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IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 03, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Robust Visual Moving Object Detection, Tracking and Speed Estimation

of Progressively DE noised Video in Real Time
Miss. Madhuri R. Jadhav1 Prof. Mrs. S.R. Mahadik2
Abstract Image denoising continues to be an active algorithms [3][8] and real-time working systems [9][14]
research topic. The denoising methods approach is have been developed in recent years.
numerically impressive and they suffer from visible artifacts. A typical moving object detection algorithm has
The current methods are more complex for analysis, and the features like estimation of the stationary part that is
implementation is also difficult. The proposed image background, obtaining difference images of frames,
denoising method which progressively reduces noise by applying the threshold value, tracking and estimating speed.
deterministic annealing. The results of implementation are Optical flow method has been used for detecting moving
numerically and visually excellent. The new perspective of objects in image sequences [15]-[17]. But the high
Robust Estimator is implemented. Also the focus of this computational time to extract the optical flow and the lack
paper is to design an algorithm to track a moving object and of discrimination of the foreground from the background,
its speed estimation. make this method unsuitable for real time processing.
Key words: Object Detection, Object Speed Estimation
I. INTRODUCTION S. M. M. Rahman, M. O. Ahmad, and M. N. S. Swamy
Modern digital technology has made it possible to presented the paper Video denoising based on inter-frame
manipulate multi-dimensional signals with systems that statistical modeling of wavelet coefficients [1] in which it
range from simple digital circuits to advanced parallel was proposed that a joint probability density function to
computers. Image processing is processing of images using model the video wavelet coefficients of any two
mathematical operations by using signal processing with the neighbouring frames and then apply this statistical model for
input is an image, such as a photograph or video frame and denoising. The joint density function was employed for
the output of image processing may be either an image or a spatial filtering of the noisy wavelet coefficients by
set of characteristics or parameters related to the image. developing a bivariate maximum a posterior estimator.
During acquisition and transmission, images are is Simulation results on test video sequences show an
the most severe one. Image denoising is the reconstruction improved performance both in terms of the peak signal-to-
of the original image from a noisy image. The noise may be noise ratio and the perceptual quality compared to that of the
produced by definitely contaminated by noise. As an other denoising algorithms.
essential and important step to improve the accuracy of the F. Luisier, T. Blu, and M. Unser presented in the
possible subsequent processing, image denoising is highly paper SURE-LET for orthonormal wavlet domain video
desirable for numerous applications, such as visual denoising [2] an efficient orthonormal wavelet-domain
enhancement, feature extraction and object recognition [1] video denoising algorithm based on an appropriate
[2]. In image processing, the image denoising problem noise integration of motion compensation. The simulations made
contamination through an analog process during acquisition on standard grayscale video sequences for various noise
or transport over analog media. Image has been levels demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed solution in
contaminated with additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) reducing additive white Gaussian noise. By using a cycle-
is the most common simplifying assumption. It is assumed spinning strategy, this algorithm was in fact able to
that the noise is stationary and uncorrelated among pixels outperform above methods.
and the variance of the noise is known. There are different The goal of the article Object tracking: A survey
approaches for quantitative and qualitative analysis of [3] by A. Yilmaz, O. Javed, and M. Shahwas to review the
algorithms for different types of noises like AWGN, Salt & state-of-the-art tracking methods, classify them into
pepper noise, Poisson noise. different categories, and identify new trends.In this survey,
After denoising the data in image processing, the tracking methods were categorized on the basis of the
moving object detection in real time is a challenging task in object and motion representations used, provided detailed
visual surveillance systems. It often acts as an initial step for descriptions of representative methods in each category, and
further processing such as classification of the detected examined their pros and cons, also discussed important
moving object. Object tracking plays an important role in issues related to tracking including the use of appropriate
many applications, such as video surveillance, human image features, selection of motion models, and detection of
computer interface, vehicle navigation, and robot control. It objects.
is generally defined as a problem of estimating the position The proposed work was based on a spatial-colour
of an object over a sequence of images. In practical mixture of Gaussians (SMOG) appearance model for
applications, however, there are many factors that make the particle filters. This improved on the popular similarity
problem complex, such as illumination variation, measure based on colour histograms because it considered
appearance change, shape deformation, partial occlusion, not only the colours in a region but also the spatial layout of
and camera motion. In order to accomplish such a the colours. Hence, the SMOG-based similarity measure
challenging task of detection, a number of tracking was more discriminative. H. Wang, D. Suter, K. Schindler,
and C. Shen in the paper Adaptive object tracking based on

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Robust Visual Moving Object Detection, Tracking and Speed Estimation of Progressively DE noised Video in Real Time
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/429)

an effective appearance filter [4] proposed a new technique presented a new method for the segmentation of moving
to efficiently compute the parameters for SMOG, with objects. One of the most powerful variational methods as
which the computational time was greatly reduced. used for computing the optical flow and we exploit this
This paper Online selection of tracking features information in the segmentation. This segmentation lied on
using AdaBoost [6] by Y.-J. Yeh and C.T. Hsu presented well-known techniques of active contours. The gray level
an online feature selection algorithm for video object was also taken into account to improve the quality of the
tracking. Using the object and background pixels from the segmentation.
previous frame as training samples, the feature selection L. Li, W. Huang, I.Y.H. Gu, and Q. Tian proposed
problem was modelled as finding a good subset of features in the paper Foreground object detection in changing
to better classify object from background in current frame. background based on colour co-occurrence statistics [17] a
The main aim was to improve existing methods by taking novel method for detecting foreground objects in
correlation between features into consideration. nonstationary complex environments containing moving
Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed background objects. A Bayes decision rule was derived for
algorithm combined with mean-shift based tracking classification of background and foreground changes based
algorithm achieved very promising results. on inter-frame colour co-occurrence statistics. An approach
Particle filters maintain multiple hypotheses to store and fast retrieve colour co-occurrence statistics is
simultaneously and use a probabilistic motion model to also established.
predict the position of the moving object, and this
constitutes a bottleneck to the use of particle filtering in III. PROPOSED WORK
real-time systems. J. U. Cho, S. H. Jin, X. D. Pham, J. W.
A. Scope
Jeon, J. E. Byun, and H. Kang, proposed in A real-time
object tracking system using a particle filter [9] that, to The main aim of the proposed work is to develop a method
track moving objects in real-time without delay and loss of that can reconstruct the original image from noisy image
image sequences, a particle filter algorithm specifically with excellent results and to build a robust and novel
designed for a circuit and the circuit of the object tracking moving object detection algorithm that can detect object in a
algorithm using the particle filter are proposed. variety of challenging real world scenarios. The Progressive
Z. Kim presented the paper Real time object Image Denoising (PID) has very short algorithm. Despite its
tracking based on dynamic feature grouping with simplicity, the algorithm delivers high-quality results,
background subtraction [11] to introduce an object outperforming other methods in denoising synthetic images
detection and tracking approach that combines the [18]. PID algorithm has successfully fulfilled the need to
background subtraction algorithm and the feature tracking denoise the synthetic images along with natural images.
and grouping algorithm. An augmented background There are various algorithms used for detecting
subtraction algorithm was presented which used a low-level moving objects. The proposed work having subtraction
feature tracking as a cue. The resulting background algorithm after performing noise removal for edge detection
subtraction cues were used to improve the feature detection and calculating centroid, velocity and distance of moving
and grouping result .A dynamic multi-level feature grouping object in the scene. Background subtraction is particularly a
approach that can be used in real time applications was commonly used technique for motion segmentation in static
introduced in this paper. scenes. This background subtraction model reacts quickly to
Robust object racking using local oriented energy changes in background and adapts itself to accommodate
features and its hardware/software implementation [13] by changes occurring in the background. It also has a good
E. Norouznezhad, A. Bigdeli, A. Postula, and B. Lovell foreground detection rate and the processing time for
proposed the use of local oriented energy features for real- background subtraction is real time.
time object tracking on embedded vision systems. Local B. Motivation
oriented energy features were extracted using complex
Gabor filter. The proposed work showed that adding local To fulfil the requirement of natural as well as synthetic
oriented energy features can significantly enhance the image denoising with good quality of results, Dual Domain
performance of the tracker in presence of photometric Image Denoising (DDID) method is explored to PID and
variations and geometric transformation. offers opportunities. PID method is a method inspired by
Person tracking systems are dependent on being deterministic annealing and based on robust noise estimation
able to locate a person accurately across a series of frames. to solve the complex optimization problems.
Optical flow can be used to segment a moving object from a The Background subtraction technique attempts to
scene, provided the expected velocity of the moving object detect moving regions by subtracting the current image
is known; but successful detection also relies on being able pixel-by-pixel from a reference background image. A
segment the background. To overcome the problem of common approach is to perform background subtraction,
discrimination of the foreground from the background, S. which identifies moving objects from the portion of video
Denman, V. Chandran, and S. Sridharan proposed a new frame that differs from the background [19].
optical flow technique in the paper Adaptive Optical Flow C. Methodology:
for Person Tracking [15] that was based upon an adaptive The progressive image denoising method is based on
background segmentation technique, which only determines deterministic annealing and robust noise estimation, and is
optical flow in regions of motion. implemented using a simple iterative filtering scheme. The
In the paper Moving objects segmentation using proposed work applies the subtraction algorithm and thereby
optical flow estimation [16] by Ranchin, and F. Dibos, able to track moving objects effectively.

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Robust Visual Moving Object Detection, Tracking and Speed Estimation of Progressively DE noised Video in Real Time
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/429)

1) Working Flow Chart: Di,p,f = qNp di,p,q k |di,p,q |2 *

r( )
Input Video From Static Ti
Camera |qp|2
ks( )*ej 2r+1f(qp) (4)
4) Shape Shifting Estimator
The range parameter of the bilateral kernel exponentially
Reference Frame Input Frame decays over time like deterministic annealing. The
exponential decay of the temperature works best.
The scale parameters Ti and Si as functions of time
Progressive Image i:
Denoise Ti =2 r i (5)
Si = 2s s 2 (6)
5) Edge Detection
Frame Difference Edge detection is the first step to recover information from
images. A typical edge detector has the following steps: (a)
it suppresses noise as much as possible, without destroying
Thresholding the true edges, (b) it applies a filter to enhance the quality of
the edges in the image, (c) it determines which edge pixels
Detect foreground and should be discarded as noise and which should be retained,
Background (d) it determines the exact location of an edge.
6) Canny Edge Detector
Canny Edge Detection The Canny edge detector is one of the most commonly used
Technique image processing tool to detect edges from image. It has the
following steps:
Tracking a) Gray Scale Conversion
A gray scale digital image which carries only intensity
information. To convert any colour to a grayscale
Calculate Centroid and Speed representation of its luminance, the values of its red, green,
and blue (RGB) primaries in linear intensity encoding, by
Fig. 1: System Overview gamma expansion are calculated.
2) Progressive Noise Removal b) Noise Reduction
A signal has been contaminated with additive white The Canny edge detector uses a filter based on the first
Gaussian noise n and variance 2 . This task decomposes the derivative of a Gaussian, because it is susceptible to noise
noise contaminated signal y into its original signal x and exists in raw unprocessed image data.
noise instance n. c) Gradient Computation
y= x+n (1) The edge may point to different directions .The edge
Many estimation problems are formulated as detection first derivative is obtained and the point of
energy minimization problems. Thus, the denoising can be maxima is calculated.
formulated as gradient descent as follows,
D. Facilities Available
xi+1 = xi E(xi ) (2)
The gradient descent can be reinterpreted as a Names of Hardware: Computer system.
progressive removal of noise differentials, which can be Names of Software: MATLAB
integrated over time to the estimated total noise instance. Other facilities: Computer facility, Internet facility, E-
3) Robust Noise Estimation journals
The noise estimates for iteration are computed by
distinguishing signal from noise. The noisy signal is IV. CONCLUSION
computed into three classes: large and medium amplitude We presented image denoising as a physical process, which
signals and small amplitude noise. Large amplitude signals includes a gradient descent performed by progressively
can be recognized in the spatial domain. The signal is auto- estimating noise differentials and subtracting them
correlated and noise is uncorrelated. Auto-correlated signals, iteratively from the noisy image. The second is robust
i.e. waves, are best detected as large amplitudes in the kernels in two spatial domains. And third, the kernel scale
frequency domain. The robust estimators are used to reject parameters modifications. We also connected image
large amplitude gradients in the spatial domain and medium denoising to statistical mechanics like deterministic
amplitude waves in the frequency domain. annealing which gives near-optimal solutions. This
The gradient is obtained by subtracting the centre algorithm is short and simple and delivers high-quality
pixel value xi,p from all the neighbouring pixels xi,q as results for natural as well as synthetic images.
follows, Our denoising approach impacts related problems
di,p,q =xi,q xi,p (3) like artifact removal, super resolution, and hole filling. Our
The discrete Fourier transforms to obtain the denoising formulation is agnostic of dimensionality of the
masked signal in the frequency domain fp , yielding the signal. Along with the denoising we provide a simple
Fourier coefficients Di,p,f for frequency f as,

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Robust Visual Moving Object Detection, Tracking and Speed Estimation of Progressively DE noised Video in Real Time
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/429)

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