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Designation: A568/A568M 15

Standard Specification for


Steel, Sheet, Carbon, Structural, and High-Strength, Low-
Alloy, Hot-Rolled and Cold-Rolled, General Requirements
for1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation A568/A568M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year
of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.
A superscript epsilon () indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the U.S. Department of Defense.

1. Scope* 1.7 This specification and the applicable material specifica-


1.1 This specification covers the general requirements for tions are expressed in both inch-pound units and SI units.
steel sheet in coils and cut lengths. It applies to the following However, unless the order specifies the applicable M speci-
specifications that describe carbon steel, structural steel, and fication designation (SI units), the material shall be furnished
high-strength, low-alloy steel (HSLA) furnished as hot-rolled to inch-pound units.
sheet and cold-rolled sheet: Specifications A414/A414M, 2. Referenced Documents
A424, A606, A659/A659M, A794, A1008/A1008M, A1011/
2.1 ASTM Standards:2
A1011M, and A1039/A1039M.
A370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing
1.2 This specification is not applicable to hot-rolled heavy- of Steel Products
thickness carbon sheet coils (Specification A635/A635M). A414/A414M Specification for Steel, Sheet, Carbon, and
1.3 In case of any conflict in requirements, the requirements High-Strength, Low-Alloy for Pressure Vessels
of the individual material specification shall prevail over those A424 Specification for Steel, Sheet, for Porcelain Enameling
of this general specification. A606 Specification for Steel, Sheet and Strip, High-
Strength, Low-Alloy, Hot-Rolled and Cold-Rolled, with
1.4 For the purposes of determining conformance with this
Improved Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance
and the appropriate product specification referenced in 1.1,
A635/A635M Specification for Steel, Sheet and Strip,
values shall be rounded to the nearest unit in the right hand
Heavy-Thickness Coils, Hot-Rolled, Alloy, Carbon,
place of figures used in expressing the limiting values in
Structural, High-Strength Low-Alloy, and High-Strength
accordance with the rounding method of Practice E29.
Low-Alloy with Improved Formability, General Require-
1.5 Annex A1 lists permissible variations in dimensions and ments for
mass (see Note 1) in SI [metric] units. The values listed are not A659/A659M Specification for Commercial Steel (CS),
exact conversions of the values listed in the inch-pound tables, Sheet and Strip, Carbon (0.16 Maximum to 0.25 Maxi-
but instead are rounded or rationalized values. Conformance to mum Percent), Hot-Rolled
Annex A1 is mandatory when the M specification is used. A700 Guide for Packaging, Marking, and Loading Methods
NOTE 1The term weight is used when inch-pound units are the for Steel Products for Shipment
standard. However, under SI the preferred term is mass. A751 Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology for Chemi-
1.6 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units cal Analysis of Steel Products
are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in A794 Specification for Commercial Steel (CS), Sheet, Car-
each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each bon (0.16 % Maximum to 0.25 % Maximum), Cold-
system shall be used independently of the other. Combining Rolled
values from the two systems may result in non-conformance A941 Terminology Relating to Steel, Stainless Steel, Related
with the standard. Alloys, and Ferroalloys
A1008/A1008M Specification for Steel, Sheet, Cold-Rolled,
Carbon, Structural, High-Strength Low-Alloy, High-
1
Strength Low-Alloy with Improved Formability, Solution
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,
Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee
2
A01.19 on Steel Sheet and Strip. For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or
Current edition approved Nov. 1, 2015. Published November 2015. Originally contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM
approved in 1966. Last previous edition approved in 2014 as A568/A568M 14. Standards volume information, refer to the standards Document Summary page on
DOI: 10.1520/A0568_A0568M-15. the ASTM website.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard


Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States

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A568/A568M 15
Hardened, and Bake Hardenable supplied in coils or cut lengths as specified.
A1011/A1011M Specification for Steel, Sheet and Strip, (1) Hot-rolled carbon steel sheet is commonly classified by
Hot-Rolled, Carbon, Structural, High-Strength Low- size as follows:
Alloy, High-Strength Low-Alloy with Improved Coils and Cut Lengths
Formability, and Ultra-High Strength Width, in. Thickness, in.
A1030/A1030M Practice for Measuring Flatness Character- All WidthsA 0.027 to 0.230, excl

istics of Steel Sheet Products A


Hot-rolled sheet in coils and cut lengths less than 12 in. in width must have cut
A1039/A1039M Specification for Steel, Sheet, Hot Rolled, edges. Hot-rolled material with mill edges 12 in. and less in width is considered
Carbon, Commercial, Structural, and High-Strength Low- hot-rolled strip.
Alloy, Produced by Twin-Roll Casting Process Coils and Cut Lengths
A1073/A1073M Practice for Using Hand Micrometers to Width, mm Thickness, mm
All WidthsA 0.7 to 6.0, excl
Measure the Thickness of Nonmetallic and Metallic-
Coated Steel Sheet A
Hot-rolled sheet in coils and cut lengths less than 300 mm. in width must have
E11 Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test cut edges. Hot-rolled material with mill edges 300 mm and less in width is
Sieves considered hot-rolled strip.
E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to
Determine Conformance with Specifications (2) Hot-rolled high-strength low-alloy steel sheet is com-
E59 Practice for Sampling Steel and Iron for Determination monly classified by size as follows:
of Chemical Composition (Withdrawn 1996)3 Coils and Cut Lengths
E290 Test Methods for Bend Testing of Material for Ductil- Width, in. Thickness, in.
All WidthsA 0.031 to 0.230, excl
ity
2.2 Military Standards:4 A
Hot-rolled sheet in coils and cut lengths less than 12 in. in width must have cut
MIL-STD-129 Marking for Shipment and Storage edges. Hot-rolled material with mill edges 12 in. and less in width is considered
hot-rolled strip.
2.3 Federal Standards:4 Coils and Cut Lengths
Fed. Std. No. 123 Marking for Shipments (Civil Agencies) Width, in. Thickness, mm
All WidthsA 0.8 to 6.0, excl
3. Terminology
A
Hot-rolled sheet in coils and cut lengths less than 300 mm in width must have cut
3.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard: edges. Hot-rolled material with mill edges 300 mm and less in width is considered
3.1.1 Steel Types: hot-rolled strip.
3.1.2 carbon steel, ndesignation for steel when no mini-
NOTE 2The changes in width limits with the publication of A568/
mum content is specified or required for aluminum, chromium, A568M 06a result in a change in tensile testing direction for material
cobalt, columbium, molybdenum, nickel, titanium, tungsten, from 0.180 in. [4.5 mm] to 0.230 in. exclusive [6.0 mm exclusive] over
vanadium, zirconium, or any element added to obtain a desired 48 in. [1200 mm] wide. Material formerly tested in the transverse
alloying effect; when the specified minimum for copper does direction will be tested in the longitudinal direction. This is expected to
not exceed 0.40 %; or when the maximum content specified for result in some changes in reported properties. The purchaser is advised to
discuss this change with the supplier.
any of the following elements does not exceed the percentages
noted: manganese 1.65, silicon 0.60, or copper 0.60. 3.1.6 cold-rolled sheet, nmanufactured from hot-rolled
3.1.2.1 DiscussionIn all carbon steels small quantities of descaled coils by cold reducing to the desired thickness,
certain residual elements unavoidably retained from raw ma- generally followed by annealing to recrystallize the grain
terials are sometimes found which are not specified or required, structure. If the sheet is not annealed after cold reduction it is
such as copper, nickel, molybdenum, chromium, and so forth. known as full hard with a hardness of 84 HRB minimum and
These elements are considered as incidental and are not can be used for certain applications where ductility and flatness
normally determined or reported. are not required.
3.1.3 high-strength, low-alloy steel, nspecific group of (1) Cold-rolled carbon sheet is commonly classified by size
steels in which higher strength, and in some cases additional as follows:
resistance to atmospheric corrosion or improved formability, Width, in. Thickness, in.
are obtained by moderate amounts of one or more alloying
All WidthsA,B Through 0.142
elements.
Width, mm Thickness, mm
3.1.4 Product Types: All WidthsA,B Through 4.0
3.1.5 hot-rolled sheet, nmanufactured by hot rolling slabs
A
Cold-rolled sheet coils and cut lengths, slit from wider coils with cut edge (only)
in a continuous mill to the required thickness and can be
and in thicknesses through 0.142 in. [4.0 mm] carbon 0.25 % maximum by cast
analysis.
B
When no special edge or finish (other than matte, commercial bright, or luster
3
finish) or single strand rolling of widths, or both under 24 in. [600 mm] is not
The last approved version of this historical standard is referenced on specified or required.
www.astm.org.
4
Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk, DODSSP, Bldg. 4,
Section D, 700 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5098, http:// (2) Cold-rolled high-strength low-alloy sheet is commonly
www.dodssp.daps.mil. classified by size as follows:

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A568/A568M 15

Width, in. Thickness, in. trols or is responsible for (or both) hot rolling and processing
Through 12 A 0.019 through 0.082 operations, the organization that controls and is responsible for
Over 12 B 0.020 and over
the hot rolling is termed the hot roll manufacturer and the
Width, mm Thickness, mm
To 300, inclA 0.5 to 2.0, incl organization or organizations controlling and responsible for
Over 300B 0.5 and Over the processing operations is/are termed the processor or pro-
cessors. Likewise, one organization may be the manufacturer
A
Cold-rolled sheet coils and cut lengths, slit from wider coils with cut edge (only) of the hot roll coil and another the manufacturer of the cold roll
and in thicknesses 0.019 in. [0.5 mm] through 0.082 in. [2.0 mm] carbon 0.25 %
maximum by cast analysis. coil. In such case, the organization responsible for the conver-
B
When no special edge or finish (other than matte, commercial bright, or luster sion of the hot roll coil to a cold roll coil and other processing
finish) or single strand rolling of widths, or both under 24 in. [600 mm] is not operations will also be termed the cold roll manufacturer and
specified or required.
organizations performing additional processing operations to
3.1.6.1 DiscussionSteel products are available in various the cold roll coil will be termed the coil processor or coil
thickness, width, and length combinations depending upon processors.
equipment and processing capabilities of various manufactur- 3.1.11 hot roll manufacturer, nthe organization that di-
ers and processors. Historic limitations of a product based upon rectly controls or is responsible for the conversion of steel
dimensions (thickness, width, and length) do not take into slabs, by hot rolling into coils, and for one or more additional
account current production and processing capabilities. To operations such as leveling, cutting to length, testing,
qualify any product for a particular product specification inspection, blanking, slitting, pickling, cold rolling, heat
requires all appropriate and necessary tests be performed and treating, coating, packaging, marking, loading for shipment,
that the results meet the limits prescribed in that product and certification.
specification. If the necessary tests required by a product
3.1.12 cold roll manufacturer, nthe organization that di-
specification cannot be conducted, the product cannot be
rectly controls or is responsible for the conversion of hot roll
qualified to that specification. This general requirements speci-
coils into cold roll coils, and for one or more additional
fication contains permitted variations for the commonly avail-
operations such as pickling, annealing, temper rolling, slitting,
able sizes. Permitted variations for other sizes are subject to
cutting to length, testing, inspection, blanking, coating,
agreement between the customer and the manufacturer or
packaging, marking, loading for shipment, and certification.
processor, whichever is applicable.
3.2 Refer to Terminology A941 for additional definitions of
3.1.7 retests, nadditional test, or tests, made from the
terms used in this standard.
original material when the original test did not meet the
appropriate acceptance criteria required by a product specifi-
4. Materials and Manufacture
cation and the failure was mechanical in natures as described in
Section 11. 4.1 Unless otherwise specified, hot-rolled material shall be
furnished hot-rolled, not annealed, not pickled.
3.1.8 resample, nadditional test or tests made when the
test on the original sample did not meet the appropriate 4.2 Coil breaks, stretcher strains, and fluting can occur
acceptance criteria required by the product specification, but during the users processing of hot-rolled or hot-rolled pickled
possibly requiring that the material in question have an sheet. When any of these features are detrimental to the
appropriate amount discarded prior to securing the new sample application, the manufacturer shall be notified at time of
or samples. ordering in order to properly process the sheet.
3.1.9 steel manufacturer, nthe organization that directly 4.3 Cold-rolled carbon steel sheet is available as discussed
controls or is responsible for the melting and refining of steel in 10.2, 10.3, and in Table 1.
and the conversion of that steel into semifinished steel products 4.4 Unless specified as a full-hard product, cold-rolled sheet
known as slabs either through continuous casting, conventional is annealed after being cold reduced to thickness. The
or compact methods, or ingot casting and subsequent conver- annealed, cold-rolled sheet can be used as annealed last (dead
sion of the ingots to slabs, and for one or more additional soft) for unexposed end-use applications. When cold-rolled
operations such as testing, marking, loading for shipment, and sheet is used for unexposed applications and coil breaks are a
certification. hazard in uncoiling, it may be necessary to further process the
3.1.10 coil processor, nthe organization that directly con- material. In this case the manufacturer should be consulted.
trols or is responsible for operations involved in processing the After annealing, cold-rolled sheet is generally given a light
coil such as leveling, cutting to length, testing, inspection, skin pass to impart shape or may be given a heavier skin pass
blanking, slitting, pickling, cold rolling (cold reduction), heat or temper pass to prevent the phenomenon known as stretcher
treating, temper rolling, coating, packaging, marking, loading straining or fluting, when formed. Temper passing also pro-
for shipment, and certification. vides a required surface texture.
3.1.10.1 DiscussionThe processing operations need not be 4.5 Temper Rolling:
controlled by the organization that hot rolls the slab into a coil. 4.5.1 Unless otherwise specified, cold-rolled sheet for ex-
If only one organization controls or is responsible for (or both) posed applications shall be temper rolled and is usually
the hot rolling and processing operations, that organization is specified and furnished in the strain free condition as shipped
termed the manufacturer. If more than one organization con- (see Appendix X1).

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A568/A568M 15
TABLE 1 Cold-Rolled Sheet Steel Class Comparison
Exposed Unexposed

Major imperfections:
Cut lengths Mill rejects Mill rejects
Coils Purchaser accepts within the manufacturers published Purchaser accepts within the manufacturers published
standards (policy) standards (policy)

Minor imperfections:
Cut lengths Mill rejections repetitive imperfections. May contain Purchaser accepts all minor imperfections
random imperfections which the purchaser accepts within
the manufacturers published standards (policy)
Coils Purchaser accepts within the manufacturers published Purchaser accepts all minor imperfections
standards (policy)

Finish Matte unless otherwise specified Purchaser accepts all finishes

Special oils May be specified May not be specified

Thickness, width and length


tolerance:
Standard Will be met Will be met
Restricted May be specified May not be specified

Flatness tolerance:
Standard Will be met Will be met (temper rolled) Not guaranteednormally
within twice standard (annealed last)

Restricted squareness May be specified May not be specified

Coil wraps Purchaser accepts within the manufacturers published Purchaser accepts all
standards (policy)

Coil welds Purchaser accepts within the manufacturers published Purchaser accepts within the manufacturers published
standards (policy) standards (policy)

Outside inspection May be specified May not be specified

Special testing May be specified May not be specified

4.5.2 Cold-rolled sheet for unexposed applications may be 5.2.2 When requested, cast or heat analysis for elements
specified and furnished annealed last or temper rolled. listed or required shall be reported to the purchaser or to his
Annealed last is normally produced without temper rolling representative. The steel manufacturer, or the hot roll
but may be lightly temper rolled during oiling or rewinding. manufacturer, cold roll manufacturer, or processor, if different
Unexposed temper-rolled material may be specified strain-free from the steel manufacturer, is responsible for providing this
or nonfluting. Where specific hardness range or limit or a information to the purchaser or his representative as requested.
specified surface texture is required, the application is consid-
5.3 Product, Check, or Verification Analysis:
ered as exposed.
5.3.1 Non-killed steels such as capped or rimmed steels are
NOTE 3Skin-passed sheet is subject to an aging phenomenon (see not technologically suited to product analysis due to the
Appendix X1). Unless special killed (nonaging) steel is specified, it is to nonuniform character of their chemical composition; therefore,
the users interest to fabricate the sheet as soon as possible, for optimum
performance.
the tolerances in Table 2 do not apply. Product analysis is
appropriate on these types of steel only when misapplication is
5. Chemical Composition apparent or for copper when copper steel is specified.
5.1 Limits: 5.3.2 For steels other than non-killed (capped or rimmed),
5.1.1 The chemical composition shall be in accordance with product analysis may be made by the purchaser. The chemical
the applicable product specification. However, if other compo- analysis shall not vary from the limits specified by more than
sitions are required for carbon steel, they shall be prepared in the amounts in Table 2. The several determinations of any
accordance with Appendix X2. element in a cast shall not vary both above and below the
5.1.2 Where the material is used for fabrication by welding, specified range.
care must be exercised in selection of chemical composition or 5.4 Sampling for Product Analysis:
mechanical properties to assure compatibility with the welding 5.4.1 To indicate adequately the representative composition
process and its effect on altering the properties. of a cast by product analysis, it is general practice to select
5.2 Cast or Heat Analysis: samples to represent the steel, as fairly as possible, from a
5.2.1 An analysis of each cast or heat of steel shall be made minimum number of pieces as follows: 3 pieces for lots up to
by the steel manufacturer to determine the percentage of 15 tons incl, and 6 pieces for lots over 15 tons (see Practice
elements specified or restricted by the applicable specification. E59).

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A568/A568M 15
TABLE 2 Tolerances for Product Analysis 6. Mechanical Properties
Tolerance
6.1 The mechanical property requirements, number of
Limit, or Maximum of Under Over
Element specimens, test locations, and specimen orientation shall be in
Specified Element, % Minimum Maximum
Limit Limit accordance with the applicable product specification.

Carbon to 0.15 incl 0.02 0.03


6.2 Unless otherwise specified in the applicable product
over 0.15 to 0.40 incl 0.03 0.04 specification, test specimens must be prepared in accordance
over 0.40 to 0.80 incl 0.03 0.05 with Test Methods and Definitions A370.
over 0.80 0.03 0.06
Manganese to 0.60 incl 0.03 0.03 6.3 Mechanical tests shall be conducted in accordance with
over 0.60 to 1.15 incl 0.04 0.04
over 1.15 to 1.65 incl 0.05 0.05
Test Methods and Definitions A370.
Phosphorus . . .A 0.01 6.4 Bend tests where required shall be conducted in com-
Sulfur . . .A 0.01
Silicon to 0.30 incl 0.02 0.03 pliance with Test Methods E290.
over 0.30 to 0.60 incl 0.05 0.05
Copper 0.02 . . .A 6.5 To determine conformance with the product
Nickel to 1.00 incl . . .A 0.03 specification, a calculated value should be rounded to the
Chromium to 0.90 incl . . .A 0.04 nearest 1 ksi tensile strength and yield point or yield strength,
Molybdenum to 0.20 incl . . .A 0.01
Vanadium to 0.10 incl 0.01B 0.01B and to the nearest unit in the right hand place of figures used in
Columbium to 0.10 incl 0.01B 0.01B expressing the limiting value for other values in accordance
(Niobium) with the rounding off method given in Practice E29.
Titanium to 0.15 incl 0.01A 0.01B
Aluminum to 0.10 incl 0.03C . . .A 6.6 Structural sheet steels are commonly fabricated by cold
Nitrogen to 0.030 incl 0.005 0.005
A
bending. There are many interrelated factors that affect the
Where an ellipsis (. . .) appears in the table, the requirements have not been
defined.
ability of a given steel to cold form over a given radius under
B
If the minimum of the range is 0.01 %, the under tolerance is 0.005 %. shop conditions. These factors include thickness, strength
C
If the minimum of the range is 0.01 %, the under tolerance is 0.005 % and if the level, degree of restraint, relationship to rolling direction,
minimum of the range is 0.02 %, the under tolerance is 0.01 %.
chemistry, and microstructure. Each of the appropriate product
specifications lists in the appendix the suggested minimum
inside radius for cold bending. These radii should be used as
minima for 90 bends. They presuppose hard way bending
(bend axis parallel to rolling direction) and reasonably good
5.4.2 When the steel is subject to tension test requirements,
shop forming practices. Where possible, the use of larger radii
samples for product analysis may be taken either by drilling
or easy way bends are recommended for improved perfor-
entirely through the used tension test specimens themselves, or
mance.
as covered in 5.4.3.
5.4.3 When the steel is not subject to tension test 6.7 Fabricators should be aware that cracks may initiate
requirements, the samples for analysis must be taken by upon bending a sheared or burned edge. This is not considered
milling or drilling entirely through the sheet in a sufficient to be a fault of the steel but is rather a function of the induced
number of places so that the samples are representative of the cold-work or heat-affected zone.
entire sheet or strip. The sampling may be facilitated by folding
the sheet both ways, so that several samples may be taken at 7. General Requirements for Delivery
one drilling. Steel subjected to certain heating operations by 7.1 The products covered by this specification are produced
the purchaser may not give chemical analysis results that to inch-pound or metric decimal thickness only and the
properly represent its original composition. Therefore, users appropriate thickness tolerances apply.
must analyze chips taken from the steel in the condition in
which it is received from the steel manufacturer. 7.2 Steel may be produced as ingot-cast or strand-cast.
When different grades of strand-cast steel are sequentially cast,
5.5 Specimen PreparationDrillings or chips must be taken
identification and separation of the transition material is
without the application of water, oil, or other lubricant, and
required.
must be free of scale, grease, dirt, or other foreign substances.
They must not be overheated during cutting to the extent of
8. Dimensions, Tolerances, and Allowances
causing decarburization. Chips must be well mixed and those
too coarse to pass a No. 10 sieve or too fine to remain on a 8.1 Dimensions, tolerances, and allowances applicable to
No. 30 sieve are not suitable for proper analysis. Sieve size products covered by this specification are contained in Tables
numbers are in accordance with Specification E11. 3-20 [Annex A1, Tables A1.1-A1.17]. The appropriate toler-
ance tables shall be identified in each individual specification.
5.6 Test MethodsIn case a referee analysis is required and
agreed upon to resolve a dispute concerning the results of a 8.2 The appropriate thickness tolerance tables for measure-
chemical analysis, the procedure of performing the referee ments taken 38 in. [10 mm] from the edge are found in Section
analysis must be in accordance with the latest issue of Test S1 of the Supplementary Requirements in this specification.
Methods, Practices, and Terminology A751, unless otherwise See the appropriate product specification for instructions on
agreed upon between the manufacturer and the purchaser. how to specify.

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A568/A568M 15
TABLE 3 List of Tables for Dimensions, Tolerances, and Allowances
CarbonA and High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel
Dimensions Table No.

Hot-Rolled Sheet Cold-Rolled Sheet


Inch-Pound SI Units Inch-Pound SI Units
Units Units
Camber tolerances 10 A1.7 10, 19 A1.7, A1.16
Diameter tolerances of sheared circles 9 A1.6 9 A1.6
Flatness tolerances 13, 14 A1.10, A1.11 20 A1.17
Length tolerances 8 A1.5 16, 17 A1.13, A1.14
Out-of-square tolerances 11 A1.8 11 A1.8
Restricted squareness tolerances 12 A1.9 12 A1.9
Thickness tolerances 4, 5, S1.1, S1.2 A1.1, A1.2, S1.4, S1.5 15, S1.3 A1.12, S1.6
Width tolerances of cut edge 7 A1.4 7, 18 A1.4, A1.15
Width tolerances of mill edge 6 A1.3 ...
A
Tolerances for hot-rolled carbon sheet steel with 0.25 % maximum carbon, cast or heat analysis.

TABLE 4 Thickness Tolerances for Hot-Rolled Sheet (Carbon and Structural Steel Only)58-in. (Cut Edge) and 1-in. (Mill Edge)
Minimum Edge Distance (Coils and Cut Lengths, Including Pickled)
NOTE 1Thickness is measured at any point across the width not less than 58 in. from a cut edge and not less than 1 in. from a mill edge. This table
does not apply to the uncropped ends of mill edge coils.
NOTE 2Micrometers used for measurement of thickness shall be constructed with anvils and spindles having minimum diameters of 0.188 in.
[4.80 mm]. The tip of the spindle shall be flat, and the tip of the anvil shall be flat or rounded with a minimum radius of curvature of 0.10 in. [2.55 mm].
Micrometers with pointed tips are not suitable for thickness measurements.
NOTE 3The thickness of material <2 in. wide shall be measured at mid-width.
Specified Ordered Thickness, in.A
0.027 to 0.051, Over 0.051 to 0.057, Over 0.057 to 0.071, Over 0.071 to 0.098, Over 0.098 to 0.180, 0.180 to 0.230,
Specified Width, in.
incl incl incl incl excl excl
Thickness Tolerances Over, in., No Tolerance UnderB
To 20 incl 0.008 0.008 0.009 0.009 0.010 0.010
Over 20 to 40, incl 0.008 0.008 0.009 0.010 0.010 0.012
Over 40 to 48, incl 0.008 0.009 0.009 0.010 0.012 0.014
Over 48 to 60, incl . . .C 0.009 0.010 0.010 0.012 0.015
Over 60 to 72, incl . . .C 0.010 0.010 0.012 0.012 0.016
Over 72 . . .C . . .C . . .C 0.012 0.012 0.018
A
The specified thickness range captions apply independent of whether the ordered thickness is stated as a nominal or minimum.
B
The tolerances provided in the table are based on minimum thickness (tolerance over, no tolerance under). For nominal thickness, the tolerance is divided equally over
and under.
C
Where an ellipsis (. . .) appears in the table, the requirements have not been defined.

8.3 When thickness is measured using hand held microm- be removed by pickling or blast cleaning when required for
eters refer to Practice A1073/A1073M. press-work operations or welding. Hot-rolled and hot-rolled
8.4 Flatness Tolerances: descaled sheet is not generally used for exposed parts where
8.4.1 Standard flatness tolerances are contained in Tables 13 surface is of prime importance.
and 14 for hot-rolled sheet and Table 20 for cold-rolled sheet. 9.1.1 Hot-rolled sheet can be supplied with mill edges or cut
8.4.2 Measurement techniques for flatness characteristics edges as specified. Mill edges are the natural edges resulting
are described in Practice A1030/A1030M. from the hot-rolling operation. They do not conform to any
8.4.3 Two alternative methods for flatness determination are particular contour. They may also contain some edge
the use of I-units and percent steepness. A description of these imperfections, the more common types of which are cracked
two alternative methods is contained in Practice A1030/ edges, thin edges (feather), and damaged edges due to handling
A1030M, as well as Appendix X5. or processing and which should not extend in beyond the
8.4.3.1 The use of I-units or percent steepness as a flatness ordered width. These edge conditions are detrimental where
standard is subject to negotiation between the purchaser and joining of the mill edges by welding is practiced. When the
the producer. purchaser intends to shear or to blank, a sufficient width
8.4.3.2 Measurement techniques for I-units, percent allowance should be made when purchasing to ensure obtain-
steepness, and rejection limits are subject to negotiation ing the desired contour and size of the pattern sheet. The
between the purchaser and the producer. manufacturer may be consulted for guidance. Cut edges are the
normal edges which result from the shearing, slitting, or
9. Finish and Condition trimming of mill-edge sheet.
9.1 Hot-rolled sheet has a surface with an oxide or scale 9.1.1.1 The ends of plain hot-rolled mill-edge coils are
resulting from the hot-rolling operation. The oxide or scale can irregular in shape and are referred to as uncropped ends. Where

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A568/A568M 15
TABLE 5 Thickness Tolerances for Hot-Rolled Sheet (High-Strength, Low-Alloy Steel)58-in. (Cut Edge) and 1-in. (Mill Edge) Minimum
Edge Distance (Coils and Cut Lengths, Including Pickled)
NOTE 1Thickness is measured at any point across the width not less than 58 in. from a cut edge and not less than 1 in. from a mill edge. This table
does not apply to the uncropped ends of mill edge coils.
NOTE 2Micrometers used for measurement of thickness shall be constructed with anvils and spindles having minimum diameters of 0.188 in.
[4.80 mm]. The tip of the spindle shall be flat, and the tip of the anvil shall be flat or rounded with a minimum radius of curvature of 0.10 in. [2.55 mm].
Micrometers with pointed tips are not suitable for thickness measurements.
NOTE 3The thickness of material <2 in. wide shall be measured at mid-width.
Specified Ordered Thickness, in.A
0.031 to 0.051, Over 0.051 to Over 0.059 to Over 0.070 Over 0.082 Over 0.098 0.180 to
Specified Width, in. incl 0.059, incl 0.070, incl to 0.082, to 0.098, to 0.180, 0.230, excl
incl incl excl
Thickness Tolerances All Over, in., No Tolerance UnderB
To 15, incl 0.008 0.009 0.009 0.009 0.009 0.010 0.010
Over 15 to 20, incl 0.008 0.009 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.012 0.012
Over 20 to 32, incl 0.009 0.009 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.012 0.014
Over 32 to 40, incl 0.009 0.009 0.010 0.010 0.012 0.012 0.014
Over 40 to 48, incl 0.009 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.012 0.015 0.015
Over 48 to 60, incl . . .C 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.012 0.015 0.015
Over 60 to 72, incl . . .C . . .C 0.012 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.016
Over 72 to 80, incl . . .C . . .C . . .C 0.012 0.014 0.018 0.018
Over 80 . . .C . . .C . . .C . . .C 0.015 0.018 0.018C
A
The specified thickness range captions apply independent of whether the ordered thickness is stated as a nominal or minimum.
B
The tolerances provided in the table are based on minimum thickness (tolerance over, no tolerance under). For nominal thickness, the tolerance is divided equally over
and under.
C
Where an ellipsis (. . .) appears in the table, the requirements have not been defined.

TABLE 6 Width TolerancesA of Hot-Rolled Mill Edge Sheet (All TABLE 7 Width Tolerances of Hot-Rolled Cut Edge Sheet (All
Designations) Widths) and Cold-Rolled Sheet (Widths Over 12 in. Only)(All
(Coils and Cut Lengths, Including Pickled) Designations)A
Carbon (Coils and Cut Lengths, Including Pickled)
Tolerances Over Tolerances Over
Specified Width, Specified Width,
Specified Width, in. Specified Width, in.
in. No Tolerance in. No Tolerance
Under Under

Over 12 to 14 incl
7 16 To 30 inclA 18
Over 14 to 17 incl 12 Over 30 to 48 incl
3 16

Over 17 to 19 incl
9 16 Over 48 to 60 incl 14
Over 19 to 21 incl
58 Over 60 to 80 incl
5 16

Over 21 to 24 incl 1116 Over 80 38


Over 24 to 26 incl 1316
A
Cold Rolled widths 12 in. and less refer to Table 18.)
Over 26 to 30 incl 1516

Over 30 to 50 incl 118


Over 50 to 78 incl 112
Over 78 178 TABLE 8 Length Tolerances of Hot-Rolled Sheet (All
Designations)
High-Strength Low-Alloy (Cut Lengths, Including Pickled)
Over 12 to 14 incl
7 16 Tolerances Over
Over 14 to 17 incl 12 Specified
Specified Length, in.
Over 17 to 19 incl
9 16 Length, in. No
Over 19 to 21 incl
58 Tolerance Under
Over 21 to 24 incl
11 16

Over 24 to 26 incl
13 16
To 15 incl 18
Over 26 to 28 incl 1516
Over 15 to 30 incl 14
Over 28 to 35 incl 118 Over 30 to 60 incl 1 2

Over 35 to 50 incl 114 Over 60 to 120 incl 3 4

Over 50 to 60 incl 112 Over 120 to 156 incl 1


Over 60 to 65 incl 158 Over 156 to 192 incl 114
Over 65 to 70 incl 134 Over 192 to 240 incl 112
Over 70 to 80 incl 178 Over 240 134
Over 80 2
A
The above tolerances do not apply to the uncropped ends of mill edge coils
(10.1.1.1). specify. Processed coils such as pickled or blast cleaned are
supplied with square-cut ends.
9.2 Cold-rolled carbon sheet (exposed) is intended for those
applications where surface appearance is of primary impor-
such ends are not acceptable, the purchasers order should so tance. This class will meet requirements for controlled surface

7
A568/A568M 15
TABLE 9 Diameter Tolerances of Circles Sheared from Hot-Rolled TABLE 13 Flatness TolerancesA of Temper Rolled or Pickled Hot-
(Including Pickled) and Cold-Rolled Sheet (Over 12 in. Width) (All Rolled Sheet Cut LengthsB (All Designations)
Designations) Flatness Toler-
ances,C in.
Tolerances Over Specified
Diameter, in. (No Toler- Specified Minimum Specified Width, Specified Yield
ances Under) Thickness, in. in. Strength, min, ksi
A
Specified Thickness, in.
Under Over 30 Over 48 Under 45 to 50D,E
30 to 48 45
incl
0.027 to 0.057 incl To 36 incl
12 34

0.044 to 0.057 incl


1 16 18
3 16 over 36 to 60 incl
34 1 1 8
Over 0.057 to 0.098 incl 332
5 32 732 over 60 1 ...
Over 0.098 1 8
3 16 1 4 0.057 to 0.180 excl To 60 incl 12 34

A
over 60 to 72 incl 3 4 1 1 8
0.071 in. minimum thickness for hot-rolled high-strength low-alloy steel sheet. over 72 1 1 1 2
0.180 to 0.230 excl To 60 incl 12 34

over 60 to 72 incl 3 4 1 1 8
TABLE 10 Camber TolerancesA for Hot-Rolled (Including Pickled) over 72 1 1 1 2
and Cold-Rolled Sheet (All Designations) A
The above table also applies to lengths cut from coils by the consumer when
(Cut Lengths) adequate flattening operations are performed.
B
Application of this table to product in coil form is not appropriate unless the coil
NOTE 1Camber is the greatest deviation of a side edge from a straight
has been rolled out and adequately flattened with all coil set removed.
line, the measurement being taken on the concave side with a straightedge. C
Maximum deviation from a horizontal flat surface.
D
Camber Toler- Tolerances for steels with specified minimum yield strength in excess of 50 ksi
Cut Length, ft
ances, in. are subject to negotiation.
E
0.071 minimum thickness of HSLA.
To 4 incl 18
Over 4 to 6 incl 3 16
Over 6 to 8 incl 14 TABLE 14 Flatness TolerancesA of Non-Processed Hot Rolled
Over 8 to 10 incl 5 16 Sheet Cut LengthsB (All Designations)
Over 10 to 12 incl 38
Over 12 to 14 incl 12 Flatness Toler-
ances,C in.
Over 14 to 16 incl 5 8

Over 16 to 18 incl 3 4 Specified Minimum Specified Width, Specified Yield


Over 18 to 20 incl 7 8 Thickness, in. in. Strength, min, ksi
Over 20 to 30 incl 114 Under 45 to 50D,E
Over 30 to 40 incl 112 45
A
The camber tolerance for coils is 1 in. in any 20 ft.
0.027 to 0.057 incl over 12 to 36 incl 112 21 4
over 36 to 60 incl 2 14 3 3 8
over 60 3 ...
TABLE 11 Out-of-Square Tolerances of Hot-Rolled Cut-Edge over 0.057 to 0.180 excl over 12 to 60 incl 1 12 21 4
(Including Pickled) and Cold-Rolled Sheet (All Designations) over 60 to 72 incl 2 14 3 3 8
(Cut Lengths) over 72 3 4 1 2
Out-of-square is the greatest deviation of an end edge from a straight line at 0.180 to 0.230 excl over 12 to 60 incl 112 21 4
right angle to a side and touching one corner. It is also obtained by measuring over 60 to 72 incl 2 14 3 3 8
the difference between the diagonals of the cut length. The out-of-square over 72 3 4 1 2
deviation is one half of that difference. The tolerance for all thicknesses and all A
The above table also applies to lengths cut from coils by the consumer when
sizes is 116 in./6 in. of width or fraction thereof. adequate flattening operations are performed.
B
Application of this table to product in coil form is not appropriate unless the coil
has been rolled out and adequately flattened with all coil set removed.
C
Maximum deviation from a horizontal flat surface.
TABLE 12 Restricted Squareness Tolerances of Hot-Rolled D
Tolerances for steels with specified minimum yield strength in excess of 50 ksi
(Including Pickled) and Cold-Rolled Sheet (All Designations) are subject to negotiation.
(Cut Lengths) E
0.071 minimum thickness of HSLA.
When cut lengths are specified restricted squareness, the width and the length
are not less than the dimensions specified. The individual tolerance for over-
width, over-length, camber, or out-of-square should not exceed 116 in. up to and
including 48 in. in width and up to and including 120 in. in length. For cut ing upon application. With some surface preparation matte
lengths wider or longer, the applicable tolerance is 18 in.
finish is suitable for decorative painting. It is not generally
recommended for bright plating.
9.2.1.2 Commercial bright finish is a relatively bright finish
texture, surface quality, and flatness. It is normally processed having a surface texture intermediate between that of matte and
by the manufacturer to be free of stretcher strain and fluting. luster finish. With some surface preparation commercial bright
Subsequent user roller leveling immediately before fabrication finish is suitable for decorative painting or certain plating
will minimize strain resulting from aging. applications. If sheet is deformed in fabrication the surface
9.2.1 Cold-rolled carbon sheet, when ordered for exposed may roughen to some degree and areas so affected will require
applications, can be supplied in the following finishes: surface preparation to restore surface texture to that of the
9.2.1.1 Matte finish is a dull finish, without luster, produced undeformed areas.
by rolling on rolls that have been roughened by mechanical or 9.2.1.3 Luster finish is a smooth bright finish produced by
chemical means to various degrees of surface texture depend- rolling on ground rolls and is suitable for decorative painting or

8
A568/A568M 15
TABLE 15 Thickness Tolerances for Cold-Rolled Sheet (All Designations)A 1-in. Minimum Edge Distance (Coils and Cut Lengths)
NOTE 1Thickness is measured at any point across the width not less than 1 in. from a side edge.
NOTE 2Micrometers used for measurement of thickness shall be constructed with anvils and spindles having minimum diameters of 0.188 in.
[4.80 mm]. The tip of the spindle shall be flat, and the tip of the anvil shall be flat or rounded with a minimum radius of curvature of 0.10 in. [2.55 mm].
Micrometers with pointed tips are not sui for thickness measurements.
NOTE 3The thickness of material <2 in. wide shall be measured at mid-width.
Specified Ordered Thickness, in.B
To 0.014, 0.014 to 0.019, Over 0.019A to Over 0.039 to 0.057, Over 0.057 to 0.071, Over 0.071 to 0.098, Over 0.098 to 0.142,
Specified Width, in. 0.039, incl
excl incl incl incl incl incl
Thickness Tolerances, Over, in., No Tolerance UnderC
To 15, incl 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.005 0.005
Over 15 to 72, incl 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.005 0.006
Over 72 . . .D . . .D 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007
A
Minimum Thickness, 0.021 in. for high-strength, low-alloy.
B
The specified thickness range captions apply independent of whether the ordered thickness is stated as a nominal or minimum.
C
The tolerances provided in the table are based on minimum thickness (tolerance over, no tolerance under). For nominal thickness, the tolerance is divided equally over
and under.
D
Where an ellipsis (. . .) appears in the table, the requirements have not been defined.

TABLE 16 Length Tolerances of Cold-Rolled Sheet (All TABLE 19 Camber Tolerances of Cold-Rolled Sheet in Coils (All
Designations) Designations)A
(Cut Lengths Over 12 in. in Width) (Coils to 12 in. in Width)
Tolerances Over NOTE 1Camber is the greatest deviation of a side edge from a straight
Specified Length, line, the measurement being taken on the concave side with a straightedge.
Specified Length, in.
in. No Tolerances
Under NOTE 2This table applies to widths produced by slitting from wider
sheet.
Over 12 to 30, incl
18
Width, in. Camber Tolerance
Over 30 to 60, incl
14

Over 60 to 96, incl 1 2


To 12, incl in. in any 8 ft
14
Over 96 to 120, incl 3 4
A
Over 120 to 156, incl 1 0.020 in. minimum thickness for high-strength low-alloy.
Over 156 to 192, incl 114
Over 192 to 240 incl 112
Over 240 134
TABLE 20 Flatness Tolerances of Cold-Rolled Sheet Cut Length
(All Designations)

TABLE 17 Length Tolerances of Cold-Rolled Sheet (All NOTE 1This table does not apply when product is ordered full hard,
Designations) to a hardness range, or annealed last (dead soft).
(Cut Length Sheets, to 12 in. in Width)
NOTE 2This table also applies to lengths cut from coils, when
NOTE 1This table applies to widths produced by slitting from wider adequate flattening measures are performed to remove all undesirable
sheet. flatness conditions, including, but not limited to, coil set.
Tolerances Over Specified Flatness Tolerance,A in.
Specified Length, in.
Length, in. No Tolerance Under Specified Specified Yield
Specified Width, in.
Thickness, in. Point, min, ksi
24 to 60, incl
12
Under 45 45 to 50B incl.
Over 60 to 120, incl
34

Over 120 to 240, incl 1


To 0.044, incl to 36 incl 38 3 4

over 36 to 60 incl 58 1 1 8
over 60 7 8 1 1 2
TABLE 18 Width Tolerances for Cold-Rolled Sheet (All Over 0.044 to 36 incl 1 4 3 4

Designations)A over 36 to 60 incl 3 8 3 4

(Coils and Cut Lengths to 12 in. Width) over 60 to 72 incl 5 8 1 1 8


over 72 7 8 1 1 2
Width Tolerance,
Specified Width, in. A
Plus and Minus, in. Maximum deviation from a horizontal flat surface.
B
Tolerances for high-strength, low-alloy steel with specified minimum yield point in
To 6, incl 0.012 excess of 50 ksi are subject to negotiation.
Over 6 to 9, incl 0.016
Over 9 to 12, incl 0.032
A
0.020 in. minimum thickness for high-strength low-alloy.
9.3 Cold-rolled carbon sheet, when intended for unexposed
applications, is not subject to limitations on degree and
plating with additional special surface preparation by the user. frequency of surface imperfections, and restrictions on texture
The luster may not be retained after fabrication; therefore, the and mechanical properties are not applicable. When ordered as
formed parts will require surface preparation to make them annealed last, the product will have coil breaks and a
suitable for bright plating. tendency toward fluting and stretcher straining. Unexposed

9
A568/A568M 15
cold-rolled sheet may contain more surface imperfections than tions such as pits, scratches, sticker breaks, edge breaks,
exposed cold-rolled sheet because steel applications, process- pinchers, cross breaks, roll marks, and other surface imperfec-
ing procedures, and inspection standards are less stringent. tions than exposed. These imperfections shall be acceptable to
9.4 Cold-rolled high-strength low-alloy sheet is supplied the purchaser without limitation.
with a matte finish, unless otherwise specified. 10.3.5 For coils for unexposed applications, it is not pos-
sible to remove the surface imperfections listed in 10.3.4. Coils
9.5 The cold-rolled products covered by this specification will contain surface imperfections that are normally not repair-
are furnished with cut edges and square cut ends, unless able. Minor imperfections shall be acceptable to the purchaser
otherwise specified. within the manufacturers published standards. Unexposed
9.6 Oiling: coils contain more surface imperfections than exposed coils.
9.6.1 Plain hot-rolled sheet is customarily furnished not
oiled. Oiling must be specified, when required. 11. Retests and Disposition of Non-Conforming Material
9.6.2 Hot-rolled pickled or descaled sheet is customarily 11.1 Retests:
furnished oiled. If the product is not to be oiled, it must be so
11.1.1 Unless otherwise prohibited by the product
specified since the cleaned surface is prone to rusting.
specification, retests are permitted under the following circum-
9.6.3 Cold-rolled products covered by this specification can stances:
be furnished oiled or not oiled as specified.
11.1.1.1 If any tension test specimen shows defective ma-
9.7 Sheet steel in coils or cut lengths may contain surface chining or develops flaws, it must be discarded and another
imperfections that can be removed with a reasonable amount of specimen substituted.
metal finishing by the purchaser. 11.1.1.2 If the percent elongation of any tension test speci-
men is less than that specified and any part of the fracture is
10. Workmanship more than 34 in. [20 mm] from the center of the gauge length
10.1 Cut lengths shall have a workmanlike appearance and of a 2-in. [50-mm] specimen, or is outside the middle half of
shall not have imperfections of a nature or degree for the the gauge length of an 8-in. [200-mm] specimen, as indicated
product, the grade, class, and the quality ordered that will be by scribe scratches marked on the specimen before testing, a
detrimental to the fabrication of the finished part. retest is allowed.
11.1.1.3 If the test result of any tension test specimen fails
10.2 Coils may contain some abnormal imperfections that
to meet the specification requirements and the failure is the
render a portion of the coil unusable since the inspection of
result of improper adherence to tension test procedures, a retest
coils does not afford the producer the same opportunity to
is permitted.
remove portions containing imperfections, as in the case with
cut lengths. 11.1.1.4 If the test result of an original tension test specimen
fails to meet the specification requirements and the failure is
10.3 Surface Conditions: not related to the conditions described in 11.1.1.1 11.1.1.3,
10.3.1 Exposed cold-rolled sheet is intended for applica- but the results are within 2 ksi [14 MPa] of the required yield
tions where surface appearance is of primary importance, that strength, within 2 ksi [14 MPa] of the required tensile strength,
is, exposed applications. Unexposed or annealed cold-rolled or within 2 percentage points of the required elongation, one
sheet is intended for applications where surface appearance is retest shall be permitted to replace the failing test.
not of primary importance, that is, unexposed applications. 11.1.2 The retest specimen shall be taken either adjacent to
10.3.2 Cut lengths for exposed applications shall not in- the first failed specimen, or selected at random from the
clude individual sheets having major surface imperfections material to be certified to the specification.
(holes, loose slivers, and pipe) and repetitive minor surface 11.1.3 If the results of a retest satisfy the specified tension
imperfections. Cut lengths may contain random minor surface test requirements and all other requirements of the applicable
imperfections that can be removed with a reasonable amount of specification are satisfied, the material shall be accepted.
metal finishing by the purchaser. These imperfections shall be
acceptable to the purchaser within the manufacturers pub- 11.2 Disposition of Non-Conforming Material:
lished standards. 11.2.1 In those cases where the lot is found to be non-
10.3.3 For coils for exposed applications, it is not possible conforming, and resampling of non-conforming material is not
to remove the surface imperfections listed in 10.3.2. Coils will prohibited by the specification, resampling is permitted under
contain such imperfections which shall be acceptable to the the following circumstances and using the following practices:
purchaser within the manufacturers published standards. Coils 11.2.1.1 If the results of an original tension test or retest
contain more surface imperfections than cut lengths because specimen fail to satisfy the specification requirements, and the
the producer does not have the same opportunity to sort failed test results are not related to the conditions described in
portions containing such imperfections, as is possible with cut 11.1, the lot shall be quarantined and resampled for certifica-
lengths. tion of the non-conforming material to the specification re-
10.3.4 Cut lengths for unexposed applications shall not quirements.
include individual sheets having major surface imperfections 11.2.1.2 Resampling for certification of the non-conforming
such as holes, loose slivers, and pipe. In addition, unexposed material shall include the discarding of out-of-specification
cut lengths can be expected to contain more minor imperfec- material and the resampling of the lot. The resampling shall be

10
A568/A568M 15
appropriate to the specific out-of-specification condition and 14.5 A Material Test Report, Certificate of Inspection, or
the processing history of the lot. similar document printed from or used in electronic form from
11.2.1.3 A maximum of two resampling efforts shall be an electronic data interchange (EDI) transmission shall be
permitted. If after conducting two resampling efforts, the regarded as having the same validity as a counterpart printed in
material does not satisfy the specification requirements, the lot the certifiers facility. The content of the EDI transmitted
shall be rejected. document must meet the requirements of the invoked ASTM
standard(s) and conform to any existing EDI agreement be-
12. Inspection tween the purchaser and the supplier. Notwithstanding the
12.1 When purchasers order stipulates that inspection and absence of a signature, the organization submitting the EDI
tests (except product analyses) for acceptance on the steel be transmission is responsible for the content of the report.
made prior to shipment from the mill, the manufacturer shall
NOTE 4The industry definition as invoked here is: EDI is the
afford the purchasers inspector all reasonable facilities to computer to computer exchange of business information in an agreed upon
satisfy him that the steel is being produced and furnished in standard format such as ANSI ASC X12.
accordance with the specification. Mill inspection by the
purchaser shall not interfere unnecessarily with the manufac- 15. Product Marking
turers operation.
15.1 As a minimum requirement, the material shall be
13. Rejection and Rehearing identified by having the manufacturers name, ASTM
designation, weight, purchasers order number, and material
13.1 Unless otherwise specified, any rejection shall be
identification legibly stenciled on top of each lift or shown on
reported to the manufacturer within a reasonable time after
a tag attached to each coil or shipping unit.
receipt of material by the purchaser.
13.2 Material that is reported to be defective subsequent to 15.2 When specified in the contract or order, and for direct
the acceptance at the purchasers works shall be set aside, procurement by or direct shipment to the government, marking
adequately protected, and correctly identified. The manufac- for shipment in addition to requirements specified in the
turer shall be notified as soon as possible so that an investiga- contract or order, shall be in accordance with MIL-STD-129
tion may be initiated. for military agencies and in accordance with Fed. Std. No. 123
for civil agencies.
13.3 Samples that are representative of the rejected material
shall be made available to the manufacturer. In the event that 15.3 Bar coding is acceptable as a supplementary identifi-
the manufacturer is dissatisfied with the rejection, he may cation method. Bar coding should be consistent with the
request a rehearing. Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG) standard prepared
by the primary metals subcommittee of the AIAG bar code
14. Test Reports and Certification project team.
14.1 When test reports are required by the purchase order or
the material specification, the supplier shall report the results of 16. Packing and Package Marking
all test required by the material specification and the order. 16.1 Unless otherwise specified, the sheet shall be packaged
14.2 When certification is required by the purchase order, and loaded in accordance with Practices A700.
the supplier shall furnish a certification that the material has 16.2 When coils are ordered, it is customary to specify a
been manufactured and tested in accordance with the require- minimum or range of inside diameter, maximum outside
ments of the material specification. diameter, and a maximum coil weight, if required. The ability
14.3 A signature is not required on test reports or certifica- of manufacturers to meet the maximum coil weights depends
tions. However, the document shall clearly identify the orga- upon individual mill equipment. When required, minimum coil
nization submitting the document. Notwithstanding the ab- weights are subject to negotiation.
sence of a signature, the organization submitting the document
is responsible for the content of the document. 17. Keywords
14.4 When test reports are required, copies of the original 17.1 carbon steel sheet; cold rolled steel sheet; general
material manufacturers test report shall be included with any delivery requirements; high strength low alloy steel; hot rolled
subsequent test report. steel sheet; steel sheet; structural steel sheet

11
A568/A568M 15
SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS

The following supplementary requirements shall apply only when specified by the purchaser in the
purchase order or contract.

S1. Thickness Tolerances


S1.1 See Tables S1.1-S1.6.

TABLE S1.1 Thickness Tolerances for Hot-Rolled Sheet (Carbon and Structural Steel Only)38-in. (Cut Edge) and 34-in. (Mill Edge)
Minimum Edge Distance (Coils and Cut Lengths, Including Pickled)

NOTE 1Thickness is measured at any point across the width not less than 38 in. from a cut edge and not less than 34 in. from a mill edge. This table
does not apply to the uncropped ends of mill edge coils.
NOTE 2Micrometers used for measurement of thickness shall be constructed with anvils and spindles having minimum diameters of 0.188 in.
[4.80 mm]. The tip of the spindle shall be flat, and the tip of the anvil shall be flat or rounded with a minimum radius of curvature of 0.10 in. [2.55 mm].
Micrometers with pointed tips are not suitable for thickness measurements.
NOTE 3This table was used to construct Table 4 by multiplying the values in this table by 0.75 and rounding to 3 decimal places using standard ASTM
practice.
NOTE 4The thickness of material <1 in. wide shall be measured at mid-width.
Specified Ordered Thickness, in.A
0.027 to 0.051, Over 0.051 to 0.057, Over 0.057 to 0.071, Over 0.071 to 0.098, Over 0.098 to 0.180, 0.180 to 0.230,
Specified Width, in.
incl incl incl incl excl excl
Thickness Tolerances Over, in., No Tolerance UnderB
To 20 incl 0.010 0.010 0.012 0.012 0.014 0.014
Over 20 to 40 incl 0.010 0.010 0.012 0.014 0.014 0.016
Over 40 to 48 incl 0.010 0.012 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018
Over 48 to 60 incl . . .C 0.012 0.014 0.014 0.016 0.020
Over 60 to 72 incl . . .C 0.014 0.014 0.016 0.016 0.022
Over 72 . . .C . . .C . . .C 0.016 0.016 0.024
A
The specified thickness range captions apply independent of whether the ordered thickness is stated as a nominal or minimum.
B
The tolerances provided in the table are based on minimum thickness (tolerance over, no tolerance under). For nominal thickness, the tolerance is divided equally over
and under.
C
Where an ellipsis (. . .) appears in the table, the requirements have not been defined.

TABLE S1.2 Thickness Tolerances for Hot-Rolled Sheet (High-Strength, Low-Alloy Steel)38-in. (Cut Edge) and 34-in. (Mill Edge)
Minimum Edge Distance (Coils and Cut Lengths, Including Pickled)

NOTE 1Thickness is measured at any point across the width not less than 38 in. from a cut edge and not less than 34 in. from a mill edge. This table
does not apply to the uncropped ends of mill edge coils.
NOTE 2Micrometers used for measurement of thickness shall be constructed with anvils and spindles having minimum diameters of 0.188 in.
[4.80 mm]. The tip of the spindle shall be flat, and the tip of the anvil shall be flat or rounded with a minimum radius of curvature of 0.10 in. [2.55 mm].
Micrometers with pointed tips are not suitable for thickness measurements.
NOTE 3This table was used to construct Table 5 by multiplying the values in this table by 0.75 and rounding to 3 decimal places using standard ASTM
practice.
NOTE 4The thickness of material <1 in. wide shall be measured at mid-width.
Specified Ordered Thickness, in.A
0.031 to 0.051, Over 0.051 Over 0.059 Over 0.070 to Over 0.082 to Over 0.098 to 0.180 to
Specified Width, in.
incl to 0.059, incl to 0.070, incl 0.082, incl 0.098, incl 0.180, excl 0.230, excl
Thickness Tolerances, Over, in., No Tolerance UnderB
To 15, incl 0.010 0.012 0.012 0.012 0.012 0.014 0.014
Over 15 to 20, incl 0.010 0.012 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.016 0.016
Over 20 to 32, incl 0.012 0.012 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.016 0.018
Over 32 to 40, incl 0.012 0.012 0.014 0.014 0.016 0.016 0.018
Over 40 to 48, incl 0.012 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.016 0.020 0.020
Over 48 to 60, incl . . .C 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.016 0.020 0.020
Over 60 to 72, incl . . .C . . .C 0.016 0.016 0.018 0.022 0.022
Over 72 to 80, incl . . .C . . .C . . .C 0.016 0.018 0.024 0.024
Over 80 . . .C . . .C . . .C . . .C 0.020 0.024 0.024C
A
The specified thickness range captions apply independent of whether the ordered thickness is stated as a nominal or minimum.
B
The tolerances provided in the table are based on minimum thickness (tolerance over, no tolerance under). For nominal thickness, the tolerance is divided equally over
and under.
C
Where an ellipsis (. . .) appears in the table, the requirements have not been defined.

12
A568/A568M 15
TABLE S1.3 Thickness Tolerances for Cold-Rolled Sheet (All Designations)A 38-in. Minimum Edge Distance (Coils and Cut Lengths)
NOTE 1Thickness is measured at any point across the width not less than 38 in. from a side edge.
NOTE 2Micrometers used for measurement of thickness shall be constructed with anvils and spindles having minimum diameters of 0.188 in.
[4.80 mm]. The tip of the spindle shall be flat, and the tip of the anvil shall be flat or rounded with a minimum radius of curvature of 0.10 in. [2.55 mm].
Micrometers with pointed tips are not suitable for thickness measurements.
NOTE 3This table was used to construct Table 15 by multiplying the values in this table by 0.50 and rounding to 3 decimal places using standard
ASTM practice.
NOTE 4The thickness of material <1 in. wide shall be measured at mid-width.
Specified Ordered Thickness, in.B
To 0.014, 0.014 to 0.019, Over 0.019A to Over 0.039 to 0.057, Over 0.057 to 0.071, Over 0.071 to 0.098, Over 0.098 to
Specified Width, in. 0.039 incl
excl incl incl incl incl 0.142, incl
Thickness Tolerances, Over, in., No Tolerance UnderC
To 15, incl 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 0.010 0.010
Over 15 to 72, incl 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 0.010 0.012
Over 72 . . .D . . .D 0.006 0.008 0.010 0.012 0.014
A
Minimum Thickness, 0.021 in. for high-strength, low-alloy.
B
The specified thickness range captions apply independent of whether the ordered thickness is stated as a nominal or minimum.
C
The tolerances provided in the table are based on minimum thickness (tolerance over, no tolerance under). For nominal thickness, the tolerance is divided equally over
and under.
D
Where an ellipsis (. . .) appears in the table, the requirements have not been defined.

TABLE S1.4 Thickness Tolerances [Metric] for Hot-Rolled Sheet (Carbon and Structural Steel Only)10-mm (Cut Edge) and 20-mm (Mill
Edge) Minimum Edge Distance (Coils and Cut Lengths, Including Pickled)

NOTE 1Thickness is measured at any point across the width not less than 10 mm from a cut edge and not less than 20 mm from a mill edge. This
table does not apply to the uncropped ends of mill edge coils.
NOTE 2Micrometers used for measurement of thickness shall be constructed with anvils and spindles having minimum diameters of 0.188 in.
[4.80 mm]. The tip of the spindle shall be flat, and the tip of the anvil shall be flat or rounded with a minimum radius of curvature of 0.10 in. [2.55 mm].
Micrometers with pointed tips are not suitable for thickness measurements.
NOTE 3This table was used to construct Table A1.1 by multiplying the values in this table by 0.75 and rounding to 2 decimal places using standard
ASTM practice.
NOTE 4The thickness of material <25 mm wide shall be measured at mid-width.
Specified Ordered Thickness, mmA
Specified Width, mm Through 2.0 Over 2.0 to 2.5, incl Over 2.5 to 4.5, excl 4.5 to 6.0, excl
Thickness Tolerances, Over, mm, No Tolerance UnderB
To 600, incl 0.30 0.30 0.35 0.40
Over 600 to 1200, incl 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45
Over 1200 to 1500, incl 0.35 0.35 0.40 0.50
Over 1500 to 1800, incl 0.35 0.40 0.40 0.56
Over 1800 0.35 0.40 0.40 0.60
A
The specified thickness range captions apply independent of whether the ordered thickness is stated as a nominal or minimum.
B
The tolerances provided in the table are based on minimum thickness (tolerance over, not tolerance under). For nominal thickness, the tolerance is divided equally over
and under.

TABLE S1.5 Thickness Tolerances [Metric] for Hot-Rolled Sheet (High-Strength, Low-Alloy Steel)10-mm (Cut Edge) and 20-mm (Mill
Edge) Minimum Edge Distance (Coils and Cut Lengths, Including Pickled)

NOTE 1Thickness is measured at any point across the width not less than 10 mm from a cut edge and not less than 20 mm from a mill edge. This
table does not apply to the uncropped ends of mill edge coils.
NOTE 2Micrometers used for measurement of thickness shall be constructed with anvils and spindles having minimum diameters of 0.188 in.
[4.80 mm]. The tip of the spindle shall be flat, and the tip of the anvil shall be flat or rounded with a minimum radius of curvature of 0.10 in. [2.55 mm].
Micrometers with pointed tips are not suitable for thickness measurements.
NOTE 3This table was used to construct Table A1.1 by multiplying the values in this table by 0.75 and rounding to 2 decimal places using standard
ASTM practice.
NOTE 4The thickness of material <25 mm wide shall be measured at mid-width.
Specified Ordered Thickness, mmA
Through Over 2.0 to Over 2.5 to 4.5 to 6.0,
Specified Width, mm
2.0 2.5, incl 4.5, excl excl
Thickness Tolerances Over, mm, No Tolerance UnderB
To 600, incl 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.40
Over 600 to 1200, incl 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50
Over 1200 to 1500, incl 0.35 0.40 0.50 0.50
Over 1500 to 1800, incl 0.40 0.45 0.55 0.56
Over 1800 to 2000, incl 0.40 0.45 0.60 0.60

13
A568/A568M 15
TABLE Continued
Specified Ordered Thickness, mmA
Through Over 2.0 to Over 2.5 to 4.5 to 6.0,
Specified Width, mm
2.0 2.5, incl 4.5, excl excl
Thickness Tolerances Over, mm, No Tolerance UnderB
C
Over 2000 ... 0.50 0.60 0.60C
A
The specified thickness range captions apply independent of whether the ordered thickness is stated as a nominal or minimum.
B
The tolerances provided in the table are based on minimum thickness (tolerance over, not tolerance under). For nominal thickness, the tolerance is divided equally over
and under.
C
Where an ellipsis (. . .) appears in the table, the requirements have not been defined.

TABLE S1.6 Thickness Tolerances [Metric] for Cold-Rolled Sheet (All Designations)A 10-mm Minimum Edge Distance
NOTE 1Thickness is measured at any point across the width not less than 10 mm from a side edge.
NOTE 2Widths up to and including 300 mm in this table apply to widths produced by slitting from wider sheet.
NOTE 3Micrometers used for measurement of thickness shall be constructed with anvils and spindles having minimum diameters of 0.188 in.
[4.80 mm]. The tip of the spindle shall be flat, and the tip of the anvil shall be flat or rounded with a minimum radius of curvature of 0.10 in. [2.55 mm].
Micrometers with pointed tips are not suitable for thickness measurements.
NOTE 4This table was used to construct Table A1.12 by multiplying the values in this table by 0.50 and rounding to 2 decimal places using standard
ASTM practice.
NOTE 5The thickness of material <25-mm wide shall be measured at mid-width.
Specified Width, mm Specified Ordered Thickness, mmB
Through 0.4 Over 0.4 to 1.0, incl Over 1.0 to 1.2, incl Over 1.2 to 2.5, incl Over 2.5 to 4.0, incl
Over Through
Thickness Tolerances Over, mm, No Tolerance UnderC
... 1800 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30
1800 2000 . . .D 0.15 0.20 0.30 0.35
2000 . . .D . . .D 0.30 0.30 0.35 0.40
A
0.55-mm minimum thickness for high-strength low-alloy.
B
The specified thickness range captions apply independent of whether the ordered thickness is stated as a nominal or minimum.
C
The tolerances provided in the table are based on minimum thickness (tolerance over, no tolerance under). For nominal thickness, the tolerance is divided equally over
and under.
D
Where an ellipsis (. . .) appears in the table, the requirements have not been defined.

ANNEX

(Mandatory Information)

A1. PERMISSIBLE VARIATIONS IN DIMENSIONS AND MASS IN SI UNITS

A1.1 Listed in A1.17 are permissible variations in dimen-


sions and mass expressed in the International System of Units
(SI) terminology.

14
A568/A568M 15
TABLE A1.1 Thickness Tolerances [Metric] for Hot-Rolled Sheet
(Carbon and Structural Steel Only)15-mm (Cut Edge) and
25-mm (Mill Edge) Minimum Edge Distance (Coils and Cut
Lengths, Including Pickled)
NOTE 1Thickness is measured at any point across the width not less
than 15 mm from a cut edge and not less than 25 mm from a mill edge.
This table does not apply to the uncropped ends of mill edge coils.
NOTE 2Micrometers used for measurement of thickness shall be
constructed with anvils and spindles having minimum diameters of
0.188 in. [4.80 mm]. The tip of the spindle shall be flat, and the tip of the
anvil shall be flat or rounded with a minimum radius of curvature of 0.10
in. [2.55 mm]. Micrometers with pointed tips are not suitable for thickness
measurements.
NOTE 3The thickness of material <50 mm wide shall be measured at
mid-width.
Specified Ordered Thickness, mmA
Through 2.0 Over 2.0 to Over 2.5 to 4.5 to 6.0,
Specified Width, mm 2.5, incl 4.5, excl excl
Thickness Tolerances Over, mm, No Tolerance Un-
derB
To 600 0.22 0.22 0.26 0.30
Over 600 to 1200, incl 0.22 0.26 0.30 0.34
Over 1200 to 1500, incl 0.26 0.26 0.30 0.38
Over 1500 to 1800, incl 0.26 0.30 0.30 0.42
Over 1800 0.26 0.30 0.30 0.45
A
The specified thickness range captions apply independent of whether the
ordered thickness is stated as a nominal or minimum.
B
The tolerances provided in the table are based on minimum thickness (tolerance
over, not tolerance under). For nominal thickness, the tolerance is divided equally
over and under.

TABLE A1.2 Thickness Tolerances of Hot-Rolled Sheet (High-Strength, Low-Alloy Steel)15-mm (Cut Edge) and 25-mm (Mill Edge)
Minimum Edge Distance (Coils and Cut Lengths, Including Pickled)
NOTE 1Thickness is measured at any point across the width not less than 15 mm from a cut edge and not less than 25 mm from a mill edge. This
table does not apply to the uncropped ends of mill edge coils.
NOTE 2Micrometers used for measurement of thickness shall be constructed with anvils and spindles having minimum diameters of 0.188 in.
[4.80 mm]. The tip of the spindle shall be flat, and the tip of the anvil shall be flat or rounded with a minimum radius of curvature of 0.10 in. [2.55 mm].
Micrometers with pointed tips are not suitable for thickness measurements.
NOTE 3This table was constructed by multiplying the values in the standard table by 0.75 and rounding to 2 decimal places using standard ASTM
practice.
NOTE 4The thickness of material <50 mm wide shall be measured at mid-width.
Specified Ordered Thickness, mmA
Through Over 2.0 to Over 2.5 to 4.5 to
Specified Width, mm
2.0 2.5, incl 4.5, excl 6.0, excl
Thickness Tolerances Over, mm, No Tolerance UnderB
To 600, incl 0.22 0.26 0.30 0.30
Over 600 to 1200, incl 0.26 0.30 0.34 0.38
Over 1200 to 1500, incl 0.26 0.30 0.38 0.38
Over 1500 to 1800, incl 0.30 0.34 0.41 0.42
Over 1800 to 2000, incl 0.30 0.34 0.45 0.45
Over 2000 . . .C 0.38 0.45 0.45C
A
The specified thickness range captions apply independent of whether the ordered thickness is stated as a nominal or minimum.
B
The tolerances provided in the table are based on minimum thickness (tolerance over, not tolerance under). For nominal thickness, the tolerance is divided equally over
and under.
C
Where an ellipsis (. . .) appears in the table, the requirements have not been defined.

15
A568/A568M 15
TABLE A1.3 Width TolerancesA of Hot-Rolled Mill Edge Sheet (All
Designations)
(Coils and Cut Lengths, Including Pickled)
Width Tolerance, Over
Specified Width, mm
Only, mm
Over Through Carbon HSLA

300 600 16 16
600 1200 26 28
1200 1500 32 38
1500 1800 35 45
1800 ... 48 50

A
The above tolerances do not apply to the uncropped ends of mill edge coils
(9.1.1.1).

TABLE A1.4 Width Tolerances of Hot-Rolled Cut Edge Sheet (All Widths) and Cold-Rolled Sheet (Widths Over 300 mm)(All
Designations)A
(Coils and Cut Lengths, Including Pickled)
Specified Width, mm Width Tolerance, Over Only,
Over Through mm

... 600A 3
600 1200 5
1200 1500 6
1500 1800 8
1800 ... 10
A
Cold Rolled widths 300 mm and less, refer to Table A1.15.

TABLE A1.5 Length Tolerances of Hot-Rolled Sheet (All


Designations)
(Cut Lengths, Including Pickled)
Specified Length, mm Length Tolerance, Over
Over Through Only, mm

300 600 6
600 900 8
900 1500 12
1500 3000 20
3000 4000 25
4000 5000 35
5000 6000 40
6000 ... 45

TABLE A1.6 Diameter Tolerances of Circles from Hot-Rolled


(Including Pickled) and Cold-Rolled Sheet (Over 300 mm Width)
(All Designations)
Specified ThicknessA , mm Tolerances Over Specified Diameter, mm (No
Tolerances Under)
Diameters, mm
Over Through Over 600 to
Through 600 Over 1200
1200, incl

... 1.5 1.5 3.0 5.0


1.5 2.5 2.5 4.0 5.5
2.5 ... 3.0 5.0 6.5
A
1.8 mm minimum thickness for hot-rolled high-strength low-alloy steel sheet.

16
A568/A568M 15
TABLE A1.7 Camber TolerancesA for Hot-Rolled (Including
Pickled) and Cold-Rolled Sheet (All Designations)
(Cut Lengths)
NOTE 1Camber is the greatest deviation of a side edge from a straight
line, the measurement being taken on the concave side with a straightedge.
Cut Length, mm
Camber TolerancesA , mm
Over Through

... 1200 4
1200 1800 5
1800 2400 6
2400 3000 8
3000 3700 10
3700 4300 13
4300 4900 16
4900 5500 19
5500 6000 22
6000 9000 32
9000 12 200 38
A
The camber tolerance for coils is 25.0 mm in any 6000 mm.

TABLE A1.8 Out-of-Square Tolerances of Hot-Rolled Cut-Edge


(Including Pickled) and Cold-Rolled Sheet (All Designations)
(Cut Lengths)
Out-of-square is the greatest deviation of an end edge from a straight line at
right angle to a side and touching one corner. It is also obtained by measuring
the difference between the diagonals of the cut length. The out-of-square
deviation is one half of that difference. The tolerance for all thicknesses and all
sizes is 1.0 mm/100 mm of width or fraction thereof.

TABLE A1.9 Restricted Squareness Tolerances of Hot-Rolled


(Including Pickled) and Cold-Rolled Sheet (All Designations)
(Cut Lengths)
When cut lengths are specified restricted squareness, the width and the length
are not less than the dimensions specified. The individual tolerance for over-
width, over-length, camber, or out-of-square should not exceed 1.6 mm up to
and including 1200 mm in width and up to and including 3000 mm in length.
For cut lengths wider or longer, the applicable tolerance is 3.2 mm.

TABLE A1.10 Flatness TolerancesA of Temper Rolled or Pickled Hot-Rolled Sheet Cut LengthsB (All Designations)
Flatness ToleranceC , mm Specified Yield
Specified Thickness, mm Strength, min, MPaD

Specified Width, mm 310 to 340


MPa Yield
Over Through Under 310
Point, min,
MPa

1.2 1.5 to 900, incl 15 20


over 900 to 1500, incl 20 30
over 1500 25 ...
1.5 4.5 to 1500, incl 15 20
over 1500 to 1800, incl 20 30
over 1800 25 40
4.5 6.0 excl to 1500, incl 15 20
over 1500 to 1800, incl 20 30
over 1800 25 40
A
The above table also applies to lengths cut from coils by the consumer when adequate flattening operations are performed.
B
Application of this table to product in coil form is not appropriate unless the coil has been rolled out and adequately flattened with all coil set removed.
C
Maximum deviation from a horizontal surface.
D
Tolerances for high-strength, low-alloy steels with specified minimum yield strength in excess of 340 MPa are subject to negotiation.

17
A568/A568M 15
TABLE A1.11 Flatness TolerancesA of Non-Processed Hot-Rolled Sheet Cut LengthsB (All Designations)
Flatness ToleranceC , mm Specified Yield
Specified Thickness, mm Strength, min, MPaD

Specified Width, mm 310 to 340


MPa Yield
Over Through Under 310
Point, min,
MPa

1.2 1.5 to 900, incl 45 60


over 900 to 1500, incl 60 90
over 1500 75 ...
1.5 4.5 to 1500, incl 45 60
over 1500 to 1800, incl 60 90
over 1800 75 120
4.5 6.0 excl to 1500, incl 45 60
over 1500 to 1800, incl 60 90
over 1800 75 120
A
The above table also applies to lengths cut from coils by the consumer when adequate flattening operations are performed.
B
Application of this table to product in coil form is not appropriate unless the coil has been rolled out and adequately flattened with all coil set removed.
C
Maximum deviation from a horizontal surface.
D
Tolerances for high-strength, low-alloy steels with specified minimum yield strength in excess of 340 MPa are subject to negotiation.

TABLE A1.12 Thickness Tolerances of Cold-Rolled Sheet (All Designations)A 25-mm Minimum Edge Distance
NOTE 1Thickness is measured at any point across the width not less than 25 mm from a side edge.
NOTE 2Widths up to and including 300 mm in this table apply to widths produced by slitting from wider sheet.
NOTE 3Micrometers used for measurement of thickness shall be constructed with anvils and spindles having minimum diameters of 0.188 in.
[4.80 mm]. The tip of the spindle shall be flat, and the tip of the anvil shall be flat or rounded with a minimum radius of curvature of 0.10 in. [2.55 mm].
Micrometers with pointed tips are not suitable for thickness measurements.
NOTE 4This table was constructed by multiplying the values in the standard table by 0.50 and rounding to 2 decimal places using standard ASTM
practice.
NOTE 5The thickness of material <50 mm wide shall be measured at mid-width.
Specified Width, mm Specified Ordered Thickness, mmB
Through 0.4 Over 0.4 to 1.0, incl Over 1.0 to 1.2, incl Over 1.2 to 2.5, incl Over 2.5 to 4.0, incl
Over Through
Thickness Tolerances Over, mm, No Tolerance UnderC
... 1800 0.05 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.15
1800 2000 . . .D 0.08 0.10 0.15 0.18
2000 . . .D . . .D 0.15 0.15 0.18 0.20
A
0.55 mm minimum thickness for high-strength low-alloy.
B
The specified thickness range captions apply independent of whether the ordered thickness is stated as a nominal or minimum.
C
The tolerances provided in the table are based on minimum thickness (tolerance over, no tolerance under). For nominal thickness, the tolerance is divided equally over
and under.
D
Where an ellipsis (. . .) appears in the table, the requirements have not been defined.

TABLE A1.13 Length Tolerances of Cold-Rolled Sheet (All TABLE A1.14 Length Tolerances of Cold-Rolled Sheet (All
Designations) Designations)
(Cut Lengths Over 300 mm in Width) (Cut Length Sheets, to 300 mm in Width)
Specified Length, mm Tolerance Over Specified NOTE 1This table applies to widths produced by slitting from wider
Length (No Tolerance
Over Through sheet.
Under), mm
Specified Length, mm Tolerances Over Specified
Length (No Tolerance
300 1500 6 Over Through Under), mm
1500 3000 20
3000 6000 35
6000 ... 45 600 1500 15
1500 3000 20
3000 6000 25

18
A568/A568M 15
TABLE A1.15 Width Tolerances for Cold-Rolled Sheet (All
Designations)A
(Coils and Cut Lengths to 300 mm in Width)
NOTE 1This table applies to widths produced by slitting from wider
sheet.
Specified Width, mm Width Tolerance, Over
Over Through and Under, mm

50 100 0.3
100 200 0.4
200 300 0.8
A
0.50 mm thickness for high-strength low-alloy.

TABLE A1.16 Camber Tolerances of Cold-Rolled Sheet in Coils


(All Designations)A
(Coils to 300 mm in Width)
NOTE 1Camber is the greatest deviation of a side edge from a straight
line, the measurements being taken on the concave side with a straight-
edge.
NOTE 2This table applies to widths produced by slitting from wider
sheet.
Width, mm Camber Tolerances

Through 300, incl 5.0 mm in any 2000 mm


A
0.50 mm minimum thickness for high-strength low-alloy.

TABLE A1.17 Flatness Tolerances of Cold-Rolled Sheet Cut


Length (All Designations)A
NOTE 1This table does not apply when product is ordered full hard,
to a hardness range or annealed last (dead soft).
NOTE 2This table applies to lengths cut from coils, when adequate
flattening measures are performed to remove all undesirable flatness
conditions, including, but not limited to, coil set.
Specified Flatness Tolerance, mm Speci-
Specified Width, mm
Thickness, fied Yield Point, min, MPa
mm Under 310 to 340
Over Through
310 MPa MPaB

Through 1.0 ... 900 10 20


900 1500 15 30
1500 20 40
Over 1.0 ... 900 8 20
900 1500 10 20
1500 1800 15 30
1800 ... 20 40
A
Maximum deviation from a horizontal flat surface.
B
Tolerances for high-strength, low-alloy steel with specified minimum yield point in
excess of 340 MPa are subject to negotiation.

19
A568/A568M 15
APPENDIXES

(Nonmandatory Information)

X1. AGING EFFECTS ON FORMABILITY OF COLD-ROLLED CARBON-STEEL SHEET PRODUCTS

X1.1 Cold-rolled carbon-steel sheet products exhibit maxi- X1.3.2 Cold-rolled low-carbon steels are sometimes pro-
mum formability in the annealed last, or dead-soft, condition. cessed in a continuous annealing line, in which the full-hard
However, many sheet products are not suitable for exposed sheet is uncoiled, passed through an annealing furnace, and
applications in the dead-soft condition because Luders lines then rewound in a continuous manner. Heating and cooling
(sometimes referred to as stretcher strains or fluting) may rates are much higher than those found in batch annealing. The
develop during subsequent forming. This problem is avoided in faster cooling, in particular, results in higher levels of intersti-
most cases by temper rolling the sheet after annealing. After tial solute in the product as compared with batch annealing.
temper rolling, however, some sheet products are susceptible to The manner in which the sheet is cooled can be controlled to
aging. Aging refers to a gradual increase in yield strength and minimize the solute carbon level, and temper rolling is effec-
corresponding decrease in ductility during storage after temper tive for reducing fluting tendencies. However, continuous-
rolling. Aging always has a negative effect on formability and, annealed low-carbon steels are more prone to subsequent aging
when aging leads to the redevelopment of an upper yield point, than batch-annealed steels.
can result in renewed susceptibility to fluting. X1.3.2.1 Low-carbon commercial steel (CS) and drawing
steel (DS) sheet are available as either batch- or continuous-
X1.2 Aging can occur when interstitial solute atoms, carbon
annealed products, depending on the facilities of a given
or nitrogen, are present in the steel. Solute carbon or nitrogen
producer. To minimize aging effects in continuous-annealed
atoms are those not chemically combined with other elements
products, rotation of stock by fabricating the oldest material
in the steel (as carbides or nitrides, for example). Over time,
first is recommended.
these carbon or nitrogen interstitial solute atoms diffuse to
crystalline imperfections within the steel and, in so doing, give X1.4 Interstitial-Free SteelsInterstitial-free steels have
rise to aging. The extent to which aging occurs depends on the essentially no interstitial solutes and, as a result, are nonaging.
interstitial solute level and the combination of temperature and Processing involves vacuum degassing during refining of the
time to which the steel is exposed after temper rolling. In liquid steel, as well as additions of elements that form very
general, higher interstitial solute levels result in larger strength stable carbides and nitrides, such as titanium or columbium
increases during storage; the rate of aging increases with (niobium). These steps ensure that total interstitial levels are
increasing temperature. As described as follows, the final very low, and that the interstitials are all chemically combined
interstitial solute level and aging characteristics depend on the (or stabilized) in the form of alloy carbides or nitrides.
chemical composition of the steel as well as specific sheet- Interstitial-free steels are nonaging regardless of whether
processing methods used by the steel producer. annealing is conducted in a continuous or batch manner.
X1.3 Low-Carbon SteelsIn conventional aluminum-killed X1.4.1 Extra-deep drawing steel (EDDS) must be vacuum
low-carbon steels, the level of interstitial solute is affected degassed and stabilized. This nonaging, interstitial-free product
mainly through the formation of aluminum nitride and iron is suitable for exposed applications with the most severe
carbides within the steel during processing, which is influenced forming requirements.
by the manner in which annealing is performed.
X1.5 Bake-Hardenable SteelsBake-hardenable steels are
X1.3.1 Many sheet products are annealed in batches of
a special product class with controlled interstitial solute levels
large, tightly wound coils. During heating, any solute nitrogen
and aging behavior. These steels are processed to have mod-
present in the full-hard sheet combines with aluminum to form
erate aging resistance, to permit forming while the steel is in its
aluminum nitride. Subsequent cooling is very slow and allows
most ductile condition. Aging occurs largely during a subse-
essentially all of the carbon to precipitate as iron carbide. Final
quent thermal treatment (for example, paint-curing), which
interstitial solute levels are very low and, as a result, batch-
results in desirable hardening of the final part for better
annealed low-carbon steels have excellent resistance to aging.
durability.
X1.3.1.1 Deep drawing steel (DDS) sheet typically is batch-
annealed and has excellent aging resistance. With temper X1.5.1 Continuous-annealed low-carbon steels can exhibit
rolling, DDS sheet is suitable for use in many exposed significant bake-hardening, as well as certain vacuum-degassed
applications with severe forming requirements. and batch-annealed steels.

20
A568/A568M 15

X2. STANDARD CHEMICAL RANGES AND LIMITS

X2.1 Standard chemical ranges and limits are prescribed for X2.3 The purchaser shall indicate if they wish to invoke
carbon steels in Table X2.1. Table X2.1 (and the Steel Designation to be employed), Table
X2.2 (and the maximum composition), or Table X2.3 (and the
X2.2 Chemical ranges for non-standard steels are prescribed Grade Designation) when placing their order.
in Table X2.2.
X2.3.1 Table X2.3 specifies options that may only be used
X2.2.1 Other ranges are available upon agreement between in conjunction with Specifications A1008/A1008M and
purchase and producer. A1011/A1011M.

21
A568/A568M 15
TABLE X2.1 Standard SteelsCarbon Sheet Steel Compositions
Steel Designation Chemical Composition Limits, %
No. C Mn P max S max

1002 0.020.04 0.35 max 0.030 0.035


1003 0.020.06 0.35 max 0.030 0.035
1004 0.02/0.08 0.35 max 0.030 0.035
1005 0.06 max 0.35 max 0.030 0.035
1006 0.08 max 0.45 max 0.030 0.035
1007 0.02/0.10 0.50 max 0.030 0.035
1008 0.10 max 0.50 max 0.030 0.035
1009 0.15 max 0.60 max 0.030 0.035
1010 0.080.13 0.300.60 0.030 0.035
1012 0.100.15 0.300.60 0.030 0.035
1015 0.130.18 0.300.60 0.030 0.035
1016 0.130.18 0.600.90 0.030 0.035
1017 0.150.20 0.300.60 0.030 0.035
1018 0.150.20 0.600.90 0.030 0.035
1019 0.150.20 0.701.00 0.030 0.035
1020 0.180.23 0.300.60 0.030 0.035
1021 0.180.23 0.600.90 0.030 0.035
1022 0.180.23 0.701.00 0.030 0.035
1023 0.200.25 0.300.60 0.030 0.035
1025 0.220.28 0.300.60 0.030 0.035
1026 0.220.28 0.600.90 0.030 0.035
1029 0.250.31 0.600.90 0.030 0.035
1030 0.280.34 0.600.90 0.030 0.035
1033 0.300.36 0.701.00 0.030 0.035
1035 0.320.38 0.600.90 0.030 0.035
1037 0.320.38 0.701.00 0.030 0.035
1038 0.350.42 0.600.90 0.030 0.035
1039 0.370.44 0.701.00 0.030 0.035
1040 0.370.44 0.600.90 0.030 0.035
1042 0.400.47 0.600.90 0.030 0.035
1043 0.400.47 0.701.00 0.030 0.035
1045 0.430.50 0.600.90 0.030 0.035
1046 0.430.50 0.701.00 0.030 0.035
1049 0.460.53 0.600.90 0.030 0.035
1050 0.480.55 0.600.90 0.030 0.035
1055 0.500.60 0.600.90 0.030 0.035
1060 0.550.65 0.600.90 0.030 0.035
1064A 0.590.70 0.500.80 0.030 0.035
1065 0.600.70 0.600.90 0.030 0.035
1070 0.650.75 0.600.90 0.030 0.035
1074 0.700.80 0.500.80 0.030 0.035
1075 0.700.80 0.400.70 0.030 0.035
1078 0.720.85 0.300.60 0.030 0.035
1080 0.750.88 0.600.90 0.030 0.035
1084 0.800.93 0.600.90 0.030 0.035
1085 0.800.93 0.701.00 0.030 0.035
1086 0.800.93 0.300.50 0.030 0.035
1090 0.850.98 0.690.90 0.030 0.035
1095 0.901.03 0.300.50 0.030 0.035
1515 0.130.18 1.101.40 0.030 0.035
1521 0.180.23 1.101.40 0.030 0.035
1522 0.180.24 1.101.40 0.030 0.035
1524 0.190.25 1.351.65 0.030 0.035
1526 0.220.29 1.101.40 0.030 0.035
1527 0.220.29 1.201.50 0.030 0.035
1536 0.300.37 1.201.50 0.030 0.035
1541 0.360.44 1.351.65 0.030 0.035
1547 0.430.51 1.351.65 0.030 0.035
1548 0.440.52 1.101.40 0.030 0.035
1552 0.470.55 1.201.50 0.030 0.035
1566 0.600.71 0.851.15 0.030 0.035
A
Steel Designation No. 1064 is not an SAE Standard Chemistry.

NoteWhen silicon is required, the following ranges and limits are commonly used:
To 1015, excl 0.10 max
1015 to 1025, incl 0.10 max, 0.100.25, or 0.150.30
Over 1025 0.100.25 or 0.150.30

22
A568/A568M 15
TABLE X2.2 Standard Chemical Ranges and Limits
NOTE 1The carbon ranges shown in the column headed Range apply when the specified maximum limit for manganese does not exceed 1.00 %.
When the maximum manganese limit exceeds 1.00 %, add 0.01 to the carbon ranges shown below.
Carbon Steels Only, Cast or Heat Analysis
Element Maximum Specified Range Lowest
Element, % max

Carbon (see to 0.15 incl 0.05 0.08


Note) over0.15 to 0.30 incl 0.06
over0.30 to 0.40 incl 0.07
over0.40 to 0.60 incl 0.08
over0.60 to 0.80 incl 0.11
over0.80 to 1.35 incl 0.14
Manganese to 0.50 incl 0.20 0.40
over 0.50 to 1.15 incl 0.30
over 1.15 to 1.65 incl 0.35
Phosphorus to 0.08 incl 0.03 0.030A
over 0.08 to 0.015 incl 0.05
Sulfur to 0.08 incl 0.03 0.035A
over 0.08 to 0.15 incl 0.05
over 0.15 to 0.23 incl 0.07
over 0.23 to 0.33 incl 0.10
Silicon to 0.15 incl 0.08 0.10
over 0.15 to 0.30 incl 0.15
over 0.30 to 0.60 incl 0.30
Copper When copper is required 0.20
min is commonly specified.
A
Certain individual specifications provide for lower standard limits for phosphorus and sulfur.

23
A568/A568M 15
TABLE X2.3 Chemical Composition for Combinations of CS & DS Grades Compatible with Designations in Table X2.1A For Hot Rolled
and Cold Rolled Steel Sheet Specifications A1008/A1008M and A1011/A1011M
Composition, % Heat Analysis
Element maximum unless otherwise shown
Grade Designation C Mn P S Al Si Cu Ni CrB Mo V Cb TiC N B
CS Type A 1005D,E,F,G 0.06 0.35 0.030 0.035 ... ... 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.06 0.008 0.008 0.025
CS Type A 1006D,E,F,G 0.08 0.45 0.030 0.035 ... ... 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.06 0.008 0.008 0.025
CS Type A 1008D,E,F,G 0.10 0.50 0.030 0.035 ... ... 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.06 0.008 0.008 0.025

CS Type B 1002F,I 0.02 to 0.35 0.030 0.035 ... ... 0.20H 0.20 0.15 0.06 0.008 0.008 0.025 ... ...
0.04
CS Type B 1003F,I 0.02 to 0.35 0.030 0.035 ... ... 0.20H 0.20 0.15 0.06 0.008 0.008 0.025 ... ...
0.06
CS Type B 1004F 0.02 to 0.35 0.030 0.035 ... ... 0.20H 0.20 0.15 0.06 0.008 0.008 0.025 ... ...
0.08
F,I H
CS Type B 1005 0.02 to 0.35 0.030 0.035 ... ... 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.06 0.008 0.008 0.025 ... ...
0.06
CS Type B 1006F 0.02 to 0.45 0.030 0.035 ... ... 0.20H 0.20 0.15 0.06 0.008 0.008 0.025 ... ...
0.08
CS Type B 1007F 0.02 to 0.50 0.030 0.035 ... ... 0.20H 0.20 0.15 0.06 0.008 0.008 0.025 ... ...
0.10
CS Type B 1008F 0.02 to 0.50 0.030 0.035 ... ... 0.20H 0.20 0.15 0.06 0.008 0.008 0.025 ... ...
0.10
F H
CS Type B 1009 0.02 to 0.60 0.030 0.035 ... ... 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.06 0.008 0.008 0.025 ... ...
0.15
CS Type B 1010F 0.08 to 0.30 to 0.030 0.035 ... ... 0.20H 0.20 0.15 0.06 0.008 0.008 0.025 ... ...
0.13 0.60
CS Type B 1012F 0.10 to 0.30 to 0.030 0.035 ... ... 0.20H 0.20 0.15 0.06 0.008 0.008 0.025 ... ...
0.15 0.60

DS Type A 1005D,E,G 0.06 0.35 0.020 0.030 0.01 ... 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.06 0.008 0.008 0.025 ... ...
min
D,E,G
DS Type A 1006 0.08 0.45 0.020 0.030 0.01 ... 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.06 0.008 0.008 0.025 ... ...
min
DS Type A 1008D,E,G 0.08 0.50 0.020 0.030 0.01 ... 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.06 0.008 0.008 0.025 ... ...
min

DS Type B 1002I 0.02 to 0.35 0.020 0.030 0.02 ... 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.06 0.008 0.008 0.025 ... ...
0.04 min
I
DS Type B 1003 0.02 to 0.35 0.020 0.030 0.02 ... 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.06 0.008 0.008 0.025 ... ...
0.06 min
DS Type B 1004 0.02 to 0.35 0.020 0.030 0.02 ... 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.06 0.008 0.008 0.025 ... ...
0.08 min
DS Type B 1005I 0.02 to 0.35 0.020 0.030 0.02 ... 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.06 0.008 0.008 0.025 ... ...
0.06 min
DS Type B 1006 0.02 to 0.45 0.020 0.030 0.02 ... 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.06 0.008 0.008 0.025 ... ...
0.08 min
DS Type B 1007 0.02 to 0.50 0.020 0.030 0.02 ... 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.06 0.008 0.008 0.025 ... ...
0.08 min
DS Type B 1008 0.02 to 0.50 0.020 0.030 0.02 ... 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.06 0.008 0.008 0.025 ... ...
0.08 min
A
Where an ellipsis (. . .) appears in the table, there is no specified limit, but the analysis shall be reported.
B
Chromium is permitted, at the producers option, to 0.25 % maximum when the carbon content is less than or equal to 0.05 %.
C
For steels containing 0.02 % carbon or more, titanium is permitted at the producers option, to the lesser of 3.4N + 1.5S or 0.025 %.
D
Specify Type B to avoid carbon levels below 0.02 %.
E
For carbon levels less than or equal to 0.02 %, it is permissible to use vanadium, columbium, or titanium, or combinations thereof, as stabilizing elements at the producers
option. In such case, the limits for these elements are 0.10 % for vanadium or columbium and 0.15 % for titanium.
F
When aluminum deoxidized steel is required, it is permissible to order a minimum of 0.01 % total aluminum.
G
It is permissible to furnish as a vacuum degassed or chemically stabilized steel, or both, at producers option.
H
When copper steel is specified, the copper limit is a minimum requirement. When copper steel is not specified, the copper limit is a maximum requirement.
I
Chemistry combination is somewhat restrictive and requires agreement between producer and user.

24
A568/A568M 15

X3. PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING BREAKAGE ALLOWANCE LEVELS (APPLICABLE TO CARBON STEEL SHEET
ONLY)

X3.1 In spite of the many extra precautions exercised in X3.4 When there are two or more suppliers, the recom-
making sheet for drawing purposes, certain manufacturing mended procedure for determining a breakage allowance for an
variables may be encountered, all beyond the manufacturers identified part is based on the average percentage of breakage
reasonable control, which may contribute to breakage in of at least 75 % of the blanks run on that part, on one set of
fabrication and must be considered as part of the normal hazard dies, during at least one month (3000 piece minimum). The
of the purchasers use. The manufacturer will undertake to total production of all suppliers used to obtain this 75 %
establish with the purchasers concurrence a breakage allow- minimum is to be included in the calculation starting with the
ance level. best performance. The average breakage thus determined shall
be considered the allowance for the part.
X3.2 Breakage, for the purpose of this proposal, is defined
as unrepairable parts, broken during drawing and classed as X3.4.1 Example:
scrap. Parts showing laminations, resulting from pipe, may be Vendor Parts Produced Parts Scrap % Scrap
excluded provided they are separately identified. Broken parts A 32 466 630 1.94
B 27 856 579 2.08
that can be salvaged are not covered in this procedure. C 67 120 1477 2.20
D 56 200 1349 2.40
X3.3 This procedure is intended to establish a breakage E 40 900 1125 2.75
allowance without the need for reinspection of each broken F 850 60 7.05
11 225 392 total 5220 total 2.32 avg
stamping. It will apply to overall breakage on a given part (as
calculated by the method outlined below) in excess of 1 % up X3.4.2 Seventy-five percent of 225 392 equals to 169 044;
to and including 8 %. Inherent variations in steel and normal therefore, it is necessary to include the total production of
variables in the stamping operation preclude 100 % satisfac- vendors A, B, C, and D (A + B + C + D = total production of
tory performance. Therefore, it is accepted that practical 183 642 parts) since the total of A, B, and C is only 127 442,
perfection is attained when 99 % of the stampings are produced which is less than 75 % of the total. Total production of 183
without breakage. When the overall breakage is in excess of 642 parts (A + B + C + D) with 4035 parts being rejected,
8 %, it is considered to be the result of abnormal stamping results in a percentage allowance of 2.20 %. On this basis,
conditions, and this method does not apply. vendors D, E, and F exceed the allowance.

X4. PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING THE EXTENT OF PLASTIC DEFORMATION ENCOUNTERED IN FORMING OR
DRAWING

X4.1 Introduction recognize that day-to-day variations of material, lubrication,


X4.1.1 The preferred method for determining plastic strain and die settings will affect the strain level. To ensure trouble-
is the circle grid and forming limit curve. The scribed square free press performance a zone below the forming limit curve
and change in thickness methods may also be used to evaluate bounded by the dashed and solid lines is designated as the
deformation during the forming of a flat sheet into the desired safety band. Therefore, strain combinations falling below the
shape. dashed lines should not exceed the forming limit curve in
normal production operations. The left of zero portion of the
X4.2 Circle Grid Method curve defines the limiting biaxial tension-compression strain
combination while the right side defines the forming limit
X4.2.1 The test system employs photographic or electro- curve. Because the production stampings used to develop for
chemically etched circle patterns on the surface of a sheet forming limit curve represented all qualities of low-carbon
metal blank of known quality and a forming limit curve for light-gauge sheet steel, this single forming limit curve can be
the evaluation of strains developed by forming in press used successfully for these products.
operations. It is useful in the laboratory and in the press room.
Selection from the various steels that are commercially avail- X4.2.3 The circle grid method can also be used for other
able can be done effectively by employing this technique. In low-carbon sheet categories if the following adjustments to the
addition, corrective action in die or part design to improve forming limit curve are made:
performance is indicated. X4.2.3.1 Material ThicknessAs the metal thickness in-
X4.2.2 The forming limit curve in Fig. X4.1 has been creases the forming limit curve shifts upwards in a parallel
developed from actual measurements of the major (e1) and manner, 0.2 % (e1) strain for each 0.025-mm increase in metal
associated minor (e2) strains found in critical areas of produc- thickness above 0.75 mm.
tion type stampings. Strain combinations that locate below this X4.2.3.2 Material PropertiesWhen material properties
curve are safe, while those that fail above the curve are critical. are considerably different from that of conventional low-
For analysis of metal strain on production stampings, one must carbon sheet steel (for example, higher strength-low ductility),

25
A568/A568M 15

FIG. X4.1 Forming Limit Curve

the forming limit curve is lower. The magnitude of the complex shapes it may be desirable to etch both surfaces of
downgrade displacement is specific to each material; therefore, blanks so that the strains that occur in reverse draws can be
current material information should be consulted to determine determined.
placement of the forming limit curve. X4.3.4 The sheet metal blanks may be etched by a photo-
graphic or electrochemical method. In the former method of
X4.3 Procedure photosensitive solution, for example, 50 % Kodak Photo Resist
X4.3.1 Obtain a sheet sample of known quality, the sheet (KPR) emulsion and 50 % KPR-thinner, is sprayed onto the
quality being established by either supplier designation, con- sheet. The emulsion is dried by baking the sheet at 65C for
sumer purchase order, or most preferred tensile data obtained 15 min or by just standing it for several hours at room
from a companion sheet sample. temperature in a dark room. The latter should be employed in
X4.3.2 Obtain or prepare a negative on stencil with selected materials that age and, hence, become stronger when baked at
circles in a uniform pattern. The circles may be 2.5 to 25.0 mm 65C. The negative is placed on the emulsion, held intimately
in diameter; the most convenient diameter is 5.0 mm because in contact with the sheet, and exposed to a strong ultraviolet
it is easy to read and the gauge spacing is short enough to show light source for 1 to 112 min. The sheet is developed for 30 to
the maximum strain in a specific location on the part. 45 s in KPR developer, rinsed with water, and sprayed with
alcohol to set the resist. It is again rinsed with water and then
X4.3.3 The sheet metal blanks should be cleaned to remove sprayed with KPR black dye to reveal the etched circles.
excess oil and dirt; however, some precoated sheets can be
etched without removing the coating. The area(s) to be etched X4.3.5 In the electrochemical method, the etch pad is
should be determined from observation of panels previously saturated with an appropriate electrolyte. Various electrolytes
formed; generally, the area that has a split problem is selected are available from suppliers of the etching equipment. Some
for etching. Normally, the convex side of the radius is gridded. electrolytes are more effective than others for etching certain
If sufficient time is available, the entire blank may be etched, surfaces, such as terne plate and other metallic coated steels. A
since valuable information can be obtained about the move- rust-inhibiting solution is preferred for steel sheets.
ment of metal in stamping a part when strains can be evaluated X4.3.6 A ground clamp for the transformer of suitable
in what may appear to be noncritical areas. Additionally, for amperage (10 to 50 A is usually used) is fastened to the blank

26
A568/A568M 15
and the second lead is attached to the etch pad. Although the X4.5 Evaluation of Strain Measurements
current may be turned on at this time, caution should be taken X4.5.1 The e1 strain is always positive while the e2 strain
not to lay the pad on the sheet blank as it will arc. It is may be zero, positive, or negative, as indicated on the forming
advisable to refrain from touching the metal of the etch pad and limit curve chart (Fig. X4.1). The maximum e 1 and associated
the grounded sheet blank. e2 values measured in critical areas on the formed part are
X4.3.7 The stencil is placed with the plastic coating against plotted on the graph paper containing the forming limit curve
the sheet surface in the area to be etched. Wetting the stencil by locating the point of intersections of the e1, e2 strains.
with a minimum amount of electrolyte will assist in smoothing X4.5.2 If this point is on or below the safety band of the
out the wrinkles and gives a more uniform etch. The etch pad forming limit curve, the strain should not cause breakage.
is now positioned on the stencil and the current turned on, if it Points further below the curve indicate that a less ductile
is not already on. Apply suitable pressure to the pad. Only the material of a lower grade may be applied. Points above the
minimum time necessary to produce a clear etched pattern safety band show that fabrication has induced strains that
should be used. The etching time will vary with the amperage could result in breakage. Therefore, in evaluation on stampings
available from the power source and the stencil area, as well as exhibiting these strains, efforts should be made to provide an
the pad area in contact with the stencil. Rocker-type etch pads e1, e2 strain combination that would lie on or below the safety
give good prints and require less amperage than flat-surfaced band of the forming limit curve. A different e1, e2 strain
pads. Excessive current causes stencil damage. combination can be obtained through changes of one or more
X4.3.8 The etching solution activates the surface of the of the forming variables such as die conditions, lubricants,
metal and may cause rusting unless it is inhibited. After the blank size, thickness, or material grade. It should be noted at
desired area has been etched, the blank should be wiped or this time that these conclusions are derived from a reference
rinsed, dried, and neutralized. base being the steel quality used to fabricate the grid
X4.3.9 The etched blank is now ready for forming. The stamping.
lubricants and press conditions should simulate production X4.5.3 When attempting to change the relationship of e1
situations. If a sequence of operations is used in forming a part, and e2 strains, it should be noted that on the forming limit curve
it is desirable to etch sufficient blanks so that each operation the most severe condition for a given e1 strain is at 0 % e2
can be studied. strain. This means the metal works best when it is allowed to
deform in two dimensions, e1 and e2, rather than being
X4.4 Measurement of Strain After Forming restricted in one dimension. A change in e2 to decrease the
X4.4.1 After forming, the circles are generally distorted into severity can be made by changing one of the previously
elliptical shapes (Fig. X4.2). These ellipses have major and mentioned forming variables of the die design, for example,
minor strain axes. The major strain (e 1) is always defined to be improving lubrication on the tension-tension side will increase
the direction in which the greatest positive strain has occurred e2 and decrease the severity.
without regard to original blank edges or the sheet rolling X4.5.4 In addition to the forming limit curve, the e1 e2 strain
direction. The minor strain (e2) is defined to be 90 to the major measurements may be used to evaluate the material require-
strain direction. ments on the basis of strain gradients, as illustrated in Fig.
X4.4.2 There are several methods for determining the major X4.3, or by plotting contours of equivalent strain levels on the
and minor strains of the formed panel. Typical tools are a pair
of dividers and a scale ruled in 0.5 mm. For sharp radii, a thin
plastic scale that can follow the contour of the stamping can be
used to determine the dimensions of the ellipses. (Scales are
available to read the percent strain directly.)

FIG. X4.3 Graph of Major Strains and Critical Major Strains and
FIG. X4.2 Major and Minor Strain Axes Cross Section of Etched Panel

27
A568/A568M 15
surface of the formed part. Even when the level of strain is limit. This course of action requires no binding nor reshaping
relatively low, parts in which the e1 strain is changing rapidly of the punch, only grinding in the radius.
either in magnitude or direction over a short span on the X4.7.1.2 The total average major strain required to make
surface may require more ductile grades of sheet metal, change this formation is only 17.5 %; yet in a 5.0-mm circle the strain
in lubrication, or change in part design. is as high as 40 %. The strain distribution curve puts forth
graphically the need to distribute the strain over the length of
X4.6 Example of Major and Minor Strain Distribution the time by some means as described above.
X4.6.1 A formed panel (Fig. X4.4) with a cross section as X4.7.1.3 Change in lubrication can also improve the strain
shown in Fig. X4.3 is used to illustrate major and minor strain distribution of a stamping. If the strain over the punch is
combinations. A plot of the major strain distribution should be critical, the amount of stretch (strain) required to make the
made by finding the ellipse with the largest major strain (circle shape can be reduced by allowing metal to flow in over the
7) and measuring both the major and minor strains in the row punch by decreasing the friction through the use of a more
of ellipses running in the direction of the major strain. The effective lubricant in the hold-down era.
solid dots (Fig. X4.3) are the measured major strains for each X4.7.1.4 If the part is critical, a change in material may
ellipse. The Xs are the critical major strains as determined from help. That is, a material having a better uniform elongation will
the forming limit curve at the corresponding minor strain distribute the strain more uniformly or a material having a
(intersection of the measured minor strain and the severity higher r value will make it possible to draw in more metal
curve). from the hold-down area so that less stretch is necessary to
X4.6.2 Usually a single row of ellipses will suffice to form the part.
determine the most severe strain distribution. The resulting
strain distribution plot (Fig. X4.3) illustrates both severity of X4.8 Scribed Square Method
the strain compared to the critical strain limits and the X4.8.1 The basic technique is to draw a panel from a blank
concentration of strain in the stamping. Steep strain gradients that has been scribed both longitudinally and transversely with
should be avoided because they are inherent to fracture sites. a series of parallel lines spaced at 25.0-mm intervals. The lines
on the panel are measured after drawing and the stretch or draw
X4.7 Example for Reducing Splitting Tendency calculated as the percent increase in area of a 25.0-mm square.
X4.7.1 In an area such as that represented in Fig. X4.3, the This is a fairly simple procedure for panels having generous
splitting tendency can be reduced as follows: radii and fairly even stretch or draw. Many major panels fall in
X4.7.1.1 If the radius of the part in the region of circle 1 is this category, and in these instances it is quite easy to pick out
increased, some strain can be induced to take place in this area the square area exhibiting the greatest increase.
which will allow the major strain in circle 7 to be reduced X4.8.2 If the square or line to be measured is no longer a flat
sufficiently to bring the strain combination below the critical surface, place a narrow strip of masking (or other suitable tape)
on the formed surface and mark the points which are to be
measured. Remove the tape, place on a plane surface, and
determine the distance between the points with a steel scale.
X4.8.3 There will be cases of minor increase in area with
major elongation in the one direction. In these instances, the
percent elongation should be recorded.

X4.9 Thickness Method


X4.9.1 There are instances when the maximum stretch is
continued to an area smaller than 645 mm2 or the shape of the
square has been distorted irregularly, making measurements
difficult and calculation inaccurate. When either of these
conditions exists, an electronic thickness gauge may be used at
the area in question or this area may be sectioned and the
decrease in metal thickness measured with a ball-point mi-
crometer. The increase in unit area can be calculated by
dividing the original thickness by the final thickness.
X4.9.2 Example Assuming the blank thickness to be
0.80 mm and the final thickness to be 0.60 mm, the increase in
unit area would be a [(0.80 0.60)/0.80] 100 = 25 %
FIG. X4.4 Formed Panel and Cross Section increase.

28
A568/A568M 15

X5. ALTERNATIVE METHODS FOR EXPRESSING FLATNESS

X5.1 Introduction and Definitions L is the difference between the length of a given strip and
X5.1.1 In addition to the conventional expression of the reference strip.
flatness, the maximum deviation from a horizontal flat X5.1.4 For the special case of waves/buckles that are
surface, at least two other flatness parameters have been perfectly sinusoidal in character, the following relationship
developed and are in use for characterizing sheet with longi- applies:
tudinal waves or buckles. These are steepness index and
flatness index (or I-unit), that are illustrated using the I5 FS D S DG

2
H
L
2
3 10 5
example in Fig. X5.1.
or:
X5.1.2 Steepness IndexFig. X5.1(a) shows a representa-
tion of a sheet sample exhibiting edge waves of height, H, and I 5 24.7S 2
interval, L. The steepness index value for this sample is defined Table X5.1 provides I-unit values based on the sinusoidal
as: approximation for wave heights up to 12-in. (increments of
132 in.) and intervals between 10 and 40 in. (increments of
steepness index 5 HL
1 in.). Mathematical relationships between the three represen-
Often, the steepness value is expressed as a percentage: tations of flatness described here are given in Table X5.2; these
% steepness 5 S 5 ~ H L ! 3 100 relationships can be used to convert between I-unit, %
X5.1.3 I-UnitsMaking a series of lengthwise cuts to the steepness, and wave height values (see examples in Table
sample in Fig. X5.1(a) relaxes elastic stresses present in the X5.2).
sheet and results in narrow strips of differing lengths, as shown X5.2 Flatness Evaluation Example and Determination of
in Fig. X5.1(b). Using the length of one of these strips as a I-Unit or % Steepness Value
reference (Lref), the I-unit value (I) for an individual strip is
X5.2.1 While the strip is on an inspection table, find the
defined as:
locations on the strip that are not lying flat on the table. If no
I 5 ~ L L ref ! 3 105 flatness deviation can be found, that portion of the coil
where: (head/middle/tail) can be described as flat (that is, zero I-unit or
zero % steepness).
X5.2.2 If the coil is not totally flat, the height of the
deviation must be determined and recorded. If the coil has edge
waves, a step gauge (incremented in intervals of 116 or 132 in.)
can be inserted under a wave to determine the height. If the coil
exhibits flatness deviation in the center of the strip, a light-
weight straight edge can be placed on the highest portion of the
buckle and on the highest portion of the next repeating buckle.
The height can then be determined by inserting a step gauge
between the straight edge and the strip.
X5.2.3 Along with the height, the wave period or wave
interval must also be determined. The wave interval can be
obtained by using a standard tape measure or straight edge to
measure the distance between the highest point of one flatness
deviation to the highest point of the next repeating flatness
deviation.
X5.2.4 After determining height and wave interval, either
the I-unit or % steepness value can be obtained. To determine
the I-unit flatness, locate the appropriate height and wave
interval in Table X5.1 and read the I-unit value at the
FIG. X5.1 Representation of Sheet Sample With Edge Waves (a) intersection of the two measurements. To determine %
and Strips of Differing Length That Result from Making Longitu- steepness, divide the height by the wave interval and multiply
dinal Cuts Along Sample (b) the result by 100.

29
A568/A568M 15
TABLE X5.1 I-Unit Conversion Chart

30
A568/A568M 15
TABLE X5.2 Flatness Conversion FactorsA
NOTE 1 L is the wave interval as defined in Fig. X5.1 (a).
% Steep-
I Unit Height
ness

2L 25
2 21
I Unit (I) 1 I 10 I 10

Height (H)
(peak to
peak)
S D
H
2L
2
105 1
s 100 H d
L

% Steep- s LSd
2.5 ( S)2 100 1
ness (S)

A
Examples(1) Assume % steepness is given as 1.5 and the corresponding
I-unit value is desired. From Table X5.2, I = 2.5(S)2 = 2.5[(3.14)(1.5)]2 = 55.5.
(2) Assume an I-unit value of 25 is given and the corresponding % steepness is
desired. From Table X5.2, S = 2/(I 101)1/2 = 2/3.14 (25 101 )1/2 = 1.0.

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

Committee A01 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue
(A568/A568M 14) that may impact the use of this standard. (Approved Nov. 1, 2015.)

(1) Added Practice A1073/A1073M to Section 2.


(2) Added new Subsection 8.3, with reference to Practice
A1073/A1073M.

Committee A01 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue
(A568/A568M 13a1) that may impact the use of this standard. (Approved Oct. 1, 2014.)

(1) Revised Tables 7 and 8, Tables 10-12, Tables 16-18, Tables


A1.4 and A1.5, Tables A1.7-A1.9, and Tables A1.13-A1.16, to
delete not resquared and resquared.

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