Griggs, as I mistrusted
my own powers as a photographer, and was anxious to reap the full
advantage of the rare occasion and get the best negatives possible. Mr.
Griggs succeeded better than I had expected but nevertheless much
;

artistic work has been necessary in addition, in order to produce the

I feel that I owe Mr.


plates in the present book. Griggs many thanks
for the patience with which he has listened to my various suggestions,
and for the skill with which he has carried them out and I trust that ;

our united labours may have produced illustrations of the Regalia as


they now are which may some day have an historic value beyond the
artistic one which alone can be claimed for them to-day.

The small illustrations in the text are made from drawings of my


own, and they will, I hope, make the subject-matter clearer than it

Vll
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
otherwise would be ;
more especially in the inquiry into the growth of the
form of the crown I think they are necessary for the clear understanding
of the case.
With Majesty's vestments, I am indebted to Mr.
regard to Her
Arnold Royle, C.B., the Keeper of the Robes, for his kind permission
to examine them and make pictorial notes.
I have consulted all the books concerning the Regalia that I could

find, but I do not profess in any way to have gone into the large question
of the .origin and history of our coronation ceremonies that inquiry is

already in very good hands. I have examined carefully


only such
books as deal with the details of the insignia of Royalty in England.
Many times I have thought I had found new forms of early crowns in
old manuscripts, but unfortunately on a little further examination they
have turned out to be only imaginations of the mediaeval artist.
The books that I have found of most value, and which I have
freely made use of, are

The Liber Regalis, at Westminster.


Rymer's Foedera.
Sir Edward Walker's The Preparations for His Maiestie's Coronation at
Westminster, the z^rd of Aprill 1661. MS.

John Ogilvy. The Entertainment of His Most Excellent Majestie Charles II.,
London, 1662.
etc.

Francis Sandford. The History of the Coronation of the Most High Monarch
James In the Savoy, 1687.
//., etc.
The Ceremonial of the Coronation of His Most Sacred Majesty King George
the Fourth. [By Sir George Nayler, Garter King of Arms.] West-
minster, 1823.
William Jones. Crowns and Coronations. London, 1883.
William Chaffers. Gilda Aurifabrorum, a History of English Goldsmiths,
etc. London, 1883.
J. Wickham Legg. The Sacring of the English Kings, etc. London, 1894.

My sketches of details from the Great Seals I have generally taken


from the Seals themselves have checked my own observations
;
but I

by reference to the admirable book on the Great Seals of England by


Alfred B. Wyon, completed by Allan
Wyon. London, 1887.
The drawings from the coins are in many cases from the coins
Vlll
PREFACE
themselves ;
but I have in this point found much assistance from Rogers
Ruding's Annals of the Coinage of Britain, etc. London, 1819.
I also
gratefully acknowledge the kindness of Lord Amherst of
Hackney, who readily allowed me to examine and sketch the curious
settings of old English state crowns which now belong to him.

CYRIL DAVENPORT.

IX
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface ......
......
Historical Introduction
PAGE

vii

Orbs .......
Vestments

.......
Sceptres
. . . . .
14

17

19

The Ampulla .......


Crowns

.......
. . . . . . . 21

28

The Spoon

Queen
St.
.....
......
Elizabeth's Salt-Cellar

Edward's Crown
30

32

34

....
The Royal Sceptre with the Cross

.......
The Queen's Sceptre with the Cross
35
36
The Larger Orb
The .....
Sceptre with the Dove
37

38

.......41
The Queen's Sceptre with
The Smaller Orb
St. Edward's Staff
the Dove

.
39

40

Bracelets . ......
The Queen's Ivory Rod

....
Queen Mary of Modena's Circlet
. . . . .
41

42

44

Queen Mary of Modena's Crown . .


45
xi
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE

The
Swords

Spurs
......
Prince of Wales's Coronet

......
46

47

48

Queen Victoria's State Crown .


50

....
The Mace, Banqueting

.....
The Coronation Book
The Koh-i-noor
Plate, etc. 52

55

57
St. Edward's Chair 60

Index 63

Xll
LIST OF COLOURED PLATES
DESCRIPTION. TO FACE PAGE

/ i. The Ampulla 28

("The Coronation Spoon


/ I
30
[Queen Elizabeth's Salt-Cellar
.,3. St. Edward's Crown 34

Royal Sceptre with the Cross


The Larger Orb
The Queen's Sceptre with the Cross
{The
....
[The Sceptre with the Dove .

< 5-1 The Smaller Orb


[The Queen's Sceptre with the Dove

[The Queen's Ivory


Rod
6.JThe Bracelets .
42
(St. Edward's Staff

7. The Circlet of Queen Mary of Modena 44


y 8. The State Crown of Queen Mary of Modena 45

9. The Coronet of the Prince of Wales .


46
Sword of State
St. George's Spurs 48
'

The Sword
(The
'
Curtana .

11. Queen Victoria's State Crown 50


12. Head of Mace of Charles n. 52

Kill
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
>HERE
are many authorities for the order of the
coronations in England, to be found at the British
Museum, in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, and
in the muniment-room at Westminster
Abbey,
and in all material points they resemble each
other very closely. From the time of yEthelred IL,
in the tenth century, down to the latest coronation,
the leading features have been the anointing,
the vesting, the crowning, and the presentation
of the sceptre and it is remarkable also that in most of these
;

ceremonials there is mention of a second or state crown. The


most concise and complete account of the ceremony of coronation
is, I think, to be found in a little vellum manuscript now pre-
served in the muniment-room at Westminster Abbey, and known as
the Liber Regalis. The order given in this book is supposed to
have been used at the coronation of Richard n., although it is pro-
bably a compilation from an earlier manuscript, and appears to have
been written about 1350. The order generally, as given in the Liber
Regalis, is, after certain preliminary formalities
The Anointing.
Then after much delay and careful ablutions, which were very
elaborate and tedious, came the vesting with the royal garments
1. The Colobium Sindonis,
always a simple linen garment.
2. The Tunicle or Dalmatic, described Tunica talaris cum
'
as
ymaginibus, cum caligis, sandariis et calcaribus,' i.e.

3. Shoes, buskins and spurs. Then comes


4. The Sword, and
5. The Stole or Armilla, '
iste quidem armille in modum stole circa
collum et ab utraque scapula usque ad compages brachiorum erunt
dependentes,' from which it appears that the stole was not worn crossed
but hanging straight down on each side.
6. The Imperial Mantle, Pallium regale quadrum cum aquilis
'

aureis.' These eagles have retained their place on the imperial mantle
ever since, but they are described as of gold, whereas now they are silver ;
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
and although the Dalmatic is said to have had designs upon it, there is
no detailed mention of them.
Next the sovereign is endued with the actual emblems of royalty,
1. The Crown ;

2. The Ring ;

3. The Sceptres.
There are two kinds of sceptres mentioned the first with a cross, to be
:

held in the right hand, Deinde dabitur ei sceptrum in manu dextra, quod
'

quidem sceptrum aureum est, in cujus summitate crux parua collocatur.'


The other, bearing a dove, is to be held in the left hand, Post
'
modum
tradatur ei uirga in manu sinistra, que quidem uirga aurea est habens in
'

summitate columbam auream and it is interesting to note that in Sir


;

George Hayter's picture of the coronation of Queen Victoria, she is


represented as holding both these sceptres exactly in this manner, the
only important difference being that the dove at the top of the sceptre in
her left hand is white instead of gold as described. The Liber Regalis
has three full-page illustrations, but I think that not much reliance can
be placed on any of the representations of the regalia which occur in
illuminated manuscripts, as it was of course perfectly easy for the
illuminator to follow his own fancy, which he undoubtedly often did.
Indeed, even when former coronations are described and illustrated,
the mediaeval artists having no idea of antiquarian accuracy, and
apparently having made no effort in this direction, at the best their
illustrations would only serve as indications of the fashion of the actual
time when they were written.
In the ceremony of coronation the double character of the sovereign
is shown very clearly the priestly character, however, preponderating
over the military. The ceremonies of the anointing and the sequence of
prayers used closely resemble the procedure at the consecration of a
bishop, and the vestments are, if not quite the same, at least analogous
The colobium sindonis may be taken
'

to those worn by a bishop.


'

dalmatic is common to both, as are the


' '

for the alb or rochet, the


'
'
stole and the ring ;
and the imperial mantle, '
four square,' takes the
place of the cope. The sceptre corresponds to the crozier, and the crown
to the mitre. The orb alone, whidi has been used by all our kings
since Edward the Confessor, appears, so far as I can trace, to stand quite
alone as an emblem of independent sovereignty, and has nothing to do
with either priest or soldier.
The military emblems are the sword and spurs. In all the earlier
coronation ceremonies smaller insignia were also used the most ;

important of these were the buskins, the sandals, and the gloves, but
they have now more or less fallen into disuse.
In the time of Edward the Confessor the regalia, together with the
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
other royal treasures, were kept in Westminster Abbey in a small room
in the eastern cloister, which was in fact the 'Treasury of England.'
The abbot and monks of Westminster, by the authority of the founda-
tion charter of Edward the Confessor, had charge of the regalia and
coronation robes but this responsibility must frequently have been a
;

light one, because until comparatively recent times our kings were in the
habit of carrying their regalia about with them. It may be remembered
that in 1415 Henry v. wore his crown at Agincourt, and it is said to
have saved his life from the Due D'Alen^on, who, however, succeeded in
chipping part of it off. Again, Richard in. in 1485 wore his at Bosworth
field, on which occasion it was hidden in a hawthorn bush, and found

by Sir Reginald Bray. The crown being handy was at once used to
crown the Earl of Richmond, who was on the spot proclaimed Henry vn.
by Lord Stanley, and in memory of this, he afterwards used as one
of his badges a red-berried hawthorn bush, with sometimes a crown in it ;

and there is an old saying, Cleave to the crown, though it hang on a


'

bush.' Although the proper place of deposit for the royal treasure was
at Westminster, in times of any special trouble or danger it was sent to
the Tower of London for safety. In 1303 the Treasury at Westminster
was broken into by a monk, and much damage was done to it and its
contents and after much moving backwards and forwards it was at last
;

considered that at Westminster sufficient care could never be taken of


the valuable collection, and the regalia were finally removed to the Tower
during the reign of Henry vm.
In Rymer's Fcedera there are numerous lists and inventories of the
royal treasure of England, and in the reign of Henry in. for the first
time there appears a regularly appofnted Keeper of the Regalia. He
had precedence next to Privy Councillors, wore a scarlet robe at the
coronation, with a crown embroidered on the left shoulder. He dined
at the baron's table at Westminster Hall, and had the high privilege of
placing the king's crown on his head, and again removing it, at the
opening of Parliament.
As might be expected, the Royal Treasury underwent many vicissi-
tudes and spoliations at the hands of several of our kings. If Parliament
would not grant supplies, kings still had great treasure that they could
rapidly sell or pawn for ready money.
In 1623, when Prince Charles went to Spain to woo the Infanta, it
is said that he took from the Tower treasure valued at ^600,000. Two
years later, when he was king, he fitted out a fleet, under his favourite
the Duke of Buckingham, to carry on a war with Spain, and supplies
not being forthcoming from Parliament he parted with a large amount
of treasure to procure them. The treasure was pawned to Holland, with
which country there was an alliance and the result of the expedition was
;

disastrous, neither does it appear that the treasure was ever redeemed.
3
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
This was one of the earliest of the troubles between Charles i. and his
Parliament.
In 1643 Charles turned the crown and sceptre into money, and in
1644 the Commons ordered the king's plate in the Tower to be melted
down and coined. The Lords, to their lasting credit, remonstrated
against this, and declared that the workmanship was worth far more
than the precious metals but in 1649 the Commons, whose will of
;

course was paramount, ordered the complete destruction of the regalia,


then under the keepership of Sir Harry Mildmay, afterwards called
the knave of diamonds.'
'

The list of the regalia, as existing at this time, was printed in


Archceologia, vol. xv. p. 285, from the original manuscript.
On the gth of August 1649, it was ordered that the regalia should
'
be delivered to the trustees for the sale of the goods of the late king,
who are to cause the same to be totally broken, and that they melt down
all the gold and silver, and sell the jewels to the best advantage of the
Commonwealth.'
The list is as follows :

'A true and perfect Inventory of all the plate and Jewells now being in the
upper Jewell-house of the Tower, in the charge of Sir Henry Mildmay, together
with an appraisement of them, made and taken the I3th, i4th, and i5th daies of
August 1649 :

'The Imperial crowne of massy gold, weighing 7 Ibs. 6 oz.,


valued at . . . . . . .
^uro o o
'
The queenes crowne of
massy gold, weighing 10 oz., 3 Ibs. .
338 3 4
'
A small crowne found in an iron chest, formerly in the Lord
Cottington's charge (from other accounts this appears to
have been the crown of Edward vi.), . . .
73 16 8
the gold, the diamonds, rubies, sapphires, etc., . .
355 o o
'
The globe, weighing i Ib. 5^ oz., . . . .
57 10 o
'
Two coronation bracelets, weighing 7 oz. (with three rubies
and twelve pearls), . . . . . .
36 o o
'
Two sceptres, weighing 1 8 oz., . . . . 60 o o
'
A long rodd of silver gilt, i Ib. 5 oz., .
4 10 8
. . .

'
The foremention'd crownes, since y e inventorie was taken, are, accordinge to
ord r of parm* totallie broken and defaced.

'
The inventory of that part of the regalia which are now removed from
Westminster Abbey to the Jewel-house in the Tower.
'

Queene Edith's crowne, formerly thought to be of massy gould,

'

King
50^- oz.,
Alfred's
......
but, upon trial, found to be of silver gilt enriched with
garnetts, foule pearle, saphires and some odd stones, poiz.
valued at
crowne of goulde wyer worke,
stones, poiz. 79 J oz., at ^3 per oz., .
;

sett with slight


. .
16

248 10
o o

o
4
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
'

'

'
A
One
A
goulde plate dish, enamelled,
large glass cupp, wrought
etc., ....
in figures, etc.,
dove of gould, sett with stones, and pearle, poiz. 8|- oz., in
. .
^77
102 15
1 1 o
o

a box sett with studs of silver gilt, . . . 2600


'
The gould and stones belonging to a collar of crimson and
'
One
taffaty, etc.,
staff of black
. . .

and white ivory, with a dove on the top,


. .
.18150
with binding and foote of goulde, . . . .
4 10 o
'
A large staff with a dove on y e top, formerly thought to be all
gould, but upon triall found to be, the lower part wood
within and silver gilt without, . . . . 2100
'
Two scept one sett with pearles and stones, the upper end
gould, the lower end silver. The other silver gilt with a
dove, formerly thought gould, . . . .
65 16 10^
'
One silver spoone gilt, poiz. 3 oz., . . . . 0160
'
The gould of the tassels of the livor cull'd
robe, weighing 4 oz.,
valued at S, and the coat with the neck button of gould,

'
2, the robe having some pearle, valued at in all
All these according to order of Parliament are broken and defaced.
T, }
.
1300
'
One paire of silver gilt spurres, etc., . . . . i
13 4'

This list is very interesting, as it shows that there must have been
considerable care taken of the ancient regalia, as King Alfred's crown of
wire-work is mentioned as well as Queen Edith's and it must also be ;

noted that there is no mention of the eagle of gold, but that there is
mention of a silver spoon.
The ancient coronation robes destroyed at the same time are
catalogued and valued as follows :

'
One common taffaty robe, very old, valued at . . . o 10 o
'
One robe, laced with goulde lace, . . . . o 10 o
'
One livor cull rd silk robe, very old and worth nothing, . o o o
'
One robe of crimson taffaty, sarcenett valued at . .
050
One paire of buskins, cloth of silver and silver stockings,
.026
'

very
and valued at
'
One
old, . .

paire of shoes of cloth of gold, at


.

.
.

. . . 026
'
One paire of gloves embroid
ed
w
th
gould, at . . o o i

'

'
Three swords with scabbards of cloth of goulde, at
One old combe of home, worth nothing, . .
.

.
300
o o o
Total in the chest, . .
4 10 6'

The comb was probably for arranging the hair after the anointing.
In looking at the values of these articles, it must not be forgotten
that money was worth much more in the time of the Commonwealth
than it is now but even taking this into consideration, it is evident that
;

in their valuation the officers of the Commonwealth were influenced by


a certain dislike to the emblems of royalty.
The coronation of Charles 11., after several delays, was eventually
5
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
celebrated on the 23rd of April 1661, and very probably among the
reasons for its postponement was the fact that there were no regalia with
which to complete the ceremony. An order was accordingly given to
the royal goldsmith, Sir Robert Vyner, to provide new regalia made
after the old fashion, and some interesting particulars about these are to
be found in the account of the coronation, by Sir Edward Walker, Garter
Principal King of Arms, in a manuscript entitled The Preparation for
His Majesty's Coronation, first published in 1820. Sir Robert Vyner's
receipt for payment for these articles, dated 2Oth June 1662, still exists,
and he acknowledges having received from the Royal Treasury
^21,978, 95. i id., for
2 Crowns.
2 Sceptres.
A Globe of gold sett with diamonds, rubies, saphires, emeralds,
and pearls.
St. Edward's staffe.
The Armilla.
The Ampull.
But, altogether, Sir Robert Vyner's bill amounted to ^"32,000.
Sir Edward Walker goes on to say :

'
Because through the Rapine of the late unhappy times, all the Royall Orna-
ments and Regalia heretofore preserved from age to age in the Treasury of the
Church at Westminster, were taken away, sold and destroyed, the Comittee mett
divers times not only to direct the remaking such Royall Ornaments and Regalia,
but even to sette the form and fashion of each particular all which doe now :

retayne the old names and fashion, although they have been newly made and pre-
pared by orders given to the Earle of Sandwich, Master of the Great Wardrobe,
and S r Gilbert Talbott, Kn'., Master of the Jewell House.
Hereupon the Master of the Jewell House had order to provide two Imperial
'

Crownes sett with pretious Stones, the one to be called St. Edward's Crowne,
wherewith the king was to be crowned, and the other to be putt on after his Corona-
tion, before his Ma
ties
retorne to Westminster Hall. Also
'
An Orbe of Gold with a Crosse sett with pretious Stones.
'
A Scepter with a Crosse sett with pretious Stones, called St. Edward's.
'
A Scepter with a Dove sett with pretious Stones.
'
A long Scepter, or Staffe of Gold with a Crosse upon the top, and a Pike at
the foote of steele, called St. Edward's staffe.
'
A
Ring with a Ruby.
'
A
Paire of Gold Spurrs.
'
A
Chalice, and Paten of Gold.
An Ampull for the Oyle and a spoone.
'

And two Ingotts of Gold, the one a pound and the other a
'

marke for the


King's 2 Offerings.
The master of the Great Wardrobe, had order also to provide the Ornaments
'

to be called St. Edward's, wherein the King was to be crowned, viz. :

6
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
Colobium Sindonis, w ch is of fine Linnen, of fashion of a Sur-
plice with wide Sleeves. Supertunica, a Close Coate of Cloath of
gold reaching to the heeles, lined with Crimosin Taffata, and guirt
with a broad Girdle of Cloth of Gold to be putt over the Colobium.
'
Armilla of the fashion of a stole made of Cloth of Gold to be
putt about the neck, and fastned above and beneath the elbowes
with silke Ribbands.

'
A
('Linnen
Shirt of fine
A '
Pall of Cloth of Gold in the fashion of a cope.
to be opened in the places for the anoynting. Over it
another Shirt of red Sarcenet, and over that a Surcoat of Crimson Satten, which
was made with a Collar for a Band, both opened for the anoynting, and closed with
Ribbands.
'
Apaire of under Trowses, and Breeches over them, with Stockings fastened
to the Trowses, all of Crimson Silke.
.aycu uu y altar C
!

,
A .

re f Hose or Buskins f cloth f Gold


with the rest of < r /- u
l
c c r /-M *u
the Ornaments. (.
A,
'

A ,

paire of Sandalls of Cloth of Gold.


'
A
paire of Linnen Gloves.
'
A
linnen Coyfe.
'
ASilke Towell to be held before the King at the Coinunion, by the two
Bishops.
Three swords, Curtana, and two others, with Scabbards of Cloth of
'
viz*.
Gold.
'
A Sword of State with a Rich Imbroydered Scabbard.'

The regalia and vestments as they now exist are certainly very near
to the pattern of these just described. There are, fortunately, with Sir
Edward Walker's manuscripts several drawings which, although they are
somewhat elementary, are yet quite sufficient to show us that many of the
designs then used, which were indeed themselves probably copies from
some authority not now available, have been carefully preserved. The
sceptre with the cross shows the upper part wreathed as it now is. The
spurs, St. Edward's staff, and the sceptre with the dove, differ but
slightly from those now in the Tower the dove, however, is shown here,
;

for the first time, standing upon a cross, and it is quite possible that all
these items are now materially the same as when they were made by
Sir Robert Vyner. The sword of state is quite different, as are the
three other swords and the top of Curtana,' the sword of mercy, is
'

irregularly broken off instead of being smooth as now. The orb with
the large amethyst under the cross, is probably the same as that now
in the Tower with a few alterations St. Edward's crown is the same in
;

general design, but differs considerably in detail.


Most of our sovereigns have possessed second crowns, or crowns of
state as they are called, and the designs of each of these have differed,
although the same gems have been used over and over again in them.
Unfortunately, in Sir Edward Walker's manuscript there are no figures
given of the ampulla or the spoon.
7
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
are clearly figured the supertunica, or dalmatic, has
The vestments :

only a floral
pattern upon it (fig. i) the armilla, also, only has a floral
;

pattern, but there is a cross pate'e at each end, and ribbons for tying it
(fig. 2). The imperial mantle is embroidered with floral sprays arranged

FIG. i. THE SUPERTUNICA OR DALMATIC WORN FIG. 2.THE ARMILLA OR STOLE WORN BY
BY CHARLES II. AT HIS CORONATION. CHARLES II. AT HIS CORONATION.

in ovals, as in the existing mantle of Queen Victoria, and bears eagles,


roses, fleurs-de-lys, and coronets (fig. 3).
Another valuable book concerning the coronation of Charles n., was
written by John Ogilvy. It is called The Entertainment of His Most
Excellent Majestie Charles II. in his passage through the City of
London to his Coronation, etc. It was printed in London in 1662. The
procession plates are by Wenceslaus Hollar, and they are very carefully
and accurately drawn. The king is shown under the canopy, carried by
the barons of the Cinque Ports, and he wears on his head only the royal
cap of crimson velvet, turned up with miniver.
Among a collection of Exchequer records, which was discovered
some time ago, was found an old bill dated 23rd February 1685. This
bill was apparently made out to show the alterations
necessary to be
made in the existing regalia for the coronation of James u.
'
A List of the Regalias provided for His late Majesty's coronation (Charles n.)
8
FIG. 3. PALL OR ROYAL MANTLE WORN BY CHARLES II. AT HIS CORONATION.

FIG. 4. THE PALL OR ROYAL MANTLE OF CLOTH OF GOLD WORN BY JAMES II.

AT HIS CORONATION.
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
and are now in ye custody of S r Gilbert Talbot, Knight, Master and Treasr of his

Matys Jewells and plate, viz. :

Imprim. St. Edward's Crowne, poiz. 82 oz. 05 dwt. 16 gr.


'

For ye addition of golde and workemanship, .350 o . . o


For ye loane of ye Jewells returned, 500 o . . . o
Item.
'
One crowne of state, poiz. 72 oz. 01 dwt. oo gr.
For ye gold, Jewells and workemanship, 7,870 o . . . o
Item.
'
One sceptre with a Dove, poiz. 34 oz. 03 dwt. 20 gr.
For ye gold, Jewells and workemanship, 440 o . . . o
'
Item. One other sceptre with a cross, poiz. 32 oz. 1 1 dwt. iQgr.
For ye gold, Jewells and workemanship, . . .
1,025 o o
'
Itm. One St. Edward's staffe, poiz. 45 oz. 8 dwt. 8 gr.
For ye gold and workemanship, . . . .
225 6 2
'
Itm. One Gloobe with a crosse, poiz. 49 oz. 7 dwt. 12 gr.
For gold, Jewells and workemanship, . . .
1,150 o o
'
Itm. One pair of Spurrs, poiz. 12 oz. 18 dwt. o gr.
For gold and workemanship, . . . .
63 7 6
'
Itm. Two armillas (bracelets), poiz. 6 oz. 12 dwt. 22 gr.
For gold and workemanship, . . . .
44 18 6
'
Itm. One ampulla or Eglet, poiz. 21 oz. 8 dwt. o gr.
For gold and workemanship, . . . . 102 5 o
'
Itm. The anointing spoon, poiz. 3 oz. dwt. o gr.
For and workemanship,
silver .
5
. . . 200
'

Itm. One and paten, poiz. 61


chalice oz. 12 dwt. 12 gr.
For gold and workemanship, . . .
277 6 3

12,050 3 5'

And there are other lists of things that have to be provided entirely anew.
It is notable that the anointing spoon is again mentioned here as being
made of silver.
The items of the regalia mentioned in this bill are illustrated in
the History of the Coronation of James II., written by his command by
Francis Sandford, Lancaster Herald, and printed in the Savoy in 1687.
This admirable account of the coronation ceremonies contains two
large plates of the regalia. On the first plate are figured the vestments.
The imperial mantle has floral sprays arranged in ovals as already
described, and also eagles, coronets, fleurs-de-lys and roses (fig 4). The
supertunica of cloth of gold has still only floral sprays upon it
(fig. 5).
There is also a curious surcoat of crimson satin with openings left
for the inunction (fig. 6). The armilla bears a rose as a centre orna-
ment, and is further adorned with eagles, roses, coronets and fleurs-
de-lys (fig. 7). There are detailed figures of the buskins, sandals and
spurs, which are only in outline in Sir Edward Walker's account. The
ampulla and the spoon are figured for the first time, and appear to be
exactly the same as they are now. The coronation chair is also shown
with designs upon it that certainly do not exist at the present day.
10
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
This chair, of course, is the one that all our kings have been crowned
on at Westminster since Edward i. except Queen Mary i. and, ;

when Cromwell was installed Lord Protector, the chair was brought
into Westminster Hall for him. The second plate contains figures of
St. Edward's crown and the Queen's crown, a circlet worn by the Queen
on her proceeding to her coronation, and two state crowns, to be worn

FIG. SUPERTUNICA OR DALMATIC WORN BY FIG.


6. SURCOAT OF CRIMSON SATIN OPENED FOR
5.
JAMES II. AT HIS CORONATION.
THE ANOINTING ON BOTH SHOULDERS AND ON
THE BEND OF THE ARMS AND AT THE BACK
WITH CRIMSON TAFFETA TIES. WORN BY
JAMES II. AT HIS CORONATION.

by their Majesties after their coronation on their return to Westminster


Hall one for the King and one for the Queen.
St. Edward's crown shows substantially the same as it is now, but
the setting of the gems is not quite so elaborate. The circlet worn by
the Queen on her proceeding to her coronation, and her state crown, are
both supposed to be now in the Tower, and are there described as having
belonged to Queen Mary of Modena. But there are considerable differ-
ences between the figures and the actual crowns now existing and it ;

seems to me probable that both these crowns have been remade. Some
of the gems from the King's state crown now find a place in Queen
Victoria's, notably the large ruby forming the centre of the cross patde
on the front of the crown. At the top of this crown was a cross pate*e
ii
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
on a mound, the mound being one entire stone of a sea-water green
'

known by the name of an agmarine.' This stone is cut in facets, and


with the cross is still preserved in the Tower. The figure of the orb is
nearly the same as it is now,
on the top whereof is a very large amethist
'

of a violet or purple colour encompassed with four silver wires.' St.

Edward's staff is the same as now. The sceptre with the dove is pro-
now the Tower. Then there are two
bably the same as that in sceptres
with a cross the first one, with the upper part wreathed, is probably that
:

figured by Sir Edward


Walker. The second sceptre with the cross
it was doubtless made for Queen Mary,
appears for the first time ;

and is now in the Tower with slight differences. The Queen's ivory
rod, with a dove at the top, was
also made for Queen Mary and one of ;

the larger plates, in the same book, shows King James and his Queen
seated side by side, each crowned, and
each holding two sceptres, one with a
cross and one with a dove, so that with
the exception of the holding of the orb,
the Queen of James n. appears to have
had equal ceremonial honour with his
Majesty himself.
Sandford also gives careful and
valuable representations of the different
parts of the coronation procession.
The coronation of William and
Mary stands quite alone in the history
of our coronations, as, during their reign
as joint sovereigns, we possessed an
actual King and an actual Queen. Wil-
liam declined to be Regent, and Mary
refused to accept the crown, except with
FIG.7. ARMILLA OR STOLE WORN BY her husband, so it became in fact necessary
JAMES II. AT HIS CORONATION.
that they should become joint sovereigns.
This, of course, necessitated the making of a new orb, the smaller one
now in the Tower. On their Great Seal they are represented as each
having one hand upon a large orb and in a print in the Bagford collection
;
'
in the British Museum, dated 1689, and called the Protestants' Joy,'
William and Mary are shown sitting under one canopy, each crowned
and bearing a sceptre fleury in the right hand, and an orb with a cross
in the left.
The next important book concerning the coronations of our kings
was that issued under the authority, and by the care of, Sir George

Nayler, Garter King of Arms, published in London in 1839, and illus-


trated magnificently by several artists Stephanoff, and others. The
book is an account of the coronation of George iv., July igth 1821,
12
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
which was the most magnificent that has ever been held in England,
the official cost of it having been ,238,238. Some ^"5000 were allowed
to Sir George Nayler by Government towards the cost of this splendid
work, but even including this, as well as the fees paid by several peers
for their portraits, the book is said to have been a financial failure. It
not only shows the manner in which the various items of the regalia were
carried in the procession, but the details of the official costume of the peers
are so carefully reproduced that it may be fairly considered the best exist-
ing authority on that subject also. The Dean of Westminster is shown
as carrying what is called the New Crown,' the setting of which is now
'

the property of Lord Amherst of Hackney, and the cap still remaining
within it is of blue velvet. As a general rule, the caps of English
peers and sovereigns have been of crimson velvet, but in the case of
this state crown of George iv., and presumably in one of Queen Elizabeth,
the colour has been blue. I say presumably, because the only authority
I have found for the blue cap in a crown of Queen Elizabeth's is a

charming little book, bound in crimson velvet and adorned with enamels
on gold, that was bound for her about 1570 and now forms part of the
'
'
Old Royal Library in the British Museum. In the centre of the
upper side of this book there is a golden diamond-shaped plaque, on
which is enamelled a red rose, ensigned with a royal crown having a
blue cap. I do not say that this is an absolute authority, but in

Queen Elizabeth's time the art of heraldry was much more exact than
it is now, and it seems to me unlikely that so great a difference as that

between blue and red would have been lightly made, especially on a
book evidently intended for the Queen's own use.
VESTMENTS.
HE vestments that were used at the coronation of
Queen Victoria are now in charge of an officer
called the Keeper of the Robes, and are kept at
St. James's Palace. They consist, like the vest-
ments we have just been considering, of the
Colobium Sindonis,
Dalmatic,
Stole,
Imperial Mantle,
and to a considerable extent they preserve the ancient forms and designs
of ornamentation.
The Colobium Sindonis, the first vestment put upon the sovereign
after the anointing, represents the alb of a priest, or the rochet of a
bishop. It is a sleeveless garment of soft fine linen, edged with lace, and
with a deep lace flounce of nine inches in depth (fig. 8). It is open at the
side, and cut low at the neck, also edged all round with lace. It is gathered
in at the waist and opens on the left shoulder, fastening with three small
buttons. Upon the right shoulder are three sham buttons to match. At
the coronation, a thick gold cord with heavy bullion tassels was worn at the
'

waist over the colobium,' corresponding to the girdle of the alb.


The Dalmatic, or supertunica, is put on after the Colobium Sindonis.
It is a long jacket of cloth of gold, with wide pointed sleeves, without

any fastening at all. The edges are all trimmed with gold lace. The
design, woven into the cloth of gold, is a wavy pattern of palm leaves,
outlined green, enclosing at regular intervals pink roses with green
leaves, green shamrocks, and purple thistles. All these designs are in
very pale colours, and the effect of them when the cloth of gold is
moved very delicate and beautiful.
is It is lined throughout with
rose-coloured silk (fig. 9).
The Stole now, in religious ceremonies, succeeds the alb immedi-
ately but, in the coronation service, it succeeds the dalmatic, as it did
;

in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, and it is so worn now


by the Greek
and Russian deacons. So here our kings preserve an ancient custom
which the Western Church has lost. The stole was used at one time
crossed over the breast, and one was found on the body of Edward i.
worn manner, when his tomb at Westminster was opened in
in this
1774; and it certainly was worn in this fashion abroad. This is the
manner in which the stole is worn by a priest, but not by a bishop,
when vested for mass. A fine example of this manner of wearing the
royal stole can be seen on the beautiful golden bulla of the Emperor
Frederick in., made in the fifteenth century. A specimen of it is now
14
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
exhibited in one of the show-cases in the British Museum. The Emperor
holds a sceptre in his right hand and an orb in his left.
Queen Victoria's stole is a band of cloth of gold, three inches wide
and five feet two inches long, with bullion fringe at each end. It is
heavily embroidered with silver thread and a little colour. The centre
ornament is a pink rose, the remaining ornaments are silver imperial
eagles, silver and green shamrocks, silver, green, and purple thistles and

FIG. 8. THE COLOBIUM SINDONIS WORN BY QUEEN FIG. 9. DALMATIC WORN BY QUEEN VICTORIA
VICTORIA AT HER CORONATION. AT HER CORONATION.

pink roses. Each of these emblems is divided from the next one to it
by a silver coronet, and at each end is a square panel with a blue and
white torse above and below, worked with a red cross of St. George on
a silver ground. It is lined with rose silk, and was worn
by Queen
Victoria hanging from the neck and depending at each side. It will
be seen that the ornaments upon this stole resemble those of both
Charles n. and James n., but that they are more ornate (fig. 10).
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
The Imperial Mantle is the last garment to be put upon the
sovereign. The mediaeval rubric describes this as four-square,
embroidered with golden eagles. The four
corners are supposed to represent the four
quarters of the globe, subject to divine
a
power, and it is analogous to the cope of
bishop. The magnificent mantle worn by
Queen Victoria is sixty-five inches long,
and measures across the shoulders twenty-
It is edged all round with
eight inches.
golden bullion fringe two and a half inches
deep, and is lined with rose-coloured silk.
To the upper edge is attached a gold
morse or clasp, with a silver edge faceted
to representdiamonds (fig. 1 1).
In the centre of this morse is
the figure of an eagle in re-
pousse" work, and at each of the
sides a spray of rose, shamrock,
and thistle similarly worked.
There is a hook at the back of
the neck to prevent the robe
slipping. The design, woven
into the cloth of gold, is a
?**? branched pattern arranged in
ovals, outlined in purple silk
and caught together by silver
coronets and silver fleurs-de-
lys alternately. In the spaces
FIG. io. ARMILLA
thus formed are red and white
OR STOLE WORN Tudor roses with
BY QUEEN Vic-
green leaves, PALL OR IMPERIAL MANTLE
, t i FlG. n.
TORIA AT HER green shamrocks, purple and WORN BY QUEEN VICTORIA AT
CORONATION. ,
.
, 1-1 i HER CORONATION.
green thistles and silver eagles.
The coloured silks used in this mantle are in stronger tints than those
used on the dalmatic. It will be observed that there is a strong

similarity in the general design of the ornamentation of this garment


and of that used on the mantles of Charles n. and James n.
ORBS.
orb with the cross above it is a very ancient
Christian emblem. It was used
by the Roman
emperors, from whom it was borrowed by our
Saxon
kings. An instance of
early use exists its
British
in the Museum on a
magnificent carved
ivory diptych of about the fifth
century, representing
an archangel holding in his left hand an orb with
cross, very closely resembling that which is found
on the Great Seal of Queen Elizabeth in fact, we ;

may say that the orb and the cross had been the emblem of independent
Christian sovereignty longer than any other actual forms now used
either here or on the Continent.
The orb is first found on English coins of Edward the Confessor,

FIG. 12. ORB WITH


CROSS-PATE ON SHORT
STEM. FROM GREAT
L
SEAL OF WILLIAM i.

FIG. 13. ORB WITH FIG. 14. ORB WITH FIG. 15. ORB WITH FIG. 16. ORB WITH FIG. 17. ORB WITH
DOVEANDCROSS-PATEE CROSS ON TALL ORNA- CROSS ON TALL ORNA- CROSS AND MOUND ON ORNAMENTAL CROSS ON
ON SHORT STEM. FROM MENTAL STEM. FROM MENTAL STEM. FROM TALL STEM. FROM THE TALL STEM. FROM THE
THE FOURTH GREAT THE FIRSTGREATSEAL THE FIRST GREAT SEAL SECOND GREAT SEAL GREAT SEAL OF
SEAL OF HENRY i. O F RICHARD i. OF HENRY in. OF HENRY in. HENRY vn.

and shows as a sphere with a cross upon it. It does not occur often on
coins, but may be seen upon some of those of the Tudor kings and the
c 17
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
finer coins of James i. ;
but on none of these is there any variation in its
forms, and the cross is always a short one.
On the Great Seals of England, of which there is a complete series
in the British Museum, there is a certain degree of difference in the
forms of the orb. On the Great Seal of Edward the Confessor it first
appears, and is a simple sphere held in his left hand. William I.
used a cross above the sphere (fig. 12), and this cross in some form or
other has invariably been used since. On Henry i.'s fourth Great Seal
a dove is shown above the cross-pate'e (fig. 13), and Stephen and
Henry n. used the same design. Richard i. (fig. 14) and John both
used a tall, thin cross with leaves issuing from its stem and Henry in. ;

(fig. 15)
carries a beautiful orb with a very tall ornamented stem bearing a
cross above it, and on his second Great Seal an orb with a tall plain
stem, and a smaller orb with cross-pate'e at the top (fig. 16). From
Edward i. to Richard in. the stems of the crosses above the orb were
very tall, and the crosses themselves small. Henry vu. carries an orb
with a tall stem (fig. 17), above which is a much larger cross than
was used by his immediate predecessors, and each of
the ends of the cross are ornamented with a trefoil.
Henry vu., on his second Seal, entirely does away with
the stem on which the cross had hitherto been placed,
and the cross, itself ornamented, rests directly on the
top of the orb, as does that on the orb now in the Tower
which was made for Mary u. The orb which was made
FIG. IS.-ORB WITH
Sir Robert Vyner for Charles n., and which is now in
M TAL
FROM SEC O N D GR!T Tower, has a large amethyst beneath the cross, which
SEAL OK HENRY vm.
may be considered to take the place of the stem upon
which, as we have seen, the cross was superimposed from the time of
William i. to Henry vm. (fig. 18).

18
SCEPTRES.
coins of earlier date than those of ^Ethelred IL,
there are no indications of sceptres carried by the
kings but on some of his coins occurs a rod with
;

three pearls at the top (fig. 19). On some of the


coins of Canute, this triple head develops into a
clearly-marked trefoil (fig. 20). Although he retains
the simpler form of the three pearls generally,
Edward the Confessor shows sometimes a sceptre
with a cross-pate'e at the top, the prototype of the
present sceptre with the cross (fig. 21) and, on the reverse of his first
;

Great Seal, he bears in his right hand a sceptre with a dove, the proto-

O
O O

FIG. 19. SCEPTRE FIG. 20. SCEPTRE FIG. 21. SCEPTRE FIG. 22. SCEPTRE
WITH THREE PEARLS WITH TREFOIL AND WITH CROSS PATEE.
-
WITH DOVE AT THE
AT THE TOP. FROM PEARLS AT THE TOP. FROM PENNY OK TOP. FROM FIRST
PENNY OF /ETHEL- FROM PENNY OF EDWARD THE CON- GREAT SEAL OF ED-
RED n. CANUTE. FESSOR.
WARD THE CON-
FESSOR.

type of the present sceptre with the dove (fig. 22). These two forms
have subsisted from the time of Edward until to-day. Harold, on some
of his coins, bears a sceptre with four pearls at the top (fig. 23), and
further ornamentation on the handle. On some of the coins of William i. a
distinct cross-pate'e is used, and William also uses a form of a triple leaf
or flower, which is generally known as a sceptre-fleury and one or other ;

of these forms is found on coins until the time of John, after whose reign
the sceptres seem to have been discontinued on coins until the time of
Henry vn. Henry in., on his second Great Seal, bears a sceptre with a
dove standing upon a small orb, the first instance of this form (fig. 24).
On Edward m.'s second Seal 'of absence' he is shown holding a
curious sceptre, the top of which is in the form of a small shrine or
monstrance (fig. 25) and Henry iv., on his second Seal, shows a sceptre
;

in which the top of the sceptre-fleury develops into a clearly-marked fleur-


19
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
de-lys (fig. 26) while Henry vi., on his Seal for French affairs,' carries a
'

sceptre bearing at the top a hand of Justice.' This form is, however, a
'

foreign one, and I do not think was ever used on a really English sceptre.

o
o o
o

FIG. 24. SCEPTRE FIG. 25. SCEPTRE FIG. 26. SCEPTRE


SCEPTRE
WITH DOVE AND WITH MONSTRANCE WITH PLEUR-DE-LYS
FIG. 23.
MOUND. FROM THE AT THE TOP. FROM AT THE TOP. FROM
WITH FOUR PEARLS THE SECOND SEAL
AT THE TOP. FROM SECOND GREAT SEAL THE SECOND GREAT
PENNY OF HAROLD. OF HENRY HI. 'OF ABSENCE' OF SEAL OF HENRY iv.
EDWARD in.

On some of Henry vn.'s coins, and on others of a later date, the


sceptre-fleury, more or less elaborate, constantly occurs, the only marked
departure from this pattern being the ornamental emblematic sceptres
found on the reverses of some of our gold coins, from the time of
Charles n. until George i., the heads of which are in the forms of cross-
patde, harp, thistle, and fleur-de-lys. These three latter are, however,
evidently only symbolical, and are not likely to have had any real exist-
ence. Similar symbolical sceptres have occurred in recent times on some
of our newer coinage, and on the reverse of some of our most recent
issues occur typical representations of the sceptre with the orb and cross,
and the sceptre with the dove. It will be noticed that the sceptres now
existing in the Tower combine very completely the elements existing in
the old forms of the sceptres of England as they are found on coins and
Great Seals. The royal sceptre with the cross bears as its chief orna-
ment the cross itself as used by Edward the Confessor beneath this the ;

sphere which first shows on the sceptre of Henry in., and the ornament
that is now immediately under these is an elaborate modification of the
arched crown.
The second, or Queen's, sceptre with the cross, has what may be
called a double fleur-de-lys, which is in fact an
amplification of the
sceptre-fleury found on the coins of Canute. The sceptre with the dove
is a very old form, and is not
peculiar to England alone, as it has in fact
a religious signification which is common to all Christian countries, and
we in England inherit this form from Edward the Confessor, since whose
time it has probably been used, by all our kings, whether it has been
figured or not.
20
CROWNS.
,ROWNS appear to have been at an early period
worn by kings in battle, in order that they might be
easily recognised and, although it is quite possible
;

that this outward sign of sovereignty may have


marked the wearer as being entitled to special pro-
tection by his own men, it is also likely that it was
often a dangerous sign of importance. Upon the
authority of their coins, the heads of the early British
kings were adorned with variously formed fillets and
ornamental wreaths. Helmets are also evidently intended to be shown,
and on some of the coins of yEthelstan the helmet bears upon it a crown
of three raised points, with a single pearl at the top of each (fig. 27).
Other coins bear the crown with the three raised points without the
helmet (fig. 28). This crown of three points, bearing sometimes one
and sometimes three pearls at the top of each, continued to be used by
all the sole monarchs until Canute, on whose head a crown is shown,
in which the three points develop into three clearly-marked trefoils (fig. 29).

WITH
ULJ
FIG. 28.
THREE
CROWN WITH
EACH CROWN WITI p IG CROWN WITH ARCHES,
FIG. 27. CROWN, POINTS, _
30 .

THREE POINTS, BEARING EACH BEARING ONE PEARL. THR EE TREFOILS. FROM PEARLS, AND PEARLED PENDANTS.
A SINGLE PEARL, ON HELMET. FROM HALFPENNY OF PENNY OF CANUTE. FROM PENNY OF EDWARD THE
FROM PENNY OF ^ETHELSTAN. /ETHELSTAN. CONFESSOR.

On the Great Seal of Edward


the Confessor the king is wearing
an ornamental cap, which is described by Mr. Wyon in his book
about the Great Seals as bearing a crown with three points trefoiled ;

but the impressions of this Great Seal that I have been able to see are
so indistinct in this particular, that I do not feel justified in corrobor-
ating his opinion. On some of the coins, however, of Edward the
Confessor, an arched crown is very clearly shown, and this crown has
depending from it, on each side, tassels with ornamental ends (fig. 30).
In the list of the English regalia which were destroyed under the
Commonwealth in 1649 (see ante, p. 4) is found an item of great
interest, viz. 'a gold wyer work crown with little bells,' which is there
stated to have belonged to King Alfred, who appears to have been the
first English king for whom the ceremony of coronation was used and ;

it is remarkable that on several of the crowns on coins and seals, from


21
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
the time of Edward the Confessor until Henry i., little tassels or tags
are shown, which may indeed represent little bells suspended by a
ribbon.
On King Alfred's own coins there is unfortunately nothing which
can be recognised as a crown.
On the coins of Harold n. a crown is shown with arches, apparently
intended to be jewelled, as is also the rim. There are also tassels with
ornamental ends at the back of the crown (fig. 31).
William i., on his Great Seal, wears a crown with three points, at the
top of each of which are three pearls (fig. 32), and on some of his coins a
more ornamental form of crown occurs, having a broad jewelled rim and
two arches, also apparently jewelled, and at each side are two pendants
with pearl ends (fig. 33). William n. on his Great Seal has a crown

c
op
FIG. 32. CROWN WITH FIG. 33. CROWN WITH
FIG. 31. CROWN WITH THREE POINTS BEARING PEARLED ARCHES AND PEN-
PEARLED ARCHES. FROM EACH THREE PEARLS FROM DANTS. FROM PENNY OF
PENNY OF HAROLD n. GREAT SEAL OF WILLIAM i. WILLIAM i.

with fivepoints (fig. 34), the centre one being slightly bigger than the
others, and
at the top of each a
single pearl. At each side of the crown
are pendants having three pearls at the ends.
On some of the coins of Stephen a pretty form of crown is seen.
It has three
fleurs-de-lys and two jewelled arches (fig. 35). The arches
disappear from this time until the reign of Edward iv. On the Great
Seal of Henry i. the king wears a simple crown with three
fleur-de-lys
points, and two pendants each with three pearls at the ends (fig. 36), and
after this the pendants seem to have been discontinued.

oo
FIG. 34. CROWN WITH FIVE FIG. 35. CROWN WITH FIG. 36.CROWN WITH THREE
POINTS EACH BEARING ONE THREE TREFOILS AND PEARLED TREFOILS AND PEARLED
PEARL, WITH PEARLED PEN- ARCHES. FROM PENNY OF PENDANTS. FROM GREAT SEAL
DANTS. FROM GREAT SEAL OF STEPHEN. OF HENRY i.
WILLIAM n.

On the first Great Seal of Henry in. a crown with three fleurs-de-lys
is shown surmounting a barred helmet (fig. 37), and Edward i. wore a
similar crown with three fleurs-de-lys, but having
supplementary pearls
22
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
between each (fig. 38) ;
and
form lasted for a long time, as modifica-
this
tions of it are found on the coins of all the
kings till Henry vn. On the
third Great Seal of Edward iv. the wears a crown with five fleurs-de-
king
lys, the centre one being larger than the others, and the crown is arched
and has at the top an orb and cross vi. on his first Seal
(fig. 39). Henry

FIG. 38. CROWN WITH THREE FIG. 39. CROWN WITH FIVE
FIG. 37. CROWN WITH THREE FLEURS-DE-LYS, AND PEARLS BE- FLEURS-DE-LYS, AND ORNA-
FLEURS -DE - LYS,ON HELMET. TWEEN F.ACH. FROM PENNY OF MENTAL ARCHES WITH CROSS
FROM FIRST GREAT SEAL OF EDWARD i. AT THE TOP. FROM THE THIRD
HENRY i. GREAT SEAL OF EDWARD iv.

for foreign affairs, on which occurs the English shield, uses above it a
crown with three crosses-patde and between each a pearl (fig. 40), this
being the first distinct use of the cross-pate'e on the English crown,
and it probably was used here in place of the fleur-de-lys hitherto worn
in order to make a clear distinction between it and the French crown,
which has the fleur-de-lys only and surmounts the coat of arms of that
country. The king himself wears an arched crown, but the impressions
are so bad that the details of it cannot be followed.
Henry vn. on his Great Seal uses, as ornaments for the crown,
crosses-patee alternate with fleurs-de-lys, and also arches with an orb
and cross at the top (fig. 41) and, on some of his coins, he reverts to the
;

three fleurs-de-lys with points between them, arches being still used, with
the orb and cross at the top (fig. 42). An ornamental form of crown
bearing five ornamental leaves alternately large and small, with arches,
orb, and cross at the top (fig. 43), occurs on the shillings of Henry vn.

FIG. 40. CROWN WITH FIG. 41. CROWN WITH FIG. 42. CROWN WITH FIG. 43. CROWN WITH
THREE CROSSES-PATEE AND CROSSES-PATlSE ALTERNATE THREE FLEURS-DE-LYS, AND FIVE ORNAMENTED TRE-
PEARLS BETWEEN THEM. WITH FLEURS-DE-LYS, WITH TALL POINTS BETWEEN THEM, FOILS, ARCHED, WITH
FROM THE FIRST SEAL FOR ARCHED MOUND AND CROSS WITH MOUND AND CROSS AT MOUND AND CROSS AT THE
FOREIGN AFFAIRS OF HENRY AT THE TOP. FROM GKEAT THE TOP. FROM GROAT OF TOP. FROM SHILLING OF
VI. SEAL OF HENRY vn. HENRY vn. HENRY vn.

On the crowns of Henry vin. as well as upon his Great Seals, the
alternate crosses-pate'e and fleurs-de-lys are found on the rim of the
23
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
crown, which arched, and has an orb and cross at the top, and this is
is
the form that has remained ever since (fig. 44). So we may consider
that the growth of the ornament on the rim of the
crown has followed a regular sequence from the points
with one pearl at the top, of ^Ethelstan, to the trefoil of
Canute the arches began with Edward the Confessor,
;

and the centre trefoil turned into the cross-pate'e of


Henry vi. The fact that the remaining trefoils turned
eventually into fleurs-de-lys is only, I think, a natural
expansion of form, and does not appear to have had
anything to do with the French fleur-de-lys, which was
THE TOP. FROM CROWN OF
HENRY VHI. adopted as an heraldic bearing for an entirely
-^ *-^ *
different
reason. The royal coat of arms of England did bear
for a long time in one of its quarterings the actual fleurs-de-lys of France,
and this, no doubt, has given some reason to the idea that the fleurs-de-
lys on the crown had also something to do with France but, as a
;

matter of fact, they had existed on the crown of England long anterior
to our use of them on the coat of arms, as well as remaining there
subsequently to their discontinuance on our royal escutcheon.
The cross-pate'e itself may possibly have been evolved in a some-
what similar way from the three pearls of William i., as we often find
the centre trefoil, into which, as we have seen, these three points eventu-
ally turned, has a tendency to become larger than the others and this
;

difference has been easily made more apparent by squaring the ends of
the triple leaf. At the same time, it must not be forgotten that the cross-
pate'e was actually used on the sceptre of Edward the Confessor, so it is
just possible it
may have had some
specially English significance.
have already mentioned that as well as the official crown of
I

England, which alone I have just been describing, there has often
been a second or state crown, and this, although it has in general
design followed the pattern of the official crown, has been much more
elaborately ornamented, and in it has been set and reset the few historic
gems possessed by our nation. The fact that these state crowns have
in turn been denuded of their
jewels, accounts for the fact that the old
settings of some of them still exist.
Charles
ii.'s state crown is
figured in Sir Edward Walker's account
of his coronation, but the illustration of it is of such an
elementary
character that little reliance can be placed on it; the actual
setting of
this crown, however
which was the one stolen by Colonel Blood on May
1
3th, 1671 is now
the property of Lord Amherst of Hackney, and the
spaces from which the great ruby and the large sapphire both of which
are now in Queen Victoria's state crown have been taken, are clearly seen
(fig-45)- James ii.'s state crown, which is very accurately figured in
Sandford's account of his coronation, and pieces of which are still in
24
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
the Tower, also had this great ruby as its centre ornament (fig. 46). In
Sir George Nayler's account of the coronation of George iv., there is a
figure of his so-called 'New Crown,' the arches of which are composed
of oak-leaf sprays with acorns, and the rim adorned with laurel sprays
(fig. 47).
The setting of this crown also belongs to Lord Amherst of
Hackney, and so does another setting of a small state queen's crown,
the ownership of which is doubtful. William iv. appears to have had a
very beautiful state crown, with arches of laurel sprays and a cross at
the top with large diamonds. It is figured in Robson's British Herald,

published in 1830 (fig. 48).

FIG. 45. THE STATE FIG. 46. THE STATE FIG. 47. THE STATE FIG. 48. THE STATE
CROWN OF CHARLES n. CROWN OF JAMES n. CROWN OF GEORGE iv. CROWN OF WILLIAM iv.

There one other crown of great interest which, since the time of
is

James Sixth of Scotland and First of England, forms part of our regalia.
This is the crown of Scotland, and is the most ancient piece of state
jewellery of which we can boast.
Edward i. after his defeat of John Baliol in 1296, carried off the
crown of Scotland to England, and Robert Bruce had another made for
himself. This in its turn, after Bruce's defeat at Methven, fell into
Edward's hands. Another crown seems to have been made for Bruce in
1314, when he was established in the sovereignty of Scotland after
Bannockburn, and the present crown probably consists largely of the
material of the old one, and most likely follows its general design. It

has, however, much French work about it, as well as the rougher gold
work made by Scottish jewellers, and it seems probable that the crown,
as it now is, is a reconstruction by French workmen made under the
care and by the order of James v. about 1540. It was with this crown
that Queen Mary was crowned when she was nine months old.
In 1661 the Scottish regalia were considered to be in danger from
the English, and were sent to Dunnottar Castle for safety. From 1707
until 1818 they were locked up in a strong chest in the Crown-room of
Edinburgh Castle, and Sir Walter Scott, in whose presence the box was
opened, wrote an account of them in 1819. The crown consists of a
fillet of gold bordered with flat wire. Upon it are twenty-two large stones,
D 25
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
set at equal distances i.e. nine carbuncles, four jacynths, four amethysts,
two white topazes, two crystals with green foil behind them, and one
topaz with yellow foil. Behind each of these gems is a gold plate, with
bands above and below of white enamel with black spots, and between
each stone is a pearl. Above the band are ten jewelled rosettes, and ten
fleurs-de-lys alternately, and between
each a pearl. Under the rosettes
and fleurs-de-lys are jewels of blue enamel and pearls
alternately. The arches have enamelled leaves of French
work in red and gold upon them, and the mount at the
top is of blue enamel, studded with gold stars. The
cross at the top is black enamel, with gold arabesque
patterns in the centre is an amethyst, and in this cross
;

and in the corners are Oriental pearls set in gold. At


FIG. 49 . -THE SCOTTISH the back of the cross are the letters I. R. V. in enamel
work. On the velvet cap are four large pearls, in settings
of gold and enamel (fig. 49).
Generally, the Scottish work in gold cast solid and chased, the
is

foreign work being thinner and repousse.Several of the diamonds are


undoubtedly old, and are cut in the ancient Oriental fashion, and many of
the pearls are Scottish. It is kept in Edinburgh Castle with the rest of
the Scottish regalia. None of the other pieces at all equal it in interest,
as with the exception of the coronation ring of Charles i. they are of
foreign workmanship, or, at all events, have been so altered that there
is little or no original work left upon them.
The coronation ring just mentioned is, however, worthy of special
remark, these rings having been usually kept as the personal property of
the sovereigns for whom they were made. It consists of a pale ruby
with red foil behind it, engraved on which is a couped
cross, enclosed in a circle of twenty-six table diamonds,
set close and foiled at the back. It formed part of the

bequest of Cardinal York to George in., and is very


interesting because, although a ring has formed part of
the coronation jewels from the earliest times, this is the
on ty existing one which is the property of the nation. It
was, moreover, evidently intended originally to be used
by different people, as it is jointed like a bracelet with a very long
spring to the snap, and is capable of fitting fingers of different sizes
(fig- 5).
Although it is not now part of the royal treasure, there is one
remarkable piece of plate existing which ought to be so and a note :

concerning it may perhaps not be out of place here, as it may to some


extent serve to show what magnificent works of art our sovereigns once
It is a splendid enamelled
possessed. gold cup of the fourteenth century
which belonged to our kings from the time of Henry vi. until James i.,
26
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
who gave it away. But not now among the regalia it is next
if it is

thing to it, as it is the property of the nation, and forms one of the chief
'

ornaments of the wonderful gold room at the British Museum. It is


'

certainly one of the finest specimens of mediaeval enamel work existing.


The cup originally was on a short stem, but under the Tudors it was
heightened, and the added piece bears characteristic Tudor enamels in
high relief. On the cup itself, the lid and the foot, are shown in lustrous
translucent enamel events in the life of St. Agnes round the edges of
;

the foot and the lid were ornamental edgings of gold and pearls, much
of which is now gone and the actual top, which no doubt was very
;

ornamental, is also gone.


The history of this cup has been carefully traced, and it formed part
of the treasure of France as well as England its actual beginning is,
;

however, still in mystery.


THE AMPULLA.
R. CHAFFERS, in his book on English goldsmiths,

says :
'
ancient The
ampulla, used at the coronation
of English sovereigns, was, according to Mezeray,
of lapis lazule, with a golden eagle at the top
enriched with pearls and diamonds.' Of course
there is no relic of this beautiful jewel left, neither
is there any indication of the size given ;
but the
mention of a golden eagle is interesting, as it at all
events shows, that if we have kept nothing else, we
have kept the tradition.
There is an ancient legend that a holy cream was given to St.
Thomas of Canterbury, by the Virgin Mary, for the anointing of the
kings of England. This cream was preserved in a golden eagle, which
was also divine. The only Christian kings which used to be anointed
were the kings of England, France, Jerusalem, and Sicily, and afterwards
the kings of Scotland, by special Papal favour. The kings of England and
France had a special additional right to be anointed with the holy cream
or chrisma a sacred unguent made chiefly of olive oil and balm, and only
used in the more sacred ceremonies of the Church, ordination of priests,
consecration of bishops, and a few other functions, in all of which it was
considered to confer a specially sacred character to persons to whom it
was given. Elaborate directions are given, in coronation services, for
the royal anointing. This usually includes the making of a cross on the
king's head with the chrisma on the other places, the hands, the breast,
;

the shoulders, etc., the anointing was done with holy oil. James u. paid
'

his apothecary, James St. Armand, Esq.,' 200 for the cream for his
coronation.
The golden eagle itself measures about nine inches in height, with
the pedestal. The diameter of the pedestal is three and a half inches.
The stretch of the wings is seven inches. It weighs about ten ounces of
solid gold, and the cavity of the body is capable of containing about six
ounces of oil. The head screws off at the neck for the cavity to be filled,
and the oil pours out at the beak. This pouring out of the oil, as well
as dipping the fingers in the spoon and anointing the sovereign, is always
done by the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Mr. W. Jones, in his book on Crowns and Coronations, published
in London in 1883, says It is said that the eagle now existing is the
:
'

real original ampulla, which was first used at the coronation of


Henry iv.'
(Oct. 3th 1399).
1 Few of those that have written about this eagle venture
to give any opinion about its antiquity, and, at first sight, it certainly
does not seem very old on the surface. The pedestal is, I think, clearly
28
I.

THE AMPULLA.
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
of seventeenth century make, and the whole of the bird, down to the
minutest feathers, has been gone over with chased work, probably at the
same period but I think it will be admitted that the general form
;

of the bird lends probability to the theory that it was made at a much
earlier time, especially the body (fig. 51). Undoubtedly
there is one thing about it that is much earlier than
Charles IL, and that is the very primitive screw with
which the head screws on. So that, at all events, it
seems to me very probable that Sir Robert Vyner
found the body of an ancient eagle at Westminster
when he had to remake the regalia for Charles n., and
that he added a pedestal and wings to this body, and
went over the whole surface with a graver. The eagle
itself is an emblem of imperial domination. It may Flo SI ._THE AMPULLA.
.

be an indication of the ancient claim of the sovereigns


of England to be Emperors of Britain and Lords Paramount of all the
islands of the West.
Sandford gives an engraving of the ampulla, which appears exactly
as it is to-day. He considered it to be an ancient piece of plate, and
says that this and the spoon were preserved from destruction by having
been kept at Westminster.

29
THE SPOON.
of the articles now
existing among the regalia
(fe^^ Rr^ v) kept * n t ^ie Tower are possibly, at least in part, of
great age. These are the golden ampulla, or eagle,
for holding the anointing oil, and the anointing
spoon. Both of these have marks upon them of
considerable antiquity, and of the two the spoon
has been less altered than the eagle. Before
describing the spoon as I see it, it will be as
well to note what antiquaries of authority have
already said concerning it.

in his exquisitely illustrated


Henry Shaw, book on the dresses and
decorations of the Middle Ages, published in London in 1843, gives a
fine coloured illustration of the spoon. says, He '

It has most probably


been used in the coronation of our monarchs since the twelfth century,'
of ornamentation seems to prove that it was made at that
'
. . . its style

period,' 'there can of course be no doubt of its antiquity.'


. . . He
says it is of
gold a natural mistake but as a matter of
;
fact it is of

silver, heavily gilt. He restores the handle itself with blue enamel, and
the two circles above and below the pearls with green enamel.
Mr. William Chaffers, in his book on English goldsmiths, arguing
from Sir Robert Vyner's inventory of the new regalia in 1684, says it is
'

evident that the coronation spoon was actually made at this time.' He
further professes to see interlaced C's in the ornamentation of the bowl,
and considers Shaw was mistaken in his description.
Mr. W. Jones, in his book on Crowns and Coronations, published
in London in 1883, says The spoon from its extreme thinness appears
:
'

'

to be ancient and it seems probable that this spoon may have been
;
'

used at the coronation of our monarchs since the twelfth century.'


Mr. Cripps, in Old English Plate, considers the entry in the lists of
the regalia in the time of Charles n. to prove that the coronation spoon
was remade for him. Lastly, in 1890, when a most valuable
at all events

paper on The Spoon and its History was read at the Society of Anti-
quaries by Mr. C. J. Jackson, F.S.A., and her Majesty was graciously
pleased to lend this specimen for exhibition, the general opinion was
that it might be attributed to the twelfth or thirteenth centuries.
I have
myself examined the spoon very carefully, and have come to
the conclusion that the handle at all events is undoubtedly old. This
part of the spoon is about seven and a half inches long. It is divided
into three parts, and tapers towards the end. The end division is
wreathed, and the extreme tip is of a flattened cup-like form. Then
comes a boss which may represent a grotesque animal's head. Next is a
30
II.

CJUEEN ELIZABETH s
SALT-CELLAR.

THE CORONATION SPOON. THE CORONATION SPOON.


FRONT VIEW. SIDE VIEW.
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
division that at one time contained enamel the metal-work on this is
;

not filagree, as described by Mr. Shaw, but 'champleveV an older form


of preparation for enamel-work. The lower surface is rough, as might
be expected, but no traces now remain of enamel. The pattern is a
decorated scroll. Then comes a square boss with rounded corners,
having a chased circle on each of its faces, which marks the beginning of
the third and most decorative part of the handle, which thickens consider-
ably in the centre. A circular ornament, with traces of chased work upon
it, is the chief attempt at decoration. Above and below this are two pearls,
and beyond these two circular ornamental spaces with champlevd work,
' '

which Mr. Shaw shows rilled with green enamel. Then next to the
spoon is an ornament which somewhat resembles a fanciful head, and
the stem is joined to the bowl by a prolongation downwards, a modifi-
'

cation of the keel and disc fashion well known to have been used in
'

early Christian spoons. This handle shows to my eyes no sign whatever


of recent workmanship, either on the sides, the front, or the back. The
patterns on the back are quite simple, and the knot in the thickest part is
certainly of an ancient design. All the corners are rounded everywhere,
and the forms show wear consistently all over it but it looks new at
;

first sight in consequence of having recently been


heavily gilded. The
regilding may have destroyed small bits of enamel which in Shaw's
time may have existed in protected corners, and given him some
authority for his green and blue restorations.
The bowl, which is about two and a quarter inches long, has work
upon it which is more difficult to fix as having been made at any
particular time. In the first place, the shape of it does not agree with
the generally understood shapes used in mediaeval domestic spoons. It
is divided by a ridge down the middle into two parts, into which the

Archbishop dips his two fingers, and at its junction with the stem there
is an engraved leaf pattern the treatment of which is
comparatively
modern. The front of the bowl is engraved with a design which has
some appearance of antiquity, but the manner of treating it does not
appear altogether satisfactory. Indeed it appears to me very probable
that the bowl was remade by Sir Robert Vyner, and that the ancient
bowl may have had the curious ridge down the middle, although I
hardly think it had the pattern on the front or the leaf pattern at the
back.
In the various entries in which a spoon is mentioned it will be
noticed that the sums set down for the work are small and even in the
;

seventeenth century, the date of these lists, it would hardly have been
sufficient to pay for such a work of art.
It is also noteworthy that in the various accounts where a spoon is
mentioned nothing is said about the enamelling, which undoubtedly
existed, neither is there any mention of the four pearls. For these
31
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
reasons I am inclined to think some other spoon must have been made
of a cheaper kind, this one having been for the time mislaid, or hidden
for safety somewhere at Westminster.
Both this spoon and the golden eagle have some sort of sacredness
connected with them. They are both used in that part of the coronation
which is specially holy, and when the regalia were removed to the Tower
from Westminster Abbey it is quite possible to imagine that these two
the Abbey authorities on the ground of
precious objects were retained by
their belonging to them indeed, Sandford, speaking of the plunder of
;

the regalia from Westminster Abbey, expressly excepts the ampul and
to believe that these were kept
spoon, and it is therefore reasonable
He All the regalia except the ampul and spoon
'

separately. says :

(all which
were constantly kept in the church of Westminster) being
sacrilegiously plundered away.'

OUEEN ELIZABETH'S SALT-CELLAR.


^ '

>MONG the many of royal treasure in Rymer's


lists
Fcedera is one which gives details of the plate
which was given to the Duke of Buckingham and
the Earl of Holland to sell for Charles i. in 1625 on
the occasion of his trouble with Spain. Unfortun-
ately no figures are given, but the descriptions are
enough to show that many of the pieces
elaborate
must have been of great beauty. There are also
minute descriptions of many of these treasures
given in theCalendars of the Exchequer from Edward n. to Henry vnr.
What with one king selling some, and another king losing some, and the
Commonwealth making at last a clean sweep of anything royal they
could lay hands upon, it is little wonder that there are but few pieces left
of the old royal treasure of England. Among the fine collection at the
Tower is only one piece that can claim any greater age than the time of
Charles 11., and this is known as Queen Elizabeth's 'Great' Salt-cellar.
'

Salt-cellars, it should be said, were called Great in distinction from the


'

'
'

Trencher salts, being used to mark the difference in rank between the
32
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
guests at table, whereas the latter, which were quite small, were put near
each guest for use only.
This the lower part, which holds the
salt-cellar is in three divisions
salt in a shallow basin, then four brackets, and the lid raised upon them.
This arrangement is peculiar, and it seems as if the lid was at one
time fitted in the lower portion, and that it had been lifted up on the
brackets by way of improvement. The brackets as they now are do not
appear to be of the same workmanship, or to be quite in keeping with
the rest, but they may have been substituted for others which originally
existed in the same place, or made to match others of Charles ii.'s which
have the same kind of heightening.
The body of the salt-cellar is divided externally into three compart-
ments by grotesque figures with scroll prolongations and flat pieces
curving outwards above their heads, terminating in masks.
In each compartment is an allegorical figure of one of the Virtues
within a circular wreath, charmingly designed and executed in low
repoussd and fine chased work. The foot has two decorated bands one :

flat with an elaborate design of cupids and flowers, and the lower one
curved outwards and covered with masks, flat scrolls, and conventional
flower sprays. There are three feet designed in the form of sphinxes'
heads with forepaws.
Above the allegorical figures the lip broadens out into a projecting
piece ornamented with fruits and flowers in high relief, and over this is
the shallow salt basin.
The four scrolls supporting the top are in the form of dolphins with
ornamental tails, and the lid itself is a very fine specimen of Elizabethan
goldsmith's work. The main part of the lid is ornamented with fruit
and flower groups and characteristic strap and cartouche work, and
allegorical figures within oval laurel wreaths. Above this comes an urn-
like superstructure with three scroll handles having animals' feet and
human masks. A smaller urn form supports the figure of a knight in
armour with a long sword and a shield.

33
ST. EDWARD'S CROWN.
T. EDWARD'S Crown was made for the corona-
tion of Charles u. in 1662, by Sir Robert Vyner.
It was ordered to be made as nearly as possible
after the old pattern, and the designs of it that have
been already mentioned as existing in the works of
Sir Edward Walker, and Francis Sandford, show
that in essential form it was the same as now ;

indeed, the existing crown is in all probability mainly


composed of the same materials as that made by Sir
Robert. The crown consists of a rim or circlet of gold, adorned with
rosettes of precious stones, surrounded by diamonds, and set upon
enamel arabesques of white and red. The centre gems of these rosettes
are rubies, emeralds, and sapphires. Rows of large pearls mark the
upper and lower edges of the rim, from which rise four crosses-patde,
and four fleurs-de-lys alternately, adorned with diamonds and other
gems. The gem clusters upon the crosses are set upon enamel arabesques
of white and red, of similar workmanship to that upon the rim. From the
tops of the crosses rise two complete arches of gold, crossing each other,
and curving deeply downwards at the point of intersection. These
arches are considered to be the mark of independent sovereignty. They
are edged with rows of large pearls, and have gems and clusters of gems
upon them, set on arabesques of red and white, like those upon the
crosses. From the intersection of the arches springs a mound of gold,
encircled by a fillet from which rises a single arch, both of which are
ornamented with pearls and gems. On the top of the arch is a cross-
pate"e of gold, set in which are coloured gems and diamonds. At the top
of the cross is a large spheroidal pearl, and from each of the side arms,
depending from a little gold bracket, is a beautifully formed pear-shaped
pearl. The crown is shown in the Tower, with the crimson velvet cap,
turned up with miniver, which would be worn with it.
This crown is very large, but whether it is actually worn or not it
'
would always be present at the coronation, as it is the official crown of
'

England.

34
III.

ST. EDWARD S CROWN.


THE ROYAL SCEPTRE WITH THE CROSS.

HE Royal Sceptre with the Cross is of gold, and is


figured in Sir Edward Walker's account of the
coronation of Charles n. (fig. 52) it is also shown ;

in the same form, namely a with orb


fleur-de-lys
and cross, but a little more elaborate, in Sandford
(fig. 53),
and also in the account of the coronation
of George iv. by Sir George Nayler.
The mound at the top is not specially described
by Sir Edward Walker, but Sandford describes it
as an amethyst, and in George the Fourth's Coronation Book it is
shown blue, which doubtless indicates the same stone. The fleur-de-lys,
which formerly supported this mound, has now disappeared, and is
replaced by an elaborate piece of goldsmith's work, in
general form resembling an arched crown thickly jewelled
with coloured gems and diamonds, with supplementary
curves and sprays of beautiful enamels. On this glitter-
ing foot the great amethyst orb rests, sup-
ported by jewelled projections rising up-
wards. It is faceted all over, and round
the centre is a jewelled band with arch of
gold and diamonds. The cross-pate"e at the
top is thickly set with diamonds, an especi-
ally large one being in the middle.
The
head of this sceptre is so glittering and
brilliant that it is difficult to make out the
details of its form except by a very close
examination, and it is indeed a marvellous
and beautiful piece of jewellery. The entire
length of the sceptre is two feet nine and a
quarter inches, and the upper part is wreathed,
FIG.' 52. -THE gems and enamels
collars of & enclose a smooth FIG. 53 .-THE ROYAL
ROVAI SrirpTRF 11 i j SCEPTRE WITH CROSS,
THE CROSS portion as a grip, and the end is encrusted MOUND AND
FKDM SIP FnwARD -1-1 f 11 J 1 il '
1LYS, USED FROM
1
FRO JAMES II.

WALKER'S AC With rich SOraVS of gold and enamels thickly TO GEORGE FROM
iv. IKCLUS-
SANDFORD'S
11i -ii i 1 i J J- J IVE -

CORONATION jewelled With Coloured StOneS and diamonds. ACCOUNT OFTHE CORONA-
CHARLES ii.
w
The foot idens out into an orb or boss with
ornamental gold work upon it, and it is possible that all of the sceptre
is the same as was
except the part immediately below the mound
originally made by Sir
Robert Vyner, although it is likely that it has
been repaired and that the enamels have been remade since his time.
This sceptre is placed in the right hand of the sovereign at the
coronation.
35
THE QUEEN'S SCEPTRE WITH THE CROSS.

HE Queen's Sceptre with the Cross is first


figured
in Sandford, as it was made for
Queen Mary of Modena (fig. 54) ;

and with trifling alterations, that


now existing in the Tower agrees
with his account.
The sceptre is all of gold
ornamented with diamonds. At
the top is a double fleur-de-lys,
with three leaves bending upwards and three bending
downwards, all thickly jewelled with diamonds of fair
size. Above this is a mound of gold with a fillet set
thickly with diamonds, and an arch over the top of
the globe jewelled in the same way. The cross-
pate"e at the top has a large diamond in each of its
arms and a large one in the centre. In the middle
of the sceptre is a space ornamented with
closely
sprays formed of open work in gold, with leaves
and flowers composed of large and small diamonds.
Beyond this is a clear space and an elaborately jewelled WITH
FL R DE
boss at the end. It is two feet ten inches in MAD E FOR M A R VOF
MODENA, QUEEN-
CONSORT OF
JAMES n.
IV.

THE LARGER ORB.

THE ROYAL SCEPTRE THE QUEEN S SCEPTRE


WITH THE CROSS. WITH THE CROSS.
THE LARGER ORB.

mound, or globe is placed in the sovereign's


orb,
right hand on being crowned, and after that is
carried in the left hand (fig. 55). It was used by
the early Christians, and was borrowed from the
Roman Emperors by our Saxon kings it is ;

never put into the hands of any but kings or


queens regnant. The orb of England is remark-
able for the fine amethyst cut in facets, one and
a half inches in height, on which the cross-patde
stands. The golden ball itself is six inches in diameter, and has a fillet
of gold round the centre, outlined by fine pearls and ornamented with
clusters of gems, set in borders of white
and red enamel of similar workmanship
to that upon St. Edward's crown. The
centre stones of these clusters are large
rubies, sapphires, and emeralds alter-
nately, and in each case the coloured
stones are surrounded by diamonds. An
arch of similar design to the fillet crosses
the upper part of the orb, and the beauti-
ful cross above the large amethyst has
in the centre on one side an emerald, and
on the other a sapphire. The outlines h 1C DEDERVNTkA ROLDO
ft R6GIS
of the cross are marked by rows of
FIG. 55. THE CORONATION OF HAROLD n. FROM
diamonds, and there are three large THE BAYEUX TAPESTRY. THE KING is CROWNED,
AND CARRIES AN ORB IN HIS LEFT HAND AND A
diamonds down the centre of each arm. SCEPTRE IN HIS RIGHT.
The jewels in the centre of each side
are also encircled by diamonds, and between the lower foot of the cross
and the amethyst is a collar of small diamonds. At the end of each of
the upper arms of the cross is a large pearl, and in each of the four
inner corners is also a large pearl.
This orb was made by Sir Robert Vyner for Charles n. It is
figured in Sir Edward Walker's account of his coronation. The large
amethyst is clearly shown, but the bands encircling it are of a different
and more ornate pattern from those now existing. It is thus certain
that something has been done to the orb since it was first made, but

probably the extent of this alteration has been a re-setting of gems and
the re-making of all the enamel-work.

37
THE SCEPTRE WITH THE DOVE.

Sceptre with the Dove is of gold, and both in


Walker's account of the coronation of Charles n.
and Sandford's of that of James n. (fig. 56) it is
shown as bearing the same general design as that
now existing. It is a rod of gold measuring three
feet seven inches in length. At the top is a mound,
also of gold, with a fillet round the centre, studded
with diamonds, and an arch above it, ornamented in
the same way. From the top of the mound rises
a golden cross, on which is sitting a dove, with extended
wings, of white enamel the eye, beak, and feet are
;

of gold. A little below the mound is a band studded


with diamonds, and beneath this another band, with
drooping designs, ornamented with coloured gems and
diamonds. In the centre of the sceptre is an orna-
ment of enamels and gems, and gold open work with
coloured gems and diamonds. Nearer to the end is
another band with large jewels, and at the foot is a boss
encircled with a jewelled band and also an enamelled
band. The dove is typical of the Holy Ghost, who
was considered especially to control the actions of
kings, and for this reason the sceptre with the dove
has been constantly used by kings from a very FIG. 56. SCEPTRE WITH
CROSS AND MOUND.
remote period. In France it was formerly the custom DOVE, FROM SIR EDWARD
WALKER'S ACCOUNT OF
to let white doves loose in the church, after the corona- THE CORONATION OF
tion of the kings. CHARLES n.

This sceptre is borne in the left hand of the sovereign at the


coronation.
V.

THE SMALLER ORB.

THE QUEEN S SCEPTRE THE SCEPTRE


WITH THE DOVE. WITH THE DOVE.
THE QUEEN'S SCEPTRE WITH THE DOVE.
HE Second, or Queen's, Sceptre with the Dove
resembles the King's, but is a little smaller.
The mound at the top is surmounted by a
cross on which is a white enamelled dove with
outstretched wings. Encircling the mound is a
ornamented with coloured gems and diamonds
fillet
and leaves enamelled white and red. The arch
over the top of the mound is decorated in a similar
manner. About the middle of the sceptre is a
collar of dark blue enamel ornamented with gems and designs in white
enamel. Nearer to the foot is another more elaborate collar with sprays
of open work in gold ornamented thickly with gems and enamels. The
foot of the sceptre is a boss with ornaments of gold gems and enamels.
This sceptre is not mentioned in Sandford's account of the
coronation of James n. The Queen on that occasion used only the
small ivory sceptre with the dove with closed wings.
This small ivory sceptre would very probably not have been
considered near enough in design to the King's to satisfy the desire for
equality of ceremony which was so prevalent at the coronations of
William and Mary. So it
nearly certain that this larger gold sceptre
is
with the dove was made for Mary IL, and that it was purposely made
very like the King's. It was lost for some time, owing probably to
some of the many changes that have at various times taken place in
the Tower, but was discovered in 1814 at the back of a shelf in the
Jewel-house.

39
THE SMALLER ORB.

I have shown before, there was some trouble about

the coronation of William and Mary, and in some


instances the regalia had to be doubled. No doubt
what could be altered was altered, so that many of
the things which were only intended for the use of
a Queen-consort actually did duty for a Queen-
regnant but one thing had to be made entirely
;

anew, and that was an orb, so that the Queen as


well as her husband should have the necessary
emblem of independent sovereignty. But the orb which was made for
her is by no means so handsome as the older one. It is not quite so
It has a fillet round the centre outlined with
large. large pearls, and
ornamented with rubies, sapphires, and emeralds, alternately circular and
octagonal, set in collars of gold. An arch crosses the upper half,
ornamented in a similar manner, and at the top a cross-pate'e rests
immediately on the orb, and is studded with rubies, sapphires, and
diamonds, differently arranged on each side.

40
ST. EDWARD'S STAFF.
O many of the pieces of our regalia are called after
Saint Edward the Confessor, that he may indeed
almost be called the patron saint of the regalia.
Henry in. rebuilt Westminster Abbey in his
honour, and he is godfather not only to our official
English crown, but to the sword Curtana,' and
'

the curious rod of justice and equity. A


rod of
this kind has been used at all our coronations from
the earliest times. The one now extant seems to
be the only article among the regalia which is the same now in every

respect as it was originally when made by


Sir Robert Vyner. It is

supposed to be a staff to
guide the footsteps of the king. It is tipped
with a pike or foot of steel four inches and a quarter in length.
The entire length of St. Edward's staff is four feet seven inches and
a half, and it is a rod of gold divided at intervals with collars of ornamental
leaf patterns. At the top is a mound and cross-patde, and tradition says
that formerly a piece of the true Cross was enclosed within the mound.

THE QUEEN'S IVORY ROD.

N the list ofdestroyed under the


the regalia
Commonwealth in 1649 an entry will be found of
an ivory staff with a dove at the top, and such a
staff is now in the Tower. It is there stated to
have been made for Mary of Moclena, Queen-
consort of James n., and is very likely to be a
copy of the older sceptre. It is made in three

pieces with collars of gold over the junctions, and


measures altogether three feet one and a half inches
in length. The top of the sceptre has a mound and cross-pate"e of gold
surmounted by a dove with closed wings, enamelled white with a few
F 41
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
blue and purple lines upon it. The mound both at the top of the
sceptre, and one also at the other end, have champlevd enamels upon
them of identical workmanship with that upon the bracelets which, as
we have seen, were the work of Sir Robert Vyner, and doubtless the
designs upon this sceptre were copied by the royal goldsmith of
James n. to match those made for Charles n. Indeed, as they both
now are, they agree so closely in colour that I think they have both been
re-enamelled more lately than during the seventeenth century. The
designs in both these mounds are the double rose, thistle, harp, and
fleur-de-lys, separated by a small blue quatrefoil. similar ornamenta- A
tion is on the boss at the foot of the sceptre. The eyes, beak, and feet
of the dove are of gold.
The fact that the mound at the foot of this sceptre nearly resembles
that at the top both in size and ornamentation reminds us that at one
time the stems of the orbs themselves were very long, so much so that
it is sometimes difficult to
say which is orb and which is sceptre. This
peculiarity will be seen on reference to some of the sketches showing the
early forms of orbs. All the sceptres have large bosses at their lower
ends, but in no other instance does it so nearly approach the size of the
mound at the top.

BRACELETS.
N the account of the death of Saul as
given by the
Amalekite, the crown '
that was upon his head, and
the bracelet that was upon his arm,' 1 were taken from
him, and bracelets appear to have been at different
times used as one of the emblems of sovereignty.
They were worn by Babylonian and Assyrian
monarchs, and I am told, in Persia, even at the pre-
sent time, only the Shah and his sons are allowed
to wear them. They were used at the coronation of
English sovereigns until lately, and are mentioned in accounts of the
coronations of Richard Edward
IL, Henry VIIL, vi., Mary and Elizabeth.
1
2 Sam. i. 10.

42
VI.

THE BRACELETS.

THE IVORY SCEPTRE


ST: EDWARD S STAFF.
OF OUEEN MARY OF MODENA.
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
In the list of the regalia made for the coronation of Charles n., by Sir
Robert Vyner, mention is made of bracelets, and it is likely that the
bracelets now in the Tower are the same as these, but the enamel has
undoubtedly been restored at a later date, as it is now identical in colour
and preservation with the similar designs which are to be found on what
Queen's Ivory Sceptre,' which was made for Mary of
'

is known as the
Modena.
These bracelets are in breadth, and two and a
one and a half inches
half in diameter. They are made of solid gold, and are lined with
crimson velvet, which is fastened on with red silk drawn through holes
pierced in the edges. The edges are marked by raised gold fillets with
diagonal lines in blue enamel. The emblems of the three kingdoms and
the fleurs-de-lys of France are enamelled on the surface of the bracelet.
The designs are cut out of the gold, forming shallow spaces to which the
'

enamel is fixed. This is known as champleve enamel-work. The double


'

roses are coloured a rich crimson, with little green leaves between the
outer petals the thistles have green cups, pale purple heads and dark
;

green leaves. The harps are pale blue with deep gold strings, and the
fleurs-de-lys are a deep rich yellow. These emblems are divided from
each other by a dark blue four-petalled flower, with gold centre, and on
the fastening of each bracelet are three of these little blue flowers.

43
MARY OF MODENA'S CIRCLET.
HAVE shown that in one of the pictures of the
coronation procession of Charles n. going to be
crowned, he wears only the velvet cap turned
up with miniver, and it seems that in many of these
processions a cap or circlet not actually a crown
was worn, crowns themselves being used on the
return journey to Westminster Hall. According
to the labels attached to them now in the Tower,
we possess both the circlet and the crown that
belonged to Mary of Modena, and which she wore in her proceeding to,
and on her return from, her coronation. The circlet or diadem, the
simpler of the two, is the one she wore first. The crimson velvet cap
itself resembles that of Charles n., but has as well a richly jewelled
rim or circlet. As it is now, this circlet has along its upper edge a row
of large pearls, rising into a point in the front, with a single diamond
at its highest point. Beneath this is a rich floral spray, in thick gold
open work, elaborately modelled and chased, having large diamonds
as leaves and flowers. Beyond this spray on each side are a succession
of large rosettes, in open work of gold, with large diamonds in their
centres and small diamonds set all round them. This circlet is said to
have costal 1 0,000. There is no record of its having been used by any
queen except Mary of Modena, but it undoubtedly differs from the
figure of it given by Sandford; but as he shows certain of its peculiarities,
such for instance as the gold open-work in clusters, and the single gem
in the front, it is just possible that, allowing freely for artistic licence,
he intends his figure to represent it even as it is now.

44
VII.

THE CIRCLET OF OlEEX MARY OF MODEXA.


VIII.

THE STATE CROXVN OF Ol.'KKN MARY OF MODENA.


MARY OF MODENA'S CROWN.
crown that Queen Mary of Modena wore on her
return to Westminster Hall after her coronation is
figured by Sandford, and it is supposed to be now
in the Tower. It is likely that it is the same
crown, but there are alterations in the crosses and
fleurs-de-lys which surmount the rim, as well as in
the cross above the mound but the main feature
;

of the crown, the row of large diamonds round the


rim, is the same in both cases, as are the arches.
The only gems used in the crown are diamonds and pearls, and some of
the diamonds are very large. I think it is probable that the alterations

and improvements which have been made were done for Mary n. The
crown has the crimson velvet cap turned up with miniver kept with it.

45
THE PRINCE OF WALES'S CORONET.
HE eldest son of the sovereigns of England used
originally to be called the Lord Prince.' Edward i.,
'

whose son Edward was born at Carnarvon Castle,


invested him with the principality of Wales. This
young on the death of his elder brother
prince,
Alphonso, became heir-apparent to the throne, and
since that time the title has been borne by the
eldest son of the sovereign. The eldest son of
the King or Queen of England is born Duke of
Cornwall, and deemed of full age on his birthday, so that he is entitled
to the revenues of his Duchy. Since the Union he is also Duke of
Rothesay and Seneschal of Scotland from his birth, and at the pleasure
of the sovereign he is created by patent Prince of Wales.
The Prince of Wales's coronet is of gold only, and is ornamented
with imitation gem clusters and pearls. From the rim rise four crosses-
patee and four fleurs-de-lys alternately, and from two opposite crosses
rises a single arch, dipping deeply towards the centre. At the top is a
mound of gold with imitation pearls, and above this a cross-patde also
with pearls. This crown is placed on the Prince's head when he is
created Prince of Wales, and is also placed before his seat in the House
of Lords when the Queen opens Parliament. Before the Restoration
of Charles n. the coronet of the Prince of Wales had no arch, and it
was by that king's order that the arch was added with the mound and
cross-pated at the top. The coronets of sons, brothers, and uncles of
the sovereigns are exactly like that of the Prince of Wales with the
exception of the arch, which is not used in their case. The coronets
of the princesses of Great Britain are also without the arches, and two
of the crosses-patde are replaced by strawberry leaves. The coronet
is shown with the crimson velvet turned with miniver with
cap up
which it is worn.

46
IX.

THE CORONET OF THE PRINCE OF WALES.


SWORDS.
HERE are four swords now kept in the Tower. The
of these is the Sword of State a two-
largest
handed sword, the length of the blade of which is
about thirty-two inches, and the breadth about two
inches. The cross of the sword is formed by an
arrangement lengthwise of the lion and the unicorn
in gilt metal, with a double rose between them.
The grip of the sword and the pommel are also of
gilt metal. The grip has upon it in raised work
designs of the portcullis, fleur-de-lys and harp, and the pommel itself a
thistle, orb and other emblems. The upper end of the scabbard has a
metal sheathing, gilt, in the form of a portcullis. The lower end has a
shoe of gilt metal with designs of portcullis and the lion crest of
England upon a crown, and finishes with an orb and cross. The
scabbard itself is covered with crimson velvet encircled with gilded metal
plates, bearing designs in high relief. The centre plate bears the full
royal coat of arms of England, with supporters, and the other plates
bear the Tudor badge of the portcullis, the double Tudor rose, the thistle
of Scotland, the harp of Ireland, and the fleur-de-lys of France.
Swords are found upon the Great Seals of all our English sovereigns
from the time of Edward the Confessor, usually on the reverses, but they
have no particular form, and simply mean that the king is a soldier and
the head of the army. The sovereign is girded with the sword after being
anointed. In Westminster Abbey with the coronation chair is kept a
large two-handed sword, said to have belonged to Edward i. It is a
state sword of great size, and the form of the handle is evidently the
original of the three other swords which are now kept in the Tower. At
George the Third's coronation, the Earl Marshal forgot the Sword of
State, and one was borrowed from the Lord Mayor to do service instead
of it, as fortunately it was not necessary to have the weapon itself, it
being only an emblem. The king complained of the neglect to Lord
Effingham who was the Deputy Earl Marshal, and he in his confusion
'

replied : It is true, sir


;
but I have taken care that the next coronation
shall be regulated in the exactest manner possible.'
There are three other swords besides this state sword one is called
Curtana,' one the Sword of Justice to the Spirituality,' and the other
' '

the Sword of Justice to the Temporality,' and these are all now of the
'

same pattern. They are figured by Sir Edward Walker, but the handles
that he gives are different from those that now exist. The most curious
'
of these is Curtana,' or
'
the Sword of Mercy.' It is also known as the
sword of Edward the Confessor, and it was formerly the privilege of
47
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
the Earls of Chester to carry it before the king. Its point is blunt, cut
off square, but in Sir Edward Walker's account it is shown
jagged.
This blunted point is supposed to be typical of the quality of mercy. The
handles of the three swords are of a simple pattern, all gilded ;
the
pommels being thick octagonal plates with circular centres. The scabbards
are covered with crimson velvet ornamented with a running scroll in
gold braid. The length of Curtana' is about thirty-two inches, and the
'

breadth of the blade two inches. The other two swords are a little longer,
and the breadth of their blades a little less, and they are both pointed in
the usual manner.

SPURS.
N the list of the regalia made for Charles IL, and
drawn out in 1685 in preparation for the coronation
of James n., mention is made of a pair of golden
spurs. They are figured both in Sir Edward
Walker's account of the coronation of Charles n.,
and in Sandford's account of the coronation of
James n., and appear to be the same now as they
were then, with the exception of the straps and
buckles. They were most probably made by Sir
'

Robert Vyner, and are of the kind known as prick spurs, as they do
'

not end in a rowel, but in a sharp point projecting from a conventional


flower. They are of solid gold, richly chased in flowing patterns, and
have straps of crimson velvet embroidered in gold. They are known
as St. George's spurs, and are of course the emblem of knighthood and
chivalry, and with the sword help to mark the military character of the
sovereign. At the coronation these spurs are presented to the sovereign,
and immediately deposited on the altar, being afterwards redeemed by
the payment of some handsome fee. This procedure, indeed, takes
place with most of the articles used at the coronation, one after the
other.
In former days, no one was allowed to enter a sacred edifice with
48
X.

ST. GEORGE S SPURS.

THE SWORD OF STATE. THE SWORD "CURTANA.


THE ENGLISH REGALIA
military arms upon him. These were generally left with one of the
attendants at the door or in the porch, while their owner went inside to
pray. When the prayers were finished and the soldier came out again,
he had to redeem his accoutrements with such money as he had avail-
'

able, and spur money had always to be taken into consideration when
'

an armed knight went to his devotions.

49
QUEEN VICTORIA'S STATE CROWN.

HIS beautiful piece of jewellery was made by Rundell


and Bridge in 1838. Many of the gems in it are old
ones reset, and many of them are new. The entire
weight of the crown is 39 oz. 5 dwt. It consists of
a circlet of open work in silver, bearing in the front
the great sapphire from the crown of Charles n.
which was bequeathed to George in. by Cardinal
York, with other Stuart treasure. At one end this
gem is partly pierced. It is not a thick stone, but
it is a fine colour. Opposite to the large sapphire is one of smaller size.
The remainder is filled in with rich jewel clusters, having
of the rim
alternately sapphires and emeralds in their centres, enclosed in orna-
mental borders thickly set with diamonds. These clusters are separated
from each other by trefoil designs also thickly set with diamonds. The
rim is bordered above and below with bands of large pearls, 129 in the
lower row, and 1 12 in the upper. Above the rim are shallow festoons of
diamonds, caught up between the larger ornaments by points of
emeralds encircled with diamonds, and a large pearl above each. On
these festoons are set alternately eight crosses-patde and eight fleurs-de-lys
of silver set with gems. Thecrosses-patde are thickly set with brilliants
and have each an emerald in the centre, except that in the front of the
crown, which contains the most remarkable jewel belonging to the regalia.
This is a large spinel ruby of irregular drop-like form, measuring about
two inches in length, and is highly polished on what is probably its natural
surface, or nearly so. Its irregular outline makes it possible to recognise
the place that it has formerly occupied in the older state crowns, and it
seems always to have been given the place of honour. It is pierced after
an Oriental fashion, and the top of the piercing is filled with a supple-
mentary ruby set in gold. Don Pedro, King of Castile, in 1367
murdered the King of Granada for the sake of his jewels, one of which
was this stone, and Don Pedro is said to have given it to Edward the
Black Prince after the battle of Najera, near Vittoria, in the same year.
After this, it is said to have been worn by Henry the Fifth in his crown
at Agincourt in 1415, when it is recorded that the king's life was saved
from the attack of the Due D'Alenfon, because of the protection afforded
him by his crown, a portion of which, however, was broken off. It may
be confidently predicted that such a risk of destruction is not very likely
to happen again to the great ruby.
In the centre of each of the very ornamental fleurs-de-lys is a
ruby, and all the rest of the ornamentation on them is composed of rose
so
XI.

i -

QUEEN VICTORIA'S IMPERIAL CROWN.


THE ENGLISH REGALIA
diamonds, large and small. From each of the crosses-pate"e, the upper
corners of which have each a large pearl upon them, rises an arch of
silver worked into a design of oak leaves and acorn cups. These
leaves and cups are all closely encrusted with a mass of large and
small diamonds, rose, brilliant, and table cut the acorns themselves
;

being formed of beautiful drop-shaped pearls of large size. From the


four points of intersection of the arches at the top of the crown depend
large egg-shaped pearls. From the centre of the arches, which slope
slightly upwards, springs a mound with a cross-patee above it. The
mound is ornamented all over with close lines of brilliant diamonds,
and the fillet which encircles it, and the arch which crosses over it,
are both ornamented with one line of large rose-cut diamonds set
closely together. The cross-patee at the top has in the centre a large
sapphire of magnificent colour set openly. The outer lines of the arms
of the cross are marked by a row of small diamonds close together, and
in the centre of each arm is a large diamond, the remaining spaces being
filled with more small diamonds. The large sapphire in the centre of
this cross is said to have come out of the ring of Edward the Confessor,
which was buried with him in his shrine at Westminster, and the posses-
sion of it is supposed to give to the owner the power of curing the
cramp. If this be indeed the stone which belonged to St. Edward, it
'

was probably recut in its present form of a rose for Charles u., even if
'

not since his time.


Not counting the large ruby or the large sapphire, this crown
contains
four rubies,
eleven emeralds,
sixteen sapphires,
two hundred and seventy-seven pearls,
two thousand seven hundred and eighty-three diamonds.
The large ruby has been valued at i 10,000.
When this crown has to take a journey, it is provided with a little
box, lined with white velvet, and having a sliding drawer at the bottom
with a boss on which the crown fits closely, so that it is safe from
slipping. The velvet cap turned up with miniver, with which it is
worn, is kept with it.
THE MACES, BANQUETING PLATE, ETC.

Mace was originally a weapon used by cavalry


soldiers, and the general shape of the ancient
maces a short handle with a broad head is

retained in the ornamental maces used at our


coronations, in Parliament, by the mayors of towns,
and in other cognate cases. The crowned mace
indicates the delegation of royal authority, and is
a mark of dignity, used on ceremonial occasions,
and carried in procession by chosen officials. A
really a small mace, and was
until lately surmounted
policeman's staff is

by a crown.
The royal maces are carried
at coronations by the serjeants-
at-arms, originally a corps of
twenty-four knights, or gentle-
men higher than that degree,
said to have been instituted by
Richard i., whose duty it was to
be in attendance on the king's
person. They were mounted at
the coronation of Charles n. (fig.
57), but on foot at that of James n.
There are several maces in the
Tower, the oldest and finest of
which are two that were most
likely made by Sir Robert Vyner
for Charles n., whose initials are
upon them. They are of silver
gilt, and measure a little over
THE SERJEANTS-AT-ARMS CARRYING THEIR lOUr feet in length.
FIG. 57.
MACES. FROM THE CORONATION PROCESSION OF Th^
x uc 1l<=>arl Mrh Ul
rf CcU_ll nf tfl^CP
CHARLES II. AFTER WENCESLAUS HOLLAR. "Cd.U Ul tllCSC
maces, which have served as
models to the other royal maces, consists of a massive rounded bowl,
divided externally into four compartments, each bearing a crown flanked
by the initials C. R., and under the crowns are the emblems of the three
kingdoms, the rose, thistle, harp, and fleur-de-lys, in high repousse'-work
finished with chasing. The compartments are marked out by orna-
mental scroll divisions, on each of which is a conventional female figure.
In many instances these bowls at the top of maces were made to
unscrew, and were used as drinking-cups, being provided with a short
foot as well the ornamental crown at the top also being removable.
52
XII.

HEAD OF MACE OF CHARLES II.


THE ENGLISH REGALIA
Above a crown, the rim of which, widening slightly outwards,
this is
bears eight small crosses-patde, and eight small fleurs-de-lys, raised on
points, and with pearl points between each. From alternate crosses-
patde rise two arches, dipping at the point of intersection, with a row of
'
'

pearls along the centre of each.


From the point of intersection rises a large orb with fillet round the
thickest part of it, and an arch crossing it at the top. On the top of the
'

mound is a cross-patde with a pearl in the centre, and also one at each
'

extremity of the three upper arms.


The handle of the mace is chased and ornamented with a graceful
design of superimposed arches, in each of which is either a rose or a
thistle. It is divided into three divisions by two broad knops of oblate
form, repousses and chased in a simple design. The upper of these
divisions is much the smallest, and is further decorated with three
ornamental brackets of open tracery with masks and curves richly
designed. The foot widens out into a rounded boss repousse" and chased
in a pattern resembling that of the smaller knops, but more ornamentally
treated and differently proportioned, and the foot has another smaller
thickening decorated in the same way.
The remaining maces are all made on the same plan, but they are
larger, and differ in the details of the ornamentation, and also
in the
initials of the sovereign for whom they were made James n., William
and Mary, or one of the Georges.
The fine christening font of silver gilt was made for Charles n. It
has a high foot and richly repousse stand. It is used, I am told, only
for the christening of the heir-apparent and is a finely-worked specimen
;

of English plate.
The great maundy dish is also kept in the Tower. It is silver
gilt, and has engraved
in the centre the royal coat of arms within the

garter, and the initials of William and Mary. From this dish the alms
are distributed on Maundy Thursday.
The sacramental flagon and repousse altar-dish both bear the
monogram of William and Mary.
With these exceptions, all the royal plate now in the Tower really
belongs to the table furniture of the state banquet, which used to be held
in Westminster Hall after the coronation, but has been discontinued
since the coronation of George iv. The pieces are chiefly great salt-
cellars, the most important being that of Elizabeth, which is specially
described the next finest being
;
a set of seven made for Charles IL, with
a mounted knight at the top then there are four of massive form, also
;

made for Charles, all these being worked in high repousse" and richly
chased, of silver gilt. There are a dozen salt-spoons with twisted stalk
handles.
The curious gold salt-cellar, fashioned like a square tower with four
S3
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
corner turrets, a large turret rising from the centre, and topped by a
crown, was presented to the Crown by the city of Exeter. It is studded
in places with gems, especially one fine emerald, and is generally
supposed to represent the White Tower, but the authority for this does
not appear.
The magnificent wine fountain was given to Charles n. by the
Corporation of Plymouth. The bowl part is divided into several
shallow basins, and a thick ornamental column with rich modelling
rises in the centre, finishing with a figure-group at the top. It is a

splendid piece of plate, and well and largely designed, the actual work-
manship also being excellent.
There are also with the regalia proper some silver-gilt tankards of
foreign make, and in a side-case the state silver trumpets with their
heavily embroidered falls, and in the window-cases the official copies of
the Orders of the Empire.

54
THE CORONATION BOOK.
seems rather curious that, considering the import-
ance of the coronation oath, we have no official
Bible on which it is to be taken. The Book has,
at all events since the time of Henry vin., been
provided anew at each coronation, and indeed it is
probable that if we had possessed a fine book
possibly covered with gold and gems it would
have been destroyed in 1649 with the rest of the
regalia.
The coronation oath is very old, and is traced back a long way.
Lingard, in his history of the Anglo-Saxon Church, says it is referable to
Anthenius, Patriarch of Constantinople, who refused to crown Anastasius
until he had sworn to make no change in the established religion. This
was in the fifth century but it is most probable that, long before, there
;

was some form of oath administered to rulers, by virtue of which their


protection of the religion of their subjects was secured.
In the library of the Society of Antiquaries at Burlington House, in
one of the scrap-books, is a drawing by Vertue of a curious old book
said to have been that on which our kings from Henry i. to Henry vin.
took their coronation oath.
This same book is now in the manuscript department of the British
Museum, and, apart from its historical interest, it has the distinction of
being one of the very few decorative bindings of English workmanship
of the twelfth century now existing.
It is a vellum manuscript of extracts from the Gospels in Latin, with
interlinear Saxon version, and it also contains all the Gospel of St. John
except some missing pages, and a few other extracts. Inside the book
are several notes concerning its history one signed by John Ives at
:

'Yarmouth, St. Luke's Day 1772,' says it 'appears to be the original


book on which our Kings and Queens took their coronation oath before
the Reformation.' Powell, in the Repertory of Records, 1631, at page 123
mentions 'a little booke with a crucifix,' and says it is preserved in the
chest of the King's Remembrancer at the Exchequer.
Mr. Thomas Madox, author of the History of the Exchequer, con-
sidered that it was the book formerly belonging to the Exchequer, which
was mentioned by Powell. It was shown to Mr. Madox by Mr. Thomas
'

Palgrave,' who owned it in the eighteenth century but how it left the
;

'chest of the King's Remembrancer at the Exchequer* there is nothing


to show. Early in the present century it belonged to Mr. Thomas Astle,
Keeper of the Records in the Tower, and on his death, with the rest of
55
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
his became the property by purchase of the Marquis of
library, it

Buckingham. Although a beautiful Gothic room had been built at


Stowe in which to keep this library, it was all sold in 1849 to Lord Ash-
'

burnham. From Lord Ashburnham the Stowe library was purchased


'

by the Trustees of the British Museum in 1883, and so this little book
became once more national property, and is not likely to leave its present
guardianship.
It is covered with thick wooden boards three-quarters of an inch
thick, covered with deer-skin. On the lower cover is a sunk panel, and
in this is a figure of our Lord, finely modelled
and chased. The figure shows remains of old
gilding, and the workmanship is excellent. The
corners are protected by corner-pieces of gilt metal,
each with a boss and a design of a fleur-de-lys
within a circle stamped upon them, and there is
an old clasp (fig. 58).
The figure of our Saviour and the clasp are
probably contemporary with the rest of the bind-
ing and the manuscript itself, but the corner-
pieces are apparently a subsequent addition.
^ s ^ar as can k ascertained from pictures of
recent coronations, the Bible upon which the oath
FIG. 5 -THE -CORONATION
s. has been taken was covered in dark blue velvet
with gilt clasps, centre-pieces, and corners. That
used by Queen Victoria was in 1883 tne property of the Rev. J. H.
Sumner, Rector of Buriton, Hants. It came to him from his father, the
Bishop of Winchester, to whom it was given after the coronation.
THE KOH-I-NOOR.
HE Koh-i-noor seems to have been originally found
in theGolconda diamond-mines in the Deccan, and
when the Mogul princes extended their rule to this
district the prime minister of the king of Golconda
conspired with Shah Jehaun against his master, and
plotted to obtain possession of the stone. Between
them, the prime minister and the Mogul Emperor
contrived eventually to succeed in their designs, and
the jewel passed from Golconda to Delhi. The
Emperor Aurengzebe, the son of Jehaun, allowed the French traveller
Tavernier to see the gem in 1665, and he was permitted to examine it care-
fully in the presence of the Emperor himself. It was kept at Delhi until
I
739 when it was captured by Nadir Shah, the king of Persia, who carried
it
away to Korassan. It is said that when Nadir Shah took possession
of Delhi Mohammed Shah endeavoured to hide the great diamond,
but a lady of Mohammed's harem told Nadir Shah that it was hidden
in Mohammed's turban, and, at a festival, the Persian
king offered
Mohammed an Oriental form of compliment, consisting of an exchange
of turbans, and by this device he obtained possession of the jewel.
Nadir Shah was presently assassinated, but among his Afghan guard
was a certain Ahmed Shah, who had access to his treasure. This chieftain
with his fellow-Afghans managed to escape into their own country,
carrying the stone with them.
Ahmed eventually became the ruler at Cabul, and founded the
Doorannee monarchy. One of Ahmed's descendants, Shah Shuja, wore
the gem set as an armlet, probably in the same setting as is now in the
Tower, on the occasion of the embassy of Mr. Elphinstone to Peshawur,
and, on his expulsion from Cabul shortly afterwards, he managed to carry
the diamond away with him. Shah Shuja found a refuge with the Sikh
ruler Runjeet Singh at Lahore, who, in return for his hospitality, insisted
upon the gem being given to him, and he obtained possession of it in
1813. Dhuleep Singh duly inherited the gem, and it belonged to him
until 1849 when the East India Company annexed Lahore, and it was
presented by them to the Queen of England, and was sent to her by
Lord Dalhousie under the care of Major Mackeson, reaching this
country in 1850. It was exhibited in the Great Exhibition of 1851, and
was then valued at ^140,000.
When the stone was first in the possession of Shah Jehaun it was
uncut, and is said to have weighed nearly eight hundred carats. It was
sent by Jehaun to a Venetian lapidary, Ortensio Borgio, to be cut, but
H 57
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
it was supposed that he spoilt it, and the Sultan made him pay ten
thousand rupees as a punishment. Borgio not only cut the stone badly,
but very greatly reduced its weight. When brought to Europe it only
weighed one hundred and eighty-six and one-sixteenth carats. Its shape
when it came here was that of a truncated cone with a large number of
small facets, nearly resembling, indeed, the shape of a mountain in
miniature. This manner of cutting a diamond is by no means calculated
to show its brilliancy to the greatest advantage and the Prince Consort
;

took counsel with many lapidaries and men of science, especially Sir
David Brewster, with a view to finding out not only the best manner of
having it recut, but also to decide the difficult question as to who should
be intrusted with the delicate task. After much deliberation, the form of
a regularly cut brilliant was decided upon, and the work was given to
Messrs. Coster of Amsterdam, who sent over here to have it executed
the actual cutter being Herr Voorsanger, of Amsterdam.
The cutting was commenced on 6th July 1852 according to some
authorities by the Prince Consort himself, and according to others by the
Duke of Wellington, so it is probable that both these gentlemen were
present. The weight after the cutting was reduced to one hundred and
six and one-sixteenth carats. The form that the diamond was cut in has
been adversely criticised because of the shallowness of the stone but the
;

only alternative form would appear to have been that which the stone
already possessed, which might possibly have been to some extent
improved, but never could have been so brilliant as the form adopted.
The great loss of weight is to some extent accounted for by the fact that
Herr Voorsanger found several flaws one especially big one that he
considered it necessary to cut away. The stone is now worn by her
Majesty as a brooch, and is kept at Windsor;
and although the original
setting is
deposited in the Tower with the rest of the regalia, the jewel
itself her Majesty's private property, which is quite in accordance
is

with the Indian superstition concerning it,


which is that its ownership takes with it the
sovereignty of Hindostan.
The armlet of Shah Shuja, v/hich is
most likely the one in the Tower, held
three gems, now replaced by models the
Koh-i-noor in the centre with two drop-
shaped diamonds at each side of it, in a
setting of gold richly enamelled (fig. 59).
The enamels which show upon the front
are g reen and white but those at the back
>

of the stone are red, blue, green and white


in beautiful Indian
patterns. Then, after two gold attachments, come
thick strands of crimson silk,
brought together with a twist of gold
58
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
thread, and ending in a tassel of large pearls each surmounted by a ruby
bead. The armlet is excellently arranged over a looking-glass, so that
the enamels at the back of the stone can be well seen.
The model of the Koh-i-noor shows the manner of its cutting when
it was brought over in 1850.

59
ST. EDWARD'S CHAIR.
}T. EDWARD'S Chair may be considered to be
part of the regalia of England, and since it has
been in this country its home has always been in
Westminster Abbey. It was brought from Scot-
land by Edward i. in 1296, after his defeat of John
Baliol. All our kings since that time have been
crowned upon it at Westminster, except Mary i. ;

and when Cromwell was installed Lord Protector,


it was taken to Westminster Hall for him. The
inches eleven broad, and
'

seat holds Jacob's stone,' twenty-two long,


about six in depth, on which tradition says the patriarch Jacob slept
in the plain of Luz. Holinshed in his Historic of Scotland gives a
curious history of a Greek noble, Gathelus, son of Cecrops, the builder
of Athens. Gathelus, being of a turbulent and wandering disposition,
went from Greece into Egypt with several companions, anno mundi
'

2416.' Here he made friends with Pharao the king, and eventually
married his daughter Scota from whom it is said the name of Scotia
is derived.
On the death of Pharao, Gathelus, not agreeing with his successors,
left Egypt and settled at Compostella, where he was
'
intituled by the
name of king,' and sat upon his marble stone in Brigantia.' The
'

two sons of Gathelus, however, not liking Spain, migrated to an island


'lying north ouer agaynst Spayne,' and landed at Dundalke,' the island
'

being called Hibernia,' after one of them whose name was Hyberus.
'

The stone they are supposed to have brought with them, and it is
'
described as being in fashion like a seate or chayre, having a fatall
destinie, as the Scottes say, following it, that wheresoever it shoulde be
founde, there shoulde the Scottish men raigne and haue the supreme
Hereof it came to passe that first in Spaine, after in
fouernance.
relande, and then in Scotlande, the kings which ruled ouer the Scottish
men receyued the crowne sitting upon that stone, untill the time of
Robert the First, king of Scotlande.' It is said to have been taken to
Ireland about 700 B.C. by Simon Brech, king of Scots. Thence it was
taken to Scotland by King Fergus, about 330 B.C., and in 850 A.D. it
was placed in the Abbey of Scone by King Kenneth. He found it
at Dunstaffnage, a royal Scottish castle, the sandstone of which, by
the bye, has a very near resemblance to the stone itself; in fact, it is
undoubtedly, geologically speaking, the same dull reddish sandstone.
It must not be
forgotten that the Mohammedans say Jacob's stone is
60
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
now preserved at Jerusalem, and that consequently our story is the
wrong one. King Kenneth had it enclosed in a wooden chair, of which
the present one is a copy made for Edward i., and
particulars concerning it are to be found in his Ward-
robe Accounts (fig. 60). It was originally gilded,
painted, and inlaid in places with glass mosaics,
traces of which can still be seen on a careful examina-
tion, especially on the back of the chair. It was
dedicated by Edward i. to St. Edward the Confessor
in 1297, and the part of the Abbey in which it is
kept is still known as St. Edward's Chapel. Edward
had an engraved plate inserted in the stone, and on it
the legend
'
Ni fallat fatum, Scoti hunc quoqunque locatum
Inveniunt lapidem regnare tenentur ibidem';
FIG. 60. ST. EDWARD'S
which may be translated CHAIR.
'
Except old saws do fail, and wizards' wits be blind,
The Scots in place must reign where they this stone shall find.'

This plate is now gone, but a space remains to mark the place to
which it was formerly attached. A cross is cut upon the stone, and it
has old handles at the ends. Another superstition concerning it was
that it was said to groan or speak whenever
any of the monarchs of
the Scythian race seated themselves upon it and this must have been
;

known to Hector Boece, who notes a fuller version of the old Scoto-
Irish prophecy which, being translated,
says
'
Unless the fixed decrees of fate give way
The Scots shall govern and the sceptre sway,
Where'er this stone they find, and its dread sound obey.'

The four lions upon which the chair rests are gilded, and one of them
had a new face put upon him for the coronation of
George iv. For
the coronation ceremony itself the chair is carefully covered with cloth of
gold. Its appearance, when prepared for the coronation, shows admir-
ably in Sir George Hayter's beautiful picture of the coronation of Queen
Victoria, in which the Queen is seen just after she has been crowned,
holding in her right hand the royal sceptre with the cross, and in her
left the sceptre with the dove, and
wearing the Colobium Sindonis,'
'

stole, dalmatic, and mantle. She also has a high footstool, and the
Gothic pinnacles at the top of the chair were apparently restored for the
occasion (fig. 61).
Sacred stones have been used in many countries and at many times
as seats for the coronation ceremonies of
kings and although the stone
;

which has been used in England since the time of Edward i. for this
61
THE ENGLISH REGALIA
purpose came, as we have seen, from Scotland, we possess at Kingston
an old piece of what was most likely a holy Druidical stone of our
own altogether. This stone was used for the coronation of some of
our Saxon kings certainly, and, probably enough, for more of them
than is recorded. As early as the reign of Edred, in 946, in a charter,
mention is made of Kingston as the royal town in which the coronation
is usually performed, and the fact of the stone being there gives the
place its name.
During the tenth and eleventh centuries seven of our kings are
known to have been crowned at Kingston, and the Saxon monarchs had
a palace there, as nearly as can be ascertained, on the spot where the
stone now is. The stone itself resembles the stones of the Druids at

FIG. 61. QUEEN VICTORIA SEATED FIG. 62. THE KINGSTON CORONATION
IN ST. EDWARD'S CHAIR. STONE.

Stonehenge, and it is extremely likely to have had some especially


sacred character (fig. 62).
It is now
resting on a septangular block of stone enclosed within an
iron railing, with a pilaster of stone at each of the seven corners. The
arrangement and design of the railing and pillars is excellent, and under
each of the columns is a penny of one of the
kings that were certainly
crowned there.

62
INDEX
./ETHELRED n., Sceptre of, 19. Charles, Prince of Wales, 3.
^Ethelstan, Crowns of, 21. i., Sale of treasure by, 3, 4.

Agincourt, Battle of, 3, 50. Ring of, 26.

Ahmed Shah, 57. n., Coronation of, 5.

Alen9on, Due d', 3, 50. -Orb of, 37.


Alfonso, Prince, 46. Sceptre of, 35, 38.

Alfred, King, Crown of, 4, 21. State Crown of, 25.

Amherst of Hackney, Lord, vii, 13, 24, 25. Vestments of, 8.

Ampulla, 28. Chrisma, or Holy Cream, 28.


Anastasius, Emperor, 55. Christening font at the Tower, 53.
Anointing, Directi&ns for, 28. Circlet of Queen Mary of Modena, 44.

Antiquaries, Society of, 30, 55. Colobium Sindonis of Queen Victoria, i, 14, 15.

Archaologia, 4. Commonwealth, 4.

Arches, Crowns with, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26. Consort, the Prince, 58.
Ashburnham, Earl of, 56. Cornwall, Duke of, 46.
Astle, Mr. Thomas, 55. Coronation, Order of, i.

Athenius, Patriarch of Constantinople, 55. Book, 55.


Aurengzebe, Emperor, 57. Ring) 26.
Spoon, 30.
BAGFORD COLLECTION, 12. Coronet of the Prince of Wales, 46.
Baliol, John, King of Scotland, 25, 60. Coster, of Amsterdam, 58.
Bannockburn, 25. Cripps, Mr. W., 30.
Banqueting Plate at the Tower, 52. Cromwell, u, 60.

Biddulph, Sir Michael A. S., v. Cross, Crowns with, 23, 24, 25.

Blood, Colonel, 24. Orbs with, 17.


Bodleian Library, Oxford, i.
Sceptres with, 19, 35, 36.
Borgio, Ortensio, 57. Crown of Queen Mary of Modena, 45.
Bracelets, 42. of Scotland, 26.
Crowns, 21.
Bray, Sir Reginald, 3.

Brech, Simon, King of Scots, 60. 'Curtana,' 47.


Brewster, Sir David, 58.
DALHOUSIE, Lord, 57.
British Museum, Coronation authorities at the, i.
Dalmatic of Charles n., 8.
Bagford Collection at the, 12.
of 1 1.
James IL,
Golden cup of Henry vi. at the, 26.
of Queen Victoria, 15.
Ivory diptych at the, 17.
Dhuleep Singh, Maharajah, 57.
Queen Elizabeth's enamelled book at
Dove, Orb with, 17.
the, 13.
Sceptres with, 20, 38, 39.
Bruce, Robert, King of Scotland, 25. Dunnottar Castle, 25.
Buckingham, Duke of, 3.
of, 60.
Dunstaffnage, Castle
Marquis of, 56.
EDINBURGH CASTLE, 25, 26.
CANTERBURY, Archbishop of, 28. Edith, Queen, Crown of, 4.
Canute, Crown of, 21. Edward the Confessor, Crown of, 21.

Sceptre of, 19. Orb of, 17.


Castile, Pedro, King of, 50. Ring of, 51.

Chaifers, Mr. William, vi, 30. Sceptres of, 19.


THE ENGLISH REGALIA
Edward i., Coronation Chair of, 60. Jehaun, Shah, 57.
Crown of, 23. Jones, Mr. W., vi, 28, 30.
Stole of, 14.

HI., Sceptre of, 20. KEEPER OF THE REGALIA, first mention of the, 3.

iv., Crown of, 23. Kenneth, King of Scotland, 60.


the Black Prince, 50. Kingston Stone, 62.
Effingham, Earl of, 47. Koh-i-noor, 57.
Elizabeth, Queen, Salt-cellar of, 32.
Elphinstone, Embassy of Mr., 57. LEGG, Dr. J. Wickham, vi.

Liber Regalis, i.
Exeter, Salt-cellar presented by city of, 54.

FERGUS, King of Scotland, 60. MACES, 52.


Fleurs-de-lys, Crowns
with, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26. Mackeson, Major, 57.
Sceptres with, 19, 20. Madox, Mr. Thomas, 55.
Mantle of Charles n.,
Frederick in., Emperor, Golden Bulla of, 14. 9.
of James n., 9.
GATHELUS, 60. of Queen Victoria, 16.

George in., 26. Mary i., u, 60.


iv., State Crown of, 25. n., Orb of, 40.
Golconda Mines, 57. Sceptre of, 39.

Granada, King of, 50. of Modena, Queen, Circlet of, n, 44.


Griggs, Mr. William, v. Ivory Rod of, 41.
Sceptre of, 36.
HAROLD n., Coronation of, 37. State Crown of, 45.
Crown of, 22. Queen of Scots, 25.
Sceptre of, 20. the Virgin, 28.
Hayter, Sir George, 61. Maundy Dish at the Tower, 53.

Henry I., Crowns of, 22. Methven, 25.


- Orb of, 17. Middleton, Sir Frederick D., v.

in., Orbs of, 17. Mildmay, Sir Harry, 4.

Sceptre of, 20. Mohammed Shah, 57.


iv., Sceptre of, 20. Monstrance, Sceptre with, 20.
v., at Agincourt, 3, 50.

VI., Crown of, 23.


NADIR SHAH, 57.
Golden enamelled cup of, 26. Najera, battle of, 50.

vii., at Bosworth, 3.
Nayler, Sir George, vi, 12, 25.
Crowns of, 23.
Orb of, OGILVY, John, vi, 8.
17.
viii., Crown of, 24.
Orb, the larger, 37.
the smaller, 40.
Orb of, 1 8.
Holinshed, 60. Orbs, 17.

Holland, Royal Treasure pawned to, 3.


PALGRAVE, Mr. Thomas, 55.
Hollar, Wenceslaus, 52.
Pearls, Crowns with, 21, 22.
Hyberus, 60.
Sceptres with, 19, 20.
INVENTORIES OF REGALIA, etc., 4, etc. Pedro, King of Castile, 50.
Ivory Rod of Queen Mary of Modena, 41. Pharao, King of Egypt, 60.
Plymouth, Wine Fountain given by the town of,
JACKSON, Mr. C. J., 30. 54-
Jacob's Stone, 60. Powell's Repertory of Records, 55.
James n., Sceptre of, 35.
'
Protestant Joy,' 3.
State Crown of, 25.
Vestments of, 9, etc. Regalia, Keeper of the, 3.
v., King of Scotland, 25. Richard i., Orb of, 17.

64
INDEX
Richard in. at Bosworth, 3. Stephanoff, drawings by, 12.
Richmond, Earl of, 3. Stephen, Crown of, 22.
Ring, the Coronation, 26. Stole of Charles n., 8.
Robert i., King of Scotland, 60. of James n., 12.
Royle, Mr. Arnold, vi. of Queen Victoria, 16.
Ruby in Queen Victoria's State Crown, 50. Stonehenge, 62.
Ruding, Rev. Rogers, vii. Stowe, library at, 56.
Rundell and Bridge, 50. Swords, 47.
Runjeet Singh, 57. Sumner, Rev. J. H., 56.
Rymer's Fxdera, vi. Surcoat of James n., n.

ST. ARMAND, Mr. James, 28.


TALBOTT, Sir Gilbert, 6.
St. Edward's Chair, 60.
Tassels on Crowns, 21, 22.
Crown, 34.
Tavernier, 57.
Staff,41.
Thomas, St., of Canterbury, 28.
Chapel, 6 1. Tower of London, 3.
St. George's Spurs, 48.
St. Thomas of Canterbury, 28.
Salt-cellar of VERTUE, drawing by, 55.
Queen Elizabeth, 32.
Vestments of Charles n., 8.
Salt-cellar presented by the city of Exeter, 54.
of James n., 9, etc.
Sandford, Francis, vi, 10, 12, 32, 34, 35, 36, 38,
of Queen Victoria, 14, etc.
39, 40.
Victoria, Queen, State Crown of, 50.
Sandwich, Earl of, 6.
Vestments of, 14, etc.
Sapphires in Queen Victoria's State Crown, 50,
S 1- Voorsanger, Herr, 58.
Saul, 42. Vyner, Sir Robert, 6, 7, 18, 29, 31, 34, 37, 41,
42, 48.
Sceptres, 19.
with Cross, 35, 36.
with Dove, 20, 38, 39. WALES, Coronet of the Prince of, 46.
with Fleurs-de-lys, 19, 20. Walker, Sir Edward, vi, 7, 10, 12, 24, 34, 35, 37,
with Pearls, 19, 20. 38, 47, 48.
Scone, Abbey of, 60. Wellington, Duke of, 58.
Scota, daughter of Pharao, King of Egypt, 60. Westminster Abbey, muniment room at, i.

Scott, Sir Walter, 25. Treasury at, 3.


Scottish Crown, 26. William i., Crowns of, 22.
Scottish Regalia, 25. Orb of, 17.
Serjeants-at-Arms, 52. II., Crown of, 22.

Shaw, Mr. Henry, 30. iv., State Crown of, 25.


Shuja, Shah, 57. and Mary, Coronation of, 12.
Spain, war with, 3. Winchester, Bishop of, 56.
Spoon, the Coronation, 30. Wine Fountain at the Tower, 54.
Spurs, 48. Wyon, Mr. Alfred B., vi.
Stanley, Lord, at Bosworth, 3.
Mr. Allan, vi.
State Crowns, 24, 25.
State Swords, 47. YORK, Cardinal, 26, 50.
Printed by T. and A. CONSTABLE, Printers to her
Majesty
at the Edinburgh University Press
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