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Textiles
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Textile Outlook International


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No 179

March-April 2005
Published April 2016

Textiles Intelligence
Textile Outlook International
ISSN 0268-4764

No 179
Published April 2016

Contents
4 Editorial: Will sales from the Chinese cotton stockpile drive down world prices?
4 Period of uncertainty for the global cotton market
6 Why did the stockpile build up?
7 Does the Australian wool crisis of the 1970s-1990s provide a model?
11 Conclusions
13 World textile and apparel trade and production trends: the USA, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and
Mexico
13 Summary
13 USA
28 Argentina
33 Brazil
39 Colombia
44 Mexico
51 Survey of the European yarn fairs for spring/summer 2017
51 Summary
51 Yarn fairs
58 Trends in yarns for knitwear at Pitti Immagine Filati
70 Yarn trends at Premire Vision Yarns
75 Global trends in fibre prices, production and consumption
75 Summary
75 General trends
77 Cotton
86 Man-made fibres
93 Myanmar: re-emergence as a global clothing exporter
93 Summary
93 Introduction
96 Infrastructure
99 Employment and labour costs
100 Education and training
103 Garment manufacturing equipment
106 Production of raw materials
108 Textile and clothing production
109 Sourcing from Myanmar
111 Clothing exports
113 Export strategy
116 Domestic market
116 Foreign direct investment (FDI) and domestic investment
118 Future prospects
120 Company profile: Prosperity Knitwear Myanmara fast growing CMP sweater manufacturer
124 Contact details
125 Product developments and innovations in the home textiles market
125 Summary
125 Bedding products
128 Bedding products for babies
129 Bedding products incorporating traceable down

Textiles Intelligence Limited 2016 1


Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 Contents

130 Beds and mattresses


135 Chemical screening processes
136 Colour trends
137 Digital printers
138 Digital printing inks
138 Fabric finishes
139 Fabrics for interior applications
140 Flame resistant insulation
141 Floor coverings
142 Furniture made from composite materials
142 Performance fibres
144 Treatments for towels
144 Yarns for floor coverings
146 Yarns made from recycled materials
147 Glossary
175 Index to Textile Outlook International

Planned for forthcoming issues:


Home textiles business update
Product developments and innovations in textiles and apparel
Prospects for the textile and clothing industry in Indonesia
Prospects for the textile and clothing industry in India
Prospects for the textile and clothing industry in Tanzania
Prospects for the textile and clothing industry in Vietnam
Survey of the European fabric fairs for spring/summer 2017
Trends in EU textile and clothing imports
Trends in US textile and clothing imports
World markets for textile machinery: part 1yarn manufacture
World markets for textile machinery: part 2fabric manufacture
World textile and apparel trade and production trends: Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka
World textile and apparel trade and production trends: China, Hong Kong, Japan and South Korea
World textile and apparel trade and production trends: South-East Asia
World textile and apparel trade and production trends: the EU

2 Textiles Intelligence Limited 2016


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All statistics are drawn from official national and


international sources unless otherwise indicated.

All tons are metric tons unless otherwise stated.

n/a = not available or not applicable.

Textiles Intelligence
Textiles Intelligence Limited is a company formed to handle the portfolio of fibres, textiles and
clothing publications previously produced by the Economist Intelligence Unit.

It is our commitment, through a wide range of Special Reports and four regular titles, Global Apparel
Markets, Performance Apparel Markets, Technical Textile Markets, and Textile Outlook
International, to supply you with the highest quality business information about the international
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2016 Textiles Intelligence Limited. Formerly published by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 Editorial

Editorial: Will sales from the


Chinese cotton stockpile drive
down world prices?
PERIOD OF UNCERTAINTY FOR THE GLOBAL COTTON MARKET

The global cotton market faces a period of uncertainty while traders and
consumers of cotton fibre in the global textile industry wait for Chinas
National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) to start a new
round of selling from the countrys strategic cotton stockpile.

The uncertainty relates to the impact which the sale will have on cotton
fibre prices on the global market. This may have already been factored
into market expectations, in which case the effects may be broadly
neutral. On the other hand, depending on the amounts sold and the
prices obtained, world cotton prices may go up or down.

On April 15, 2016, it was announced that the authorities would start
selling cotton from early May 2016about a month later than the
market had expected.

Paradoxically, cotton futures have increased to new highs for the period
since January 2016.

The increase has been attributed partly to a broadly based commodity


buying spree, linked to recent weakness of the US dollar against a
basket of six other major currencies. However, prices have also been
pushed up by speculative buying in China in anticipation that supplies
will become tight as a result of the delay in starting sales from the
stockpile. Sensing that prices might rise even higher, merchants in
China have been holding on to their stocks and their actions have
pushed up prices even more.

The increase in prices has also stemmed from confirmation that China
may actually buy in some cotton, albeit cotton of high quality.

The stockpile is thought to amount to 11 mn tonswhich, according to


a report in The Wall Street Journal1, is enough to make 10 bn pairs of
jeans.

1
See Chinas Soft Power Tested as Sale of Cotton Stockpile Looms, Lucy Craymer, The Wall Street Journal,
March 3, 2016.

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 Editorial

11 mn tons equates to about 46% of the 23.8 mn tons of cotton which


the International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC) has predicted will
be consumed globally in the 2015/16 season. Also, it equates to 151%
of the 7.3 mn tons which are expected to be consumed in China alone
during this period.

China holds about 60% of the worlds cotton stockpiles and accounts
for almost one-third of global cotton consumption.

Despite its magnitude, the presence of the stockpile has not yet had a
dramatic effect on global prices as it is not available to the world
market. But this could change once the Chinese authorities start to sell
it off.

In fact, the mere expectation of a round of selling by China pushed


down prices on the Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange (ZCE) to their
lowest levels since 2004.

The Chinese authorities had hoped to profit from buying cotton at low
prices and selling it at higher prices. However, this seems highly
unlikely if their experience of auctioning cotton during July-August
2015 is anything to go by.

According to the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), the authorities


bought cotton for the equivalent of US$2,950-US$3,200 a ton during a
period when the median monthly global price was US$2,000 a ton. But
in the auctions which took place during July-August 2015, it sold stocks
for an average equivalent price of US$2,175 a ton. This equates to a loss
of at least 26% on their original investment.

Furthermore, the authorities had wanted to sell 1 mn tons of cotton. But


they sold only 63,413 tons because the asking price was higher than the
price that most buyers were willing to pay. Since then, The Wall Street
Journal report notes, global prices have dropped even furtherby
9.5%.

The authorities will need to set prices even lower if they are to achieve
their targets for selling off cotton in 2016. Provided they do sell at lower
prices, USDA predicts that China may be able to achieve a 13% cut in
its reserves by July 31, 2017.

The forthcoming round of auctions is scheduled to begin on May 3,


2016, and continue through to August 31, 2016which means the
auctions will end before the forthcoming crop becomes available.
Selling prices are expected to be based on weekly calculations involving
domestic and international values.

In terms of quantity, the Chinese government plans to sell at least


2 mn tons, or 9.19 mn 480 lb bales, of cotton from the stockpile.
However, it may increase sales if the shortfall in supply exceeds
2 mn tons before the harvest in September.

Textiles Intelligence Limited 2016 5


Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 Editorial

The uncertainty created by the impending sell-off is helping to keep


cotton prices loweven though demand is expected to exceed supply
and global stocks are expected to fall in the 2015/16 crop year.

Admittedly, demand is expected to fall by 2.2% in the 2015/16 season,


according to the ICAC. Demand will be constrained by sluggish global
economic growth and competitive prices of substitute fibres. But
production is expected to decline by an even faster 15.6% following a
0.7% fall in 2014/15. Consequently, supply will be insufficient to meet
demand and stocks will decline. The fall in supply in 2014/15 came
after declines of 1.4% in 2013/14 and 4.1% in 2012/13 as the average
price of cotton fibreas measured by the Cotlook A Index2fell back
from its peak of 230 US cents/lb in March 2011 to the high 60s/low 70s
US cents/lb range in November 2014 and growers responded by
switching to alternative crops.

As a result of the shortfall in supply in 2015/16, the global stocks-to-use


ratio is expected to decline to 94.6% by the end of July 2016 from
101.7% at the start of the crop year, according to USDA. However, this
is still high.

Over the period 2007-16, the ten-year average for the global stocks-to-
use ratio was only 64%some two-thirds of the ratio expected by the
end of July 2016. Consequently, any upward pressure on prices is likely
to be minimal.

According to the ICAC, the price of cotton fibre is forecast to average


70 US cents/lb in 2015/16which would be 1 US cent/lb lower than in
2014/15. Thereafter, the price is likely to remain at a similar level
during the 2016/17 season3.

WHY DID THE STOCKPILE BUILD UP?

The Chinese government encourages farmers to plant cotton by paying


them subsidies. This policy was introduced in April 2014 after a period
of relative stability in the cotton price during 2012-13 and early 2014
when the price averaged around 90 US cents/lb after falling sharply
from a peak of 230 US cents/lb in March 2011 (see above).

However, after the change in Chinese government policy and an


announcement that China intended to sell some of its stock, the price
fell substantiallyfrom 97 US cents/lb in March 2014 to 67 US cents/lb
in December 2014.
2
The Cotlook A Index is a measure of the price of cotton whose fibre quality and staple length match or exceed
those of middling 1-3/32 inch, a grade which is usually used for medium count yarns. Middling is one of several
colour grades specified by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) for upland cotton. From best to worst, the
grades are good middling, strict middling, middling, strict low middling, low middling, strict good ordinary and
good ordinary.
3
See also Global trends in fibre prices, production and consumption, starting on page 75 of this issue.

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 Editorial

The governments former policy aimed to persuade farmers to plant


cotton by keeping prices at relatively high levels. In order to raise
prices, the government removed cotton fibre from the market by buying
it.

The idea of this policy was to build reserves in order to curb excessive
price increases, maintain some stability in the market and provide the
Chinese textile industry with cotton at prices that would enable it to
compete in the world market. Also, the government would profit from
buying cotton when prices were low and selling it when prices were
high.

In the event, world cotton prices fell and then failed to pick up. Chinese
spinners found themselves paying prices for Chinese cotton which were
higher than the prices they could obtain on world marketshad it not
been for the fact that there were limits on raw cotton imports imposed
by the Chinese government.

Furthermore, and perversely, Chinese knitters and weavers imported


cotton yarns from other Asian countries, notably India and Pakistan, as
these were cheaper than those available from Chinese spinners. The
latter therefore found that their domestic market was being undermined
as a result of a policy which had been designed to protect the industry.

As world prices failed to pick up, there was little prospect of selling off
cotton from the stockpile and the policy became unsustainable.

In April 2014, therefore, the Chinese government changed its policy.


Instead of buying cotton fibre and building reserves as a way of
supporting prices, it switched to a policy of supporting farmers by
providing direct subsidies.

DOES THE AUSTRALIAN WOOL CRISIS OF THE 1970s-1990s


PROVIDE A MODEL?

The problem of the cotton stockpile is reminiscent of a crisis which


plagued the global wool market for 20 years until the Australian
government introduced the Wool International Bill in 1993 to restore
stability and confidence4.

The bill introduced a set schedule for reducing the size of the stockpile,
and for reducing accumulated debt which the government had inherited
from the Australian Wool Realisation Commissiona body established
in 1991 to manage the stockpile.

4
For further information, see World Markets for Wool, Textiles Intelligence Special Report No 2642,
published April 1996.

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 Editorial

Prior to the introduction of the bill, the Australian government abolished


a fixed reserve price scheme at the beginning of the 1990/91 wool
selling season, after introducing it some 16 years earlier. Following the
abolition of the scheme, there was a sharp contraction in wool
production during the early 1990s.

The fixed reserve price scheme had been introduced at the beginning of
the 1974/75 season in the face of weak demand and very low prices. It
was operated by the former Australian Wool Commissiona body
established in 1970with the aim of providing a measure of protection
to wool growers against unduly low prices resulting from irregularities
in demand at wool auctions.

Because of trade scepticism and relatively slack demand, setting a fixed


reserve price meant that the Australian government had to buy in a
substantial quantity of wool. This amounted to nearly 1 mn bales
(217,700 tons) by December 1971. However, a large proportion of this
was released as the market improved in 1972.

By the beginning of 1973, the Australian Wool Corporation (AWC) was


established as a statutory body. This combined the activities of the
Australian Wool Commission and those of the Australian Wool Board
under a single direction.

Soon afterwards, however, the first oil price shock in 1973 helped to
trigger a worldwide recession and wool demand slackened. The AWC
was authorised to operate a floor price scheme for wool sold at auction
in the 1974/75 season.

Under the scheme, wool which failed to reach the floor price at auction
was bought up by the AWC. Eventually, it was assumed, prices would
rise as demand picked up, and the AWC would thus be able to dispose
of its surplus stocks.

The scheme ensured that:

auction prices did not fall below predetermined minimum (reserve)


levels;
market stability was promoted; and
stocks of wool resulting from these operations in Australia and
overseas were maintained to assist continuity of supply.

The scheme was financed by wool growers who, until the 1990/91
season, paid a levy of 8% on the gross proceeds of wool sold. The levy
was paid into a special account known as the Market Support Fund. If
the levies paid into the fund were deemed to be in excess of amounts
required to operate the reserve price scheme, legislation allowed for
funds to be refunded.

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 Editorial

As the scheme began to operate, wool which failed to reach a floor price
of A$2.50 per kg5 (clean basis) for average 21-micron wool was bought
up by the AWC. This led to the accumulation of a stockpile which
reached a peak of 1.88 mn bales (409,322 tons) by November 1975.

Between that time and the beginning of the 1990/91 wool selling
season, the reserve price was never reduced.

As the market recovered in the second half of the 1970s from the first
oil price shock of 1973/74, the AWC was able to reduce the stocks it
had accumulated during those downturns in wool textile activity. This
was repeated in the mid-1980s as the market recovered from the
recession which had been accentuated by the second oil crisis of 1979.

As demand increased, the price of Australian wool rose by 122% to


A$12.57 per kg (clean basis) between July 1986 and the peak month of
April 1988.

The role of China in the upsurge in demand was particularly pertinent,


and the scale and duration of the surge in Chinese buying surprised the
trade. From a level of 58,900 tons (clean basis) in 1984, imports of wool
into China rose by almost 40% per annum to 213,900 tons four years
later. This rise was coupled with a surge in imports of semi-processed
wools, tops and yarns from other major wool textile centres.

Chinas process of structural reform and the opening up of the country


to the outside world during the early 1980s led not only to vigorous
growth in the economy as a whole but also to a massive expansion of
the textile industry. As in many developing countries, the expansion of
the textile industry became a cornerstone of Chinese economic growth.

The expansion of the Chinese textile industry was designed to meet


newly released consumer demand in the domestic market. It also aimed
to meet growing demand in export marketsmostly via Hong Kongin
order to earn much needed foreign exchange for Chinas
industrialisation.

But by mid-1988, the Chinese government was forced to act in order to


curb the overheated economy. One way it did so was to curtail
consumer spending.

Measures were taken under an austerity programme to freeze prices, and


to curb inflation and excessive investment. Imports were effectively
controlled, despite shortages of raw materials.

The effect on wool prices at auction was dramatic. The price fell by
30% to the floor price in the 15 months from April 1988 to the end of
the 1988/89 season.

5
As indicated by the AWCs Market Indicator; A$2.50 = US$3.42, based on the average exchange rate for
1974-75.

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 Editorial

During the 1989/90 season, the position of the wool marketing


authorities, especially the AWC, worsened. Worldwide demand
slumped, especially demand from China.

In the absence of orders from China, there was an unprecedented stock


build-up around the world. This consisted of raw and semi-processed
wool, yarns and fabrics originally destined for Chinaor processed on
the assumption that Chinese demand would be maintained.

In addition, economic activity slowed in some major markets, and there


was a lagged reaction to high wool prices two years earlier. This led to
a further intensification of inter-fibre competition, and sustained the
trend towards blending and substitution of wool by other fibres.

At the same time, Australian wool production continued to rise to record


levels as favourable producer prices and good climatic conditions
encouraged wool growers to expand their flocks. In consequence, the
imbalance between supply and demand which had already become
apparent worsened still further.

The AWC purchased about 40% of auction offeringssome 2.8 mn


bales (609,628 tons)to defend the floor price of A$8.70 per kg clean.
In doing so, it was forced to replenish its market support fund through
borrowings from commercial sources.

By the end of May 1990, the developing crisis led to a decision by the
Australian government to cut the reserve price by 20% and, at the same
time, to increase the wool tax from 8% to 18% in order to finance the
rising stockpile.

It was becoming clear that it was impossible to defend the reserve price
indefinitely. Such a realisation depressed the market even more as the
trade lost confidence in the ability of the authorities to maintain the
floor price.

This was further demonstrated in the 1990/91 season. Despite the


reduction in the reserve price, buyersparticularly from China, Japan
and the former Soviet Unionfailed to return to the market. The AWC
was forced to buy up some two-thirds of the wool offered at auction
during the first seven months of the 1990/91 season.

The enormous cost of these purchases brought the debt owed by the
AWC up to A$4 bn. The cost to the Australian treasury became too
great and the government suspended the reserve price scheme on
February 11, 1991. This created a situation whereby wool was being
sold at auction at free market prices for the first time in 17 years.

Finally, the reserve price scheme was abolished, and in 1991 legislation
was introduced to transfer the management of the stockpile to the newly
created Australian Wool Realisation Commission.

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 Editorial

By the opening of the 1991/92 season, the size of the stockpile had
reached 532,000 tons (clean basis). This was almost as much as
Australias annual raw wool exports.

The sheer magnitude of the stockpile weakened confidence in the wool


market. Dealers were worried about the possibility of large volumes
being sold from the stockpile, thereby depressing prices still further.

However, the policy was successful in its aim of stabilising the price of
Australian wool, and thereafter the price picked up. Indeed, between
December 1993 and December 1994, it rose from A$5.04 per kg to
A$7.69 per kg.

CONCLUSIONS

There a number of important factors which make the Australian wool


crisis different from the situation facing the world cotton market.

The volume of wool grown, traded and consumed is small relative to the
combined market for all textile fibres.

Also, it takes longer for wool growers to react to market conditions as


sheep have to be reared whereas the area planted to cotton can be
adjusted on an annual basis.

Additionally, wool production is dominated by Australia while wool


consumption is dominated by China.

Nonetheless, China is also the biggest consumer of cotton.


Consequently, Chinese demand has a major influence on markets for
both fibre types.

Furthermore, although China is no longer the worlds biggest cotton


producer, it still ranks second, after India, and therefore the policies of
the Chinese government with respect to supply continue to have a major
influence on the global cotton market.

The Chinese authorities are mindful of the need for caution to avoid
undue disruption to the global cotton market in general and to the
Chinese market in particular.

Any sharp drop in price triggered by selling cotton from the stockpile
would disrupt the market and make Chinese farmers nervous about
planting cotton. Also, it would make the subsidies which the Chinese
government now pay to farmers expensive to maintain.

Textiles Intelligence Limited 2016 11


Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 Editorial

There is also an awareness that the quality of the cotton in the stockpile
is variable and is deteriorating over time.

Inevitably, the quality of the cotton will affect the price and the speed
at which the stockpile can be sold. And the greater the delay in selling
the cotton, the more the quality will deteriorate.

Robin Anson
Editorial Director, Textile Outlook International
April 26, 2016

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 World textile and apparel trade and production trends

World textile and apparel trade


and production trends: the USA,
Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and
Mexico
SUMMARY

US textile and clothing imports increased in value and volume terms in 2015. However, textile
production and clothing production declined, and textile and clothing exports fell in value terms for the
first time in six years. US consumer expenditure on clothing and footwear, meanwhile, continued to
expand during 2015. But during 2013-15 it grew more slowly than it did during 2010-12, and it is
expected to rise only moderately in 2016.

In Argentina, textile production was down during January-October 2015 compared with the
corresponding period a year earlier, and in 2015 as a whole textile and clothing exports declined
sharply. At the same time, imports were up for the first time in four years and they could rise again in
2016 as recent import restrictions are being dismantled in an effort to make the Argentinean economy
more open and competitive. Meanwhile, retail sales surged during January-September 2015 compared
with the corresponding period a year earlierpartly as a result of substantial inflationary pressures.

Brazilian textile and clothing production continued to decline in 2015 and textile and clothing exports
fell too. Also, textile and clothing imports fell for the first time in several years and, given the weak
economic situation in Brazil, imports are likely to remain depressed for the rest of 2016. During
January-February 2016 textile and clothing exports rebounded but this was due largely to a sharp
increase in exports of raw cotton.

In Colombia, textile and clothing exports fell in 2015 for the third consecutive year to their lowest level
in several years. The fall reflected declines in exports to almost all markets, although exports to the USA
increased significantly. Also, there were increases in textile production and clothing production.

In Mexico, textile and clothing exports fell in 2015 while textile and clothing imports rosedue primarily
to a jump in imports from China. However, textile production and clothing production both increased.

USA

CONSUMER EXPENDITURE
US consumer expenditure on US consumer expenditure on clothing and footwear grew more slowly
clothing and footwear grew in value terms during 2013-15 after growing at a fairly dynamic pace
more slowly during 2013-15 during 2010-12.

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 World textile and apparel trade and production trends

In 2015 it rose by 2.0% In 2015 alone consumer expenditure on clothing and footwear rose by
after growing by 1.8-2.3% 2.0%, from US$368.9 bn to US$376.4 bn.
a year during 2013-14 and
by more than 4.0% a year The rise followed increases of 1.8% in 2014, 2.3% in 2013, 4.5% in
during 2010-12 2012, 5.7% in 2011 and 4.6% in 2010.

Furthermore, growth Furthermore, growth slowed over the course of 2015. In the first quarter
slowed over the course of the year, consumer expenditure was up by 3.0% compared with the
of 2015 corresponding period of the previous year. But growth slowed to 2.4%
in the second quarter of the year, to 2.2% in the third quarter of the year
and to 0.7% in the fourth quarter of the year.

In volume terms, growth In volume terms, growth in consumer expenditure on clothing and
accelerated to 3.2% in footwear accelerated to 3.2% in 2015 following increases of 1.4% in
2015 following increases 2014, 1.4% in 2013 and 1.1% in 2012.
of 1.4% in 2014 and 2013
but the rise was slower However, the rise in 2015 remained slower than the growth rate of 3.9%
than in 2011 and 2010 observed in 2011 and the growth rate of 5.3% witnessed in 2010.

Also, as in value terms, Also, growth in consumer expenditure slowed over the course of 2015,
growth slowed over the as it did in value terms. In the first quarter of 2015, consumer expenditure
course of 2015 was up by 4.0% compared with the corresponding period a year earlier.
But in the second quarter growth slowed to 3.8%, in the third quarter it
slowed to 3.5% and in the fourth quarter it slowed to 1.7%.

In 2016 consumer In 2016 consumer expenditure on clothing and footwear is expected to


expenditure on clothing continue to grow moderately. Total US consumer expenditure is
and footwear is expected projected to increase by about 2.5% during the year, compared with
to continue to grow growth of 3.1% in 2015, 2.7% in 2014 and 1.7% in 2013.
moderately
RETAIL MARKET
Sales by US clothing and Sales by US clothing and clothing accessory stores continued to grow
clothing accessory stores at a moderate pace in 2015. In 2015 sales by these stores grew by 2.2%,
continued to grow at a from US$248,848 mn to US$254,249 mn, following increases of 1.8%
moderate pace in 2015 in 2014, 2.4% in 2013 and 4.7% in 2012.

But sales by department Sales by department stores have declined in recent years. In 2015 they
stores fell, having also fell by 2.0%, from US$168,896 mn to US$165,560 mn, following
declined during 2012-14 decreases of 1.7% in 2014, 3.4% in 2013 and 3.2% in 2012.

In 2016 US retail sales are In 2016 US retail sales, excluding automobiles, gas stations and
forecast to grow by 3.1% restaurants, are forecast to increase by approximately 3.1% to a record
while non-store sales are high, according to the National Retail Federation (NRF).
predicted to grow by 6-9%
Non-store sales1, meanwhile, are predicted to grow by 6-9%.
1
Non-store sales include sales by retailers using methods such as the broadcasting of infomercials, the
broadcasting and publishing of direct response advertising, the publishing of paper and electronic catalogues,
door-to-door solicitation, in-home demonstration, selling from portable stalls, and distribution through vending
machines. Establishments in this subsector include mail-order houses, vending machine operators, home delivery
sales, door-to-door sales, party plan sales, electronic shopping, and sales through portable stalls, such as street
vendors, excluding food.

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 World textile and apparel trade and production trends

The 3.1% rise is higher than The NRF notes that the 3.1% projection is higher than the 2.7%
average annual growth of average annual increase in retail sales over the ten-year period between
2.7% between 2005 and 2015 2005 and 2015.

Clothing and clothing acces- Sales by clothing and clothing accessory stores are expected to continue
sory store sales are expected to grow at a moderate pace during the year while sales by department
to grow but department store stores are likely to decline further.
sales will decline further
IMPORTS
Textile and clothing imports by product
US textile and clothing US textile and clothing imports rose in value by 4.2% in 2015, from
imports increased in value US$107,460.2 mn to US$111,928.1 mn. The rise followed increases of
by 4.2% in 2015 2.6% in 2014 and 3.8% in 2013, a 0.4% decline in 2012 and an 8.6%
rise in 2011.

In terms of volume, In terms of volume, imports increased by 7.0% in 2015, from


imports increased by 7.0% 59,373.2 mn sme to 63,523.9 mn sme, following rises of 5.0% in 2014,
4.6% in 2013 and 0.7% in 2012 and a 3.2% decline in 2011.

Textile imports increased Within these overall totals, textile imports increased in value by 4.2%
by 4.2% in value and by in 2015, from US$25,679.0 mn to US$26,763.3 mn, and in volume by
7.7% in volume 7.7%, from 33,727.5 mn sme to 36,308.2 mn sme.

while clothing imports Clothing imports, meanwhile, increased in value by 4.1%, from
increased by 4.1% in value US$81,781.1 mn to US$85,164.7 mn, and in volume by 6.1%, from
and by 6.1% in volume 25,645.7 mn sme to 27,215.7 mn sme.

There were increases in US There were increases in US imports of products in most major textile
imports of products in and clothing categories in volume terms in 2015.
most major textile and
clothing categories in Imports were up in the case of man-made fibre clothing (by 10.3% to
volume terms in 2015 14,446.9 mn sme), man-made fibre textiles (by 8.4% to 28,518.3 mn
sme), made-up textiles (by 8.3% to 21,168.0 mn sme), fabrics (by 6.8%
to 11,988.4 mn sme), yarns (by 6.8% to 3,151.8 mn sme), cotton textiles
(by 5.5% to 7,222.6 mn sme), clothing made from silk blends and non-
cotton vegetable fibres (SBVF) (by 4.8% to 309.9 mn sme), silk
clothing (by 2.5% to 57.9 mn sme), cotton clothing (by 1.8% to
12,245.1 mn sme) and wool textiles (by 1.7% to 83.6 mn sme).

although imports of On the other hand, imports of wool clothing were down by 4.2% to
wool clothing and SBVF 213.8 mn sme and imports of SBVF textiles were down by 2.1% to
textiles were down 483.8 mn sme.

There were also increases There were also increases in US imports of products in most major
in US imports of products textile and clothing categories in value terms in 2015, although growth
in most major textile and was slower than in volume terms.
clothing categories in value
terms in 2015, although Imports were up in the case of man-made fibre clothing (by 10.9% to
growth was slower than in US$38,740.2 mn), man-made fibre textiles (by 5.8% to US$16,318.4 mn),
volume terms made-up textiles (by 4.8% to US$18,869.3 mn), fabrics (by 3.7% to
US$6,469.5 mn), SBVF textiles (by 2.8% to US$582.9 mn), cotton
textiles (by 2.2% to US$8,703.2 mn) and SBVF clothing (by 0.1% to
US$1,248.9 mn).

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and imports were down By contrast, there were declines in imports in the case of silk clothing
in the case of silk clothing, (down by 8.3% to US$803.9 mn), wool clothing (down by 7.0% to
wool clothing, wool textiles, US$3,699.7 mn), wool textiles (down by 1.4% to US$1,158.9 mn),
yarns and cotton clothing yarns (down by 0.8% to US$1,424.6 mn) and cotton clothing (down by
0.4% to US$41,475.9 mn).

In textiles, the best In textiles, the best performing items in terms of import growth included
performing items in terms oxford cloth (up by 87.5% to 8.5 mn sme), man-made fibre print cloth
of import growth included fabric (up by 53.8% to 2.1 mn sme), SBVF towels (up by 42.8% to
oxford cloth, cotton poplin 12.1 mn sme), SBVF yarns (up by 34.3% to 4.6 mn sme), miscellaneous
and broadcloth fabric, and wool fabric (up by 32.2% to 11.3 mn sme), blue denim fabric (up by
SBVF luggage 21.7% to 25.1 mn sme), cotton poplin and broadcloth fabric (up by
19.8% to 103.0 mn sme) and SBVF luggage (up by 19.2% to 74.9 mn
sme).

In clothing, man-made fibre In clothing, the largest import category in volume terms in 2015 was
clothing imports grew in that of man-made fibre clothing. Furthermore, imports of man-made
volume at a faster pace than fibre clothing grew in volume at a faster pace than cotton clothing
cotton clothing imports for imports for the sixth consecutive year in 2015. As a result, the share of
the sixth consecutive year in the US textile and clothing import market accounted for by man-made
2015 and represented the fibre clothing rose from 17.5% in 2009 to 22.7% in 2015 while the
largest import category share accounted for by cotton clothing fell from 27.1% in 2009 to
19.3% in 2015.

The faster rise in man-made The faster rise in imports of man-made fibre clothing has been due
fibre clothing imports has partly to lower synthetic fibre prices compared with cotton fibre prices.
been due partly to lower While raw cotton prices have also fallen significantly since the first half
synthetic fibre prices of 20142, polyester prices have remained at a comparatively lower level
compared with cotton fibre and this has boosted the competitiveness of man-made fibre textile and
prices clothing products in the US import market.

Within the man-made fibre Within the man-made fibre clothing category, there were significant
clothing category, there increases in imports of a range of items in volume terms. Some of the
were significant increases in best performing products in terms of import growth included mens and
imports of a range of items boys down-filled coats and jackets (up by 34.4% to 25.4 mn sme),
in volume terms, including womens and girls down-filled coats and jackets (up by 26.8% to
down-filled coats and 50.7 mn sme), gloves and mittens (up by 23.8% to 136.1 mn sme),
jackets, gloves and mittens, womens and girls trousers (up by 21.3% to 753.0 mn sme), underwear
trousers, underwear, and (up by 16.7% to 987.6 mn sme), mens and boys trousers (up by 15.7%
womens and girls knitted to 653.9 mn sme) and womens and girls knitted shirts and blouses (up
shirts and blouses by 13.8% to 1,327.1 mn sme).

There was also strong There was also strong growth in imports of a number of other clothing
growth in imports of a items, including miscellaneous silk apparel (up by 116.9% to 11.0 mn
number of other clothing sme), womens and girls silk coats (up by 99.4% to 2.2 mn sme), SBVF
items, including SBVF underwear (up by 88.7% to 2.0 mn sme), SBVF hosiery (up by 42.6%
underwear and hosiery, and to 10.3 mn sme), wool gloves and mittens (up by 30.8% to 1.0 mn sme)
mens and boys cotton suit and mens and boys cotton suit type coats (up by 20.3% to 17.5 mn
type coats sme).

2
See Global trends in fibre prices, production and consumption, starting on page 75 of this issue.

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By contrast, the worst By contrast, the worst performing clothing items in terms of import
performing clothing items growth included womens and girls silk knitted shirts and blouses
in terms of import growth (down by 37.3% to 1.0 mn sme), non-cotton vegetable fibre sweaters
included womens and girls (down by 30.1% to 9.6 mn sme), womens and girls silk woven shirts
wool sweaters and man- and blouses (down by 23.7% to 7.3 mn sme), womens and girls wool
made fibre suits sweaters (down by 19.2% to 20.3 mn sme) and womens and girls man-
made fibre suits (down by 18.5% to 8.0 mn sme).

US textile and clothing US textile and clothing imports are expected to continue to expand
imports are expected to moderately in 2016, in both volume and value terms.
continue to expand
moderately in 2016 with The fastest growth is likely to be in imports of man-made fibre clothing,
growth fastest in man-made SBVF textiles and SBVF clothing. Moreover, imports of man-made
fibre clothing, SBVF textiles fibre clothing are expected to continue to grow at a faster rate than
and SBVF clothing imports of cotton clothing during the year.

Average price of US textile and clothing imports


The average price of US The average price of US textile and clothing imports fell by 2.6% to an
textile and clothing imports average of US$1.76 per sme in 2015, following declines of 2.3% in
fell by 2.6% in 2015 2014 and 0.8% in 2013.

In textiles alone, the In the case of textiles alone, the average import price fell by 3.2% to
average import price US$0.74 per sme in 2015, following falls of 3.2% in 2014 and 1.0% in
fell by 3.2% 2013.

In clothing, the average In clothing, the average import price fell by 1.9% to US$3.13 per sme
import price fell by 1.9% in 2015, following declines of 0.7% in 2014 and 0.9% in 2013.

A breakdown shows that A breakdown shows that average prices declined in 2015 in the case of
average prices declined most major textile product categories.
in 2015 in the case of
imports of most major The average price of yarn imports fell by 7.1% to US$0.45 per sme.
textile product
categories, including There were also significant falls in the average prices of imports of
yarns, fabrics, made-up fabric (down by 2.9% to US$0.54 per sme), made-up textiles (down by
textiles, wool textiles, 3.2% to US$0.89 per sme), wool textiles (down by 3.1% to
cotton textiles and man- US$13.87 per sme), cotton textiles (down by 3.1% to US$1.20 per sme)
made fibre textiles and man-made fibre textiles (down by 2.4% to US$0.57 per sme).

In clothing, there were In clothing, there were noticeable declines in 2015 in the average prices
noticeable declines in 2015 of imports of silk clothing (down by 10.5% to US$13.87 per sme),
in the average prices of silk clothing made from silk blends and non-cotton vegetable fibres (SBVF)
clothing, SBVF clothing, (down by 4.5% to US$4.03 per sme), wool clothing (down by 3.0% to
wool clothing and cotton US$17.30 per sme) and cotton clothing (down by 2.1% to
clothing imports but the US$3.39 per sme).
average price of man-made
fibre clothing imports By contrast, the average price of man-made fibre clothing imports
increased increased by 0.5% to US$2.68 per sme.

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 World textile and apparel trade and production trends

US textile and clothing imports by supplying country


China was the USAs The largest supplier of textiles and clothing to the US import market in
largest textile and clothing 2015 was, by far, China.
supplier in volume terms in
2015 with a 48.6% share of In volume terms, China accounted for a 48.6% share of US textile and
US textile and clothing clothing imports from all sources, up from shares of 48.1% in 2014,
imports from all sources 48.0% in 2013 and 47.4% in 2012.

In textiles alone, China In textiles alone, China had a 53.7% share in 2015, up from 52.7% in
had a 53.7% share 2014, 52.9% in 2013 and 51.9% in 2012.

In clothing, it had a In clothing, China had a 41.8% share in 2015, down from 42.0% in
41.8% share 2014 but up from 41.7% in both 2013 and 2012.

The USAs second largest The second largest supplier to the US textile and clothing import market
textile and clothing supplier in 2015 was India with a 7.2% sharewhich was unchanged from a
was India with a 7.2% share year earlier.

Vietnam was the USAs Vietnam was the USAs third largest supplier in 2015 with a 6.9%
third largest supplier with share of the US textile and clothing import market (up from 6.7% in
a 6.9% share, followed by 2014) while Pakistan ranked fourth with a 4.2% share, Mexico
Pakistan, Mexico and ranked fifth with a 3.7% share and Bangladesh ranked sixth with a
Bangladesh 3.5% share.

Nine of the ten largest Nine of the ten largest suppliers increased their sales in the US textile
suppliers increased their and clothing import market in volume terms in 2015, namely
sales in the US textile and Bangladesh (up by 16.3%), Vietnam (up by 9.7%), China (up by 8.0%),
clothing import market in South Korea (up by 7.7%), India (up by 7.2%), Pakistan (up by 5.0%),
2015 Cambodia (up by 4.3%), Indonesia (up by 3.1%) and Honduras (up by
1.8%).

US textile and clothing US textile and clothing imports from China grew by 8.0% to
imports from China grew 30,868.4 mn sme in 2015.
by 8.0% in 2015, of which
textile imports were up by Within this total, textile imports, at 19,482.7 mn sme, were up by 9.5%
9.5% and clothing by 5.6% and clothing imports, at 11,385.7 mn sme, were up by 5.6%.

In textiles, imports from China In textiles, US imports from China rose in 2015 in the case of fabrics
rose in the case of fabrics, (by 11.6% to 4,560.5 mn sme), made-up textiles (by 9.1% to
made-up textiles and yarns 14,287.2 mn sme) and yarns (by 4.9% to 634.9 mn sme).

Among individual Among individual product categories, Chinas best performing textile
product categories, products in the US import market in terms of volume growth in 2015
Chinas best performing included miscellaneous wool fabric (up by 264.0% to 1.6 mn sme),
textile products in the US oxford cloth (up by 101.5% to 8.1 mn sme), SBVF towels (up by 41.1%
import market in terms of to 10.3 mn sme), other staple fibre yarn (up by 34.7% to 33.5 mn sme),
volume growth in 2015 SBVF woven fabric (up by 32.3% to 18.4 mn sme), speciality yarns (up
included miscellaneous by 26.5% to 65.6 mn sme), textured filament yarn (up by 26.2% to
wool fabric and textured 113.3 mn sme), glass fibre fabric (up by 25.3% to 32.5 mn sme) and
filament yarn special weave fabric (up by 20.8% to 72.1 mn sme).

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By contrast, there were By contrast, there were sharp declines in US imports of a number of
sharp declines in US textile products from China, including carded cotton yarn (down by
imports of a number of 33.5% to 4.4 mn sme), man-made fibre twill and sateen staple fibre
textile products from fabric (down by 19.8% to 7.6 mn sme), cotton print cloth fabric (down
China, including cotton by 17.4% to 14.4 mn sme) and cotton terry towels (down by 10.1% to
terry towels 58.8 mn sme).

The rise in clothing imports The rise in US clothing imports from China was due primarily to an
from China was due prima- increase in imports of man-made fibre clothing. These rose by 9.6% to
rily to a 9.6% increase in 7,411.9 mn sme.
imports of man-made fibre
clothing as imports of cotton By contrast, imports of wool clothing fell by 4.8% to 114.4 mn sme,
clothing, wool clothing and imports of SBVF clothing fell by 2.6% to 200.4 mn sme and imports of
SBVF clothing all fell cotton clothing fell by 0.8% to 3,659.0 mn sme.

Among individual product Among individual product categories, Chinas best performing clothing
categories, Chinas best products in the US import market in terms of volume growth in 2015
performing clothing included miscellaneous silk apparel (up by 120.5% to 8.9 mn sme), mens
products in the US import and boys man-made fibre sweaters (up by 52.9% to 13.2 mn sme), mens
market in terms of volume and boys man-made fibre down-filled coats and jackets (up by 39.7% to
growth in 2015 included 17.8 mn sme), mens and boys cotton suit type coats (up by 34.3% to
miscellaneous silk apparel, 11.9 mn sme), womens and girls man-made fibre down-filled coats and
man-made fibre jackets (up by 24.5% to 38.7 mn sme), man-made fibre gloves and mittens
underwear and womens (up by 19.2% to 87.5 mn sme), mens and boys man-made fibre knitted
and girls man-made fibre shirts (up by 18.0% to 158.3 mn sme), womens and girls man-made
knitted shirts and blouses fibre trousers (up by 16.6% to 224.9 mn sme), man-made fibre underwear
(up by 15.2% to 477.0 mn sme) and womens and girls man-made fibre
knitted shirts and blouses (up by 14.3% to 490.8 mn sme).

But there were sharp declines By contrast, there were sharp declines in imports of non-cotton
in imports of a number of vegetable fibre sweaters (down by 31.2% to 8.3 mn sme), womens and
clothing products from girls silk woven shirts and blouses (down by 25.4% to 5.8 mn sme),
China, including non-cotton cotton underwear (down by 21.4% to 144.6 mn sme), womens and
vegetable fibre sweaters, girls wool sweaters (down by 20.5% to 18.5 mn sme), SBVF knitted
cotton underwear, cotton shirts and blouses (down by 17.8% to 15.3 mn sme), cotton gloves and
gloves and mittens, and mens mittens (down by 17.4% to 47.3 mn sme) and mens and boys SBVF
and boys SBVF trousers trousers (down by 16.0% to 39.3 mn sme).

US textile and clothing US textile and clothing imports from Indiathe USAs second largest
imports from India, the supplieradvanced by 7.2% to 4,564.2 mn sme in 2015, having been
USAs second largest propelled by substantially higher sales of cotton poplin and broadcloth
supplier, advanced by fabric (up by 120.2% to 2.7 mn sme), man-made fibre underwear (up by
7.2% in 2015, having been 81.3% to 29.3 mn sme), mens and boys man-made fibre non-suit type
propelled by substantially coats and jackets (up by 69.3% to 3.6 mn sme), yarn put up for retail
higher sales of a number sale and sewing thread (up by 45.8% to 6.1 mn sme), man-made fibre
of products nightwear (up by 42.6% to 7.3 mn sme), textured filament yarn (up by
37.7% to 80.9 mn sme), yarn containing more than 85% by weight of
synthetic staple fibres (up by 34.8% to 40.7 mn sme), non-textured
filament yarn (up by 33.5% to 15.0 mn sme) and other staple fibre yarn
(up by 30.1% to 16.4 mn sme).

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Table 1: USA: leading suppliers of textile and clothing importsa, 2010-15


(mn smeb)
% share % change
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2015 2015/14
Textiles
China 15,611.2 15,429.0 15,755.5 16,747.8 17,789.5 19,482.7 53.7 9.5
India 2,285.9 2,409.8 2,603.1 2,844.9 3,302.5 3,540.6 9.8 7.2
Pakistan 2,139.3 1,858.4 1,863.6 1,895.8 1,930.8 2,051.1 5.6 6.2
Mexico 1,657.9 1,599.2 1,517.4 1,498.9 1,578.1 1,469.4 4.0 -6.9
South Korea 1,243.9 1,213.8 1,282.8 1,255.8 1,298.7 1,405.0 3.9 8.2
Vietnam 967.1 1,131.7 1,022.3 1,172.2 1,232.0 1,233.1 3.4 0.1
Canada 1,278.1 1,195.6 1,106.1 1,006.3 964.2 1,012.8 2.8 5.0
Taiwan 672.1 639.5 689.6 694.8 759.2 802.9 2.2 5.8
Turkey 464.3 518.4 558.2 561.8 646.7 702.0 1.9 8.6
Indonesia 494.8 464.3 471.8 464.4 467.6 503.0 1.4 7.6
Others 3,885.5 3,372.1 3,493.8 3,546.4 3,758.4 4,105.5 11.3 9.2
World 30,700.1 29,831.9 30,364.3 31,689.0 33,727.5 36,308.2 100.0 7.7
Clothing
China 10,386.8 9,738.2 9,884.1 10,369.4 10,780.0 11,385.7 41.8 5.6
Vietnam 1,910.5 1,998.4 2,145.0 2,430.4 2,751.1 3,135.6 11.5 14.0
Bangladesh 1,606.1 1,539.5 1,521.9 1,692.4 1,609.7 1,869.9 6.9 16.2
Indonesia 1,261.8 1,307.4 1,262.7 1,261.8 1,246.4 1,264.0 4.6 1.4
Honduras 1,271.9 1,182.8 1,118.7 1,073.3 1,084.8 1,114.4 4.1 2.7
Cambodia 947.1 1,037.4 1,039.2 1,065.0 1,020.7 1,051.5 3.9 3.0
India 971.1 899.5 835.0 885.2 956.7 1,023.5 3.8 7.0
Mexico 952.3 946.2 897.0 908.5 916.9 898.4 3.3 -2.0
El Salvador 819.8 782.2 789.8 796.8 788.7 813.0 3.0 3.1
Pakistan 697.9 625.9 582.0 584.2 586.3 591.0 2.2 0.8
Others 3,918.6 3,806.8 3,609.1 3,771.3 3,904.5 4,068.6 14.9 4.2
World 24,744.0 23,864.3 23,684.5 24,838.5 25,645.7 27,215.7 100.0 6.1
Textiles and clothing
China 25,997.9 25,167.2 25,639.6 27,117.3 28,569.5 30,868.4 48.6 8.0
India 3,257.0 3,309.3 3,438.1 3,730.1 4,259.1 4,564.2 7.2 7.2
Vietnam 2,877.6 3,130.1 3,167.4 3,602.5 3,983.0 4,368.6 6.9 9.7
Pakistan 2,837.3 2,484.3 2,445.6 2,479.9 2,517.0 2,642.1 4.2 5.0
Mexico 2,610.3 2,545.4 2,414.4 2,407.4 2,495.0 2,367.8 3.7 -5.1
Bangladesh 1,866.9 1,749.8 1,764.6 1,944.6 1,888.2 2,196.4 3.5 16.3
Indonesia 1,756.6 1,771.7 1,734.5 1,726.2 1,713.9 1,767.0 2.8 3.1
South Korea 1,335.8 1,292.6 1,350.4 1,328.5 1,368.2 1,473.8 2.3 7.7
Cambodia 1,002.7 1,097.8 1,115.4 1,131.5 1,087.4 1,133.9 1.8 4.3
Honduras 1,294.1 1,210.8 1,155.0 1,100.7 1,122.0 1,142.1 1.8 1.8
Others 10,607.9 9,937.1 9,823.7 9,958.7 10,369.8 10,999.5 17.3 6.1
World 55,444.1 53,696.1 54,048.7 56,527.5 59,373.2 63,523.9 100.0 7.0
NB: numbers may not sum precisely due to rounding.
a
Made from fibres covered by the former Multi-Fibre Arrangement (MFA) which include all the major product categories; the
main items not covered are those made from 100% silk. b Square metres equivalent.
Source: US Department of Commerce.

Vietnam has benefited Vietnam has benefited from brisk demand in the US import market for
from brisk demand in the clothing in recent years.
US clothing import
market in recent years Furthermore, it appears to be one of the few countries which may be
and is one of a few able to seriously challenge Chinas dominance in the US clothing
countries which could import market in the future. Indeed, Vietnams share of the US clothing
challenge Chinas import market is expected to increase in 2016 for the 11th consecutive
dominance in the market year in volume terms and the 17th consecutive year in value terms.
in the future

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Figure 1
USA: textile and clothing imports by supplying
country, by volume, 2014 and 2015
(%)
50
2014 2015
40

30

20

10

0
China Vietnam Mexico Indonesia Cambodia Others
India Pakistan Bangladesh South Korea Honduras
Source: Textiles Intelligence research

Vietnam and the USA are Vietnam and the USA are two of 12 countries which signed an
two of 12 countries which ambitious Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) free trade agreement in
signed the TPP free trade February 2016.
agreement in February 2016
The other countries are Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan,
Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru and Singapore.

However, it could take a However, it could take a number of years for the agreement to enter into
number of years for the force as it needs to be ratified by each of the signatory countries.
agreement to enter into
force If any of the 12 countries fail to ratify the agreement by early February
2018, the deal will enter into force 60 days after a minimum of six TPP
countries have formally completed their domestic ratification
procedures, subject to the proviso that these countries together account
for at least 85% of the combined gross domestic product of the original
signatories in 20133.

If the TPP is implemented, If the TPP is implemented, the USA will confer significant tariff
the USA will confer benefits on imports of Vietnamese products into the US market.
significant tariff benefits
on Vietnamese products Specifically, the USA will provide tariff-free access to a broad range of
originating4 textiles and clothing from Vietnam and the other TPP
parties immediately when the agreement enters into force. Tariffs on all
other products will be completely eliminated within 13 years.

3
The 85% GDP threshold was purposely included in the agreement to ensure that the TPP would not enter into
force unless the USA and Japan both ratified it.
4
In this context, originating products are products which have been wholly produced in a country which
is a signatory of the TPP, or products incorporating imported (non-originating) materials which have
undergone sufficient transformation (working or processing) in a country which is a signatory of the TPP.
Non-originating materials can normally be regarded as raw materials, ingredients, components or parts which
have been imported into a TPP signatory country for further processing or for inclusion in a finished product.
However, the term also applies to any materials used to manufacture a product which do not meet the wholly
produced or sufficiently transformed criteria.

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 World textile and apparel trade and production trends

However, Vietnams heavy In order to qualify for preferential tariff treatment, clothing will
reliance on Chinese yarns generally have to comply with a yarn-forward rule of origin. This
and fabrics in clothing would require the yarn and fabric to be made, and the cutting, sewing
production could limit its and finishing of the clothing to take place, in one or more of the TPP
ability to take advantage of countries.
the TPP, given that
clothing will generally have The agreement does allow the use of certain inputs which are not
to comply with a yarn- commercially available in the TPP region. However, Vietnams heavy
forward rule of origin to reliance on Chinese yarns and fabrics in clothing production could limit
qualify for preferential its ability to take advantage of the TPP to substantially increase its
tariff treatment exports to the USA.

US textile and clothing US textile and clothing imports from Vietnam increased by 9.7% to
imports from Vietnam 4,368.6 mn sme in 2015.
increased by 9.7% in 2015
although clothing imports Clothing imports from Vietnam rose by 14.0% to 3,135.6 mn sme
were up by 14.0% and during the year but textile imports were up by just 0.1% to 1,233.1 mn
textile imports by only 0.1% sme.

Vietnams best performing Vietnams best performing individual textile and clothing product
individual textile and categories in the US import market in terms of volume growth in 2015
clothing product categories included miscellaneous SBVF manufactured products (up by 199.5% to
in the US import market in 2.9 mn sme), SBVF knitted shirts and blouses (up by 149.2% to 5.9 mn
terms of volume growth in sme), man-made fibre underwear (up by 95.5% to 74.0 mn sme), SBVF
2015 included various woven shirts and blouses (up by 92.5% to 3.0 mn sme), cotton sweaters
SBVF manufactured (up by 66.2% to 6.6 mn sme), mens and boys man-made fibre suit type
products and man-made coats (up by 40.7% to 11.3 mn sme), womens and girls man-made
fibre clothing products fibre trousers (up by 40.7% to 163.2 mn sme), mens and boys man-
made fibre trousers (up by 38.2% to 118.0 mn sme), speciality yarns (up
by 35.1% to 24.4 mn sme) and knitted fabric (up by 32.3% to 13.6 mn
sme).

On the other hand, there On the other hand, there were sharp declines in US imports from
were sharp declines in Vietnam in the case of mens and boys man-made fibre sweaters (down
imports of products in a by 62.8% to 0.2 mn sme), yarn containing more than 85% by weight of
number of other categories, cellulosic staple fibres (down by 47.3% to 1.8 mn sme), miscellaneous
including combed cotton man-made fibre furnishings (down by 43.5% to 9.2 mn sme), yarn
yarn and miscellaneous containing more than 85% by weight of synthetic staple fibres (down by
man-made fibre 43.0% to 8.6 mn sme), combed cotton yarn (down by 40.2% to 13.9 mn
furnishings sme) and womens and girls man-made fibre suits (down by 34.0% to
3.6 mn sme).

US textile and clothing US textile and clothing imports from Pakistan, the USAs fourth largest
imports from Pakistan, supplier, rose by 5.0% to 2,642.1 mn sme in 2015. The rise was due in
the USAs fourth largest large part to higher sales of yarn (up by 15.6% to 52.8 mn sme),
supplier, rose by 5.0% man-made fibre clothing (up by 12.2% to 99.2 mn sme), fabrics (up by
in 2015 8.1% to 154.9 mn sme) and made-up textiles (up by 5.8% to 1,843.4 mn
sme).

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US textile and clothing US textile and clothing imports from members of the
imports from CAFTA-DR US-Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement
countries were up by 2.0% (CAFTA-DR)5 were up by 2.0% to 3,156.2 mn sme in 2015.
in 2015 due primarily to
increases in imports from The rise was due primarily to increases in imports from the Dominican
the Dominican Republic, Republic (up by 8.0% to 305.1 mn sme), El Salvador (up by 3.4% to
El Salvador, Guatemala 829.0 mn sme), Guatemala (up by 3.4% to 374.4 mn sme) and Honduras
and Honduras (up by 1.8% to 1,142.1 mn sme).

Growth in US textile and US textile and clothing imports from Nicaragua increased by just 0.9%
clothing imports from to 488.1 mn sme in 2015 after growing by 9.7% in 2014 and 7.8% in
Nicaragua slowed to just 2013. This sharp slowdown can be attributed to the expiration at the end
0.9% due to the expiration of 2014 of a special tariff preference level which allowed specified
of a special tariff amounts of cotton clothing, man-made fibre clothing and certain wool
preference level clothing items cut and assembled in Nicaragua from non-CAFTA-DR
originating yarns and/or fabrics to enter the USA duty free.

The most important The most important category of US textile and clothing imports from
category of US textile and CAFTA-DR countries in 2015 was that of mens and boys man-made
clothing imports from fibre knitted shirts. Furthermore, imports of these items were up by
CAFTA-DR countries in 2.6% to 541.7 mn sme during the year. As a result, the share of mens
2015 was mens and boys and boys man-made fibre knitted shirts in total US textile and clothing
man-made fibre knitted imports from CAFTA-DR countries grew slightly, from 17.1% to
shirts 17.2%.

followed by cotton The second most important category of US textile and clothing imports
underwear from CAFTA-DR countries in 2015 was that of cotton underwear.
However, imports of these items were down by 9.0% to 517.0 mn sme
and their share of total US imports from CAFTA-DR countries declined
from 18.4% to 16.4%.

and mens and boys The third most important category of US textile and clothing imports
cotton knitted shirts from CAFTA-DR countries was that of mens and boys cotton knitted
shirts. Imports of these items were up by 11.9% to 460.1 mn sme and
their share of total US textile and clothing imports from CAFTA-DR
countries grew from 13.3% to 14.6%.

US textile and clothing US textile and clothing imports from Colombia increased by 7.4% to
imports from Colombia 90.5 mn sme in 2015.
increased by 7.4% in 2015,
having been buoyed by the Such growth was buoyed by the US-Colombia Trade Promotion
US Colombia Trade Agreement, which entered into force on May 15, 2012. The agreement
Promotion Agreement provides duty-free access to US imports from Colombia which meet the
rules of origin specified in the agreement.

Imports from Peru were Elsewhere in the Andean region, however, US textile and clothing
down by 5.6% imports from Peru were down by 5.6% to 67.9 mn sme in 2015.

5
US-Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) countries comprise Costa
Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. The USA is also a member.

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 World textile and apparel trade and production trends

Imports from Haiti were US textile and clothing imports from Haiti, meanwhile, were up by
up by 7.2% 7.2% to 336.6 mn sme in 2015. Within this total, clothing accounted for
a 99.9% share of imports.

Imports from Mexico and US textile and clothing imports from Mexico and Canada declined by
Canada fell by 2.3% 2.3% to 3,429.8 mn sme in 2015 after growing by 1.4% in the previous
year.

But while imports from Imports from Mexico fell by 5.1% to 2,367.8 mn sme in 2015 after
Mexico fell by 5.1% increasing by 3.6% in 2014.

imports from Canada Imports from Canada, however, increased by 4.6% to 1,062.1 mn sme
increased by 4.6% in 2015 after falling by 3.8% in 2014.

The best performing The best performing suppliers in the US textile and clothing import
suppliers in the US textile market in 2015 in terms of volume growth included relatively minor
and clothing import market suppliers such as Russia (up by 408.6% to 39.7 mn sme), Myanmar (up
in 2015 in terms of volume by 168.4% to 15.3 mn sme), Ghana (up by 150.7% to 4.9 mn sme),
growth included a number Finland (up by 63.5% to 11.3 mn sme), Madagascar (up by 61.8% to
relatively minor suppliers 16.6 mn sme), Slovakia (up by 45.1% to 13.8 mn sme), the Netherlands
(up by 44.5% to 79.4 mn sme), Australia (up by 35.0% to 34.6 mn sme),
Slovenia (up by 34.8% to 13.6 mn sme), Romania (up by 33.8% to
16.8 mn sme), Luxembourg (up by 33.4% to 101.2 mn sme) and
Ethiopia (up by 28.9% to 9.0 mn sme).

PRODUCTION
US textile production fell by Trends in US textile production have been mixed in recent years after
0.1% in 2015 after growing production fell in 2009 to its lowest level in decades. In 2010 it rose by
by 1.0% in 2014 and 3.6% 6.7% but in 2011 it declined by 2.2% and in 2012 by 3.0%. In 2013 it
in 2013 grew by 3.6% and in 2014 by a further 1.0%. But in 2015 it fell once
again, albeit by only 0.1%.

In 2016 it is expected to In 2016 textile production is expected to remain relatively stable as any
remain relatively stable gains or losses are likely to be modest.

The NCTO formally endorsed US textile manufacturers remain concerned about the Trans-Pacific
the TPP in January 2016 Partnership (TPPsee page 21) and particularly the effect that
despite concerns about the Vietnamese producers may have on US textile production, given the
TPP and the effect that countrys rise as a global textile and clothing producer. Despite this, the
Vietnamese producers may National Council of Textile Organizations (NCTO) formally endorsed
have on US textile production the TPP in January 2016.

This decision came after This decision came after exhaustive analysis in which the NCTO
exhaustive analysis in which determined that key negotiating objectives had been met. These
the NCTO determined that objectives included:
key negotiating objectives
had been met a strong yarn-forward rule of origin for the vast majority of textile
and clothing products;
reasonable multi-year tariff phase-outs for sensitive textile and
clothing products; and
terms which provide for the stability of the textile and clothing
production chain in the western hemisphere.

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US clothing production US clothing production fell in 2015 for the fifth consecutive year. After
fell by 1.1% in 2015 after plunging by 26.2% in 2009, it edged up by 0.9% in 2010 but thereafter
declining in each of the it declinedby 1.6% in 2011, 5.7% in 2012, 7.3% in 2013, 2.8% in
previous four years 2014 and 1.1% in 2015.

EMPLOYMENT
US textile manufacturing US textile manufacturing employment has remained relatively stable
employment has remained since 2010 after falling sharply during the preceding ten years.
relatively stable since 2010
after falling sharply during In 2015 employment increased by an average of 0.3% after rising by
the preceding ten years 0.2% in 2014, although the rise in 2014 followed declines of 1.5% in
2013, 1.1% in 2012 and 0.1% in 2011.

although in December In December 2015 alone, textile manufacturing employment stood at


2015 it was 1.1% lower 232,500, which was 1.1% lower than the figure of 235,100 in
than in December 2014 December 2014 but 0.04% higher than the figure of 232,400 in
December 2013.

In yarn and fabric mills, In yarn and fabric mills, manufacturing employment fell from an
average employment fell average of 117,000 in 2014 to an average of 116,400 in 2015,
by 0.5% in 2015 and in representing a decline of 0.5%.
December 2015 it was
down by 1.6% compared In December 2015 alone, manufacturing employment in yarn and fabric
with December 2014 mills stood at 115,200, which was down by 1.6% compared with
December 2014.

In textile product mills, In textile product mills, manufacturing employment increased from an
average employment average of 115,000 in 2014 to an average of 116,400 in 2015,
increased by 1.2% in representing a rise of 1.2%.
2015 but in December
2015 it was down by In December 2015 alone, manufacturing employment in textile product
0.6% compared with mills stood at 117,300, which was down by 0.6% compared with
December 2014 December 2014.

In clothing, average In clothing, manufacturing employment fell to an average of 136,800 in


employment fell by 2.4% 2015, which was 2.4% lower than the average of 140,100 in 2014 and
in 2015 and in December 5.5% lower than the average of 144,700 in 2013.
2015 it was down by
0.8% compared with In December 2015 alone, employment in clothing manufacturing stood
December 2015 at 136,900, which was down by 0.8% compared with the figure of
138,000 recorded for December 2014.

EXPORTS
US textile and clothing exports by product
US textile and clothing US textile and clothing exports fell in 2015 for the first time in six
exports fell by 2.8% in years. During the year, they were down by 2.8%, from US$24,419.0 mn
2015, which was the first to US$23,737.6 mn, following increases of 3.2% in 2014, 4.5% in 2013,
fall in six years 1.1% in 2012, 13.6% in 2011 and 19.1% in 2010.

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Exports of yarn were Exports of yarn declined by 6.4% in 2015, from US$5,249.2 mn to
down by 6.4% and US$4,910.8 mn, after rising by 1.4% in 2014, while exports of fabric
exports of fabric by 2.3% were down by 2.3%, from US$9,253.2 mn to US$9,041.3 mn, after
growing by 4.4% in 2014.

Exports of made-up textiles Exports of made-up textiles, meanwhile, fell by 3.0%, from
were down by 3.0% US$3,791.6 mn to US$3,677.2 mn, after growing by 0.8% in 2014.

and exports of In clothing, exports declined by 0.3% in 2015, from US$6,125.0 mn to


clothing by 0.3% US$6,108.4 mn, after increasing by 4.5% in 2014.

The best performing US The best performing US textile and clothing products in terms of export
textile and clothing growth in 2015 included mens and boys knitted shirts other than
products in terms of export T-shirts and tank tops (up by 23.7% to US$138.7 mn), mens and boys
growth in 2015 included sweaters (up by 20.4% to US$212.5 mn), womens and girls woven
mens and boys knitted shirts (up by 16.9% to US$243.7 mn), mens and boys woven shirts (up
shirts other than T-shirts by 15.7% to US$152.5 mn), infants wear (up by 13.0% to
and tank tops, mens and US$80.8 mn), mens and boys ensembles (up by 11.0% to US$6.7 mn),
boys sweaters, womens foundation garments (up by 8.0% to US$273.8 mn) and wool woven
and girls woven shirts, fabrics (up by 6.1% to US$35.9 mn).
mens and boys woven
shirts, infants wear, mens Exports of a number of other major product categories grew at a more
and boys ensembles, modest pace, including mens and boys trousers (up by 5.9% to
foundation garments, and US$466.7 mn), speciality and industrial fabrics (up by 1.4% to
wool woven fabrics US$4,194.5 mn), miscellaneous made-up articles (up by 0.3% to
US$1,777.7 mn) and knitted fabric (up by 0.1% to US$1,059.7 mn).

On the other hand, there were On the other hand, there were sharp declines in US exports of items in
sharp declines in US exports a number of product categories, including dining room furnishings
of dining room furnishings, (down by 21.8% to US$16.8 mn), womens and girls ensembles (down
womens and girls ensem- by 18.0% to US$19.5 mn), staple fibre waste and tow (down by 16.5%
bles, staple fibre waste and to US$1,375.9 mn), athletic suits (down by 15.6% to US$4.6 mn),
tow, athletic suits, womens womens and girls skirts (down by 14.1% to US$45.2 mn), cotton
and girls skirts, cotton broadwoven fabrics (down by 11.2% to US$574.9 mn) and womens
broadwoven fabrics, and and girls dresses (down by 10.0% to US$375.6 mn).
womens and girls dresses
US textile and clothing exports by destination country
In terms of destination, In terms of destination, US textile and clothing exporters benefited in
US textile and clothing 2015 from strong growth in demand for its products in several countries,
exporters benefited in including Monaco (up by 749.4% to US$5.5 mn), Macau (up by 128.9%
2015 from strong growth to US$5.1 mn), Mali (up by 125.5% to US$4.3 mn), Morocco (up by
in demand for its products 116.5% to US$23.9 mn), Nicaragua (up by 58.3% to US$245.4 mn), the
in several countries Netherlands (up by 40.5% to US$405.0 mn), Cambodia (up by 34.3%
to US$9.1 mn), the United Arab Emirates (up by 23.3% to
US$258.8 mn), Jordan (up by 22.7% to US$22.4 mn) and the Bahamas
(up by 21.7% to US$33.4 mn).

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But there were sharp By contrast, there were sharp declines in exports to a number of other
declines in exports to a countries, including Venezuela (down by 52.8% to US$48.5 mn),
number of other countries Russia (down by 49.2% to US$94.9 mn), Indonesia (down by 21.3% to
US$132.8 mn), Brazil (down by 21.2% to US$212.9 mn), China (down
by 18.1% to US$1,033.0 mn), Belgium (down by 12.3% to
US$479.7 mn) and Japan (down by 12.1% to US$573.9 mn).

The USAs largest textile and The USAs largest textile and clothing export market in 2015 was
clothing export market in Mexico. For many years, Canada was the largest market but Mexico
2015 was Mexico with a overtook Canada in 2013.
27.4% share of US exports to
all destinations, and this Furthermore, US exports to Mexico were up by 4.9% to US$6,510.1 mn
share was up from 25.4% in in 2015 and the share of US exports to all destinations which went to
2014 as exports rose by 4.9% the country rose from 25.4% in 2014 to 27.4% in 2015.

The rise in exports to The rise in exports to Mexico was spurred by increases in exports of
Mexico was spurred by mens and boys sweaters (up by 86.4% to US$40.9 mn), womens and
increases in exports of a girls woven shirts (up by 67.1% to US$83.4 mn), foundation garments
number of products, (up by 54.7% to US$52.7 mn), infants wear (up by 36.0% to
including mens and boys US$6.8 mn), mens and boys knitted shirts other than T-shirts and tank
sweaters tops (up by 35.7% to US$30.6 mn) and curtains and drapes (up by
33.0% to US$8.0 mn).

Textile and clothing Textile and clothing exports to Canada declined by 6.2% to
exports to Canada US$5,246.8 mn and the share of US textile and clothing exports to all
declined by 6.2% due to destinations which went to the country fell from 22.9% to 22.1%.
falls in exports of
clothing, yarn, made-up Within the total for 2015, clothing exports were down by 6.7% to
textiles and fabric US$1,985.2 mn, yarn exports by 7.2% to US$420.2 mn, made-up
textiles by 6.0% to US$1,578.8 mn, and fabric exports by 5.5% to
US$1,262.6 mn.

US textile and clothing US textile and clothing exports to the CAFTA-DR region were up by
exports to the CAFTA-DR 0.8% in 2015, from US$3,294.2 mn to US$3,319.7 mn, after growing
region were up by 0.8% by 6.2% in 2014.

Exports of clothing to the Exports of clothing to the region were up by 17.9% to US$589.7 mn in
region were up by 17.9%, 2015, having been spurred by increases in exports of womens and girls
having been spurred by woven shirts (up by 221.7% to US$13.7 mn), womens and girls
increases in exports of a knitted T-shirts and tank tops (up by 121.7% to US$2.7 mn), womens
number of products and girls sweaters (up by 118.4% to US$2.0 mn) and mens and boys
sweaters (up by 71.6% to US$4.6 mn).

Exports of made-up Exports of made-up textiles rose by 14.9% to US$123.8 mn but yarn
textiles rose by 14.9% but exports declined by 4.6% to US$1,642.8 mn.
exports of yarn declined
by 4.6% while fabric Fabric exports, meanwhile, were essentially unchanged at
exports were essentially US$963.5 mn.
unchanged

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ARGENTINA

EXPORTS
Argentinas textile and Argentinas textile and clothing exports declined in 2015 due to weaker
clothing exports declined sales in several countries, including Brazil, Chile, China, Indonesia,
by a sharp 29.4% in 2015 Italy, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and Vietnam.
due to weaker sales in
several countries In fact, exports were down by a sharp 29.4% during the year, from
US$576.0 mn to US$406.8 mn, following a 7.3% increase in the
previous year.

Textile exports fell by Within these totals, exports of textiles fell by 31.2% in 2015, from
31.2% and clothing US$507.4 mn to US$349.0 mn, while exports of clothing declined by
exports declined by 15.7% 15.7%, from US$68.7 mn to US$57.9 mn.

In textiles, the fall in 2015 In textiles, the fall was due primarily to a sharp decline in exports of
was due primarily to cotton fibres, yarns and woven fabrics. These plunged by 61.2%, from
61.2% decline in exports US$145.4 mn to US$56.5 mn. As a result, these items constituted
of cotton fibres, yarns and Argentinas third most important export product category in 2015 after
woven fabrics constituting the second most important category in 2014.

There were also sharp There were also sharp declines in 2015 in the case of exports of
declines in the case of man-made staple fibres, yarns and woven fabrics classified under
exports of a number of HS Chapter 55 (down by 47.6% to US$1.9 mn), man-made filament
other product yarns and woven fabrics classified under HS Chapter 54 (down by
categories 46.1% to US$33.1 mn), special woven fabrics and other textile products
classified under HS Chapter 58 (down by 27.5% to US$1.7 mn), fabrics
impregnated, coated, covered or laminated with plastics (down by
27.2% to US$8.1 mn) and made-up textiles (down by 22.4% to
US$9.0 mn).

while more moderate Meanwhile, more moderate falls were recorded in the case of exports of
falls were recorded in the knitted fabric (down by 15.5% to US$8.4 mn), wool fibres, yarns and
case of some product woven fabrics (down by 12.3% to US$163.4 mn), wadding, felts,
categories nonwoven fabrics and other textile articles classified under
HS Chapter 56 (down by 11.4% to US$60.1 mn) and carpets and other
textile floor coverings (down by 11.1% to US$6.7 mn).

In clothing, exports of knitted In clothing, the decline was due to falls in exports of knitted clothing
clothing fell by 9.3% and (down by 9.3% to US$32.9 mn) and woven clothing (down by 22.9%
woven clothing by 22.9% to US$25.0 mn).

Argentinas largest textile Argentinas largest textile and clothing export product category in 2015,
and clothing export product having accounted for a 40.2% share of total textile and clothing exports
category in 2015 was that of during the year, was that of wool fibres, yarns and woven fabrics.
wool fibres, yarns and Furthermore, this share was up from 32.3% in 2014.
woven fabrics

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followed by wadding, Argentinas second largest textile and clothing export product category
felts, nonwoven fabrics in 2015 with a 14.8% share of the total, up from 11.8% in 2014, was
and other textile articles that of wadding, felts, nonwoven fabrics and other textile articles
classified under classified under HS Chapter 56.
HS Chapter 56
EXPORT MARKETS
Argentinas largest textile Argentinas largest textile and clothing export market in 2015 was
and clothing export Brazil with a 24.6% share of its textile and clothing exports to all
market in 2015 was destinations. However, this share was down from 27.8% in 2014.
Brazil
Figure 2
Argentina: textile and clothing exports by
destination, 2014 and 2015
(%)
40
2014 2015
30

20

10

0
Brazil China Chile Germany Uruguay Italy Mexico Peru India Others
Source: Textiles Intelligence research

followed by China, Argentinas second largest export market among individual countries6
Chile, Germany, was China with a 12.7% share (up from 10.2% in 2014), followed by
Uruguay, Italy, Mexico, Chile with a 7.9% share (up from 6.3%), Germany with a 7.7% share
Peru and India (up from 5.3%), Uruguay with a 7.4% share (up from 6.2%), Italy with
a 4.8% share (up from 4.6%), Mexico with a 3.6% share (up from
3.0%), Peru with a 3.5% share (up from 3.1%) and India with a 3.1%
share (up from 1.9%).

Exports from Argentina to Brazil


Argentinas textile and Argentinas textile and clothing exports to Brazil declined by 37.3% in
clothing exports to Brazil 2015, from US$160.0 mn to US$100.2 mn.
declined by 37.3% in 2015
due to falls in exports in The decline was due to falls in exports of products in almost all textile
almost all product categories and clothing product categories.

In textiles, Argentinas In textiles, Argentinas worst performing export product categories in


worst performing export the Brazilian market included cotton fibres, yarns and woven fabrics
product categories in the (down by 84.5% to US$3.6 mn), special woven fabrics and other textile
Brazilian market included products classified under HS Chapter 58 (down by 63.2% to
man-made filament yarns US$0.2 mn), man-made staple fibres, yarns and woven fabrics classified
and woven fabrics under HS Chapter 55 (down by 59.3% to US$0.9 mn), made-up textiles
(down by 52.2% to US$0.6 mn), fabrics impregnated, coated, covered
or laminated with plastics (down by 46.6% to US$2.2 mn) and man-
made filament yarns and woven fabrics classified under HS Chapter 54
6
Collectively, EU countries rank as the second largest market.

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 World textile and apparel trade and production trends

(down by 46.4% to US$28.7 mn). Exports of and wadding, felts,


nonwoven fabrics and other textile products classified under
HS Chapter 56, meanwhile, fell at a more moderate rate (down by
13.0% to US$33.1 mn).

By contrast, exports of By contrast, exports of carpets and other textile floor coverings
textile floor coverings rose increased by 5.7% to US$3.6 mn.

In clothing, exports of In clothing, exports of knitted clothing fell by 15.9% to US$15.0 mn


knitted clothing and woven while exports of woven clothing declined by 22.4% to US$11.8 mn.
clothing declined
Exports from Argentina to the EU
Sales of Argentinean textiles Sales of Argentinean textiles and clothing in the EU import market rose
and clothing in the EU by 4.3% to Euro60.2 mn (US$54.3 mn) in 2015, according to EU import
import market rose by 4.3% data.
in 2015 due to a 4.6%
increase in sales of textiles Within this total, sales of textiles increased by 4.6% to Euro59.8 mn but
sales of clothing plummeted by 22.4% to Euro0.4 mn.

Sales of wool fibres, yarns In textiles, sales of wool fibres, yarns and woven fabrics rose by 5.7%
and woven fabrics rose by to Euro57.6 mn.
5.7% and accounted for
95.7% of total Argentinean As a result, this product category accounted for as much as 95.7% of
textile and clothing sales in total Argentinean textile and clothing sales in the EU import market, up
the EU import market from 94.5% in the previous year.

There were also increases There were also increases in sales of knitted fabric (up by 60.5% to
in sales of knitted fabric Euro0.1 mn) and fabrics impregnated, coated, covered or laminated with
and fabrics impregnated, plastics (up by 2.7% to Euro0.3 mn).
coated, covered or
laminated with plastics but By contrast, there were sharp declines in sales of man-made staple
there were sharp declines fibres, yarns and woven fabrics classified under HS Chapter 55 (down
in sales of man-made staple by 67.0% to Euro0.1 mn) and made-up textiles (down by 31.5% to
fibres, yarns and woven Euro0.3 mn).
fabrics, and made-up
textiles Exports of cotton fibres, yarns and woven fabrics, meanwhile, fell at a
more moderate rate (down by 1.1% to Euro1.4 mn).

Woven clothing sales fell Within the total for clothing, sales of woven clothing fell by 27.5% to
by 27.5% and knitted Euro0.2 mn and sales of knitted clothing declined by 18.0% to
clothing sales by 18.0% Euro0.2 mn.

Within the EU, textile and Within the EU, Argentinas two most important textile and clothing
clothing exports to export markets in 2015 were Germany and Italy.
Germany, Argentinas
most important market, Exports to Germany grew by 3.2% to US$31.3 mn during the year. As
grew by 3.2% in 2015 a result, Germany became Argentinas fourth largest individual textile
and clothing export market (up from fifth position a year earlier).

However, exports to Italy, Exports to Italy, however, declined by 25.4% to US$19.6 mn.
its second most important Nevertheless, Italy remained Argentinas sixth largest individual textile
market, declined by 25.4% and clothing export market.

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Exports from Argentina to other major markets


Argentinas textile and Argentinas textile and clothing exports to Chinaits second largest
clothing exports to China, individual export market (see page 29)were down by 12.0% to
its second largest US$51.7 mn in 2015.
individual export market,
were down by 12.0%, and There were also very substantial declines in exports to Vietnam (down
there were also substantial by 93.0% to US$1.6 mn), Indonesia (down by 63.8% to US$11.3 mn),
declines in exports to Peru (down by 21.5% to US$14.1 mn), Mexico (down by 16.0% to
Vietnam, Indonesia, Peru, US$14.5 mn), Uruguay (down by 15.1% to US$30.2 mn) and Chile
Mexico, Uruguay and Chile (down by 11.0% to US$32.3 mn).

By contrast, exports to By contrast, textile and clothing exports to India, increased by 14.6% to
India increased US$12.6 mn.

Exports from Argentina to the USA


Sales of Argentinean Sales of Argentinean textiles and clothing in the US import market fell
textiles and clothing in the by 23.9% in 2015, from US$5.0 mn to US$3.8 mn, according to US
US import market fell by import data.
23.9% in 2015 due to falls
in sales of textiles as well as Within these totals, sales of textiles declined by 20.6% to US$3.5 mn
clothing while sales of clothing were down by 48.1% to US$0.3 mn.

Argentinas most Argentinas most important product group in the US import market in
important product group 2015 was fabric with a 73.6% share of its total textile and clothing
in the US import market in sales. Furthermore, this share was up from 61.9% in 2014, despite a
2015 was fabric but sales 9.7% decline in sales to US$2.8 mn.
declined by 9.7% due to a
fall in sales of pile and Within this total, sales of pile and tufted fabrics fell by 27.5% to
tufted fabrics US$1.2 mn.

Sales of miscellaneous Partially offsetting this decline, there were increases in sales of
woven man-made fibre fab- miscellaneous woven man-made fibre fabrics (up by 46.5% to
rics and knitted fabric rose US$0.5 mn) and knitted fabric (up by 0.3% to US$1.0 mn).

Among other products, sales Among other products, sales in the US import market declined in 2015
of wool yarns and floor in the case of wool yarns (down by 75.8% to US$0.1 mn) and floor
coverings made from wool coverings made from wool (down by 18.1% to US$0.5 mn).
were also down
TEXTILE AND CLOTHING RETAIL SALES
Sales of clothing, footwear On the domestic front, sales of clothing, footwear and accessories in
and accessories in shopping shopping centres located in the Greater Buenos Aires region grew by
centres in Greater Buenos 26.9% during January-September 2015 compared with the
Aires grew by 26.9% in corresponding period a year earlier.
January-September 2015
and by 38.0% in December Furthermore, in December 2015 they were 38.0% higher than a year
2015 earlier.

However, this vigorous rate However, this vigorous rate of growth is partly attributable to the
of growth is partly substantial inflation which has affected the Argentinean economy in
attributable to substantial recent years.
inflation in the country

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PRODUCTION
Textile production declined The total value of textile production in Argentina declined by 5.2%
by 5.2% during January- during January-October 2015 compared with the corresponding period
October 2015 as man-made a year earlier.
fibre production, cotton
yarn production and fabric Man-made fibre production fell by 15.1%, cotton yarn production
production fell declined by 5.6% and fabric production was down by 5.0%.

IMPORTS
Until December 2015, the Until December 2015, the Argentinean government had in place a
government had in place a comprehensive set of import restrictions as part of a broader policy of
comprehensive set of import import substitution and re-industrialisation which was designed to
restrictions designed to favour domestically produced merchandise over foreign goods.
favour domestic production
but these are being disman- However, newly elected President Mauricio Macri is gradually
tled in an effort to make the dismantling those restrictions in an effort to make the Argentinean
Argentinean economy more economy more open and competitive and to enable the country to attract
open and competitive foreign direct investment.

The Argentinean Among other actions, the Argentinean government replaced the
government has replaced Declaracin Jurada Anticipada de Importacin (DJAIsworn
the DJAI regime with a advance import declaration regime) with a new import monitoring and
more flexible import licensing system, called Sistema Integral de Monitoreo de
licensing system Importaciones (SIMI), on December 23, 2015. DJAI required firms to
secure approval from the Argentinean authorities before importing any
goods. Admittedly, non-automatic import licences are still required for
a range of textile and clothing products due to their sensitive nature but
these licences are being issued in a much more timely and transparent
fashion.

The previous restrictions The previous import restrictions had only a limited impact on
appear to have had an effect Argentinean textile and clothing imports during 2010 and 2011 but they
as textile and clothing had a more restrictive effect during 2012-14.
imports declined during
2012-14, although in 2015 In 2015 Argentinean textile and clothing imports increased by 2.9%,
they increased by 2.9% from US$1,385.4 mn to US$1,425.4 mn, following falls of 9.1% in
2014, 4.0% in 2013 and 13.7% in 2012.

There were increases in There were increases in Argentinean imports of products in a number
Argentinean imports of of textile categories in 2015, including non-cotton vegetable fibres,
products in a number of yarns and woven fabrics (up by 17.9% to US$5.8 mn), knitted fabric
textile categories in 2015, (up by 11.7% to US$190.1 mn), fabrics impregnated, coated, covered
including man-made staple or laminated with plastics (up by 9.8% to US$100.0 mn), man-made
fibres, yarns and woven filament yarns and woven fabrics classified under HS Chapter 54 (up
fabrics by 5.5% to US$210.6 mn) and man-made staple fibres, yarns and
woven fabrics classified under HS Chapter 55 (up by 3.5% to
US$275.3 mn).

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By contrast, there were By contrast, there were declines in imports of products in several other
declines in imports of textile categories, including silk fibres, yarns and woven fabrics (down
products in several other by 11.6% to US$2.0 mn), carpets and other textile floor coverings
textile categories (down by 10.6% to US$16.1 mn), made-up textiles (down by 7.8% to
US$62.8 mn) and wool fibres, yarns and woven fabrics (down by 5.2%
to US$6.4 mn).

In clothing, knitted clothing In clothing, Argentinean imports of knitted clothing declined by 8.6%
imports declined but woven to US$96.1 mn but imports of woven clothing increased by 4.9% to
clothing imports increased US$184.5 mn.

BRAZIL

The Brazilian textile and The Brazilian textile and clothing industry remains an important sector
clothing industry is an impor- of the countrys economy.
tant sector of the countrys
economy and it generates It encompasses about 33,000 companies employing more than 1.6 mn
sales of around US$53.6 bn workers, and it generates sales of around US$53.6 bn.

Brazilian manufacturers Brazilian manufacturers produce a variety of products, ranging from


produce a variety of simple clothing items to sophisticated fashion apparel of higher added
products and play a value.
leading role in beachwear,
homewear and jeanswear Segments in which Brazilian manufacturers play a leading role include
beachwear, homewear and jeanswear.

According to ABIT, the According to Associao Brasiliera da Indstria Txtil e de Confeco


industry produces (ABITthe Brazilian Textile and Clothing Industry Association), the
approximately 9.8 bn made- Brazilian textile and clothing industry produces approximately 9.8 bn
up textile articles a year, made-up textile articles a year, including 5.5 bn garments.
including 5.5 bn garments
EXPORTS
Brazils exports of textiles Brazils exports of textiles and clothing declined by 6.5% in 2015, from
and clothing declined by US$2,536.6 mn to US$2,371.1 mn, following a 7.1% rise in 2014, a
6.5% in 2015 30.1% fall in 2013, and increases of 12.4% in 2012, 33.0% in 2011 and
19.5% in 2010.

But during January- During January-February 2016, however, exports were up by 31.7%
February 2016 they compared with the corresponding period a year earlier, to
were up by 31.7% US$413.5 mn.

Textile exports fell by 6.2% Within these totals, textile exports fell by 6.2% to US$2,243.5 mn in
in 2015 but were up by 2015 but during January-February 2016 they were up by 33.8% to
33.8% in January-February US$399.2 mn.
2016 while clothing exports
declined by 12.2% in 2015 Clothing exports, meanwhile, declined by 12.2% to US$127.6 mn in
and were down by 8.6% in 2015 and during January-February 2016 they were down by 8.6% to
January-February 2016 US$14.3 mn.

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In 2015 Brazils worst There were declines in Brazilian exports of products in most major
performing textile textile categories in 2015.
product in terms of export
growth was man-made Brazils worst performing textile product category in terms of export
staple fibres, yarns and growth during the year was man-made staple fibres, yarns and woven
woven fabrics fabrics classified under HS Chapter 55 as exports of products in this
category declined by 31.7% to US$76.3 mn. Furthermore, the decline
came after a 27.2% drop in the previous year.

There were also sharp There were also sharp declines in exports of carpets and other textile
declines in exports of floor coverings (down by 24.1% to US$10.4 mn), fabrics impregnated,
carpets and other textile coated, covered or laminated with plastics (down by 15.8% to
floor coverings, fabrics US$89.6 mn), silk fibres, yarns and woven fabrics (down by 14.1% to
impregnated, coated, US$28.5 mn), made-up textiles (down by 12.0% to US$48.7 mn) and
covered or laminated with wadding, felts, nonwoven fabrics and other textile products classified
plastics, silk fibres, yarns under HS Chapter 56 (down by 10.7% to US$212.5 mn).
and woven fabrics, made-
up textiles, and wadding, More moderate declines, meanwhile, were recorded in exports of a
felts, nonwoven fabrics number of other textile products, including special woven fabrics and
and other textile products other textile products classified under HS Chapter 58 (down by 6.3% to
classified under US$53.6 mn), cotton fibres, yarns and woven fabrics (down by 3.9% to
HS Chapter 56 US$1,449.6 mn) and man-made filament yarns and woven fabrics
classified under HS Chapter 54 (down by 0.8% to US$101.2 mn).

Exports increased in the Exports increased in the case of only three textile product categories in
case of only three textile 2015, namely knitted fabric (up by 10.3% to US$62.4 mn), non-cotton
product categories vegetable fibres, yarns and woven fabrics (up by 2.5% to US$71.1 mn)
and wool fibres, yarns and woven fabrics (up by 0.9% to US$39.7 mn).

In clothing, exports of In clothing, exports of knitted clothing declined by 10.8% to


knitted clothing and US$74.6 mn and exports of woven clothing were down by 14.1% to
woven clothing declined US$52.9 mn.

During January-February During January-February 2016, the 33.8% jump in textile exports was
2016, the 33.8% jump in due primarily to a 64.2% increase in exports of raw cotton, to
textile exports was due US$270.6 mn.
primarily to a 64.2%
increase in exports of raw Having said that, there were also increases in exports of products in a
cotton although there number of other categories, including carpets and other textile floor
were also increases in coverings (up by 24.8% to US$1.3 mn), special woven fabrics and other
exports of products in a textile products classified under HS Chapter 58 (up by 17.7% to
number of other US$8.4 mn), fabrics impregnated, coated, covered or laminated with
categories plastics (up by 7.1% to US$12.2 mn) and made-up textiles (up by 2.4%
to US$6.7 mn).

By contrast, Brazils By contrast, Brazils worst performing textile export categories during
worst performing textile January-February 2016 included man-made staple fibres, yarns and
export categories included woven fabrics classified under HS Chapter 55 (down by 36.9% to
man-made staple fibres, US$6.1 mn), wadding, felts, nonwoven fabrics and other textile
yarns and woven fabrics products classified under HS Chapter 56 (down by 26.8% to

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 World textile and apparel trade and production trends

US$26.1 mn), silk fibres, yarns and woven fabrics (down by 19.0% to
US$4.0 mn) and non-cotton vegetable fibres, yarns and woven fabrics
(down by 5.8% to US$10.1 mn).

In clothing, woven clothing In clothing, exports of woven clothing were up by 5.1% to


exports were up by 5.1% US$6.4 mn but exports of knitted clothing were down by 17.3% to
but knitted clothing exports US$7.9 mn.
were down by 17.3%
EXPORT MARKETS
Brazils most important Brazils most important textile and clothing export market in 2015up
textile and clothing export from third in the previous yearwas Argentina with a 10.7% share of
market in 2015 was its textile and clothing exports to all destinations. However, this share
Argentina with a 10.7% was down from 11.0% in 2014 and 14.2% in 2013.
share of its textile and
clothing exports to all Brazils second largest marketup from fifth in the previous yearwas
destinations, followed by Vietnam with a 9.3% share. Furthermore, this share was up from 5.8%
Vietnam with a 9.3% in 2014 and 3.4% in 2013.
share
Figure 3
Brazil: textile and clothing exports by destination,
2014 and 2015
(%)

40 2014 2015

30

20

10

0
Argentina Vietnam Indonesia China South Korea Turkey Malaysia USA Others
Source: Textiles Intelligence research

Indonesia with an 8.7% Brazils third largest marketdown from second in the previous
share yearwas Indonesia with an 8.7% share. However, this share was down
from 12.9% in 2014 and 9.8% in 2013.

and China with an 8.4% Brazils fourth largest market was China with an 8.4% share. However,
share this share was down sharply compared with the previous year. Indeed,
in 2014 China had been the largest market with a 14.8% share of
Brazils textile and clothing exports to all destinations.

In fifth place was South Brazils fifth largest market was South Korea with a 6.7% share (up
Korea, followed by Turkey, from 6.4%), followed by Turkey with a 6.2% share (up from 3.4%),
Malaysia and the USA Malaysia with a 5.4% share (up from 1.8%) and the USA, also with a
5.4% share (unchanged from 2014).

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Exports from Brazil to Argentina


Brazilian textile and Brazilian textile and clothing exports to Argentina declined by 9.3% in
clothing exports to 2015, from US$279.6 mn to US$253.6 mn, after falling by 17.0% in
Argentina declined by 2014, 10.1% in 2013 and 16.3% in 2012.
9.3% in 2015 but during
January-February 2016 During January-February 2016, however, exports were up by 8.6%
they were up by 8.6% compared with the corresponding period a year earlier, to US$35.1 mn.

Brazils worst performing Brazils worst performing textile and clothing products in the
textile and clothing products Argentinean market in 2015 in terms of export growth included
in the Argentinean market man-made staple fibres, yarns and woven fabrics classified under
in 2015 in terms of export HS Chapter 55 (down by 32.2% to US$26.7 mn), wadding, felts,
growth included man-made nonwoven fabrics and other textile products classified under
staple fibres, yarns and HS Chapter 56 (down by 14.3% to US$52.0 mn) and cotton fibres,
woven fabrics yarns and woven fabrics (down by 11.6% to US$51.9 mn).

By contrast, there were By contrast, there were increases in exports to Argentina in the case of
increases in exports of knitted clothing (up by 66.2% to US$2.1 mn) and knitted fabric (up by
knitted clothing and 33.2% to US$15.5 mn).
knitted fabric
Exports from Brazil to Vietnam
Brazilian textile and Brazilian textile and clothing exports to Vietnam surged by 51.8% in
clothing exports to 2015, from US$145.9 mn to US$221.5 mn, following an 83.5% increase
Vietnam surged by 51.8% in 2014.
in 2015, due in large
measure to a 48.8% jump The surge in 2015 was attributable in large measure to a 48.8% jump in
in exports of uncarded exports of uncarded and uncombed cotton, from US$142.5 mn to
and uncombed cotton US$212.0 mn.

But there were also sharp However, there were also sharp increases in exports of silk fibres,
rises in exports of silk fibres, yarns and woven fabrics (up by 184.1% to US$9.2 mn) and
yarns and woven fabrics and non-cotton vegetable fibres, yarns and woven fabrics (up from nil to
non-cotton vegetable fibres, US$0.2 mn).
yarns and woven fabrics
Exports from Brazil to Indonesia
Brazilian textile and Brazilian textile and clothing exports to Indonesia fell by 36.6% in
clothing exports to 2015, from US$326.7 mn to US$207.2 mn, following a 40.5% gain in
Indonesia fell by 36.6% in 2014.
2015, due almost entirely
to a 36.6% decline in The fall in 2015 was due almost entirely to a 36.6% decline in exports
exports of uncarded and of uncarded and uncombed cotton, to US$204.3 mn.
uncombed cotton
Exports from Brazil to China
Brazilian textile and Brazilian textile and clothing exports to China declined by 46.8% in
clothing exports to China 2015, from US$375.4 mn to US$199.8 mn, after growing by 75.6% in
declined by 46.8% in 2015, the previous year.
reflecting a 50.6% plunge
in exports of uncarded and The decline was due almost entirely to a 50.6% plunge in exports of
uncombed cotton uncarded and uncombed cotton, from US$332.7 mn to US$164.5 mn.

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Exports from Brazil to other markets


As in the case of exports to As in the case of exports to Vietnam, Indonesia and China, Brazils
Vietnam, Indonesia and textile and clothing exports to South Korea, Turkey and Malaysia
China, Brazils textile and continued to be heavily dominated by sales of raw cotton in 2015.
clothing exports to South
Korea, Turkey and Brazilian exports of textiles and clothing to South Korea were down by
Malaysia continued to be 2.7% to US$159.2 mn in 2015 as exports of raw cotton fell by 1.8% to
heavily dominated by sales US$157.0 mn. Brazilian textile and clothing exports to Turkey, on the
of raw cotton in 2015 other hand, were up by 70.8% to US$147.5 mn as sales of uncarded and
uncombed cotton rose by 76.9% to US$145.0 mn. Brazilian textile and
clothing exports to Malaysia, meanwhile, shot up by 182.6% to
US$128.5 mn as sales of raw cotton increased by 183.3% to
US$128.3 mn.

Exports from Brazil to the USA


Brazilian textile and Brazilian textile and clothing exports to the USA fell by 6.2% in 2015,
clothing exports to the from US$136.5 mn to US$128.0 mn. The decline followed a 21.2%
USA fell by 6.2% in 2015 increase in 2014 but this came after falls of 6.4% in 2013, 1.1% in 2012
and 48.9% in 2011.

Textile exports declined Within the total for 2015, exports of textiles declined by 5.6% to
by 5.6% and clothing US$108.4 mn while exports of clothing were down by 9.3% to
exports by 9.3% US$19.6 mn.

According to US import According to US import statistics, there were declines in sales of a


statistics, there were number of Brazilian textile and clothing products in the US import
declines in sales of a market in 2015, including mens and boys man-made fibre knitted
number of Brazilian shirts (down by 87.8% to US$0.1 mn), miscellaneous cotton apparel
textile and clothing (down by 45.1% to US$0.8 mn), miscellaneous man-made fibre apparel
products in the US import (down by 15.0% to US$4.2 mn) and nonwoven fabric (down by 9.7%
market in 2015 to US$19.9 mn).

By contrast, there were By contrast, there were sharp increases in sales of Brazilian woven
sharp increases in sales of fabric made from silk blends or non-cotton vegetable fibres (SBVF) (up
SBVF woven fabric and by 243.5% to US$1.7 mn) and womens and girls cotton knitted shirts
womens and girls cotton and blouses (up by 83.6% to US$0.5 mn).
knitted shirts and blouses
Exports from Brazil to the EU
Brazils textile and clothing Brazilian textile and clothing exports to the EU declined by 10.5% to
exports to the EU declined by US$91.1 mn in 2015.
10.5% in 2015 due to falls of
11.1% in textile exports and Within this total, exports of textiles fell by 11.1% to US$77.8 mn while
7.0% in clothing exports exports of clothing were down by 7.0% to US$13.4 mn.

Brazils worst performing Brazils worst performing textile and clothing export product categories
textile and clothing export in the EU in 2015 included man-made staple fibres, yarns and woven
product categories in the EU fabrics classified under HS Chapter 55 (down by 42.8% to US$1.6 mn),
in 2015 included man-made made-up textiles (down by 36.7% to US$2.2 mn), silk fibres, yarns and
staple fibres, yarns and woven fabrics (down by 36.1% to US$12.3 mn), wadding, felts,
woven fabrics nonwoven fabrics and other textile products classified under

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HS Chapter 56 (down by 28.7% to US$5.3 mn), wool fibres, yarns and


woven fabrics (down by 26.0% to US$5.3 mn) and knitted clothing
(down by 17.0% to US$5.9 mn).

By contrast, exports of By contrast, exports of man-made filament yarns and woven fabrics
man-made filament yarns classified under HS Chapter 54 rose by 64.8% to US$10.8 mn.
and woven fabrics rose
PRODUCTION
Brazils textile and clothing Brazils textile and clothing production has been in decline in recent
production has declined in years.
recent years due partly to
increased competition from The decline has been due partly to increased competition from China
China and other foreign suppliers in the domestic market.

In 2015 textile production In 2015 textile production declined by 12.4% and clothing production
fell by 12.4% and clothing fell by 10.9%.
production by 10.9%
IMPORTS
Brazils textile and clothing Brazils textile and clothing imports declined by 18.0% in 2015, from
imports declined by 18.0% US$7,148.0 mn to US$5,859.9 mn. The decline represented the first in
in 2015, representing the several years and followed increases of 5.1% in 2014, 2.8% in 2013,
first fall in several years 0.8% in 2012, 30.4% in 2011 and 44.7% in 2010.

Furthermore, during Furthermore, during January-February 2016 Brazilian textile and


January-February 2016, clothing imports were down by a steep 41.7% compared with the
imports were down by a corresponding period of the previous year, to US$714.8 mn.
steep 41.7% and are likely
to remain depressed for the Moreover, given the weak economic situation is Brazil, imports are
rest of the year likely to remain depressed for the rest of the year.

Textile imports fell by In the case of textiles alone, imports fell by 24.1% to US$3,485.2 mn in
24.1% in 2015 and by 44.4% 2015, and during January-February 2016 they were down by 44.4%
in January-February 2016 compared with the corresponding period a year earlier, at US$423.3 mn.

Clothing imports fell by Clothing imports, meanwhile, fell by 7.1% to US$2,374.7 mn in 2015,
7.1% in 2015 and by 37.3% and during January-February 2016 they were down by 37.3% compared
in January-February 2016 with the corresponding period of the previous year, at US$291.5 mn.

The worst performing There were declines in imports of products in every major textile and
textile product categories in clothing category in 2015.
2015 included cotton fibres,
yarns and woven fabrics, The worst performing textile product categories during the year
knitted fabric, and man- included cotton fibres, yarns and woven fabrics (down by 52.1% to
made filament yarns and US$169.8 mn), knitted fabric (down by 33.8% to US$366.9 mn), man-
woven fabrics made filament yarns and woven fabrics classified under HS Chapter 54
(down by 28.6% to US$1,155.1 mn), carpets and other textile floor
coverings (down by 21.4% to US$86.5 mn), special woven fabrics and
other textile products classified under HS Chapter 58 (down by 20.1%
to US$144.5 mn) and non-cotton vegetable fibres, yarns and woven
fabrics (down by 19.7% to US$21.3 mn).

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In the case of clothing, In the case of clothing, imports of knitted clothing declined by 7.2% to
imports of knitted clothing US$1,048.6 mn in 2015, and during January-February 2016 they were
declined by 7.2% in 2015 down by 37.8% compared with the corresponding period a year earlier,
and by 37.8% in January- at US$141.0 mn.
February 2016 while
imports of woven clothing Imports of woven clothing, meanwhile, decreased by 7.0% to
decreased by 7.0% in 2015 US$1,326.1 mn in 2015, and during January-February 2016 they were
and by 36.9% in January- down by 36.9% compared with the corresponding period a year earlier,
February 2016 at US$150.5 mn.

Brazils largest textile and Brazils largest supplier of textiles and clothing in 2015 was China with
clothing supplier in 2015 a 55.0% share of Brazils textile and clothing imports from all sources.
was China with a 55.0% This share was up from 53.3% in 2014, 51.7% in 2013, 50.2% in 2012
share, followed by India and 40.7% in 2011.
with a 6.5% share, the EU
with a 5.5% share and Brazils second largest supplier of textiles and clothing in 2015 was
Indonesia with a 5.2% India with a 6.5% share (down from 7.6% in 2014), followed by the EU
share with a 5.5% share (unchanged from 2014) and Indonesia with a 5.2%
share (up from 5.0% in 2014).

Brazils textile and clothing Brazils textile and clothing imports from China fell by 15.5% in 2015,
imports from China fell by from US$3,812.2 mn to US$3,221.9 mn, after growing by 8.4% in the
15.5% in 2015 previous year.

imports from India Textile and clothing imports from India declined by 29.1% in 2015,
declined by 29.1%, imports from US$541.0 mn to US$383.8 mn, following a 5.8% increase in 2014.
from the EU were down by
19.1% and imports from There were also sharp declines in 2015 in textile and clothing imports
Indonesia were down by from the EU (down by 19.1% to US$320.1 mn) and Indonesia (down by
14.4% 14.4% to US$307.1 mn).

COLOMBIA

The Colombian textile and The Colombian textile and clothing industry encompassed
clothing industry accounted approximately 450 textile manufacturers and 10,000 clothing producers
for around 14% of domestic in 2015. Also, it employed about 94,500 workers, who represented
industrial employment in 2015 around 14% of total domestic industrial employment in the country.

Total sales by the Total sales by the textile and clothing industry grew at an average
industry grew to annual rate of about 10% over the ten-year period between 2004 and
US$8,690 mn in 2014 2014, to US$8,690 mn.

EXPORTS
Colombias textile and Colombias textile and clothing exports fell by 10.4% in 2015, from
clothing exports fell by US$894.7 mn to US$801.4 mn, after dropping by 10.1% in 2014 and
10.4% in 2015 and were 13.4% in 2013.
less than half the all-time
high achieved in 2008 As a result, exports in 2015 were less than half the all-time high of
US$2,063.8 mn achieved in 2008.

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Textile exports fell by In the case of textiles alone, exports fell by 13.9% in 2015, from
13.9% US$374.4 mn to US$322.3 mn, after declining by 5.6% in 2014 and
14.4% in 2013.

and clothing exports Clothing exports, meanwhile, declined by 7.9% in 2015, from
declined by 7.9% US$520.2 mn to US$479.1 mn, after falling by 13.1% in 2014 and
12.7% in 2013.

Exports of Colombian Exports of Colombian textiles and clothing declined in the case of
textiles and clothing almost every major product category in 2015.
declined in the case of
almost every major The worst performing categories included man-made staple fibres, yarns
product category in 2015 and woven fabrics classified under HS Chapter 55 (down by 33.9% to
US$13.4 mn), cotton fibres, yarns and woven fabrics (down by 31.9%
to US$29.9 mn), wadding, felts, nonwoven fabrics and other textile
products classified under HS Chapter 56 (down by 30.2% to US$15.0
mn), special woven fabrics and other textile products classified under
HS Chapter 58 (down by 24.6% to US$21.2 mn), carpets and other
textile floor coverings (down by 20.0% to US$1.4 mn), knitted clothing
(down by 17.0% to US$173.2 mn), fabrics impregnated, coated, covered
or laminated with plastics (down by 14.7% to US$50.6 mn) and knitted
fabric (down by 14.4% to US$57.5 mn).

More moderate declines were recorded in exports of man-made filament


yarns and woven fabrics classified under HS Chapter 54 (down by 3.0%
to US$56.7 mn) and woven clothing (down by 1.8% to US$305.9 mn).

The only increases were in The only product categories in which exports increased in 2015
non-cotton vegetable fibres, were non-cotton vegetable fibres, yarns and woven fabrics (up by
yarns and woven fabrics 24.4% to US$0.1 mn) and made-up textiles (up by 3.7% to
and made-up textiles US$75.9 mn).

Colombias most important Colombias most important textile and clothing export product
textile and clothing export category in 2015 was that of mens and boys woven cotton denim
product category in 2015 trousers.
was that of mens and
boys woven cotton denim Furthermore, exports of this product category increased by 9.6%
trousers with a 7.8% share during the year, from US$56.9 mn to US$62.4 mn, and their share
of Colombias total textile and clothing exports grew from 6.4% to
7.8%.

The second most important The second most important textile and clothing export product
category was that of toilet category in 2015 was that of toilet and kitchen linen made from cotton
and kitchen linen made terry towelling or similar terry fabrics.
from cotton terry towelling
or similar terry fabrics Exports of this product category grew by 6.3% during the year, from
with a 6.3% share US$47.6 mn to US$50.6 mn, and their share of Colombias total textile
and clothing exports rose from 5.3% to 6.3%.

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Other key categories Other key Colombian textile and clothing export product categories
included womens and girls included womens and girls cotton woven trousers and shorts with a
cotton woven trousers, 6.1% share in 2015 (up from 5.7% in 2014), knitted fabric classified
knitted fabric classified under HS subheading 6004.10 with a 4.7% share (unchanged from
under HS subheading 2014) and brassieres with a 4.5% share (down from 5.4% in 2014).
6004.10 and brassieres
EXPORT MARKETS
Colombias largest textile Colombias largest textile and clothing export market in 2015 was the
and clothing export market USA with a 34.5% share of Colombias textile and clothing exports to
in 2015 was the USA with a all destinations during the year, up from 27.1% in 2014.
34.5% share of its textile
and clothing exports to all Colombias second largest export market was Ecuador with a 14.8%
destinations, followed by share (down from 19.1% in 2014), followed by Mexico with a 10.9%
Ecuador, Mexico, Peru share (up from 10.2% in 2014), Peru with a 7.2% share (down from
and Venezuela 7.5% in 2014) and Venezuela with a 5.5% share (down from 9.1% in
2014).

Figure 4
Colombia: textile and clothing exports by selected
destination, 2014 and 2015
(%)
40
2014 2015
30

20

10

0
USA Ecuador Mexico Peru Venezuela Others
Source: Textiles Intelligence research

Exports from Colombia to the USA


Colombias textile and Colombias textile and clothing exports to the USA rose by 13.7% in
clothing exports to the USA 2015, from US$242.8 mn to US$276.2 mn.
rose by 13.7% in 2015 due
to increases of 6.6% in Within these totals, textile exports increased by 6.6%, from US$69.8 mn
textile exports and 16.6% to US$74.4 mn, while clothing exports were up by 16.6%, from
in clothing exports US$173.0 mn to US$201.8 mn.

The rise in clothing exports The rise in clothing exports was due to a 32.4% increase in exports of
was due to a 32.4% increase woven clothing, from US$97.3 mn to US$128.8 mn. Exports of knitted
in exports of woven clothing clothing, by contrast, fell by 3.6% from US$75.7 mn to US$73.0 mn.

US import data show that US import statistics show that sales of Colombian textiles and
sales of Colombian textiles clothing in the US import market increased by 14.7% in 2015, from
and clothing in the US import US$247.9 mn to US$284.3 mn, following a 7.2% fall in 2014.
market rose by 14.7% in 2015

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Sales of textiles grew by Within these totals, sales of textiles grew by 17.4% in 2015, from
17.4% and sales of clothing US$49.2 mn to US$57.7 mn, following a 1.1% decline in 2014 while
increased by 14.0% sales of clothing increased by 14.0%, from US$198.8 mn to
US$226.6 mn, after an 8.6% fall in 2014.

The best performing The best performing Colombian textile and clothing product categories
Colombian textile and in the US import market in terms of sales growth in 2015 included
clothing product miscellaneous clothing made from silk blends and non-cotton vegetable
categories in the US fibres (SBVF) (up by 136.9% to US$5.7 mn), cotton brassieres and
import market in terms of other body supporting garments (up by 109.1% to US$2.6 mn), man-
sales growth in 2015 made fibre brassieres and other body supporting garments (up by 60.3%
included miscellaneous to US$24.7 mn), special purpose fabric (up by 55.0% to US$2.4 mn),
SBVF clothing, and cotton synthetic filament fabric made from yarn other than polyester (up by
and man-made fibre 45.1% to US$6.7 mn), mens and boys man-made fibre trousers (up by
brassieres and other body 35.9% to US$4.0 mn) and man-made fibre underwear (up by 35.0% to
supporting garments US$9.4 mn).

By contrast, there were By contrast, there were sharp declines in sales of a number of other
sharp declines in sales of a product categories, including cotton underwear (down by 71.1% to
number of other product US$0.9 mn), mens and boys cotton non-suit type coats (down by
categories, including cotton 67.0% to US$0.5 mn), womens and girls man-made fibre coats and
hosiery and man-made jackets (down by 57.1% to US$0.4 mn), man-made fibre hosiery (down
fibre dresses by 53.5% to US$1.6 mn), mens and boys cotton knitted shirts (down
by 53.5% to US$0.6 mn), cotton hosiery (down by 47.0% to
US$2.4 mn), man-made fibre dresses (down by 43.9% to US$3.0 mn)
and womens and girls wool coats (down by 40.0% to US$0.3 mn).

Colombian textiles and Colombian textiles and clothing benefit from tariff-free access to the US
clothing benefit from market under the US-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (TPA).
tariff-free access to the This, after years of delays in its implementation, entered into force on
US market under the May 15, 2012.
US-Colombia Trade
Promotion Agreement, So far, the TPA appears to have had a moderately positive effect on
which entered into force Colombian textile and clothing sales to the USA, particularly in the case
on May 15, 2012 of textiles.

Exports from Colombia to Ecuador


Colombias textile and Colombias textile and clothing exports to Ecuador plunged by 30.7%
clothing exports to Ecuador in 2015, from US$170.9 mn to US$118.4 mn, following a 10.3% drop
plunged by 30.7% in 2015 in 2014.

Textile exports declined Within these totals, textile exports declined by 22.1% in 2015, from
by 22.1% and clothing US$88.4 mn to US$68.9 mn, following a 14.1% fall in 2014, while
exports fell by 39.9% exports of clothing fell by 39.9% in 2015, from US$82.5 mn to
US$49.6 mn, after decreasing by 5.8% in 2014.

Exports from Colombia to Mexico


Colombian textile and Colombias textile and clothing exports to Mexico fell by 4.5% in 2015,
clothing exports to Mexico from US$91.3 mn to US$87.2 mn, following a 12.3% decrease in
fell by 4.5% in 2015 2014.

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Textile exports grew by Within these totals, textile exports grew by 8.8% to US$35.9 mn in 2015
8.8% but clothing exports following a 5.1% drop in 2014. Clothing exports, meanwhile, were down
were down by 12.0% by 12.0% to US$51.3 mn in 2015, following a 15.9% decline in 2014.

Exports from Colombia to Peru


Colombias textile and Colombias textile and clothing exports to Peru declined 14.8% in 2015,
clothing exports to Peru from US$67.5 mn to US$57.5 mn.
declined 14.8% in 2015, as
textile exports fell by Within these totals, textile exports fell by 15.5% to US$23.7 mn while
15.5% and clothing clothing exports were down by 14.3% to US$33.8 mn.
exports by 14.3%
Exports from Colombia to Venezuela
Colombias textile and Colombias textile and clothing exports to Venezuela plummeted by
clothing exports to 46.1% in 2015, from US$81.6 mn to US$44.0 mn, following a 35.1%
Venezuela plummeted by drop in 2014. The fall represented the sixth sharp decline in seven years
46.1% in 2015 as a result and, as a result, exports remained well below the record high of
of severe economic US$1,208.8 mn reached in 2008.
turmoil in Venezuela in
recent years Colombian exports have suffered tremendously as a result of severe
economic turmoil in Venezuela in recent years and will likely decline
further in the foreseeable future.

Textile exports plunged by Textile exports to Venezuela plunged by 51.1% in 2015, from
51.1% and clothing US$45.8 mn to US$22.4 mn, following a 2.3% rise in 2014. Clothing
exports declined by 39.6% exports, meanwhile, declined by 39.6% in 2015, from US$35.8 mn to
US$21.6 mn, following a 55.8% decline in 2014.

Exports from Colombia to other markets


Colombias textile and Colombias textile and clothing exports fared poorly in a number of
clothing exports fared other countries and regions in 2015, including Mercosur7 (down by
poorly in a number of other 37.6% to US$86.6 mn), Germany (down by 33.4% to US$2.7 mn),
countries and regions in France (down by 29.6% to US$4.7 mn), the Netherlands (down by
2015, including Mercosur, 13.3% to US$11.9 mn), Panama (down by 12.6% to US$15.4 mn),
Germany, France, the Japan (down by 9.4% to US$2.7 mn), China (down by 6.0% to
Netherlands, Panama, US$0.8 mn) and India (down by 5.8% to US$0.2 mn).
Japan, China and India
PRODUCTION
Clothing production in Production of clothing in Colombia rose in value by 9.2% in 2015 after
Colombia grew by 9.2% in increasing by 0.5% in 2014.
value and 0.8% in volume
in 2015 while production of In volume terms, however, production rose by a minimal 0.8% in 2015
yarns, fabrics and other after falling by 2.2% in 2014.
textile products grew by
15.5% in value and 1.4% Meanwhile, production of yarns, fabrics and other textile products in
in volume Colombia increased by 15.5% in value and by 1.4% in volume in 2015.

7
Mercosur (Mercado Comn del Sur or Southern Common Market) comprises five full members: Argentina,
Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Venezuela. Paraguay was suspended on June 22, 2012, following the
impeachment of President Fernando Lugo but was reinstated in August 2013 following the election of Horacio
Cartes. Bolivia has signed a membership agreement but its entry has not yet been ratified. There are also six
associate members of Mercosur, namely Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru and Suriname. In Brazil the
organisation is known as Mercosul, which, in Portuguese, stands for Mercado Comum do Sul.

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MEXICO

EXPORTS
Mexicos textile and Mexicos textile and clothing exports fell by 2.5% in 2015, from
clothing exports fell by US$6,961.2 mn to US$6,785.4 mn, following a 0.8% increase in
2.5% in 2015 2014.

Textile exports Within these totals, textile exports declined by 0.5% in 2015, from
declined by 0.5% US$2,519.7 mn to US$2,506.0 mn, following a similar 0.6% decline in
2014.

and clothing exports Clothing exports, meanwhile, decreased by 3.6% in 2015, from
by 3.6% US$4,441.5 mn to US$4,279.5 mn, following a 1.6% increase in the
previous year.

Mexicos best performing Mexicos best performing textile product categories in terms of export
textile product categories growth in 2015 included silk fibres, yarns and woven fabrics (up by
in terms of export growth 30.8% to US$0.2 mn), carpets and other textile floor coverings (up by
included carpets and other 20.6% to US$55.3 mn), wool fibres, yarns and woven fabrics (up by
textile floor coverings, and 11.1% to US$51.9 mn), fabrics impregnated, coated, covered or
wool fibres, yarns and laminated with plastics (up by 6.5% to US$273.7 mn) and made-up
woven fabrics textiles (up by 2.7% to US$1,047.7 mn).

By contrast, there were By contrast, there were sharp declines in exports of man-made filament
sharp declines in exports of yarns and woven fabrics classified under HS Chapter 54 (down by
man-made filament yarns 14.1% to US$242.4 mn), special woven fabrics and other textile
and woven fabrics, special products classified under HS Chapter 58 (down by 12.6% to
woven fabrics and other US$95.3 mn) and nonwoven fabrics and other textile articles classified
textile products classified under HS Chapter 56 (down by 11.6% to US$200.2 mn).
under HS Chapter 58, and
nonwoven fabrics and other More moderate decreases were registered in exports of knitted fabric
textile articles classified (down by 4.4% to US$52.1 mn) and cotton fibres, yarns and woven
under HS Chapter 56 fabrics (down by 1.8% to US$262.0 mn).

In clothing, exports of In clothing, exports of knitted clothing declined by 1.6% in 2015,


knitted clothing fell by from US$1,736.3 mn to US$1,708.4 mn, following a 2.6% increase in
1.6% 2014.

and exports of woven Exports of woven clothing, meanwhile, fell by 5.0% in 2015, from
clothing fell by 5.0% US$2,705.2 mn to US$2,571.1 mn, after a 0.9% rise in 2014.

EXPORT MARKETS
Mexicos largest textile The USA has been Mexicos largest textile and clothing export market
and clothing export for many years and this remained so in 2015. Admittedly, the
market is the USA importance of the USA to the Mexican textile and clothing industry
declined steadily between 2009 and 2013 but this trend was reversed in
2014.

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In 2015 the USA In 2015 the USA accounted for an overwhelming 87.0% of Mexicos
accounted for 87.0% of textile and clothing exports to all destinations. This share was up from
Mexicos textile and 86.7% in 2014 and 84.7% in both 2013 and 2012 although it was down
clothing exports to all from 88.7% in 2010 and 90.6% in 2009.
destinations
Figure 5
Mexico: textile and clothing exports by
destination, 2014 and 2015
(%)

80 2014 2015

60

40

20

0
USA Nicaragua Colombia Argentina Others
Canada Guatemala China Dominican Republic
Source: Textiles Intelligence research

Mexicos second largest Mexicos second largest export market in 2015 was the EU, although no
export market in 2015 individual EU member state ranked among Mexicos eight largest
was the EU export markets.

Among individual Among individual countries, Mexicos second largest export market in
countries, Mexicos second 2015 was Canada with a 1.6% share, down from 1.7% in 2014.
largest export market in
2015 was Canada with a Nicaragua ranked third with a 1.2% share (up from 1.0% in 2014),
1.6% share, followed by followed by Guatemala with a 1.0% share (up from 0.9%), Colombia
Nicaragua, Guatemala, with a 0.9% share (down from 1.2%), China with a 0.6% share (down
Colombia, China, from 0.8%), Argentina with a 0.6% share (up from 0.3%) and the
Argentina and the Dominican Republic with a 0.6% share (unchanged).
Dominican Republic
Exports from Mexico to the USA
Mexican textile and Mexican trade data show that textile and clothing exports to the USA
clothing exports to the fell by 2.2% in 2015, from US$6,034.2 mn to US$5,902.6 mn,
USA fell by 2.2% in 2015 following a 3.2% increase in 2014.
according to Mexican
trade data while US A similar trend is shown by US import data. These show that sales of
import data show a 3.1% Mexican textiles and clothing in the US import market declined by 3.1%
decline in 2015, from US$4,774.7 mn to US$4,625.0 mn, after growing by 2.7%
in the previous year.

According to US import According to US import data, there were declines in sales in the case of
data, there were declines in a number of product categories in 2015, including wool clothing (down
sales in a number of by 25.3% to US$163.0 mn), yarns (down by 6.5% to US$165.2 mn),
product categories in 2015, cotton clothing (down by 5.9% to US$2,178.2 mn) and fabrics (down
including wool clothing by 1.6% to US$317.5 mn).
and cotton clothing

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But there were increases in By contrast, there were increases in sales of silk clothing (up by 64.6%
sales of silk clothing, SBVF to US$0.5 mn), clothing made from silk blends and non-cotton
clothing, made-up textiles vegetable fibres (SBVF) (up by 18.6% to US$18.1 mn), made-up
and man-made fibre textiles (up by 7.8% to US$585.5 mn) and man-made fibre clothing (up
clothing by 1.2% to US$1,197.4 mn).

Among individual product Among individual product categories, Mexicos best performing textile
categories, Mexicos best and clothing products in the US import market in terms of value growth
performing textile and in 2015 included miscellaneous woven fabrics made from man-made
clothing products in the US fibres (up by 911.7% to US$2.4 mn), SBVF dresses (up by 209.6% to
import market in terms of US$0.6 mn), SBVF knitted shirts and blouses (up by 209.3% to
value growth in 2015 US$1.3 mn), cotton nightwear (up by 177.3% to US$5.4 mn), cotton
included wool yarn, blue poplin and broadcloth fabric (up by 111.8% to US$2.8 mn), wool yarns
denim fabric and SBVF (up by 67.5% to US$10.8 mn), cotton terry towels (up by 63.1% to
clothing US$5.0 mn), miscellaneous SBVF clothing (up by 59.9% to
US$7.6 mn), blue denim fabric (up by 59.3% to US$12.8 mn) and
woven man-made fibre fabric containing more than 15% but less than
36% by weight of wool (up by 52.7% to US$7.0 mn).

On the other hand, there On the other hand, there were declines in sales of a number of other
were declines in sales of a products, including SBVF woven fabric (down by 84.1% to
number of other products, US$1.0 mn), mens and boys SBVF suit type coats (down by 53.3% to
including several clothing US$1.4 mn), cotton sweaters (down by 50.8% to US$1.6 mn), mens
products made from wool, and boys wool suits (down by 37.9% to US$41.9 mn), cotton hosiery
womens and girls cotton and socks (down by 37.7% to US$50.1 mn), mens and boys wool suit
knitted shirts and blouses, type coats (down by 28.9% to US$38.2 mn), mens and boys wool
and cotton hosiery trousers (down by 26.8% to US$42.8 mn), womens and girls cotton
knitted shirts and blouses (down by 26.7% to US$69.0 mn), textured
filament yarn (down by 26.1% to US$34.6 mn) and nonwoven fabric
(down by 24.2% to US$59.9 mn).

Mexico was the USAs Mexico was the USAs sixth largest textile and clothing supplier in
sixth largest textile and value terms in 2015 with a 4.1% share of US textile and clothing
clothing supplier in value imports from all sources.
terms in 2015 although its
share was down However, this share was down from 4.4% in 2014, 4.4% in 2013, 4.6%
in 2012, 4.7% in 2011 and 4.8% in 2010.

It was the largest supplier Mexican textile and clothing manufacturers are still very competitive in
of mens and boys denim several products, particularly mens and boys denim trousers. Indeed,
trousers with a 42.7% share Mexico remained by far the USAs largest supplier of this product in
in value terms although this value terms in 2015.
share was down compared
with the previous year as However, its share of total US imports of this product was down from
sales of these items 43.2% in 2014 to 42.7% in 2015 as Mexican sales of mens and boys
declined by 3.4% denim trousers in the US import market fell by 3.4% to US$853.7 mn
in 2015.

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Mexico was also the In 2015 Mexico was also the USAs largest supplier of woven man-
USAs largest supplier made fibre fabric containing more than 15% but less than 36% by
of a number of other weight of wool (with a 63.4% share), as well as impression fabric8 (with
products a 52.9% share), speciality yarn (with a 21.4% share) and other wool
fabrics (with a 20.4% share).

Exports from Mexico to the EU


Sales of Mexican textiles Sales of Mexican textiles and clothing in the EU import market rose by
and clothing in the EU 17.9% to Euro134.5 mn (US$149.3 mn) in 2015, according to EU
import market rose by import data.
17.9% in 2015 as textile
sales rose by 17.4% and Within this total, sales of textiles rose by 17.4% to Euro61.4 mn and
clothing sales by 18.2% sales of clothing were up by 18.2% to Euro73.1 mn.

Mexicos best performing Mexicos best performing textile and clothing product categories in the
textile and clothing EU import market in terms of sales growth in 2015 included man-made
product categories in the staple fibres, yarns and woven fabrics classified under HS Chapter 55
EU import market in (up by 35.1% to Euro20.5 mn), cotton fibres, yarns and woven fabrics
terms of sales growth in (up by 28.7% to Euro2.8 mn), made-up textiles (up by 25.5% to
2015 included man-made Euro13.3 mn) and woven clothing (up by 21.6% to Euro44.3 mn).
staple fibres, yarns and
woven fabrics, cotton More moderate growth was recorded in exports of knitted clothing (up
fibres, yarns and woven by 13.3% to Euro28.9 mn), wadding, felts, nonwoven fabrics and other
fabrics, made-up textiles, textile products classified under HS Chapter 56 (up by 5.2% to
and woven clothing Euro2.6 mn), wool fibres, yarns and woven fabrics (up by 3.4% to
Euro1.6 mn) and man-made staple fibres, yarns and woven fabrics
classified under HS Chapter 55 (up by 2.3% to Euro13.9 mn).

But there were declines in By contrast, there were declines in sales of carpets and other textile
sales of textile floor coverings floor coverings (down by 28.5% to Euro0.9 mn) and fabrics
and fabrics impregnated, impregnated, coated, covered or laminated with plastics (down by 0.3%
coated, covered or laminated to Euro4.5 mn).
with plastics
Exports from Mexico to other markets
Mexican textile and clothing Mexican textile and clothing exports to Canada, Mexicos second
exports to Canada declined largest individual export market (see page 45), declined by 11.0% in
by 11.0% in 2015 2015, from US$120.9 mn to US$107.6 mn.

There were also declines in There were also declines in exports to several other major markets in
exports to China, 2015, including China (down by 22.7% to US$43.1 mn), Colombia
Colombia, Honduras and (down by 22.1% to US$62.5 mn), Honduras (down by 10.5% to
the Dominican Republic US$31.0 mn) and the Dominican Republic (down by 2.6% to
US$41.7 mn).

But increases were But increases were recorded in exports to Argentina (up by 80.9% to
recorded in exports to US$42.1 mn), Guatemala (up by 14.6% to US$68.6 mn), Nicaragua (up
Argentina, Guatemala, by 12.3% to US$81.7 mn) and El Salvador (up by 4.4% to
Nicaragua and El Salvador US$31.1 mn).

8
Impression fabrics are used in the manufacture of printer ribbons.

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PRODUCTION
Textile production in Textile production in Mexico rose in value terms by 10.1% in 2015,
Mexico rose by 10.1% in from Ps55,905 mn to Ps61,573 mn (US$3,880 mn), following a 0.8%
2015 while clothing increase in 2014.
production grew by 6.1%
Clothing production, meanwhile, rose by 6.1% in 2015, from
Ps38,698 mn to Ps41,070 mn, following a 0.4% increase in 2014.

Yarn and fabric Within the totals for textiles, there was an 11.0% increase in yarn and
production grew by fabric production in 2015, from Ps44,788 mn to Ps49,724 mn, following
11.0% while production a 1.4% fall in 2014.
of made-up textiles was
up by 6.6% Production of made-up textiles, meanwhile, was up by 6.6% in 2015,
from Ps11,117 mn to Ps11,849 mn, following a 10.8% increase in
2014.

IMPORTS
Mexicos textile and Mexicos textile and clothing imports grew by 1.7% in 2015, from
clothing imports grew by US$10,333.9 mn to US$10,508.7 mn.
1.7% in 2015 due to a
5.6% rise in clothing Within these totals, textile imports inched down by 0.1%, from
imports US$7,055.4 mn to US$7,047.0 mn, but clothing imports rose by 5.6%,
from US$3,278.5 mn to US$3,461.8 mn.

Textile and clothing Mexicos largest textile and clothing supplier in 2015 was the USA.
imports from the USA, However, imports from the USA declined by 9.1% during the year, from
Mexicos largest supplier US$4,854.8 mn to US$4,415.0 mn.
in 2015, declined by 9.1%
Within these totals, textile imports fell by 8.9% to US$4,038.1 mn and
clothing imports were down by 11.2% to US$376.9 mn.

By contrast, textile and By contrast, textile and clothing imports from ChinaMexicos second
clothing imports from largest suppliercontinued to grow significantly in 2015. Indeed, they
China, Mexicos second rose by 23.3%, from US$2,201.5 mn to US$2,714.3 mn.
largest supplier, rose by
23.3% Within these totals, textile imports grew by 29.4% to US$1,485.3 mn
while clothing imports were up by 16.7% to US$1,229.0 mn.

In an effort to reassure Mexican textile and clothing manufacturers have repeatedly expressed
domestic producers over concern about the negative effect which increased competition from
concerns about increased low value Chinese textiles and clothing is having on domestic
imports from China, the producers.
Mexican authorities have
reiterated that they are In response, the Mexican authorities have reiterated that they are
prepared to use all the tools prepared to use all the tools at their disposal, including anti-dumping
at their disposal to protect the and safeguard actions, to protect the domestic clothing industry from
domestic clothing industry injurious competition from abroad.

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In December 2014 the In December 2014 the Mexican government unveiled a comprehensive
Mexican government programme which aims to:
unveiled a programme to
improve the competitiveness fight unfair trade practices in the textile and clothing sector by
of domestic manufacturers foreign trade partners; and
improve the competitiveness of domestic manufacturers.

The programme includes Among other measures, the programme includes:


automatic alerts and
minimum estimated prices a requirement for textile and clothing importers to be listed in a
for textile and clothing sector-specific registry;
imports the establishment of an automatic alert system for textile and
clothing imports to allow customs officials to verify whether goods
are undervalued;
the establishment, effective from February 2015, of minimum
estimated prices for certain textile and clothing products; if
importers declare a customs value for a shipment below the
applicable estimated price they must guarantee the difference in
duties by using a bond;
the postponement until the end of January 2019 of the scheduled
duty reduction on 73 apparel items and seven made-up textile
products; and
the establishment of automatic import licensing requirements for
certain textile and clothing products.

In January 2016 the mini- In January 2016 the Mexican government expanded the minimum
mum estimated price mecha- estimated price mechanism for textiles and clothing by including a
nism for textiles and clothing range of additional tariff lines. These prices are employed only as a
was expanded by including a reference or guideline and may not be used to determine the customs
range of additional tariff lines value of the good.

Imports from India grew by Imports from IndiaMexicos third largest suppliergrew by 12.1%
12.1% in 2015 while imports to US$351.0 mn in 2015.
from Bangladesh increased
by 24.4% and imports from Imports from Bangladesh, Mexicos fourth largest supplier, increased
Vietnam were up by 4.4% by 24.4% to US$238.4 mn and imports from Vietnam, the fifth largest
supplier, were up by 4.4% to US$236.2 mn.

OUTLOOK
Mexico could lose market Mexican textile and clothing exporters could lose additional market
share at the expense of share in the USA at the expense of Vietnam when the Trans-Pacific
Vietnam when the TPP is Partnership (TPP) is implemented, although the agreement is not
implemented expected to enter into force for a number of years (see page 21). In
addition, the textile and clothing industry is expected to face increased
competition from Vietnam in the domestic market as well as in Canada
and Peru. The TPP was signed in February 2016 and includes Australia,
Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru,
Singapore, the USA and Vietnam.

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 World textile and apparel trade and production trends

The USA will provide The USA will provide tariff-free treatment to a broad range of
tariff-free treatment to a originating textiles and clothing from Vietnam and the other TPP
broad range of parties immediately when the agreement enters into force. while tariffs
originating textiles and on all other products will be completely eliminated within 13 years.
clothing from Vietnam and However, in order to qualify for such treatment clothing will generally
the other TPP parties have to comply with a yarn-forward rule of origin, which would
immediately upon entry require the yarn and fabric to be produced, and the cutting, sewing and
into force of the agreement finishing of the clothing to take place, in one or more TPP countries.

Mexico will remove its Mexico will remove its tariffs on originating clothing and made-up
tariffs on originating textiles from TPP countries immediately when the agreement enters into
clothing and made-up force or in ten or 16 years, although tariffs on most products will be
textiles from TPP countries gradually phased out over a ten-year period.
within 16 years

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 European yarn fairs for spring/summer 2017

Survey of the European yarn fairs


for spring/summer 2017
by Philippa Watkins1

SUMMARY

There was a positive atmosphere at the European yarn fairs for the spring/summer 2017 season.
Spinners reported that they did good business during the fairsparticularly in yarns for knitwear,
reflecting the fact that knitwear remains a high fashion item and demand for knitwear is strong. Statistics
for the first few months of 2016 are reported to be positive although figures for the Italian textile industry
show that total yarn sales in 2015 were down slightly compared with 2014. Sales of cotton yarns fell, and
cotton yarn exports during the first ten months of the year were down by 4.3%. Sales of wool yarns also
declined but at a rate which was less severe than that seen in 2014. Meanwhile, sales of linen yarns
increased following double digit growth in the previous year.

The number of exhibitors at the fairs was down compared with a year earlierby 10% in the case of the
Italian fair Pitti Imagine Filati and by 8% in the case of the French fair Premire Vision Yarns. The
number of visitors, meanwhile, was down by 6% at Premire Vision Paris, although at Pitti Immagine
Filati it edged up by 2%. Spinners have attributed the declines to a number of factors, including a fall
in global textile and clothing consumption, and political tensions and security threats throughout the
world.

The two most important features of the yarns on show for the spring/summer 2017 season were lightness
and transparency. Many Italian spinners were offering extremely fine extra-long staple (ELS) cotton
yarns. Also, there appeared to be more linen and linen blend yarns on offer than in recent years.
Spinners were even offering mixes of wool and luxury fibres, such as cashmere, with other lighter fibres
such as cotton, viscose or linen in order to make them suitable for spring and summer.

YARN FAIRS

Yarn fairs enable spinners Yarn fairs are crucial for spinners as the events enable them to exhibit
to exhibit products and their products and discuss those products with the designers and
new ideas to the designers manufacturers who are their customers.
and manufacturers who
are their customers Yarn fairs also provide spinners with an opportunity to inspire their
customers by offering design presentations, examples of the latest
technology and new ideas.

1
Philippa Watkins is a freelance textile designer and writer on textile subjects and a former textile editor of
WGSNa web-based fashion and textiles information service. She was also a senior tutor at the Royal College
of Art, London, UK, where she specialised in woven fabrics. For a glossary of terms used in this report, visit
http://www.textilesintelligence.com/glo/

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 European yarn fairs for spring/summer 2017

TRADING CONDITIONS
The atmosphere at the There was a positive atmosphere at the European yarn fairs for the
European yarn fairs for the spring/summer 2017 season.
spring/summer 2017 season
was positive as spinners Spinners at the fairs reported good sales of yarns for the luxury end of
reported good sales for the the marketespecially yarns for knitwear, as knitwear remains a strong
luxury end of the market fashion trend.

Some of the statistics for the Also, some of the statistics for the first few months of 2016 appear to
first few months of 2016 be positive.
appear to be positive but
spinners remained uneasy However, there were few signs of confidence in the future. Spinners
about the degree of economic remained uneasy about the degree of economic and political turbulence
and political turbulence as this is liable to upset markets.

Consequently, spinners Consequently, spinnersparticularly in Italyare wary of making


are wary of making rash decisions which might prove unwise if the economic climate
rash decisions worsens.

Preliminary figures for Preliminary figures for 2015 published by Sistema Moda Italia (SMI)
2015 showed that total showed that total sales by the Italian yarn industryincluding wool
sales by the Italian yarn yarns, cotton yarns and linen yarnsfell by 1.7% compared with 2014
industry fell by 1.7% (Table 1).
Table 1: Italy: yarn industry sales, exports and imports, 2011-15
Euro (mn)
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015a
Sales 3,376 3,113 2,979 2,918 2,868
% change n/a -7.8 -4.3 -2.0 -1.7
Exports 996 929 898 871 862
% change n/a -6.8 -3.4 -3.0 -1.1
Imports 1,067 851 831 833 839
% change n/a -20.3 -2.3 0.3 0.7
a
Estimates.
Source: Istituto nazionale di statistica (IstatItalian National Institute of Statistics),
processed by Sistema Moda Italia (SMI).

Sales of cotton yarns Sales of cotton yarn performed badlyparticularly abroad. In the first
performed badly, ten months of 2015, cotton yarn exports were down by 4.3% compared
particularly abroad with the corresponding period of the previous year.

There was also a decline There was also a decline in sales of wool yarn. However, the rate of
in sales of wool yarn decline was less severe than in the previous year as a result of healthier
export sales in the second half of the year.

Sales of linen yarn, mean- Sales of linen yarn, meanwhile, continued to grow, although growth was
while, continued to grow, slower than the double digit increase recorded in 2014.
although at a slower pace
FILO
Filo shows yarns and Filo is a trade fair held in Milan, Italy, at which exhibitors show yarns
fibres for woven and and fibres mainly for woven and jersey fabricsalthough some spinners
jersey fabrics and also show yarns for knitwear. The fair has become increasingly popular
knitwear with the textile trade.

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It was originally started in Filo was originally started in 1994 by the Unione Industriale Biellese
1994 by the Unione for Italian spinners of wool fibres.
Industriale Biellese for
Italian spinners of wool However, the fair has grown and its coverage has been extended to
fibres but the fair has include all fibres.
grown and its coverage
has been extended to Also, spinners from other European countries now exhibit their yarns
include all fibres at this fair.

At the event for the At the event for the spring/summer 2017 seasonwhich was staged
spring/summer 2017 season, during September 30-October 1, 2015visitors were offered a host of
a number of exhibitors new ideas and varieties of yarn for the spring/summer 2017 season and
reported that the business the fair closed in a positive mood.
they had transacted at the
fair was better than Indeed, a number of exhibitors reported that the business they had
expected transacted at the fair was better than they had expected.

There was a large number Filo does not release information about visitor numbers and therefore
of buyers at the fair from does not provide a breakdown of visitor numbers by source country.
Italy in particular However, there was a large number of buyers at the fair from Italy in
particular.

The fair featured yarns for The fair featured yarns for fashion fabrics, interior decoration, technical
a variety of applications, applications and upholstery.
and yarns which provided
added performance were Especially apparent were yarns which had a proven track record of
especially apparent providing the benefits of added performance.

The theme of the fair was The theme of the fair was Think future.
Think future and behind
this thought was the idea Behind this thought was the idea that yarns themselves are an
that yarns themselves are an embodiment of the future as they will be converted first into fabrics and
embodiment of the future then into garments or furnishing textiles.

In another sense, manu- In another sense, manufacturing businesses must be steeped in future
facturing businesses must be thinking, and committed to constant innovation and research aimed at
steeped in future thinking and creating products which not only meet market demands but often
committed to innovation anticipate them.

A new event, Filo Shanghai, During October 13-15, 2015, a new event called Filo Shanghai was
was launched in China in launched in Shanghai, China, in collaboration with the Milano Unica
October 2015 in collaboration China fabric fair2.
with Milano Unica China

2
Milano Unica is a textile trade fair held in Milan, Italy, which is dedicated to showing high quality textiles from
Italy and other European countries. A Chinese edition of the fairMilano Unica Chinaformed a major part of
the international presence at the autumn/winter 2016/17 edition of Intertextile Shanghai Apparel Fabrics, which
was held in Shanghai, China, during October 13-15, 2015. A report on the spring/summer 2017 edition of
Milano Unica in Milan is planned for inclusion in Survey of the European fabric fairs for spring/summer 2017,
which is due to be published in a forthcoming issue of Textile Outlook International.

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 European yarn fairs for spring/summer 2017

Seven Italian yarn Seven Italian yarn producers exhibited at this event, namely Davifil,
producers exhibited at Filatura C4, Filatura Pettinata Luisa 1966, Ghezzi, Monvania, Ongetta
this event and Servizi e Seta.

PITTI IMMAGINE FILATI


Pitti Immagine Filati is Pitti Immagine Filati, held in Florence, Italy, is dedicated to yarns which
dedicated to yarns for the are aimed at the top end of the knitwear market.
top end of the knitwear
market and is an essential The fair is an essential event for knitwear designers and buyers, and it
event for knitwear provides exhibitors with an opportunity to display the newest and most
designers and buyers inspirational ideas and trends in yarns and knitwear.

The event for the The event for the spring/summer 2017 seasonthe 78th edition of the
spring/summer 2017 season fair, which was staged during January 27-29, 2016concluded in a
concluded in a positive positive mood which represented a continuation of the mood at the
mood despite a 10% decline previous five editions of the fair.
in the number of exhibitors
compared with January This positive mood prevailed despite the fact that the number of
2015, to 115 exhibitors at the fair in January 2016 was down by 10% compared with
the number who were present in January 2015, from 128 to 115.

although this number was Having said that, the number of exhibitors in January 2016 was up by
13% up on January 2014 13% on the 102 exhibitors who were present in January 2014.

21 of the 115 exhibitors Of the 115 exhibitors who were present in January 2016, a total of 21
at the fair were from five exhibitors had come from five countries outside Italynamely Japan,
countries outside Italy Peru, Romania, Turkey and the UK.

There were 25 exhibitors In the Fashion At Work area, there were 25 exhibitorsthe same as the
in the Fashion At Work number who had exhibited a year earlier. This area consists of design
area studios, stitch and prototype developers, printing and knitting machinery
manufacturers, dyers, finishers and companies offering colour coding
systems.

and 15 exhibitors in the Also, there were 15 exhibitors in the KnitClub areaup from 13 a year
KnitClub area earlier. This is a sector in which knitting mills demonstrate their
technical and creative capabilities.

There were 4,250 The number of visitors at the fair reached 4,250, which was up by 2%
visitors at the fair, 2% on the 4,150 visitors who attended the spring/summer 2016 edition of
more than a year earlier the fair in January 2015.

Geographically, there Geographically, there were 4% more visitors from Italy compared with
were 4% more visitors a year earlier. This was considered to be a positive sign as there have
from Italy compared been a few seasons in which attendance by visitors from Italy has been
with a year earlier low.

Just over 1,800 visitors Of the January 2016 total, there were just over 1,800 visitors from
were from countries countries other than Italy, which represented a slight increase compared
other than Italy with the 1,800 visitors from countries other than Italy who attended a
year earlier.

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Approximately 81% of Approximately 81% of the visitors from countries other than Italy came
the visitors from from the 15 most important countries in terms of visitor numbers
countries other than Italy (Table 2).
came from the 15 most
important countries in Among these countries, the biggest number of visitors came from the
terms of visitor numbers, UK, as had been the case in January 2015.
of which the UK was the
most important Table 2: Pitti Immagine Filati: number of visitors from the top 15 source
countries other than Italy, Jan 2015 and Jan 2016

Jan 2015 Jan 2016 % change


UK 273 282 3
Germany 246 230 -7
France 176 177 1
USA 128 138 8
Spain 100 104 4
Turkey 101 90 -11
Switzerland 90 82 -9
Netherlands 67 72 7
Japan 80 68 -15
Russia 29 44 52
Sweden 29 40 38
China 41 36 -12
Belgium 34 36 6
South Korea 30 29 -3
Hong Kong 31 28 -10
Source: Pitti Immagine Filati.

The fastest growth among The fastest growth was in the number of visitors from Russia (up by
countries outside Italy was 52%), followed by those from Sweden (up by 38%), the USA (up by
in the number of visitors 8%), the Netherlands (up by 7%), Belgium (up by 6%) and Spain (up by
from Russia 4%).

By contrast, the steepest However, the number of visitors from Japan was down by 15%. There
decline among countries were also declines in the number of visitors from China (down by 12%),
outside Italy was in the Turkey (11%), Hong Kong (down by 10%), Switzerland (down by 9%),
number of visitors from Germany (down by 7%) and South Korea (down by 3%).
Japan
PREMIRE VISION YARNS (FORMERLY EXPOFIL)
Premire Vision Yarns is Premire Vision Yarns is one of six fairs which collectively form
one of six fairs which now Premire Vision Paris and are hosted concurrently. Formerly, Premire
form Premire Vision Vision Yarns was known as Expofil and was one of six fairs forming
Paris Premire Vision Pluriel. In 2014, however, the organisers of Premire
Vision Pluriel announced a new branding strategy and, as part of the
strategy, the Pluriel name was dropped. The first Premire Vision
Paris took place in February 2015.

Each of the six fairs has Each of the six fairs which now form Premire Vision Paris has been
been rebranded branded with the prefix Premire Vision, followed by a single word
to indicate its product sector, as follows:

Expofil has become Expofil has become Premire Vision Yarns, a show for yarns and
Premire Vision Yarns fibres;

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 European yarn fairs for spring/summer 2017

Premire Vision has become Premire Vision has become Premire Vision Fabrics, a show for
Premire Vision Fabrics clothing fabrics;

Cuir Paris has become Cuir Paris has become Premire Vision Leather, a show for leather
Premire Vision Leather and fur;

Indigo has become Indigo has become Premire Vision Designs, a show for textile
Premire Vision Designs design and creation;

Modamont has become Modamont has become Premire Vision Accessories, a show for
Premire Vision accessories and components for fashion and design; and
Accessories, and Zoom has
become Premire Vision Zoom has become Premire Vision Manufacturing, a show which
Manufacturing specialises in fashion manufacturing.

There were 36 exhibitors at At Premire Vision Yarns in February 2016, there were 36 exhibitors
Premire Vision Yarns, of compared with 39 in February 2015. The 36 exhibitors were from 15
whom four were new countries, and four of the exhibitors were new.

The number of exhibitors Overall, there were 1,725 exhibitors across the six Premire Vision
at Premire Vision Paris Paris shows for the spring/summer 2017 season, which represented a
was down by 4%, but the decrease of 4% compared with the 1,793 exhibitors who were present
event continues to be in February 2015.
extraordinarily important
for the whole fashion Nonetheless, Premire Vision Paris continues to be an extraordinarily
business important sourcing event for the whole fashion businessyarns, fabrics,
leather, designs, accessories and garment making.

The number of visitors at The total number of visitors who attended Premire Vision Paris was
Premire Vision Paris was 55,025, which represented a decrease of 6% compared with the 58,443
down by 6% visitors who attended in February 2015.

The decrease has been The decrease has been attributed to:
attributed to a number of
factors political tensions and security threats in many parts of the world;
a slowdown in global economic growth;
less sustained growth in emerging countries, such as China, or in
countries facing real economic difficulties, notably Brazil and
Russia;
a decline in global textile and clothing consumption, which
amounted to 0.4% in 2015;
a slowdown in luxury markets;
an increase in the concentration of apparel businesses, leading to a
reduction in the number of players on the global fashion stage; and
a packed event calendar, which included the Chinese New Year and
New York Fashion Week.

78% of visitors came from Geographically, 78% of the 55,025 visitors at Premire Vision Paris
European countries and 77% came from European countries. Also, 77% of the 55,025 came from just
from ten countries worldwide ten countries worldwide (Table 3).

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France was the leading In terms of individual countries, 27% of the 55,025 total came from
source of visitors, France alone, making France the leading source of visitors.
followed by the UK,
Italy, Spain, Germany Second in importance was the UK with a 12% share, followed by Italy
and Turkey with an 11% share, Spain with a 6% share, Germany with a 4% share
and Turkey, also with a 4% share.
Table 3: Premire Vision Paris: number of visitors by source country,
February 2016
No of visitors % share
France 15,070 27
UK 6,434 12
Italy 6,312 11
Spain 3,442 6
Germany 2,378 4
Turkey 2,311 4
USA 1,847 3
Belgium 1,728 3
Netherlands 1,327 2
Japan 1,258 2
Others 12,918 23
Total 55,025 100
Source: Premire Vision Paris.

There were some notable There were some notable attendance figures in the case of visitors from
attendance figures in the northern Europe.
case of countries in
northern Europe, including In particular, there were 624 visitors from Sweden and 457 visitors from
Sweden and Denmark Denmark.

The number of visitors The number of visitors from Asian countries remained strong, although
from Asian countries the number of visitors from Japan was smaller than a year earlier as a
remained strong although direct result of the terrorist attacks in Paris in November 2015.
the number of visitors Nevertheless, there were 1,258 visitors from Japanwhich meant that
from Japan was smaller Japan was the tenth largest source of visitors worldwide with a 2%
than a year earlier, at share and the biggest source of visitors from Asia. This figure shows
1,258 that Japan remains a major buying country.

There were 1,234 visitors There were 1,234 visitors from China, representing 2% of the
from China despite the totaldespite the slowdown of the Chinese economy and the fact that
slowdown of the Chinese the Chinese New Year was observed on February 8, 2016, and the
economy and the Chinese Chinese New Year holiday took place during February 7-13, 2016.
New Year, and there were
816 visitors from South Next in importance among Asian countries was South Korea with 816
Korea visitors, representing 1% of the total.

The number of visitors The number of visitors from North America, at 2,070, was up
from North America, at significantly despite the fact that the timing of Premire Vision Paris
2,070, was up significantly overlapped that of New York Fashion Week. The increase has been
due to economic recovery attributed to the economic recovery in the USA, the leading source of
in the USA and there was visitors in North America. In fact, the USA alone accounted for 1,847
also an increase, to 500, in of the 2,070 visitors at the fair from North America.
the number of visitors
from Russia There was also an increase, to 500, in the number of visitors from
Russia, despite the countrys economic difficulties.

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The organisers of Premire The organisers of Premire Vision have announced the inauguration of
Vision will host a new show a new show at which the collections for the autumn/winter 2017/18
called Blossom Premire season will be previewed.
Vision at which collections
for the autumn/winter The show, called Blossom Premire Vision, will be held on
2017/18 season will be July 6-7, 2016, in the Palais Brongniartthe historical Paris Bourse
previewed building, in the centre of Paris.

Table 4: Leading European yarn fairs for spring/summer 2017 and autumn/winter 2017/18

Spring/summer 2017 Autumn/winter 2017/18


Filo, Milan, Italy September 30October 1, 2015 March 2-3, 2016
Pitti Immagine Filati, Florence, Italy January 27-29, 2016 June 29-July 1, 2016
Premire Vision Yarns, Paris, France February 16-18, 2016 September 13-15, 2016
Source: authors own research.

TRENDS IN YARNS FOR KNITWEAR AT PITTI IMMAGINE FILATI

OVERVIEW
Pitti Immagine Filati remains Pitti Immagine Filati, held in Florence, Italy, remains the main trade fair
the main trade fair for yarn for designers and buyers who are interested in yarn and knitwear
and knitwear trends trends.

The fair provides knitwear The fair provides knitwear designers with excitement and, crucially,
designers with inspiration inspiration.

Exhibitors at the fair consist Exhibitors at the fair consist mainly of Italian yarn manufacturers who,
mainly of Italian yarn while continuing to use old technologies, have also invested in new
manufacturers who have ones. Their aim is to provide their customers with a constant source of
invested in new technologies high quality, creative and innovative yarns.

The theme of the Trend At the event for the spring/summer 2017 season, held in January 2016,
Area for spring/summer the theme of the Spazio Ricerca, or Trend Area, was Materiality. The
2017 was Materiality, focus was on materials and the new creative production processes used
within which there were ten to handle them.
sub-themes covering unique
colours, surfaces and Within the theme of Materiality, there were ten sub-themes under
techniques which unique colours, surfaces and techniques were displayed.

According to the artistic According to the artistic director of the Spazio Ricerca, Angelo Figus:
director of the Spazio Material itself is being transformed into new possibilities and a new
Ricerca, material itself is reality. Extraordinary experiments on materialsaimed at rethinking
being transformed into new and imaging the futureand unexpected, unconventional
possibilities and a new transformation processes are part of todays most interesting creative
reality experiences.

The mood for the season is The mood for the spring/summer 2017 season is modern but also
modern but also romantic romantic.

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Some new yarns have fine Some of the new yarns have structures which are fine and soft in cotton,
and soft structures while viscose or blends. Other new yarns have structures which are crisp and
others are crisp and dry dry in linen or other fibres with a higher twist.

The themes followed by The themes followed by many spinners at Pitti Immagine Filati which
many spinners at the fair were demonstrated in their knitted samples included volume and three-
included volume and 3D dimensional (3D) structures, such as honeycomb and waffle structures
structures (Figure 1 and Figure 2).

COLOURS
Colours at the edition of Pitti The colours at the edition of Pitti Immagine Filati for the spring/summer
Immagine Filati for spring/ 2017 season were mostly light and fresh. They included white and lots
summer 2017 included white, of natural and sandy colours, from dark to light.
natural and sandy colours,
and tans which were high- Alongside these mostly light tones were tans to light brown, highlighted
lighted by blue and orange by blue and orange.

Other colour combinations Other colour combinations included:


included lighter pastels
alongside coral and soft lighter pastels in powdery shades, including whites, peach and skin
blues and greens, bright tones, alongside coral and soft blues and greens (Figure 3 and
colours alongside orange Figure 4);
and fuchsia pink, indigo strong bright colours, including the important bright yellow and
blues highlighted with grass green, alongside orange and fuchsia pink (Figure 5);
bright colours, and indigo blues in all shades, in many cases highlighted with bright
metallics colours (Figure 6); and
anodised metallic effect yarns in tinted steel tones as well as
gleaming gold and silver in Lurex twists in all yarns, including
viscose; some of these metallic effect yarns had a shiny wet
appearance.

KNITWEAR YARNS
Lightness and transparency Two important features of the knitwear yarns and knitwear on display
were important features at the spring/summer 2017 edition of Pitti Immagine Filati were
of yarns and knitwear lightness and transparency.

Extra-fine yarns had been Extra-fine yarns had been used to create transparent knitsin mesh,
used to create transparent lace effects and jacquardswith a silk handle or a cotton handle.
knits, and many of these
yarns had been multi-plied to Furthermore, many of these extra-fine yarns had been multi-plied to
obtain heavier counts obtain heavier counts.

Many fabrics were light in Transparency also implies layering and volume. Many of the knitted
weight but had 3D volume in fabrics displayed on the stands were light in weight but had three-
the form of mesh, openwork dimensional (3D) volume in their constructionsin the form of mesh,
knits or lace-like knits openwork knits or lace-like knits.

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Figure 1 Figure 2
Garment in the Trend Area Fabric in the Trend Area
at Pitti Immagine Filati at Pitti Immagine Filati

Source: Philippa Watkins Source: Philippa Watkins

Figure 3 Figure 4
Spinners yarn display in the Trend Area Spinners yarn display in the Trend Area
at Pitti Immagine Filati at Pitti Immagine Filati

Source: Philippa Watkins Source: Philippa Watkins

Figure 5 Figure 6
Loro Piana: samples of knitted fabrics Loro Piana: samples of jacquard fabrics
made from cashmere yarns made from cashmere yarns

Source: Philippa Watkins Source: Philippa Watkins

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Cotton yarns were important Cotton yarnscompact spun to produce fine, smooth clean
and had been given sheen yarnswere important. These yarns had also been given sheen and
and fluidity, and fine raw fluidity.
materials had been spun into
fine yarns and multi-plied to Fine raw materials had been spun into fine yarns, and these had then
obtain heavier counts been multi-plied to obtain heavier counts.

Several Italian spinners Several Italian spinners at the fair displayed yarns made from extra-long
displayed yarns made from staple (ELS) cotton fibre of the highest quality. Italian spinners do not
ELS cotton fibre of the feel able to compete with providers of basic yarns made from low cost
highest quality cotton.

Many yarns were made Many yarns were hybridsie yarns made from mixes of fibres, natural
from a mix of fibres, either and synthetic, either in a mlange mix or twistedas spinners
in a mlange mix or twisted experimented and developed different fibre combinations.

Cotton, for instance, was Cotton, for instance, was being offered in blends with linen, with silk
being offered in blends with (Figure 7) andfor more luxurywith cashmere. Cotton was also
silk, linen, cashmere and wool being offered in blends with wool.

Also prominent were crpe Also prominent at Pitti Immagine Filati were crpe yarns which had
yarns which had been spun been spun with high levels of twist in order to provide them with a dry
with high levels of twist to hand. Some of these crpe yarns were in cotton while others were in
provide them with a dry hand other fibres, such as linen or viscose.

There were more linen and Linen and linen blend yarns are normally important for summer seasons
linen blend yarns on offer but at the spring/summer 2017 edition of Pitti Immagine Filati there
than in recent years appeared to be more of them on offer than in recent years.

Linen yarns on display The linen yarns on display included ones in artisanal rustic versions in
included artisanal rustic coarse counts and others in finer versions with a dry, papery handle.
versions in coarse counts,
finer versions with a dry, Linen had also been blended with other fibres in order to provide them
papery handle, and versions with added softness and fluidity. Blends were diverse, and included
in which linen had been linen with cotton with a dry crpey handle, linen/viscose and
blended with other fibres hemp/cotton. All of these were displayed by the Italian spinner Safil.

There were mixes of linen There were also mixes of linen with wool, linen with silk (Figure 8) and
with wool, with silk and even even linen with cashmere.
with cashmere, as in the case
of yarns displayed by the Such yarns, made with high quality raw materials in fine and coarser
Italian mills Lanificio counts, were also displayed by the Italian mills Lanificio dellOlivo,
dellOlivo, Millefili and Sesia Millefili and Sesia.

Also important were viscose Also important were viscose yarns. Some of these were in pure viscose
yarns in pure viscose or in while others were in blends of viscose with other fibres.
blends with other fibres,
and variations included Variations included viscose yarns with clean, smooth surfaces which
yarns with smooth surfaces felt like skin.

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Figure 7 Figure 8
GTI Filati: hand knitting yarn GTI Filati: hand knitting yarn
made from a silk/cotton blend made from a silk/linen blend

Source: Philippa Watkins Source: Philippa Watkins

There were also matt There were also matt viscose yarns with a crpey or wavy structureas
viscose yarns with a displayed by the Italian spinner Lineapi.
crpey or wavy structure
and shiny mirror-like Lineapi also had shiny mirror-like viscose yarns which were ultra-fine
ultra-fine viscose yarns and had liquid fluidity.

Viscose enables spinners Viscose is important in that it enables spinners to produce yarns with a
to produce yarns with a smooth, sensual fluidity and a silk-like sheen.
smooth, sensual fluidity
and a silk-like sheen The presence of viscose can also result in these qualities in yarns made
from other fibres when viscose is added to them in blends or twists.

Metallic effects continue Metallic effects continue to be important for spring/summer 2017, and
to be important and in many of the metallic effect yarns displayed at Pitti Immagine Filati
many metallic effect a twist had been added to provide a bright glimmer or a subtle metallic
yarns had been twisted patina.

Metallic effects can also Metallic effects can also be produced by printing metallic foil or
be produced by printing coatings on to knitted fabrics.
metallic foil or coatings
on to knitted fabrics Subsequently, the metallic element can be rubbed off to give a more
subtle effect.

Wool and luxury fibres are Wool and luxury fibres have their place in summer seasons but they are
mostly mixed with other mostly mixed with other fibres to make yarns which are lighter, less
fibres to make yarns which warm and more suitable for spring and summer.
are lighter, less warm and
more suitable for spring Blends with cotton and blends with other fibres, such as viscose or
and summer linen, are now readily available.

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Cashmere is being blended Cashmere is also being blended with cotton in order to make cashmere
with cotton in order to yarns more suitable for spring and summer apparel. At Pitti Immagine
make cashmere yarns more Filati, cashmere/cotton blends were displayed by Todd & Duncana
suitable for spring/summer spinner based in Scotland but under Chinese ownershipand Cariaggi,
apparel a spinner based in Italy.

Fancy yarns were much Fancy yarns were much in evidence. They were being offered in a
in evidence variety of twists and fibre blends and in subtle and minimal effects.

Ribbon or tape yarns Ribbon or tape yarns continue to be popular for the spring/summer 2017
continue to be popular and season and were being displayed at Pitti Immagine Filati by most
were being offered in many spinners. The yarns were being offered in many different sizes and in
different sizes and fibre different fibre types and combinationsincluding cotton, silk and
types viscose blends.

Also popular were Also proving to be popular were tape yarns which were fine and
transparent tape yarns and transparent, and tubular tape yarns which had been stuffed to create
stuffed tubular tape yarns volume.

There were printed yarns, In terms of colour and dyeing, printed yarns were in evidence at the fair,
yarns with a faded or irreg- as were yarns with a faded or an irregular appearance.
ular appearance and yarns
with large areas of colour for Also evident were yarns with large areas of colour which, when
creating knits with asymmetri- knitted, result in the creation of asymmetrical stripes and linear broken
cal stripes and broken shapes shapes.

A distressed look was being In addition, a delav, cloudy and deliberately distressed look was being
offered in cottons and linen offered in cottons and linen.

A denim jeans effect was still A denim jeans effect was still evident in cotton yarns and yarns made
evident as spinners followed from other fibres as spinners followed the fashion for denims and indigo
the fashion for indigo blue blue.

These jeans effect yarns were These jeans effect yarns were mainly in cotton for a casual look and
mainly in cotton and were were being offered in all shades of bluefrom dark indigo through to
offered in all shades of blue pale washed and faded indigo blue.

Pinori Filati had a jeans The Italian spinner Pinori Filati had a jeans effect yarn made out of real
effect yarn made from jeans.
shredded and recycled
denim jeans, as well as a The yarn is made by shredding denim jeans into fibres and recycling the
stretch version and a tape fibres by spinning them into yarns.
yarn version twisted with
either a metallic yarn or a Pinori Filati also had a version with stretch and a tape yarn version
paper tape twisted with either a metallic yarn or a paper tape.

Pinori Filati used recycled Pinori Filati used recycled cotton to make tape yarn and printed cotton
cotton to make tape yarn tape yarn in a range of different colours. It was also offering these tape
and printed cotton tape yarn yarns as hand knitting yarns.

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Finishes had been used to Different finishes had been used to create a variety of effects.
create a variety of effects,
including a film coating In one popular treatment, a yarn had been given a film coating which
which was then scraped was then scraped off in parts to leave a destroyed effect.
off in parts to leave a
destroyed effect, and In another treatment, voluminous puff prints had been printed on to
voluminous puff prints knitted fabrics to create three-dimensional (3D) structures.

Other fancy yarns included Other fancy yarns included small boucl and fris effects, in both pure
small boucl and fris cotton and mixes of fibre such as linen/viscose and linen/cotton. Yarns
effects in pure cotton and featuring these small boucl and fris fancy effects were being offered
in mixes of different fibres by Safil.

Stretch yarns have become Stretch yarns have become important again for knitwear for the
important again for spring/summer 2017 season.
knitwear, and at the fair
stretch fibres were being used In many of the yarns exhibited at the fair, Lycra and other stretch
in blends with cotton or fibressuch as Nylstars Meryl Elitewere being used in blends with
viscose to provide comfort cotton or viscose to provide comfort and stretch properties.
and stretch properties
SPINNERS COLLECTIONS
Cotton yarns produced by The cotton yarns produced by European spinners tend to be of the
European spinners tend to finest quality as it is difficult for European spinners to compete
be of the finest quality with lower cost countries in the production of basic quality cotton yarns.

To maintain the quality of In order to maintain the quality of its raw materials, the Italian cotton
its raw materials, Filmar specialist spinner Filmar has been investing in a five-year project known
has been investing in the as the Cottonforlife Initiative, which was established in September
Cottonforlife Initiative, a 2014.
five-year project to support
and protect the growing of The purpose of the project is to support and protect the growing of
organic cotton in Egypt organic cotton in Egypt.

The project aims to train The project aims to train farmers and young people in the growing of
farmers and young people cotton in Egypt and to motivate them to grow the finest of cotton
in the growing of cotton in fibres.
Egypt, and to support the
infrastructure in the It also aims to support the infrastructure in the country, including the
country building of schools.

At Pitti Immagine Filati, At the January 2016 edition of Pitti Immagine Filati, Filmar presented
Filmar presented the first the first results from the project in the form of yarns made from organic
results from the project in extra-long staple (ELS) cotton fibre.
the form of yarns made
from organic ELS cotton Filmar marked these organic ELS yarns with a special gold label and
fibre logo.

Filmars collection also Filmars collection also included compact spun cottons with a clean
included compact spun aspect which are suitable for socks and knitwear.
cottons with a clean aspect,
mixes of cotton with In addition, the collection included mixes of cotton with cashmere and
cashmere and silk, and silk, and gassed mercerised cotton in different counts which had been
gassed mercerised cotton produced through multi-folding.

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Iafil was offering pima Another Italian cotton specialist, Iafil, was offering a range of pima
cotton yarns, a pill-free, cotton yarns (see Glossary). To demonstrate its message of
clean, high twist cotton environmental friendliness, Iafil showed off its yarns in knitwear
yarn called Puro, and a coloured grass green (Figure 9 and Figure 10).
mercerised cotton yarn
with a dry crpey handle New yarns from Iafil for the spring/summer 2017 season included
called Lys Puroa pill-free, clean, high twist cotton yarnand Lys, a mercerised
cotton yarn with a dry crpey handle.

Iafil offered mixes of cotton Also in Iafils collection were mixes of cotton with viscose and
with viscose and polyamide, polyamide, as well as mixes of cotton and linen.
mixes of cotton and linen, a
tiny cotton fris yarn and a In fancy yarns, Iafil had a tiny cotton fris yarn and a cotton voile yarn
cotton voile yarn with stretch with stretch.

In response to customer Iafils collection also included a range of tussah silk yarns in seven
demand, Iafil introduced a different sizes of yarn, from very big to small. The yarns had been
range of tussah silk yarns introduced in response to customer demand.

Monticolor had a wide Monticolor, another Italian mill, presented a wide range of
range of cotton yarns in cotton yarns in various counts and a variety of colours.
various counts and a
variety of colours inspired The colours were inspired by a group of gemstonesincluding
by gemstones and indigo diamante, amethyst, agate and topazand indigo denim blues.
denim blues, as well as
slubbed and fancy spun Also, it had slubbed and fancy spun fris yarns and tape yarns
fris yarns and tape yarns (Figure 11 and Figure 12).

Lineapi focused on Lineapi focused on a number of different types of viscose yarns on


viscose yarns as well as the one hand, and on the natural fibres cotton and silk on the other
cotton and silk (Figure 13 and Figure 14).

New yarns included a stretch New yarns for the spring/summer 2017 season included a stretch
viscose, a mirror-like fine viscose yarn with a very smooth and clean surface, a shiny mirror-like
viscose, and a fine silk fine viscose yarn, and a fine silk yarn.

Filpucci chose yellow as the The Italian viscose specialist Filpucci chose yellow as the main colour
main colour for the knitted for the knitted sample garments on its stand at Pitti Immagine Filati with
sample garments on its some dark olive green.
stand, and showed samples
in cotton, linen and viscose Samples were in cotton, linen and viscose.

Filpucci showed fine high New for Filpucci were fine, high quality linen yarns which result in
quality linen yarns, a linen fabrics that are ultra-fine and transparent when knitted.
yarn with a natural shantung
look, indigo dyed linen in Other variations in linen yarn from Filpucci included a natural shantung
various tones and a rustic look (see Glossary) in linen, in indigo dyed linen in various tones, and
sporty chic linen/Tencel blend in a linen/Tencel blend with a rustic sporty chic flavour.

Highlights included a dry Highlights in the Filpucci range included a dry super crpe yarn
super crpe, a stretch silk yarn in fine viscose, a new stretch silk yarn, and a silk/cotton blend
and a silk/cotton blend yarn yarn.

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Figure 9 Figure 10
Iafil stand with knitted fabrics on display Iafil: samples of knitted fabric in fine cotton
showing patterns which are delineated by
transparent and opaque parts

Source: Philippa Watkins Source: Philippa Watkins

Figure 11 Figure 12
Monticolor: knitted felted wool sample jacket Monticolor: fine cotton knitted sample shirt

Source: Philippa Watkins Source: Philippa Watkins

Figure 13 Figure 14
Lineapi: sample of knitted fabric Lineapi: sample of knitted fabric
with dropped stitch effect incorporating tape yarn

Source: Philippa Watkins Source: Philippa Watkins

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Pinori Filati displayed Pinori Filati focused on lightness and transparency, and displayed a
viscose and cotton yarns in family of viscose and cotton yarns in extra-fine counts which result in
extra-fine counts which lace effects and transparent jacquards when knitted.
result in lace effects and
transparent jacquards when The yarns were shown in openwork knitted fabrics, using crpey viscose
knitted yarns and tape or ribbon yarns (Figure 15 and Figure 16).

Figure 15 Figure 16
Pinori Filati: knitted garment showing Pinori Filati: knitted fabric samples showing
patterns which are delineated by linen blend yarn with metallic highlights
transparent and opaque parts

Source: Philippa Watkins Source: Philippa Watkins

Different blends were used Different blends were used to provide for variations in handle and
to provide for variations in drape, and included a viscose/cotton crpe which was suitable for
handle and drape 12 gauge knits as well as cotton/polyamide and viscose/polyamide.

Safil presented 3D mesh knits Safil, following the trend for volume and three-dimensional (3D)
in hexagonal structures which structures, presented 3D mesh knits in hexagonal structures which
looked like honeycombs looked like honeycombs in beehives.

Safil was offering X-Compact Safil was offering its X-Compact spun cotton yarns in bright clean
spun cotton yarns in bright colours. These yarns are clean and do not pill.
colours, a cotton/Tencel blend,
a linen/cotton blend, a Safil was also offering cotton blended with Tencel.
linen/viscose blend, a
hemp/cotton blend and a Other blends being offered by Safil included linen/cotton with a dry
viscose/polyamide blend in a crpey handle, linen/viscose, hemp/cotton, and a dry viscose/polyamide
high twist yarn in a high twist yarn.

In addition, Safil was In addition, Safil was offering a denim themefaded and washed, with
offering a denim theme and a delav lookin mlange and moulin constructions as well as
linen/cotton blend yarns offering linen/cotton blend yarns.

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Wool and noble fibres Wool and noble fibre yarns were made finer so that they were suitable
were made finer for the for a spring/summer season and were mixed with other fibres to make
spring/summer season them lighter (Figure 17).
and were mixed with
other fibres such as Blends of wool with cotton and other fibressuch as viscose or
viscose or linen linenwere evident.

Zegna Baruffa Lane Yarns made from wool blended with cotton, silk or linen were being
Borgosesia was offering wool offered by the Italian mill Zegna Baruffa Lane Borgosesia in a range of
blended with cotton, silk or different counts.
linen, wool/linen/silk, the same
blend in a flecked version, Other ideas shown by Zegna Baruffa Lane Borgosesia included: a
fine slubbed silk yarns, wool/ wool/linen/silk blend which had been designed for T-shirts and the same
viscose and linen/viscose blend in flecked versions; fine slubbed silk yarns; wool/viscose and
yarns, and fine boucl yarns linen/viscose yarns; and fine wool boucl yarns.

Zegna Baruffa Lane Zegna Baruffa Lane Borgosesias H2Dry treatment has proved to be
Borgosesias H2Dry very popular. This is a technically advanced process which is applied to
treatment, which wool and hair fibres in order to improve their performance.
improves the performance
of wool fibres, has proved The effect of H2Dry is to produce wool fabrics with easy care, good
to be very popular and its moisture management, natural elasticity and wrinkle resistant
effects were shown in properties.
mesh knitted garments
Zegna Baruffa Lane Borgosesia showed two yarns which had been
treated with H2Drynamely an Nm2/603 wool and a high twist wool
crpe with a dry handle for summerin mesh knitted garments
(Figure 18).

Figure 17 Figure 18
Zegna Baruffa Lane Borgosesia: samples of Zegna Baruffa Lane Borgosesia: samples of
of knitted fabric made from fine wool knitted garments made from fine wool yarns
crpe yarns treated with H2Dry

Source: Philippa Watkins Source: Philippa Watkins

3
Nm is a unit denoting metric count, which is an indirect (length per unit weight) measure of linear density. The
metric count is the number of 1 km lengths of yarn weighing 1 kg. A yarn with a count of Nm2/60 is a two-fold
yarn made from two yarns with a count of Nm60 each and a resulting count of Nm30.

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Lanecardate had new pure Lanecardate, of Biella, Italy, had new pure wool crpe yarns in
wool crpe yarns in superfine wool which were very fine.
superfine wool, as well as
cotton/wool twists with a Lanecardate also had cotton/wool twists with a crpey handle.
crpey handle and cotton
crpe yarns which it used In addition, it had some cotton crpe yarns, and used these yarns as a
with nylon to provide basis for making large cotton multi-twists with stretch nylon to give
stretch them some stretch.

The collection also Lanecardates collection also included tussah silk yarns in different
included light tussah silk sizes and qualities.
yarns with a fresh handle
These yarns were light and had a fresh handle.

Cariaggi had blends of The cashmere specialist Cariaggi had blends of cashmere with fine
cashmere with fine Belize Belize cotton for the spring/summer 2017 season and a remarkable
cotton, a blend of cotton with blend of cotton with vicua.
vicua, a cashmere/silk/hemp
blend, a linen/silk/cashmere Other blends from Cariaggi included cashmere/silk/hemp for fine
blend called Nilo and a 18 gauge knits and Nilo, a linen/silk/cashmere blend. Cariaggi was also
carded mulberry silk yarn offering a carded mulberry silk yarn.

Cariaggis colours consisted Cariaggis colours are individual and beautiful. For the spring/summer
of three main combinations, 2017 season, they consisted of three main combinations:
namely green, yellow and
lime, aqua alongside sand green, yellow and lime;
and warm orange, and a aqua alongside sand and warm orange; and
paler, peachy pastel range a paler, peachy pastel range.

Inca Tops developed The Peruvian alpaca specialist Inca Tops has increased its range of
mixes of alpaca with a yarns for the spring/summer 2017 season by developing mixes of alpaca
number of different with a number of different fibres.
fibres, including pima
cotton, mlange cotton These include blends of alpaca with pima cotton (see page 65), as well
and silk as twists with mlange cotton. Other twists include alpaca/silk, baby
alpaca/silk and pima cotton/silk.

Todd & Duncan was Todd & Duncan was offering a superlight pure cashmere in 36 different
offering a superlight pure colours.
cashmere in 36 different
colours and a worsted and Also, it had created a worsted and woollen cashmere twist yarn in
woollen cashmere yarn Nm2/44 for 14 gauge knits.

Also, it displayed a Todd & Duncan displayed a yarn branded Consort which was in a 64%
cashmere/silk twist yarn cashmere/36% silk twist with sheen.
branded Consort, and
cashmere/cotton yarns Two other brands on offer were Odyssey and Explorer, which were 64%
branded Odyssey and cashmere/36% cotton twists in Nm2/36 and Nm10/36 respectively.
Explorer

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Filatura Papi Fabio was Filatura Papi Fabio, an Italian cashmere specialist, was offering blends
offering blends of cashmere of cashmere with other fibres, such as cotton or silk, as well as wool/silk
with cotton or silk as well as and cotton/silk blends.
blends of wool/silk and
cotton/silk, including a Filatura Papi Fabio was also offering cotton/silk in a chain yarn. In
cotton/silk in a chain yarn addition, it was offering cotton/silk in a corded yarn which had silk on
and a corded yarn the outside and cotton as the core.

Igea was offering fris and Igea of Italy produces fancy effect yarns in a mix of fibres, including
boucl effects in which cotton, viscose and polyester. For the spring/summer 2017 season, it
different yarns were was offering fris and boucl effects in which different yarns were
folded together folded together to make yarns which were either big or small.

Igea was also offering Also in Igeas collection were linen yarns folded with viscose, as well
linen yarns folded with as chainette and tape yarns in a mix of fibres, including a nylon
viscose, chainette and transparent tubular yarn.
tape yarns in a mix of
fibres, and also had Igea also had moulin effect yarns in different colour twists, and had
moulin effect yarns introduced Lurex into some yarns to add metallic sparkle.

YARN TRENDS AT PREMIRE VISION YARNS

Exhibitors at the Premire Exhibitors at Premire Vision Yarns, formerly Expofil (see page 55),
Vision Yarns event for include spinners who supply yarns for manufacturing woven and knitted
spring/summer 2017 were jersey fabrics.
also presenting first
looks at their yarns for The exhibitors at the event for spring/summer 2017which was staged
the autumn/winter 2017/18 in February 2016were also presenting first looks at their yarns for
season the autumn/winter 2017/18 season for the benefit of buyers who were
working well ahead.

Buyers were likely to be The most likely buyers of such yarns were fabric manufacturers
fabric makers exhibiting at exhibiting at Premire Vision Fabrics as such buyers needed to source
Premire Vision Fabrics yarns for the next season.

The exhibitors also Exhibitors at Premire Vision Yarns also included a number of fibre
included a number of fibre manufacturers who were wanting to promote their fibres and show new
manufacturers developments (see page 72).

SPINNERS COLLECTIONS
The yarns on display for The yarns on display at Premire Vision Yarns for autumn/winter
autumn/winter 2017/18 2017/18 remained fine, and many of the yarns were in stretch versions.
remained fine, and many
of the yarns were in stretch In yarns made from natural fibres, elasticity had been achieved by using
versions a variety of different twists.

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Cotton/wool and wool/viscose Cotton blends with wool are important for autumn/winter 2017/18, as
blends are important, and are wool blends with viscose.
there is a trend towards yarns
with uneven surfaces to Also, there is a trend towards yarns with slightly irregular, uneven
provide warmth surfaces, slubs and fine knops in order to provide a bit of warmth.

Spinners from China, Egypt, Among spinners at the fair were cotton spinners from China, Egypt,
Italy and Turkey were offering Italy and Turkey who were offering high quality cottons and also blends
high quality cottons and blends with other fibres.

Marchi & Fildi presented a The Italian spinner Marchi & Fildi, based in Biella, presented a new
new cotton yarn called yarn at the fair called Ecotec, and already has 70 colours of the yarn in
Ecotec which is made using stock.
a traceable and certified
process that turns Ecotec is a cotton yarn made in Italy using a totally traceable and
pre-consumer, pre-dyed certified manufacturing process which turns pre-consumer, pre-dyed
cotton waste into yarn cotton waste, shredded from factory waste, into yarn.

The process reduces water The process results in savings in water and energy consumption
and energy consumption compared with normal yarn production from raw fibre.

Chagall Ecotec is a variation Variations of Ecotec include Chagall Ecotec, which is a mlange and
made from recycled cotton, solid dyed yarn made from 50% recycled cotton, 40% new cotton and
new cotton and cashmere, 10% cashmere.
and Ginevra Ecotec is a
variation made from recycled Another version of Ecotec is Ginevra Ecotec, which is made from
modal in ring spun and recycled modal. The yarn is available in ring spun versions and worsted
worsted spun versions spun versions.

Seluk Iplik presented a full The Turkish spinner Seluk Iplik presented a full range of cotton yarns
range of cotton yarns, inclu- at Premire Vision Yarns. These included compact spun cotton yarns as
ding compact spun cotton well as three-thread fleece yarns, which were very soft.
yarns, three-thread fleece
yarns and yarns with a dry Also in the range were yarns with a very dry hand which had been made
hand made from linen blends from blends of linen with other fibres.

Kapfil Tekstil presented Kapfil Tekstil, a fancy yarn spinner from Turkey, presented a
cotton blend yarns and range of cotton blend yarns which included cotton/cashmere,
viscose yarns, including cotton/polyester, cotton covered with Lurex and a variety of different
printed viscose and other viscose yarnsincluding printed viscose yarns and other printed
printed yarns yarns.

Unitin presented indigo dyed The Spanish company Industrias Morera SA, commonly known as
yarns to capitalise on the Unitin, presented indigo dyed yarns in order to capitalise on the
popularity of denim and has continuing popularity of denim and indigo.
expanded its range of dyed
yarns to include other Unitin has expanded its range of dyed yarns to include viscose/cotton,
blends cotton/Lurex and cotton/polyester yarns.

It also has pure cotton The same company also has pure cotton and fancy yarns, such as chain
and fancy yarns yarns, boucl yarns, fris effects and moulin effects.

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Pozzi Electa was displaying The Italian cotton spinner Pozzi Electa produces fashion and technical
many natural looking yarns yarns in a wide range of natural and synthetic fibres, and was displaying
including a streak dyed many natural looking yarns at Premire Vision Yarns.
polyester/viscose yarn with
a wool-like feel, cotton/wool Among these was a polyester/viscose yarn with a wool-like feel which
mlange yarns and matt had been streak dyed to produce a mlange effect. Others included
viscose yarns cotton/wool mlange and matt viscose yarns.

Also, it had silks, wool/ Pozzi Electa also had silk yarns and wool/cashmere yarns, as well as
cashmere and fancy effects, fancy effects. In many cases, these were heightened with metallic
many with metallic effects effects.

FIBRE COMPANIES
Exhibitors included fibre Among the exhibitors at Premire Vision Yarns were a number of fibre
manufacturers showing manufacturers who were promoting their fibres and showing new
new developments developments.

In partnership with The One of these exhibitors was the Austria-based cellulosic fibre producer
Woolmark Company, Lenzing which manufactures the lyocell fibre Tencel as well as modal
Lenzing presented and viscose.
developments in the
blending of Tencel with The company presented, in partnership with The Woolmark Company,
merino wool, claiming that developments in the blending of Tencel with merino wool.
Tencel adds smoothness,
drape and an elegant sheen It claimed that Tencel in a 50/50 blend adds smoothness to wool, as well
to wool in a 50/50 blend as drape and an elegant sheen.

The blend was proposed for The blend was also proposed for the activewear sector as both wool and
activewear as both wool and Tencel have moisture management and thermal regulation properties.
Tencel have moisture
management and thermal During physical exertion and in warm climatic zones, the rapid moisture
regulation properties transportation properties of Tencel enable the body to cool down more
rapidly and therefore the wearer feels fresher and fitter.

Icebreaker has introduced One active sportswear brand which has introduced a Tencel/wool blend
a Tencel/wool blend is the New Zealand-based company Icebreaker.

The blend is made with The blend, which is often used in knitwear, is made with a variant of
Tencel A100 and is being Tencel called Tencel A100.
offered as suitable for
loungewear and clothing The blend is being offered as suitable for loungewear and clothing for
for yoga and athletics yoga and athletics.

Tencel A100 is offered in Compared with conventional Tencel fibre, Tencel A100 is offered in
finer, lighter and softer finer, lighter and therefore softer weights.
weights and is therefore
suitable for a number of This helps to make it suitable for a variety of next-to-skin
next-to-skin applications applicationsincluding base-layer sportswear garments, seamless
underwear and tights.

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Textiles made from Tencel Tencel A100 fibre was also developed for its ability to absorb dye,
A100 can be dyed more resulting in intense colours.
deeply than those made
from cotton, and yarns As such, Lenzing claims that textiles made from Tencel A100 fibre can
made from Tencel A100 be dyed more deeply than those made from cotton while also retaining
fibre do not wrinkle when their sheen.
washed and shrink less
than viscose In addition, yarns made from Tencel A100 fibre do not wrinkle when
washed and they shrink less than viscose.

Tencel A100 is suitable Tencel A100 fibre has the particular advantage that it is suitable for
for blending with cotton blendingnotably with cotton.

It also blends well with However, Lenzing claims that Tencel A100 fibre also blends well with
wool and synthetics for wool and synthetics for sweaters for the active leisurewear market, and
sweaters for the active that blending in this way improves the performance properties of both
leisurewear market fibre types.

Asahi Kasei promoted new Another exhibitor in the fibres sector, Asahi Kasei from Japan,
developments relating to its promoted new developments relating to the cellulosic fibre Cupro4,
Cupro fibre, including a which is becoming increasingly popular.
sandwash finish version and
a pearly finish version New finishes were presented for this fibre, including a sandwash finish
and a pearly finish.

Cupro has a silk-like Cupro is a trans-seasonal fibre and has a modern, silk-like appeal. It is
appeal and is well known well known for its use in linings, but is now increasingly being used in
for its use in linings, but dress and blouse fabrics.
Asahi Kasei is proposing
other uses based on its Asahi Kasei is proposing other uses for Cupro, apart from linings, based
comfort and functionality on its comfort and functionality.

including intimate The fact that Cupro delivers coolness and moisture absorbency
apparel, occasion wear makes it suitable for intimate apparel, occasion wear and athleisure
and athleisure wear wear5.

Cupro is offered in Cupro is offered in filament yarns with a full matt finish. These include
filament yarns with a full a microfibre quality for use in fabrics which are even finer.
matt finish as well as in
soft staple fibre spun Cupro is also offered in soft staple fibre spun yarns for refined casual
yarns sportswear.

Jackytex showed a range of A range of fabrics in Cupro was also being shown at Premire Vision
fabrics in Cupro, including a Fabrics by the Italian jersey manufacturer Jackytex. The range included
pearly finish translucent voile a pearly finish translucent voile and an organza in pure Cupro.

4
Cupro is sold by Asahi Kasei under the trade name Bemberg.
5
Athleisure wear is designed so that it is suitable for wearing during athletic activities and for everyday wear.

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 European yarn fairs for spring/summer 2017

Asahi Kasei presented its Also, Asahi Kasei presented its Roica Colour Perfect and Roica
Roica Colour Perfect and Eco-Smart6 families of stretch yarns at the fair. These had been
Roica Eco-Smart families launched at the previous edition of Premire Vision Yarns in September
of stretch yarns 2015.

Roica Colour Perfect is Roica Colour Perfect is a stretch yarn which facilitates deep dying, and
a stretch yarn which when the yarn is stretched in the fabric there is no grin-through. This
facilitates deep dyeing, property makes the yarn suitable for a wide variety of end uses, from
and when the yarn is fashion to sport.
stretched in the fabric
there is no grin-through At Premire Vision Fabrics, the benefits of this property could be seen
at the stand of the Italian jersey manufacturer Maglificio Ripa.

Roica Eco-Smart is Roica Eco-Smart is a more environmentally sustainable stretch fibre. It


produced using 50% is produced using 50% repurposed stretch fibre collected from pre-
repurposed stretch fibre consumer elastane waste.

Roica Eco-Smart and One company using Roica Eco-Smart is Ghezzi, a leading Italian
Cupro fibres are being manufacturer of twisted, stretch and fancy yarns.
used by Ghezzi, a leading
Italian manufacturer of Ghezzis new range of stretch yarns using Roica Eco-Smart was
twisted, stretch and fancy demonstrated on the Asahi Kasei stand.
yarns
Ghezzi also makes yarns with Cupro fibre.

Cotton Incorporated Cotton Incorporated, showing at Premire Vision Yarns, highlighted


highlighted the develop- one of the newest developments in cotton finishing, namely salt-free
ment of salt-free dyeing dyeing.

In salt-free dyeing, cotton During the dyeing process, cotton is given cationic pre-treatment to
is pre-treated to provide it provide it with a positive charge.
with a positive charge so
that it attracts negatively This makes it attract reactive dyes as these are anionic (negatively
charged reactive dyes charged) in solution.

This eliminates the need This pre-treatment eliminates the need to add salt in order to achieve
to add salt in order to effective dyeing.
achieve effective dyeing

6
See also: Asahi Kasei: Dorlastan and Roica, Stretch fibres and fabrics: reaching new levels of comfort,
Performance Apparel Markets, No 53, 2nd quarter 2015, page 61; and Asahi Kasei: new versions of Roica,
including an environmentally friendly version, and fine Cupro fibres, Product developments and
innovations in textiles and apparel, Textile Outlook International, No 176, September 2015, page 87.

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 Global trends in fibre prices, production and consumption

Global trends in fibre prices,


production and consumption
by Paul Simpson

SUMMARY

World man-made fibre production rose by 7.5% to 66.5 mn tons in 2015. Furthermore, the rise
represented an acceleration compared with the 5.3% increase achieved in the previous year.
Geographically, growth in 2015 was sustained by expansion in Chinathe worlds largest producer.
In terms of fibre type, most of the growth worldwide was accounted for by an increase in synthetic fibre
productionand most of this increase was due to growth in polyester fibre. But cellulosic fibre
production was also up, by 2.5%.

Production of natural fibres, by contrast, fell by 12.3% in 2015 following a 0.2% fall in 2014. The fall
in 2015 resulted from a 12.7% decrease in cotton fibre production. This came after a 0.2% decline in
2014 as the average price of cotton fibre fell back from its peak in March 2011 to the high 60s/low 70s
US cents/lb range and growers responded by switching to alternative crops. In the case of wool, the clip
fell by 5.0%. As a result of these trends, the share of natural fibres in total fibre production fell
significantly between 2014 and 2015from 30.8% to 26.6%.

Demand for cotton fibre is expected to fall by 2.2% in the 2015/16 season, according to the International
Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC). Demand will be constrained by sluggish global economic growth
and competitive prices of substitute fibres. Production is also expected to decline but by a steeper 15.6%.
As a result, demand will exceed supply and stocks will decline for the first time in six years. However,
they will remain at historically high levels and this will continue to limit any upward pressure on prices.
According to the ICAC, the price of cotton fibre is forecast to average 70 US cents/lb in 2015/16which
is 1 US cent/lb lower than in 2014/15. Thereafter, the price is likely to remain at a similar level during
the 2016/17 season.

GENERAL TRENDS

Man-made fibre Global production of man-made fibres rose by 7.5% to 66.5 mn tons in
production rose by 7.5% 2015, according to preliminary figures released by the Japan Chemical
to 66.5 mn tons in 2015 Fibers Association (JCFA).

This was faster than the Furthermore, the rise represented an acceleration compared with the
increase of 5.3% in 2014 increase of 5.3% recorded in 2014.

reflecting an Geographically, the improvement in the growth rate in 2015 reflected


acceleration in China an acceleration within China.

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 Global trends in fibre prices, production and consumption

In fact, China accounted In fact, all of the rise in global production in 2015 was accounted for by
for all of the rise in global a rise in Chinese productionwhich meant that Chinas role as the
production in 2015 and worlds leading man-made fibre producer was strengthened still further.
increased its leadership Elsewhere, growth in production was limited to a few countries.

In terms of fibre type, In terms of fibre type, as in previous years, synthetic fibre production
most of the growth in accounted for most of the growth in tonnage worldwide, having
tonnage worldwide was increased by 4.5 mn tons, or 7.9%.
in synthetic fibres,
notably polyester Within the total for synthetic fibres, growth was strongest in polyester.

Polyester filament rose Polyester staple fibre production rose by 6.1% and polyester filament
faster than staple yarn production by 9.4%.

In the case of acrylic In the case of acrylic staple fibres, there was no growth following a fall
staple fibres, there was in the previous year. In 2015 production was stable at 1.9 mn tons
no growth in production following a 3.1% decline in 2014.

Nylon fibre production For manufacturers of nylon fibres, howeverin marked contrast to the
did increase, however trend in acrylic staple fibre productionthe year was one of
encouragement.

and growth was broadly Production of nylon fibres grew by 5.3% in 2015, thereby maintaining
the same as in 2014 the 5.3% growth rate witnessed in 2014.

Cellulosic fibre production The cellulosic fibre sector grew less rapidly than the synthetic fibre
grew less rapidly than sector.
synthetic fibre production
and growth was slower Also, cellulosic fibre production grew less rapidly than in the previous
than in the previous year year. In 2015 cellulosic fibre production was up by 2.5% following a
5.8% rise in 2014.
Table 1: World fibre production, 2014 and 2015
(mn tons)
% change
2014 2015 2015/14
Natural fibres
Cotton 26.23 22.89 -12.7
Wool 1.15 1.10 -5.0
Silk 0.14 0.14 -0.1
Total natural fibres 27.52 24.12 -12.3
Man-made fibres
Synthetic
polyester
staple 15.16 16.09 6.1
filament 33.83 37.03 9.4
nylon 4.80 5.06 5.3
acrylic 1.86 1.86 0.0
others 1.18 1.31 11.0
total synthetic 56.83 61.33 7.9
Cellulosic 5.06 5.19 2.5
Total man-made fibres 61.89 66.52 7.5
All fibres 89.41 90.64 1.4
NB: numbers may not sum precisely due to rounding; percentage change calculations
are based on unrounded data.
Source: Japan Chemical Fibers Association (JCFA).

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Natural fibre production Production of natural fibres fell by 12.3% in 2015which represented
fell by 12.3% as the cotton a worsening in performance compared with the 0.2% decline recorded
crop declined by 12.7% for 2014. The fall in 2015 reflected a 12.7% decline in the cotton crop
and the wool clip by 5.0% and a 5.0% decline in the wool clip, which followed a 0.5% fall in the
previous year.

As a result, the share of The 12.3% fall in production of natural fibres in 2015 contrasted with
natural fibres in total a 7.5% increase in production of man-made fibres. As a result of
fibre production fell by these trends, the share of natural fibres in total fibre production fell
4.2 percentage points to by 4.2 percentage points between 2014 and 2015, from 30.8% to
26.6% 26.6%.

The fall in share The fall in the share of natural fibres represented a continuation of the
represented a continuation position in 2014, when the 0.2% decline in production led to a
of the position in 2014 1.1 percentage point decline in the share of natural fibres.

Looking ahead, the fall in Looking ahead it is unlikely that the fall in the cotton crop will be
the cotton crop is unlikely reversed as prices are showing few signs of recovery beyond their
to be reversed and a current levels.
further decline in wool
production seems Also, there is unlikely to be a significant recovery in wool production,
inevitable over the and a period of further decline in the wool clip seems inevitable over the
medium term medium term.

Consequently, the share In the absence of a significant recovery in cotton output and wool
of natural fibres looks set output, the share of natural fibres in total fibre production looks set for
for further falls in 2016 further falls in 2016 and beyond.

COTTON

WORLD COTTON FIBRE PRICES, PRODUCTION AND


CONSUMPTION
Trends in cotton fibre prices
The price of cotton fibre The price of cotton fibre, as measured by the Cotlook A Index,
has been relatively stable has remained relatively stable after declining from a peak of
since it fell between March 96.95 US cents/lb in March 2014 to a trough of 67.53 US cents/lb in
and November 2014 November 2014. Since November 2014, it has fluctuated between the
high 60s US cents/lb and the low 70s US cents/lb range without
showing any inclination to break out of this band.

and, because stocks are Furthermore, the cotton price is unlikely to strengthen in the near
likely to be released in future. This is because there is an expectation that stocks will be
China, it is unlikely to released in China and such expectation will continue to suppress
strengthen in the near future prices.

The price fall and subse- The fall in the price of cotton fibre between March 2014 and November
quent stability have reduced 2014 and the relative stability of the cotton price since then have served
the incentive to plant cotton to reduce the incentive to plant cotton.

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Table 2: Trends in cotton fibre pricesa, 1995-2016


(US cents/lb)
A Index (FE) A Index (NE) B Index (NE)
1995b n/a 87.72 87.10
1996b n/a 80.34 76.20
1997b n/a 79.35 74.69
1998b n/a 65.30 62.00
1999b n/a 53.13 48.64
2000b n/a 59.24 54.49
2001b n/a 47.99 45.72
2002b n/a 42.25 42.73
2003b 62.73 63.28 60.84
2004b 60.85 62.24 59.49
2005b 54.22 55.20 52.78
2006b 57.36 58.65 n/a
2007b 62.69 64.75 n/a
2008b 71.40 n/a n/a
2009b 62.69 n/a n/a
2010b 105.43 n/a n/a
2011b 155.71 n/a n/a
2012b 89.22 n/a n/a
2013b 90.42 n/a n/a
2014
Janc 90.96 n/a n/a
Febc 94.05 n/a n/a
Marc 96.95 n/a n/a
Aprc 94.20 n/a n/a
Mayc 92.71 n/a n/a
Junec 90.90 n/a n/a
Julyc 84.01 n/a n/a
Augc 74.00 n/a n/a
Sepc 73.38 n/a n/a
Octc 70.34 n/a n/a
Novc 67.53 n/a n/a
Decc 68.30 n/a n/a
2015
Janc 67.35 n/a n/a
Febc 69.84 n/a n/a
Marc 69.35 n/a n/a
Aprc 71.70 n/a n/a
Mayc 72.89 n/a n/a
Junec 72.35 n/a n/a
Julyc 72.35 n/a n/a
Augc 71.82 n/a n/a
Sepc 68.74 n/a n/a
Octc 69.03 n/a n/a
Novc 69.22 n/a n/a
Decc 70.39 n/a n/a
2016
Janc 68.75 n/a n/a
Febc 66.57 n/a n/a
Marc 68.73 n/a n/a
a
The basis for the Cotlook A Index from Northern Europe to the Far East was changed
at the beginning of 2003; the north European price quotation was withdrawn from
August 2008 due to difficulties in obtaining representative data; the difference between
the two indices has typically been of the order of 1-1.5 US cents/lb. b Annual average.
c
Monthly average.
Sources: World Commodity Forecasts, Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU); Cotton
Outlook.

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The fall in price followed a The fall in price followed a decision by the Chinese government to end
decision by the Chinese its policy of buying cotton fibre and building reserves as a way of
government to end its policy supporting prices. Instead, the government now offers direct subsidies
of buying cotton fibre to farmers.

The policy has left a signifi- The governments former policy, coupled with rising production costs
cant cotton stock overhang, in the Chinese textile and clothing industry, has left a significant cotton
and this has served to sup- stock overhang and this has served to suppress any upward pressure on
press any upward pressure the price of cotton fibredespite the rapid fall in production (see
on the price of cotton fibre, page 77).
despite falling production
Figure 1
Trends in cotton prices, 2001-16
(US cents/lb)
250

200

150

100

50

0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
NB: based on Cotlook A Index
Source: Cotton Outlook

The ICAC believes that For the whole of the 2015/16 season (August 1, 2015-July 31, 2016),
the average price in the average price of cotton fibre is expected to be 70 US cents/lb
2015/16, at 70 US cents/lb, 1.4% lower than the average for the 2014/15 season, according to
will be 1.4% lower than in the most recent forecast from the International Cotton Advisory
2014/15 but it does not Committee (ICAC). But in the 2016/17 season, neither the ICAC nor the
expect any further Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is expecting any further weakening
weakening in 2016/17 in prices.

Cotton fibre supply and demand in the 2015/16 season


The supply of cotton fibre The supply of cotton fibre has been falling in the 2015/16 season
has been falling in 2015/16 because growers have planted less cotton in response to lower cotton
as growers can get higher prices and in response to the higher prices obtainable from alternative
prices from other crops crops such as soya beans.

At the same time, demand At the same time, demand for cotton fibre has failed to pick up despite
has failed to pick up as global economic growth. Relative price movements have made cotton
cotton fibre has become fibre less competitive against alternative fibres.
less competitive on price
and Chinas competitive- Also, the Chinese textile industry is continuing to struggle with the
ness has been falling in the countrys large cotton fibre stock overhang and declining
face of rising costs competitiveness in the face of rising costs.

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Nevertheless, demand will Nevertheless, demand will exceed supply in 2015/16 and, as a result,
exceed supply and stock stocks of cotton fibre are expected to decline in 2015/16 for the first
levels are expected to time since the 2009/10 season.
decline for the first time
since 2009/10 although The expectation of a decline in stocks has not, however, resulted in
there will not be any significant upward pressure on prices because of the difficulties facing
upward pressure on prices the Chinese textile industry.
because of the difficulties
facing the Chinese textile Although China is no longer the worlds largest producer of cotton
industry fibre, it is still the largest consumer and therefore it continues to have
a significant influence on the world picture.

The cotton crops in India Geographically, the cotton crop in India, the worlds largest producer,
and China are likely to is forecast to fall in 2015/16. So is the cotton crop in China, the worlds
fall in 2015/16, reflecting second largest producer.
the influence of poor
weather and, in the case of Both forecasts reflect the influence of poor weather in some of the
China, the removal of major growing regions, and in the case of China the forecast reflects the
support for cotton prices removal of government support for local cotton fibre prices.

At the same time, consump- At the same time, consumption levels in India and China are falling.
tion levels in India and Furthermore, Chinese net imports of cotton fibre have declined in recent
China are falling and, as a seasons as stocks have built up above required levels.
result, any upward pressure
on the price of cotton fibre As a result, any upward pressure on the price of cotton fibre has been
has been removed removed and prices have stabilised.
Table 3: Trends in world cotton fibre supply and demand, 2013/14-2016/17
(mn tons)
2013/14a 2014/15a 2015/16b 2016/17b
Production
EIU 26.28 26.25 22.64 21.99
ICAC 26.30 26.11 22.03 22.95
USDA 26.22 25.94 21.82 n/a
Consumption
EIU 23.88 24.22 24.18 24.45
ICAC 23.76 24.34 23.80 23.89
USDA 23.72 24.02 23.78 n/a
Closing stocks
EIU 20.00 22.10 20.50 18.10
ICAC 20.00 22.10 20.33 19.39
USDA 22.32 24.42 22.50 n/a
NB: years are crop years from August 1 to July 31; the treatment of imports and exports
varies by source, which means that for some data the figure for closing stocks does not
equate to opening stocks plus production less consumption.
a
Estimates. b Forecasts.
Sources: Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU); International Cotton Advisory Committee
(ICAC); US Department of Agriculture (USDA).

Global demand for Overall, global demand for cotton fibre looks set to fall to 23.8 mn tons
cotton fibre will fall by in the 2015/16 season, according to the ICAC.
2.2% to 23.8 mn tons in
2015/16 If this is achieved, it will represent a 2.2% drop compared with the level
of demand in 2014/15.

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due to doubts over the Expectations of a fall in demand stem from: doubts over the strength of
recovery in the world the recovery in the world economywhich is delaying a pick-up in mill
economy and the high price consumption of textile fibres; and lower mill consumption as a result of
of cotton fibre relative to the high price of cotton fibre relative to the prices of competing fibres,
prices of competing fibres particularly polyester.

But on the supply side, the On the supply side, however, the global cotton crop is expected to fall
global crop will fall by 15.6% by 15.6% to 22.0 mn tons, according to the ICAC.

Geographically, demand In terms of geographical region, demand for cotton fibre will continue
will continue to be to be concentrated in the textile industries of emerging countries in
concentrated in countries South Asia and South-East Asia, as well as in China.
in South Asia and South-
East Asia, as well as in But demand in these countries has been growing more slowly than
China, but consumption might have been expected because, although the price of cotton fibre
growth in these countries has fallen, the price remains high relative to the prices of alternative
remains subdued because fibres.
of high prices of cotton
fibre relative to substitute In China, for example, the share of cotton fibre in total fibre
fibres consumption in textile and clothing production has been falling as
producers have been using more blends. The high price of cotton fibre
relative to the prices of alternative fibres has also limited consumption
growth in India.

Fibre usage in developed Elsewhere, the industries in many developed and newly industrialised
and newly industrialised countries have been hit by falls in textile and clothing exports to China.
countries has been affected
by falling demand for As a result, growth in consumption of fibres by these industries has also
textile and clothing exports been constrained.
to China
Cotton fibre stock levels in the 2015/16 season
By the end of the 2015/16 Demand for cotton fibre has been falling throughout the 2015/16 crop
crop year, there will be year. However, by the end of the crop year, on July 31, 2016, the drop
undersupply and the first in demand is not expected to be as dramatic as the decline in the cotton
fall in stock levels in six crop. As a result, there will be undersupply and the first fall in stock
years levels in six years.

Stock levels are expected to The global cotton fibre stock level is expected to stand at 20.3 mn tons
fall by 8.0%, according to on July 31, 2016, according to ICAC predictions. Such a level would
ICAC predictions represent a fall of 8.0% compared with the 22.1 mn tons prevailing at
the beginning of the crop year, on August 1, 2015.

As a result, the stocks-to-use As a result of these developments, all of the major forecasters are
ratio is expected to fall from expecting a decline in the global stocks-to-use ratio. The US
101.7% at the start of the Department of Agriculture (USDA) expects it to fall from 101.7% at the
2015/16 crop year to 94.6% start of the 2015/16 crop year to 94.6% by the end of the crop year.
by the end although this
figure is still well above the Nonetheless, this figure of 94.6% is still well above the ten-year average
ten-year average of 64% for of 64% for the period 2007-16.
the period 2007-16

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Cotton fibre price trends in the 2015/16 season


Historically high stock Historically high stock levels in recent seasons (see above) have served
levels in recent seasons to prevent any upward pressure on the price of cotton fibre, despite the
have served to prevent any fall in the cotton crop.
upward pressure on the
price of cotton fibre, This has been particularly the case in China, where reserves of cotton
especially in China, and so fibre are well in excess of those found elsewhere as a result of the
the price at the end of governments former policy of buying cotton.
2015/16 should be similar
to the price at the start With such high stock levels, the price at the end of 2015/16 is expected
to be broadly similar to the price at the start.

Furthermore, the stock Furthermore, the stock position is likely to continue to influence the
position is likely to continue price of cotton fibre in the near futurewith little sign of any
to influence the price of significant upward pressure on the price in the next few months. This
cotton fibre in the near belief is of course subject to there being no significant supply shocks.
future
Cotton fibre supply and demand in the 2016/17 season
In 2016/17 the ICAC believes For the 2016/17 season, the ICAC believes that, despite low cotton fibre
that production will rise by prices, cotton fibre production will rise by 4.2% as a result of larger
4.2% due to larger falls in falls in the prices of competing crops.
the prices of competing
crops although the EIU is The EIU, by contrast, expects that production will fall by 2.9%, to
expecting a fall 22.0 mn tons.

Demand will rise but it At the same time, demand will show some improvementalthough
will remain constrained growth will remain constrained by the availability of substitute fibres at
by the availability of competitive prices.
substitute fibres at
competitive prices There is some difference of opinion, however, as to how fast global
demand for cotton fibre will grow. The ICAC expects demand to rise by
0.4% to 23.9 mn tons whereas the EIU is forecasting a rise of 1.1% to
24.5 mn tons.

Cotton fibre stock levels in the 2016/17 season


Cotton fibre stock levels The EIU and the ICAC differ in their forecasts of cotton fibre
will fall by the end of the stock levels in the 2016/17 season.
2016/17 season but,
although EIU and ICAC The EIU has predicted a fall of 2.4 mn tons to 18.1 mn tons by the end
forecasts differ, neither fall of the season whereas the ICAC has predicted a smaller decrease of
would be sufficient to raise 0.9 mn tons to 19.4 mn tons.
expectations of significant
price hikes However, neither fall would be sufficient to raise expectations of
significant hikes in prices. Indeed, it is more likely that the price will
stabilise at the current level.

Cotton fibre price trends in the 2016/17 season


There is a consensus on price Expectations of cotton fibre price movements in 2016/17 indicate a
expectations for 2016/17 consensus among the main forecasters.

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 Global trends in fibre prices, production and consumption

The EIU expects the The EIU expects the Cotlook A Index to remain in the low
seasonal average to remain 70s US cents/lb range for much of the season.
in the low 70s US cents/lb
range and the ICAC The ICAC broadly agrees, and expects the cotton fibre price to average
expects only a small rise to 72 US cents/lb during the 2016/17 season compared with an average of
72 US cents/lb 70 US cents/lb during the 2015/16 season.

But this would still be However, if this expectation comes to fruition, the cotton fibre
higher than the ten-year price will still be somewhat higher than the ten-year average of
average of 58 US cents/lb 58 US cents/lb for the period 1999/2000-2008/09, before the surge in
for the period 1999/2000- prices in 2010 (see Figure 1 on page 79).
2008/09 and the price is
expected to remain above Furthermore, the cotton fibre price is expected to remain above this
this average for the average for the foreseeable future.
foreseeable future
REGIONAL PATTERNS OF COTTON FIBRE SUPPLY AND
DEMAND
Regional patterns of cotton fibre supply in the 2015/16 season
The EIU has predicted a The EIU has predicted a sharp 13.7% drop in the global cotton crop in
13.7% fall in the global the 2015/16 season.
cotton crop in 2015/16 but
this overall figure masks However, this overall figure masks wide variations in production trends
wide variations by country among the major growing countries.

In India, production will In India, the worlds largest producer of cotton fibre, the position in the
fall by 6.9% due to erratic 2015/16 season is expected to be one of declinedue to a decrease in
monsoon rains and more the overall area planted to cotton. This is because of erratic monsoon
attractive returns on rains and more attractive returns on alternative crops. As a result, the
alternative crops tonnage in India is expected to fall by 6.9% to 6.1 mn tons.

In China, production will In China, the worlds second largest producer of cotton fibre,
fall by 18.2% as subsidies production looks set to fall sharply in the 2015/16 season. Subsidies to
to farmers outside Xinjiang farmers outside Xinjiang province have been lowered and the attraction
province have been of alternative crops has improved.
lowered and the attraction
of alternative crops has As a result, the forecast is for an 18.2% reduction in the Chinese cotton
improved crop, to 5.3 mn tons.

In the USA, the crop is In the USA, the prospects are not looking much better after a strong
expected to fall by 21.3% as 2014/15. The planted area decreased by over 20% in 2015/16 and
a result of a 20% decline in excessive autumn rain has led to a reduction in yields.
the planted area and a
reduction in yields due to As a result, the US cotton crop is expected to fall by 21.3% to
excessive autumn rain 2.8 mn tons in the 2015/16 season, thereby reversing almost all the
gains made in 2014/15.

In Pakistan, production will In Pakistan, a sizeable fall in production is expected. The fall is
plunge by 31.2% due to attributable to recent flooding and a higher incidence of insect
recent flooding, low prices damagewhich, along with low prices, has discouraged planting. As a
and insect damage result, production in Pakistan is forecast to plunge by 31.2% to
1.6 mn tons in 2015/16.

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In Central Asia, the crop in Producers of cotton fibre in Central Asia appear to have fared poorly in
Uzbekistan is expected to 2015/16.
fall by 4.5% although steps
are under way to improve In Uzbekistan, the cotton crop is expected to fall by 4.5% to
conditions 850,000 tons in 2015/16 although steps are under way to improve
conditions.

In the southern hemisphere, In the southern hemisphere, production in Brazil is forecast to fall in
production in Brazil is 2015/16 as weaker prices encourage farmers to switch away from
expected to fall by 9.0% as planting cotton.
weaker prices encourage
farmers to switch away In fact, production in Brazil is expected to fall by 9.0% to 1.4 mn tons
from planting cotton following a 10.4% drop in the previous season.

In Australia, however, the In Australia, by contrast, a significant increase in the area planted to
crop is expected to be up cottonin response to better weather conditions in New South Wales
by 7.8% due to an increase and Queenslandis expected to lead to an increase in the cotton crop.
in the area planted to
cotton in response to As a result, the EIU expects production in Australia to be up by 7.8%
better weather conditions to 550,000 tons.

Regional patterns of cotton fibre supply in the 2016/17 season


The EIU has predicted a The EIU has predicted a 2.7% fall in the supply of cotton fibre in the
2.7% fall in cotton fibre 2016/17 crop year as a result of declines in production in the major
production in 2016/17 due supplying countries of China, India and the USA.
to declines in China, India
and the USA although the The ICAC, however, is more optimistic and expects a small increase in
ICAC is expecting a rise the cotton crop.

In China, production will In China, farmers are expected to continue to cut back on the area
fall by 6.2% as farmers planted to cotton in 2016/17 in response to the governments switch
continue to cut back on from a policy of buying cotton fibre as a way of supporting prices and
the area planted in instead offering direct subsidies to farmers (see page 79). This change
response to changes in of policy has served to reduce the incentive to plant cotton.
government policy
In fact, the harvested area is forecast to decline by as much as 10%. As
a result, the EIU expects Chinese cotton fibre production to fall by
6.2%.

In India, it will fall by 1.0% In India, production is likely to fall by 1.0% in 2016/17 as farmers
as farmers respond to higher respond to higher stocks and lower prices when making their planting
stocks and lower prices decisions.

In Pakistan, there is In Pakistan, the picture for 2016/17 appears to be a little better.
resistance by farmers to Admittedly, there is resistance by farmers to planting cotton in the face
planting cotton in the face of of concerns over cotton fibre prices.
concerns over lower prices
but improved weather However, the EIU expects a return to more normal weather conditions
conditions should result in a and, as a result, it has predicted that the crop in Pakistan will rise by
6.9% rise in the crop 6.9% compared with the level seen in the 2015/16 season.

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In the USA, production is In the USA, a decline in production is predicted for 2016/17 as prices
expected to be down by and weather militate against planting more cotton. The acreage planted
8.2% due to a fall in the is likely to fall although a lower than average abandonment rate1 is
acreage planted expected. As a result, the US crop is expected to be down by 8.2%,
according to the EIU.

Regional patterns of cotton fibre demand in the 2015/16 season


Global demand for cotton The EIU has predicted a 0.2% decline in global demand for cotton fibre
fibre will fall by 0.2% in in the 2015/16 season.
2015/16 due to the
retrenchment of the This prediction is attributable almost entirely to the retrenchment of the
Chinese textile industry Chinese textile industry, which is having an adverse impact on growth
in cotton fibre consumption in China and elsewhere.

Chinese demand will fall Demand for cotton fibre in China has been limited by a growing
by 2.8% due to a switch to tendency for the Chinese textile industry to use substitute fibres in place
substitute fibres and a loss of cotton fibre. Also, rising wages and production costs have negatively
in the industrys affected the industrys competitive edge. As a result, Chinese demand
competitiveness for cotton fibre is likely to fall by 2.8% to 7.3 mn tons in 2015/16.

In Pakistan, consumption In South Asia, the picture is mixed. Cotton fibre consumption in
will fall by 12.8% due to Pakistan is expected to decline sharply due to disruptions to
disruptions to manufacturing operations resulting from power outages and slowing
manufacturing operations sales of cotton yarn to China.
resulting from power
outages and slowing sales As a result, the forecast for the 2015/16 season as a whole is for cotton
of cotton yarn to China fibre consumption in Pakistan to fall by 12.8%.

In India, demand is set to In India, a more favourable trade position with respect to textile exports
rise by only 1.1%, despite has helped to increase cotton fibre consumption.
higher textile exports, as
low cotton yarn prices will However, prices of cotton yarn remain low and, as a result, demand for
constrain consumption cotton fibre in India is likely to be up by only 1.1% in 2015/16.

But in Bangladesh it will In Bangladesh, meanwhile, cotton fibre consumption is expected to rise
rise by a sharp 16.0% as by a sharp 16.0%, reflecting growth in production in the countrys
textile production grows textile industry.

Consumption is also likely In South-East Asia, cotton fibre consumption is likely to rise sharply as
to rise sharply in Indonesia textile producers in the region benefit from increasing competitiveness
and Vietnam as textile relative to their counterparts in China.
producers improve their
competitiveness relative to In particular, demand for cotton fibre in Indonesia is expected to rise by
China 7.0% and demand in Vietnam is set to increase by 22.2%.

US consumption, helped Among industrialised countries, the textile industry in the USA appears
by a recovery in the to be emerging from recession although competition from other fibres
domestic economy, looks and from imports continues to constrain growth. The EIU forecast is for
set to increase by 2.6% a 2.6% rise in US consumption of cotton fibre in 2015/16.

1
The abandonment rate provides an indication of the difference between the planted area and the harvested area.

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Demand in Turkey will The position in Europe appears to be a little more favourable. In
rise by 4.4% despite slow Turkey, demand is constrained by slow growth in textile and clothing
growth in textile and exports to nearby European markets but this is easing. As a result, a
clothing exports to 4.4% rise in Turkish consumption of cotton fibre is predicted for
European markets 2015/16.

Regional patterns of cotton fibre demand in the 2016/17 season


The EIU has predicted The EIU has predicted that demand for cotton fibre will increase by
that cotton fibre demand 1.1% in the 2016/17 season.
will rise by 1.1% in
2016/17 and most regions Most regions, with the exception of China and Pakistan, are expected
are expected to benefit to share in this increase.

In China, demand will fall In China, demand will continue to decline in the face of rising
by a further 2.1% as rising costspartly as a result of high domestic cotton prices stemming from
costs, partly as a result of the Chinese governments former policy of supporting prices by buying
high domestic cotton prices, cotton fibre and building reserves. This has led to a loss of
have led to a loss of competitiveness among spinners and textile producers in China
competitiveness and there compared with their counterparts in other Asian countries and a
has been a trend of fibre downward trend in cotton consumption in the country. At the same time,
substitution relatively low prices for man-made fibres has resulted in a trend of fibre
substitution. As a result, the EIU has predicted that demand for cotton
fibre in China will fall by a further 2.1% in 2016/17.

Demand will also fall in In Pakistan, demand is expected to be down by 2.3% but in India it is
Pakistan but it is set to rise likely to grow by 2.2%.
in India and to increase
sharply in Bangladesh, Moreover, sharp increases in demand have been forecast in
Indonesia and Vietnam Bangladesh (up by 10.1%), Indonesia (up by 9.2%) and Vietnam (up by
12.7%).

In developed countries, Cotton fibre demand is also likely to increase in developed countries in
there will be further 2016/17, according to EIU forecasts.
increases in demand in the
USA and in Turkey In the USA, demand for cotton fibre is expected to grow by 3.7%, and
demand in Turkey is expected to increase by 3.5%.

MAN-MADE FIBRES

TRENDS IN MAN-MADE FIBRE PRODUCTION BY FIBRE


TYPE
Man-made fibre Global production of man-made fibres increased by 7.5% in 2015,
production increased again according to statistics from the Japan Chemical Fibers Association
in 2015 and did so at a (JCFA). This growth rate was 2.2 percentage points higher than the
faster rate than in 2014 5.3% rise recorded in 2014.

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Polyester fibre production Among the main synthetic fibre varieties, polyester fibre production
continued to grow, and so continued to grow.
did its share of total
synthetic fibre production Also, the share of polyester fibre in total synthetic fibre production
as growth outstripped that increased as the rate of growth of polyester fibre production outstripped
of other synthetic fibre that of other synthetic fibre types. It also outstripped the rate of growth
types of cellulosic fibres.

Polyester staple fibre In the case of polyester staple fibre, production expanded by as much as
production rose by 6.1% 6.1%.
while filament yarn
production rose by an Polyester filament yarn production grew at an even faster ratethat of
even faster 9.4% 9.4%.

Nylon fibre production Production of nylon fibres grew by 5.3%, which was equal in
grew by 5.3% percentage terms to the increase recorded for 2014.

Acrylic staple fibre Production of acrylic staple fibre remained at the same level as in
production remained static 2014.
but this represented an
improvement after a 3.1% Nonetheless, this represented an improvement compared with the 3.1%
decline in the previous year fall in production recorded for the previous year.

Cellulosic fibre production, Meanwhile, cellulosic fibre production had a reasonable year with
meanwhile, was up by 2.5% production up by 2.5% to 5.19 mn tons.
although this represented a
slowdown compared with However, the increase represented a slowdown compared with growth
the previous year of 5.8% in the previous year.

Growth in cellulosic fibre Growth in cellulosic fibre production in 2015 was driven principally by
production in 2015 was strong expansion in China and, to a lesser extent, in Taiwan and
driven by expansion in countries which are signatories of the Association of Southeast Asian
China, Taiwan and Asean Nations (Asean)2.
countries
TRENDS IN MAN-MADE FIBRE PRODUCTION BY
COUNTRY AND REGION
China
Chinas leadership in man- The dominance of China as a leading producer of man-made fibres was
made fibres strengthened reinforced in 2015.
further in 2015 as growth
in Chinese production While global man-made fibre production increased by just over
exceeded the increase in 4.6 mn tons during the year, Chinese production rose by almost
global production 5.2 mn tonsthereby exceeding the increase in global production
(Table 4).

2
Asean (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) comprises Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia,
Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.

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Also, growth in Furthermore, growth in Chinese production in percentage terms in 2015,


percentage terms was at 11.9%, was faster than the 6.6% rise in Chinese production achieved
faster than in 2014 in 2014.

In terms of tonnage, the In terms of tonnage, the increase in Chinese man-made fibre production
rise in Chinese man-made was most evident in polyester. As a result, the share of polyester fibre
fibre production was most in Chinas total man-made fibre production rose from 82.6% in 2014 to
evident in polyester fibre 83.8% in 2015.
and, as a result, the share
of polyester fibre in Within the overall total for polyester fibre production in China,
Chinas total man-made production of polyester staple fibre was up by 12.4% while production
fibre production rose to of polyester filament yarn rose by 13.8%.
83.8%
Table 4: World man-made fibre production by country and region, 2014 and
2015
% change % share
2014 2015 2015/14 2015
China 43.34 48.48 11.9 72.9
India 4.43 4.26 -3.8 6.4
Aseana 3.35 3.28 -1.9 4.9
Western Europe 2.24 2.15 -3.7 3.2
USA 2.05 1.99 -2.9 3.0
Taiwan 1.99 1.94 -2.6 2.9
South Korea 1.37 1.26 -7.5 1.9
Japan 0.73 0.71 -2.9 1.1
Others 2.40 2.44 1.3 3.7
Total 61.89 66.52 7.5 100.0
NB: percentage calculations are based on unrounded data; figures shown for others are
calculated from rounded data.
a
Association of Southeast Asian Nations, comprising Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia,
Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.
Source: Japan Chemical Fibers Association (JCFA).

Cellulosic fibre production Chinese producers are also helping to sustain the global advance in
rose by 4.4% following a cellulosic fibre production. In 2015 cellulosic fibre production in China
2.2% increase in 2014 to rose by 4.4% following a 2.2% increase in 2014. As a result, cellulosic
account for 7.4% of Chinese fibres accounted for 7.4% of total Chinese man-made fibre production
man-made fibre production in 2015.
in 2015 although growth in
2014-15 was slower than in Having said that, growth in 2014 and 2015 was noticeably slower than
previous years in previous years.

Nylon fibre production rose Nylon fibre production in China was significantly stronger, having risen
by 17.2% after increasing by 17.2% in 2015. Furthermore, this was much faster than the growth
by 11.5% in 2014 rate of 11.5% achieved in 2014.

Acrylic staple fibre There was also a significant improvement in performance in the case of
production rose by 7.1% acrylic staple fibre production. Indeed, production by Chinese plants
after a 2.5% decline in 2014 rose by 7.1% in 2015 following a 2.5% decline in 2014.

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As Chinas man-made fibre Over the years, the rise in Chinese man-made fibre production has
production rises, its textile posed a threat to other major producers in the region and this appears to
industry buys less from have continued in 2015. As Chinas man-made fibre production has
abroad and the man-made increased and domestic supply has exceeded domestic demand, the
fibre industry exports its textile industry in China has been buying less fibre from abroad and the
surplus fibre to foreign man-made fibre industry has been exporting its surplus fibre to foreign
markets, thereby markets.
threatening other major
fibre producers in the Many of the other major fibre producing countries in the region are
region already suffering from a downturn in their domestic and overseas
markets and have been unable to achieve any significant increases in
performance.

South Korea and Taiwan


Production in South Korea Man-made fibre producers in South Korea and Taiwan appear to have
and Taiwan fell in 2015 been adversely affected by the sustained downturn in their domestic and
following declines in 2014 overseas markets. Producers in both countries suffered further falls in
production in 2015 following declines in 2014.

In South Korea, production In South Korea, man-made fibre production was down by 7.5% in 2015
was down by 7.5% in 2015 following a 6.2% fall in 2014.

South Korean producers It is interesting to note that the performance of South Korean producers
fared worse than their was worse than that of their higher cost counterparts in Japan, who
higher cost counterparts in suffered a less severe 2.9% fall in their production in 2015 (see
Japan page 91).

The fall reflected declines The fall in South Korean man-made fibre production reflected declines
in all synthetic fibre types in production of all the main synthetic fibres types.

Polyester filament yarn Production of polyester filament yarnthe most significant fibre type
production declined by in terms of volumedeclined by 6.4%.
6.4% and polyester staple
fibre production by a Production of polyester staple fibre was down by an even steeper
steeper 8.4% 8.4%.

Acrylic staple fibre There were also declines in production of acrylic staple fibre, albeit
production fell by 12.6% from an already small base (down by 12.6%), and in production of
and nylon fibre by 7.8% nylon fibre (down by 7.8%).

Cellulosic fibre is no longer Cellulosic fibre production, meanwhile, is no longer carried out in
produced in South Korea South Korea.

Taiwanese producers fared The position of man-made fibre producers in Taiwan was also one of
less badly than those in retrenchment.
South Korea as production
in Taiwan fell by a more However, Taiwanese producers fared less badly than those in South
modest 2.6% but this was Korea in 2015 as production in Taiwan fell by a more modest
steeper than the 1.9% 2.6%although this was steeper than the 1.9% decline in Taiwanese
decline recorded in 2014 production recorded in 2014.

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The fall was due to declines The 2.6% fall in Taiwanese man-made fibre production in 2015 was due
in all synthetic fibre types to declines in production of all the main synthetic fibre types.

Acrylic staple fibre produc- Production of acrylic staple fibre fell at the steepest rate11.1%.
tion fell by 11.1% and nylon Production of nylon fibre also declined sharply, having fallen by
fibre production by 7.8% 7.8%.

In the case of polyester In the case of polyester fibre, declines in production were less severe.
fibre, the declines were less Staple fibre production was down by 2.9% while filament yarn
severe and this provided production was down by only 0.4%.
some consolation given that
polyester fibre accounted The fact that polyester staple fibre production and polyester filament
for 80% of total synthetic yarn production fell at the slowest rates provided some consolation to
fibre production in the the industry as polyester fibre accounted for as much as 80% of total
country in 2015 synthetic fibre production in the country in 2015.

Cellulosic fibre production The cellulosic fibre sector, by contrast, bucked the general trend and
was up by 1.0%, thus made gains. In fact, the year finished with cellulosic fibre production
building on the 4.9% gain 1.0% higher than in 2014thus building on the 4.9% gain achieved in
achieved in 2014 2014.

Asean
Asean man-made fibre The picture in Asean (see page 87) countries was relatively more
production fell by a favourable than in South Korea and Taiwan in 2015 as man-made fibre
moderate 1.9% but this production in these countries fell by a more moderate 1.9%although
followed a rise in 2014 this contrasted with a 1.5% rise in 2014.

The fall was due to declines The fall in Asean man-made fibre production in 2015 was due to
in all synthetic fibre types declines in production of all the main synthetic fibre types.

Overall, synthetic fibre Overall, synthetic fibre production in Asean countries declined by
production declined by 2.6% 2.6%.

Production of polyester The decline was due primarily to a fall in the production of polyester
staple fibre declined by fibrewhich accounted for the largest component of total production.
1.2%, polyester filament Production of polyester staple fibre declined by 1.2% and production of
yarn by 3.4%, acrylic polyester filament yarn by 3.4%.
staple fibre by 5.8% and
nylon fibre by 2.3% However, there were also noticeable declines in production of acrylic
staple fibre (down by 5.8%) and nylon fibre (down by 2.3%).

By contrast, cellulosic By contrast, production of cellulosic fibre bucked the trend, having
fibre production increased by 1.2%.
increased by 1.2%
South Asia
In South Asia, Indian The picture in South Asia was also one of retrenchment. In India, man-
man-made fibre made fibre production fell by 3.8% in 2015 following a 2.0% drop in
production fell by 3.8% 2014.

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The fall was due to The fall in Indian man-made fibre production in 2015 was due to
declines in production of declines in production of polyester filament yarnthe largest fibre type
polyester filament yarn in terms of tonnageand cellulosic fibre. Polyester filament yarn
and cellulosic fibre production was down by 7.0% and cellulosic fibre production by 6.6%.

Production of other man- In the case of all the other man-made fibre types, however, production
made fibre types rose rose.

Polyester staple fibre Production of polyester staple fibre was up by 3.2%, and production of
production rose by 3.2%, nylon fibre was up by 4.9% after rising by 5.5% in the previous year.
nylon fibre production by
4.9% and acrylic staple Acrylic staple fibre production, meanwhile, shot up by 11.1%. In terms
fibre production by of tonnage, however, acrylic staple fibre remained the least important
11.1% fibre type.

Industrialised countries
The performances of the The performances of the man-made fibre industries in the industrialised
man-made fibre industries countries were poor in 2015 following a similar set of results in 2014.
in industrialised countries
were poor in 2015, as they The man-made fibre industries in these countries are now much smaller
had been in 2014 than in the past but their performances in 2015 were still noteworthy.

In the USA, production In the USA, man-made fibre production fell by 2.9% to 2.0 mn tons in
fell by 2.9% in 2015 after 2015 following a 1.7% increase in 2014.
a 1.7% increase in 2014,
reflecting declines in all There were declines in production of all the major man-made fibre types
the major man-made apart from polyester filament yarn, which rose by 1.9%. Polyester staple
fibre types apart from fibre production declined by 3.7%, nylon fibre production by 7.8% and
polyester filament yarn cellulosic fibre production by 2.9%.

In Western Europe produc- In Western Europe, man-made fibre production fell further in 2015.
tion fell by 3.7% after Also, the rate of decline, 3.7%, was faster than the rate witnessed in
declining by 2.6% in 2014 2014, when production fell by 2.6%.

The fall was due to The fall in 2015 was due to declines in production of all the major man-
declines in production of made fibre types. In the case of polyester, filament yarn production was
all the major man-made down by 8.9% and staple fibre production by 1.9%. Nylon fibre
fibre types production declined by 5.4%, acrylic staple fibre production by 3.2%
and cellulosic fibre production by 0.9%.

Japan has suffered the The man-made fibre sector in Japan continued to suffer in 2015 as a
most from the rise of result of its high cost base.
China, and it continued to
suffer in 2015 as a result Also, Japan has tended to suffer more than other industrialised countries
of its high cost base from the rise of China as a major producer.

In 2015 Japanese man- In 2015 Japanese man-made fibre production fell by 2.9%, which was
made fibre production roughly equal to the percentage loss in US production but not as bad as
fell by 2.9% the 3.7% drop in production in Western Europe.

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which compared However, the 2.9% fall in 2015 represented a deterioration compared
unfavourably with a with the 0.6% decline witnessed in 2014, thus dispelling the notion that
0.6% decline in 2014 production may be levelling out following the recent precipitous
decline.

The fall in Japanese man- The fall in Japanese man-made fibre production in 2015 was due to
made fibre production in declines in production of nylon fibre and polyester fibre.
2015 was due to declines
in production of nylon Nylon fibre production was down by 8.6%, polyester staple fibre
fibre and polyester fibre production was down by 8.4% and polyester filament yarn production
was down by 5.9%.

By contrast, acrylic staple By contrast, acrylic staple fibre production increased by 0.5% and
fibre and cellulosic fibre cellulosic fibre production was up by 2.8%.
production increased
Outlook
The share of global man- The share of Europe, Japan and the USA in global man-made fibre
made fibre production production fell from 8.1% in 2014 to 7.3% in 2015. This is not
accounted for by surprising given that growth in the industrialised world has been slower
industrialised nations fell than it has in China.
to 7.3% in 2015 compared
with 26.3% in 2001 Nonetheless, it is a sobering thought that 14 years earlier, in 2001, the
combined share of the industrialised countries had been as high as
26.3%.

By contrast Chinas share By contrast, China now accounts for well over two-thirds of global man-
rose from 28.5% in 2005 made fibre productionits share having risen from 28.5% in 2005 to
to 72.9% in 2015 72.9% in 2015.

The share of industrialised It seems inevitable that the share of the industrialised countries will
countries will continue to continue to decline.
decline while the share of
low cost developing At the same time, the share of China and other low cost developing
countries will continue to countries will continue to grow further.
grow further

The section on wool supply and demand which normally appears in this report has not been published owing to the
discontinuation of an external data series. However, Textiles Intelligence intends to restart the series as soon as an
alternative data series has been found.

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 Myanmar: re-emergence as a global clothing exporter

Myanmar: re-emergence as a
global clothing exporter
by Jozef De Coster

SUMMARY

Myanmar is impressing the world by the speed of its transition from a closed economy to a fast growing
open economy. The country was excluded from global sourcing networks for nearly a decade because
of economic sanctions imposed by a number of countries. But most of these sanctions have been removed.
Also, Myanmar has been included under the Everything But Arms (EBA) provision of the EUs
Generalised System of Preferences (GSP) scheme and has been granted Most Favoured Nation (MFN)
status in the USA.

As a result of these developments, foreign direct investment (FDI) in the garment industry has grown at
an impressive pace in recent years, and forecasters have predicted that Myanmar could more than
quadruple the size of its economy between 2010 and 2030. They have also predicted that by 2020 there
could be up to 1.5 mn jobs in the garment industry and garment exports could reach US$10 bn-
US$12 bn.

In order to plan for such expansion, the Myanmar government has published a textile and garment
industry sector strategy as part of a document entitled National Export Strategy 2015-2019. Under the
sector strategy, the industry has been advised to pursue five goals: to move from operating on a cutting,
making and packaging (CMP) basis to operating on an fob (free on board) basis; to increase volume;
to improve quality; to produce a greater volume of knitted products; and to develop its design expertise
so that it can expand from operating on an fob basis to one embracing original design.

Investments have gone into roads and ports, and initiatives are being pursued to improve the industrys
international competitiveness and encourage sustainable production. But almost all fibres need to be
imported as natural fibre production in Myanmar is small and there is no man-made fibre industry.
Furthermore, most of the garment machinery in Myanmar is outdated, the industry lacks vocational
training programmes, and demand from Western retailers is unlikely to increase at a rapid pace as
buyers proceed cautiously. If Myanmar is to rival bigger, successful garment exporting countries, it
will need: modern machinery; raw materials; skilled labour; social and environmental certification;
energy sources which are more reliable; a logistics infrastructure; and a financing system which runs
smoothly.

INTRODUCTION

Myanmar is impressing the Myanmar, formerly known as Burma, is impressing the world by the
world by its transition to a speed of its transition from a closed economy to a fast growing open
fast growing open economy economy, and from authoritarianism to democracy.

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A turning point came in 2011 A turning point came on March 30, 2011, when a reformist president,
when Thein Sein was sworn Thein Sein, was sworn in as the leader of a military-civilian government
in as the leader of a military- and would be-investors and garment sourcing companies based in the
civilian government West started to turn their attention to Myanmar.

Prior to this, Myanmar had Prior to this date, Myanmar had been subject to 50 years of military rule
been subject to 50 years of between 1962 and 2011.
military rule, plagued by
corruption and isolated by This made it a very poor country, plagued by bureaucracy and
international sanctions corruption and isolated by international sanctions.

In the 2015 general election, In the 2015 general election, the National League for Democracy
the NLD won a majority in (NLD)1, led by Aung San Suu Kyi2, won an absolute majority in both
both houses of Assembly, thus houses of the Assemblythus paving the way to democracy after
paving the way to democracy decades of military rule.

Myanmar has outdated mach- Those who have visited Myanmar have found a country with outdated
inery and infrastructure, weak machinery, an antiquated infrastructure, weak education, poor public
banking, education and public health systems, courts whose honesty, integrity and probity are
health systems, and courts questionable3, and a banking system which remains ill-equipped to
whose probity is questionable provide services to local citizens, let alone global companies.

However, many experts However, many experts believe that Myanmar has great potential. In
believe that Myanmar has 2013 the management consultants McKinsey published a report which
great potential and, according suggested that the country could quadruple the size of its economy,
to McKinsey, it could quad- from US$45 bn in 2010 to more than US$200 bn in 2030.
ruple the size of its economy
between 2010 and 2030 and The report also noted that such expansion could create upwards of
create 10 mn non-agricultural 10 mn non-agricultural jobs in the process. At present, 70% of the
jobs in the process workforce still works in agriculture.

of which many are expected A significant number of these new jobs is expected to be created in the
to be in the garment industry garment industry. In fact, this process has already started.
1
The National League for Democracy (NLD) is a democratic socialist-liberal political party in Myanmar. The
party was founded on September 27, 1988, by a group of prominent people, including the pro-democracy leader
Aung San Suu Kyi. On May 27, 1990, the first multi-party elections since 1960 were held. The NLD, led by
Aung San Suu Kyi, won 59% of the national votes and 81% (392 of 485) of the seats in Parliament. However,
Aung San Suu Kyi had been detained under house arrest before the election and the ruling military junta refused
to recognise the result. On May 6, 2010, the party was declared illegal and ordered to be disbanded by the junta
but in November 2010 Aung San Suu Kyi was released from house arrest. A year later, in November 2011, the
NLD announced its intention to register as a political party to contend future elections. On December 13, 2011,
Myanmars Union Election Commission approved its application for registration, and in the 2015 general
election the NLD won an absolute majority in both houses of the Assembly.
2
Aung San Suu Kyi was born on June 19, 1945, in Rangoon (now Yangon). Her father, General Aung San,
founded the countrys modern army and negotiated Burmas independence from the British Empire in 1947.
However, he was assassinated by his rivals in the same year. Aung San Suu Kyi was detained under house arrest
in Myanmar before the 1990 general election, and remained under house arrest for almost 15 of the 21 years
from July 20, 1989, until her release on November 13, 2010.
3
It has been reported by lawyers that it is necessary to pay bribes to people at nearly every step of the judicial
process including clerks, record keepers, stenographers and judges.

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According to MGMA, According to the Myanmar Garment Manufacturers Association


100,000 job opportunities (MGMA), 100,000 job opportunities were created in the countrys
were created in the garment industry in the 2014/15 financial year (April 1, 2014-March 31,
countrys garment industry 2015) alone and foreign investment accounted for 90% of the 100,000
in the 2014/15 financial year jobs created.
alone and some believe that
there could be up to 1.5 mn Furthermore, some forecasters believe that there could be up to 1.5 mn
jobs in the industry by 2020 jobs in the industry by 2020.

At the same time, garment Expansion of the garment industry will also have a significant impact
exports could rise from on exports. In 2014 the value of garment exports from Myanmar was
US$1.56 bn in 2014 to only US$1.56 bn but forecasters believe that garment exports could be
US$10 bn-US$12 bn by 2020 worth US$10 bn-US$12 bn by 2020.

FDI in Myanmar has grown Foreign direct investment (FDI) in the garment and other manufacturing
impressively in recent years, industries in Myanmarincluding footwearhas grown at an
aided by the Foreign Invest- impressive pace in recent years, having been encouraged by the Foreign
ment Law of November 2011 Investment Law of November 2011.

Indeed, total FDI in all manu- According to the Directorate of Investment and Company
facturing industries more than Administration (DICA), total FDI in all manufacturing industries more
quadrupled in 2013/14 alone to than quadrupled in 2013/14 alonefrom US$400.7 mn to
US$1,827.0 mn, after jumping US$1,827.0 mnafter jumping almost 13-fold in 2012/13 alone, from
almost 13-fold in 2012/13 alone US$32.3 mn to US$400.7 mn.

However, exhibitors at the However, exhibitors at the 4th Myanmar International Textile &
4th MTG, held in Yangon in Garment Industry Exhibition (MTG)which was held in Yangon
June 2015, believe that FDI (formerly Rangoon), the economic capital of Myanmar, during
growth may be easing June 26-29, 2015believe that FDI growth may be easing.

In fact, FDI in manufac- This view was supported by figures for 2014/15 which showed that
turing industries as a whole FDI in manufacturing industries as a whole fell by 22% to
fell by 22% in 2014/15 US$1,502.0 mn.

One development in the One of the most surprising developments in the opening up of Myanmar
opening up of Myanmar is a is a new industrial relations system, based on the Labour Organization
new industrial relations system Law of March 2012.

In 2012 garment workers In 2012 garment employers and workers started with little knowledge
started with little knowledge and awareness of trade unions, International Labour Organization (ILO)
and awareness of industrial principles, the settling of labour disputes and other concepts of
relations concepts, but between industrial relations.
May 1, 2012, and July 30,
2012, there were strikes by Between May 1, 2012, and July 31, 2012, however, there were strikes
workers from approximately by workers from approximately 70 garment factories who were
70 garment factories who were demanding salary increases and improved conditions, according to the
demanding salary increases Myanmar Times. Such action would have been unheard of under the
and improved conditions previous regime.

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Furthermore, the government Furthermore, the government publicly supported workers rights while
publicly supported their rights pushing unions to stay apolitical.

The MGMA has worked The MGMA has worked hard to improve the capacity and effectiveness
hard to improve the of its members in the field of corporate social responsibility (CSR). As
capacity and effectiveness of part of those efforts, it has cooperated with various organisations,
its members in the field of including:
CSR and, as part of those
efforts, it has cooperated the International Labour Organization (ILO); and
with various organisations SMART Myanmar (SMEs for Environmental Accountability,
Responsibility and Transparency).

In 2015 it ratified the indus- In early 2015 the MGMA ratified the first ever code of conduct for
trys first ever code of conduct Myanmars garment industry.

INFRASTRUCTURE

Infrastructure can have a The infrastructure of a countrynotably its airports, electricity supply,
major effect on the ports, roads, telecommunications and water supplycan have a major
productive quality of a effect on the productive quality of the country.
country and determine the
turnaround time of orders All of these components can determine the turnaround time of orders,
and in all cases Myanmar scores badly.

For its electricity, Myanmar For its electricity generating needs, Myanmar relies mainly on
relies mainly on hydropower hydropower (70.3% of the total in 2011) and natural gas (21.7%).
and natural gas but supply
falls short of demand, espe- However, the supply of electricity falls short of demand. The problems
cially during the dry season are especially acute during the dry season, from November to February.

The situation should improve Such shortfalls persist in spite of some quick fixes in recent years. For
when plans to construct seven example, GE has installed new gas turbines, and the situation should
hydroelectric projects come to improve when plans to construct seven hydroelectric projects with a
fruition but in the meantime total capacity of 10 gW come to fruition.
factories in Myanmar have to
generate some of the electricity In the meantime, nearly all textile and garment factories in Myanmar
they need by using their own have to generate some of the electricity they need by using their own
generators, and this is costly generators fuelled by dieseland this is costly.

Energy costs in garment facto- According to an enquiry by the Japan External Trade Organization
ries in Myanmar may equate (Jetro), total energy costs in garment factories in Myanmar may equate
to 30%-40% of labour costs to 30%-40% of total labour costs.

Also, the voltage tends to be Another problem is that the voltage of the electricity supply tends to
unstable, and this accelerates be unstable, and such instability accelerates the depreciation of
the depreciation of machinery machinery.

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However, telecoms have great- However, Internet and telecoms connectivity has greatly improved in
ly improved in recent years recent years.

Moreover, there have Moreover, there have been some major national and international
been some major national investments in roads and ports. As a result, there have been reductions
and international in transportation times between:
investments in roads and
ports and, as a result, countries of origin of raw materials and garment production centres
there have been in Myanmar, especially Yangon; and
reductions in garment production centres in Myanmar and garment export
transportation times destination countries.

For example, there have For example, there have been recent improvements to the highway
been recent improvements connecting Thailand and Myanmar, and it has been reported that these
to the highway connecting improvements have resulted in an increase in fabric imports into
Thailand and Myanmar Myanmar from Thailand.

Also, MCC Transport Also, since February 2015 MCC Transport4 has operated a direct
now operates a direct shipping line between Yangon, the economic capital of Myanmar, and
shipping line between Shanghai in China. This has reduced transportation times from 20 days
Yangon and Shanghai to 13 days.

Furthermore, two potentially Furthermore, two potentially significant infrastructure projects are in
significant infrastructure the pipeline, namely:
projects are in the pipeline,
namely the development of the development of the Thilawa Special Economic Zone (SEZ),
the Thilawa Special some 25 km south of Yangon, which will eventually get a deep-sea
Economic Zone (SEZ) and port; and
the upgrading of road
connections in the EWEC the upgrading of road connections in the East-West Economic
within Myanmar territory Corridor (EWEC) within Myanmar territory.

Land in Yangon has become Land in Yangon has become exceptionally expensive for a country as
exceptionally expensive for poor as Myanmar as a speculative price bubble has built up. This
a country as poor as reflects the fact that, traditionally, people in Myanmar with money have
Myanmar as a speculative invested in land because the financial system has been so
price bubble has built up underdeveloped and the country has lacked a stock market.

So would-be investors have Furthermore, the liberalisation of the economy in 2011 led to high
either turned to long-term expectations which turned into wild speculation.
lease operations with local
investors or moved away Land in Yangon became too expensive for building large garment
from Yangon to other factories and, as a result, would-be investors either turned to long-term
locations, notably Bago, lease operations with local investors or moved away from Yangon to
Pathein or Thilawa other locations, notably Bago, Pathein or Thilawa.

4
MCC Transport is a regional specialist based in Singapore which handles intra-Asia containerised cargo for the
Maersk Group, and provides feeder services for a wide range of regional and global shipping lines.

Textiles Intelligence Limited 2016 97


Putao
BHUTAN

R.
n
wi
INDIA
ind
Ch
Myitkyina
Myitkyina

CHINA
BANGLADESH Katha Bhamo
Tamu
( I rrawa dy
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Mawlaik
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Kalemyo Kalewa Mogok Lashio
Chin
Shwebo Kyaukme Hsipaw VIETNAM
Haka
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Maymyo
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Monywa Mong Yang


Mong Yang
Sagaing Mandalay
Amarapura Kengtung
Kaladan R. Myingyan Kyaukse
Pakokku
Paletwa
Chauk Meiktila Taung-gyi
Myohaung MYANMAR ThanlweinenR. LAOS
Yenangyaung
Magyichaung
Sittwe Melun
Minbu
(BURMA) Salw
(

Ayeyarwady R. NAYPYIDAW
(Irrawaddy R.)
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Toungoo
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Cheduba Is. (Pye)
Bay of Bengal Sandoway Myanaung
Kyeintali Nyaunglebin
Nyaungle
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Kyaikto
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Yangon (Rangoon) Thaton


Pathein (Bassein) Martaban
Maubin Mawlamyine
Mawlamyine (Moulmein)
(Moulmein)
Kungyangon
Bogale Gulf of Kayaikkami
Kayaikkami (Amherst)
(Amherst)
Martaban THAILAND
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Main railway Andaman Sea (Tavoy)


Dawei (Tavoy)
Main road
International boundary
INDIAN
Main airport
OCEAN
Capital Mergui
Major town Tanintharyi
Taninth (Tenasserim)

Other town
( ) Pre-1989 names Mergui
archipelago Gulf of Thailand

0 km 50 100 150 200

0 miles 50 100

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EMPLOYMENT AND LABOUR COSTS

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES
In mid-2015 MGMA In mid-2015 member factories of the Myanmar Garment Manufacturers
member factories Association (MGMA) employed approximately 230,000 people, after
employed approximately a period during 2014 in which about 5,000 new jobs had been created
230,000 people a month.

In the first quarter of 2015, More than twice as many people worked in foreign owned factories than
foreign owned factories in domestically owned factories in the first quarter of 2015, despite the
employed more than twice fact that there were similar numbers of foreign owned and domestically
as many people as owned factories (Table 1).
domestically owned
factories, despite the fact Reflecting this, the average number of workers in foreign owned
that there were similar factories, at 896, was more or less twice the average of 445 who worked
numbers of foreign owned in domestically owned factories.
and domestically owned
factories Table 1: Myanmar: employment in the garment industry by origin of
investment, 1 qtr 2015

Origin of investment No of factories Employment


South Korea 48 56,011
Chinaa 30 24,698
Hong Kong 29 23,611
Taiwan 11 12,456
Japanb 21 10,101
Germany 1 2,400
Indonesia 1 1,568
Thailand 4 1,424
Singapore 2 1,400
Malaysia 1 1,146
British Virgin Islands 1 500
Australia 1 290
Austria 1 270
UK 1 261
Sub-total 152 136,136
Myanmar 148 65,881
Total 300 202,017
a
Including three China/Canada joint ventures and one China/Hong Kong joint venture.
b
Including one Japan/Thailand joint venture.
Source: Myanmar Garment Manufacturers Association (MGMA) Complete Members
List.

CHILD LABOUR
One major issue in the One major issue in the clothing industries in a number of developing
clothing industries in a countries is that of child labour. Many unscrupulous employers employ
number of developing children in order to exploit them. But the other side of the coin is that
countries is that of child many families rely on the earnings of their children to support them
labour financially.

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In Myanmar, employers In Myanmar, employers may think that the employment of children who
may think that employing have to support their families is in keeping with being good,
children who have to compassionate Buddhists.
support their families is in
keeping with being good However, the employment of child labour in the garment export
Buddhists but child labour industry is not acceptable under any circumstances and this is something
is unacceptable that employers must come to terms with.

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS
Industrial relations represent Industrial relations represent a new concept in Myanmar, and trade
a new concept in Myanmar unions and employers are going through a difficult learning process.

Labour union leaders are Labour union leaders are learning that the right to strike does not
learning that the right to mean they should always organise strikes.
strike does not mean they
should always organise Indeed, workers who are unhappy with a situation5 are learning that it
strikes and that it is better is better to talk with the factory management first and then strike if
to talk with the factory necessaryrather than the other way round.
management first
MINIMUM WAGE LEVELS
Myanmar introduced a On June 29, 2015, the Ministry of Labour, Employment and Social
national minimum wage Security announced its intention to set a national minimum wage for all
of Kt3,600 (US$2.80) a sectors in Myanmar of Kt3,600 (US$2.80) a day with effect from
day on September 1, 2015 September 1, 2015.

The rate came as a shock as The announcement came as a shock to manyespecially local clothing
it was more than double the manufacturers. This is because the rate was more than double the
introductory wage for average introductory wage for unskilled workers in the clothing
unskilled clothing workers industry.

Furthermore, Myanmar has Furthermore, for overtime hours, workers are entitled to receive 200%
the highest overtime pay in of the wage rate which applies to normal hourswhich means that
the region and overtime pay Myanmar has the highest overtime pay in the region.
kicks in after 44 hours a
week instead of the 48 hours In addition, Myanmars overtime pay kicks in after 44 hours a week
which is the norm in other instead of the 48 hours which is the norm for manufacturing jobs in
countries in the region other countries in the region.

EDUCATION AND TRAINING

A major challenge for the A major challenge for the garment industry in Myanmar is a lack of
garment industry in education and training, and this challenge extends to employers as well
Myanmar is a lack of as workers in the industry.
education and training

5
It was reported, for example, that workers were unhappy with an employer who had installed a camera in front
of the toilets to check lost time.

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WORKER EDUCATION AND TRAINING


The literacy rate in Myanmar The literacy rate in Myanmar is high. Indeed, according to the 2014
is high, and Myanmar boasts Myanmar census, it stood at 89.5% in that year.
a large number of university
graduates who speak foreign Also, Myanmar boasts a large number of university graduates who speak
languages foreign languages, including English, Chinese, French and Korean.

Furthermore, manufacturers Manufacturers in the garment industry claim that the quality of
in the garment industry workmanship in their factories is high. This is especially true in the case
claim that the quality of of items in which the industry has particular experience and
workmanship in their specialisationsuch as outerwear, rain jackets, padded jackets,
factories is high sportswear and woven trousers.

However, the clothing However, the clothing industry in Myanmar employs more unskilled
industry in Myanmar and low skilled workers than any other industry in the country.
employs more unskilled and
low skilled workers than any The industry lacks vocational training programmes, and most garment
other industry in the country, workers have to be educated in the factories.
it lacks vocational training
programmes, and expertise is Also, expertise is lacking among low to middle levels of management,
lacking among low to middle and the industry urgently needs more specialists such as mechanics,
levels of management merchandisers and pattern makers.

There are a number of There are a number of training initiatives in the country but these tend
training initiatives and to operate on a small scale.
training centres in the
country, such as the For example, the Myanmar Garment Manufacturers Association
Myanmar Garment Human (MGMA) has established a training centre, Myanmar Garment Human
Resources Development Resources Development Center, but this has a capacity of only 60
Center established by MGMA students a month.
and the Technical School
founded by Jetro and MITI Another training centre is the technical school, founded by Japan
in Japan, but these tend to External Trade Organization (Jetro) and the then Ministry of
operate on a small scale International Trade and Industry (MITI)6 in Japan.

It is difficult to recruit and The garment industry finds it difficult to recruit and retain skilled
retain skilled workers, workers. This is a particular problem in YangonMyanmars economic
especially in Yangon capital and the centre of its garment industry.

Many workers, once they Manufacturers complain that many workersonce they have acquired
have acquired skills, quit and skillsquit and move in search of better pay to factories along
move in search of better pay Myanmars borders with China and Thailand, especially factories in the
along Myanmars borders city of Mae Sot on the Myanmar-Thai border.
with China and Thailand
EMPLOYER EDUCATION AND TRAINING
Efforts are being made to Through various initiatives, efforts are being made to increase the
increase the international international competitiveness of the garment industry in Myanmar and
competitiveness of the gar- to encourage sustainable production.
ment industry in Myanmar
6
In 2001 the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) became the Ministry of Economy, Trade and
Industry (METI).

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SMART Myanmar: environmental accountability, responsibility


and transparency
SMART Myanmar is designed One initiative is an EU-funded project called SMART Myanmar (SMEs
to promote and support the for Environmental Accountability, Responsibility and Transparency)
sustainable production of which is designed to promote and support the sustainable production of
garments and increase the garments while striving to increase the international competitiveness of
competitiveness of SMEs small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the country.

The project has been The project has been instrumental in building the capabilities of MGMA
instrumental in building as an association and in opening up the association to all aspects of
the capabilities of MGMA doing business with Western countries, including corporate social
responsibility (CSR).

SMART Myanmar employs SMART Myanmar employs local project managers and eight local
local project managers and engineers, and has been conducting training sessions and workshops in
engineers, and has been con- 16 factories. Of these, 14 are locally owned, one is Chinese-owned and
ducting training sessions and one is a joint venture between a Myanmar company and an Australian
workshops in 16 factories company.

It has also been replicating SMART Myanmar has also been replicating company audits across at
company audits across at least 100 SMEs and provides advice based on the results.
least 100 SMEs
BIF: improvements in productivity and human resource
management
In October 2013 BIF In October 2013 the UK-based organisation BIF (Business Innovation
announced the launch of a Facility) announced the launch of a second phase of a BIF programme
second phase of a BIF in Myanmar. The first phase was operational during 2010-13.
programme in Myanmar,
during which it will provide During the second phase, BIF will provide 4.9 mn (US$7.9 mn) worth
4.9 mn worth of funding of funding over a period of four years.

The programme is being The programme is being delivered in partnership with:


delivered in partnership
with HamsaHub, Tufts HamsaHuba Myanmar-based business consulting firm providing
University, dedicated services in project and programme design, stakeholder
PricewaterhouseCoopers analysis and international development;
and Impactt Tufts University in Boston, Massachusetts, USA;
PricewaterhouseCoopers; and
Impactt, a consultancy based in the UK which specialises in ethical
trade.

Impactt provided training in Impactt provided training in early 2014 at two pilot garment factories:
early 2014 at two pilot
garment factories which Shwe Mingalar; and
focused on encouraging the A1 Garments.
factories to adopt
productivity improvements The training focused on encouraging the factories to adopt
and better human resource productivity improvements and better human resource management
management practices practices.

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Early results were very Early results were very positive. Among these results were:
positive and included
increases in productivity, a productivity increase of 10% in Shwe Mingalar and one of 17%
reductions in absenteeism in A1 Garments;
and improvements in significant reductions in absenteeism; and
quality control significant improvements in quality control.

Both factories reported a A1 Garments reported a reduction in the number of rejected products
sharp reduction in the from 100-200 a day to just 4-5 a day while Shwe Mingalar reported a
number of rejected products reduction from 118 to 23.

The pilot group has now The pilot group has now been expanded to include 12 factories.
been expanded to 12 factories
Methods Apparel Consultancy India: productivity-enhancing
sewing methods
In June 2015 Apparel In June 2015 an Indian consulting company, Methods Apparel
Consultancy India Consultancy India, presented its productivity-enhancing sewing
presented its productivity- methods for the first time in Myanmar at the 4th Myanmar
enhancing sewing methods International Textile & Garment Industry Exhibition (MTG). The
for the first time in latter was held in Yangon (formerly Rangoon), Myanmar, during
Myanmar at the 4th MTG June 26-29, 2015.

GARMENT MANUFACTURING EQUIPMENT

Demand for garment Demand for garment manufacturing machinery in Myanmar is expected
manufacturing machinery to increase in the coming years, although not at a fast pace.
in Myanmar is expected to
increase in the coming This was the view of most of those who were exhibiting at the 4th
years, although not at a Myanmar International Textile & Garment Industry Exhibition (MTG)
fast pace which took place in YangonMyanmars economic capitalduring
June 26-29, 2015.

CAD-CAM EQUIPMENT
AGMS Corporation has AGMS Corporation, based in Tokyo, Japan, has supplied
supplied CAD systems to computer-aided design (CAD) systems to Myanmar through Chinese
Myanmar through Chinese customers who have invested in the country. This represents a small
customers who have proportion of the 500 customers AGMS has altogether in China but,
invested in the country nonetheless, it is a good starting point.

Eight of these systems were Eight of AGMSs CAD systems were being used in 2014 by Tristate
being used by Tristate Myanmar Co, a subsidiary of the leading Chinese apparel maker Tristate
Myanmar Co in 2014 Holdings Ltd.

Four are being used by Four CAD units supplied by AGMS are being used by AGMSs
AGMSs distributor for a distributor in Myanmar, Dozo Fashion Design Technical School, for a
CAD system training course special CAD system training course.

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Lectra will strengthen its In addition, Lectrathe leading French supplier of CAD-CAM
presence in Myanmar when (computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing)
its sales and service agent in equipmentwill strengthen its presence in Myanmar when KTMC
the country opens an office Trading, the sales and service agent in Myanmar for Lectra, opens an
in Yangon in early 2016 office in Yangon in early 2016.

The first automatic cutter Until recently, there were no automatic cutters in Myanmar. However,
in Myanmar was installed the first Lectra cutter was installed in January 2016 at Sabwa VT, a
in January 2016 at Sabwa subsidiary of VT Garment in Thailand.
VT, a subsidiary of a Thai
company, and a Taiwanese Several companies based in South Korea and Taiwan have confirmed
company intends to install a their interest in either relocating some of their existing cutters to
Lectra cutter in early 2016 Myanmar or investing in new ones. In particular, a Taiwanese company
which has a facility in China equipped with CAM intends to install a
Lectra cutter in Myanmar in early 2016.

Future installations of Future installations of CAD-CAM equipment in Myanmar will depend


CAD-CAM equipment in partly on the preferences of the major garment customers.
Myanmar will depend
partly on the preferences Adidas is said to prefer equipment from the USA-based company
of the major garment Gerber in facilities producing Adidas articles whereas H&M tends to
customers recommend Lectra equipment.

IRONING EQUIPMENT
Veit has sold more than 30 Veit, a leading German manufacturer of ironing equipment, has
ironing tables in Myanmar sold more than 30 ironing tables in Myanmar through Veit Hong
and an FX Diamond Kong.
1000/1400 fusing machine,
which won a Texprocess It has also sold six folding tables and one FX Diamond 1000/1400
2015 Innovation Award fusing machinewhich won a Texprocess 2015 Innovation Award.

The latter machine had The latter machine had been recommended by a German shirt maker
been recommended by a who buys from a high quality garment factory in Myanmar which is
German shirt maker owned by a South Korean company.

SEWING MACHINERY
Holly Engineering Holly Engineering (Myanmar), a subsidiary of a Chinese company,
(Myanmar) claims that it is claims that it is already selling US$5 mn worth of machinery annually
selling US$5 mn worth of to companies in Myanmar.
machinery annually to com-
panies in Myanmar, consis- This machinery consists mainly of Jaki sewing machines, which are
ting mainly of Jaki sewing much cheaper than the famous Japanese Juki machines. According to
machines, which are much the Bangkok Office of Juki Singapore Pte Ltd, Juki has more than 30%
cheaper than the famous of the sewing machinery market in Myanmar.
Japanese Juki machines
WASHING, DYEING AND FINISHING EQUIPMENT
The dyeing and finishing The dyeing and finishing facilities installed in Myanmar are not capable
facilities in Myanmar are of serving the garment export industry as they are obsolete.
obsolete and therefore Consequently, dyers and finishers in the country confine their activities
serve only the local market to serving the local market.

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There are two washing There are two washing facilities in Myanmar owned by South Korean
facilities in Myanmar serving companies but these seem to serve only South Korean customers in
South Korean customers but Myanmar.
most styles produced in
Myanmar using CMP manu- In fact, most of the garment styles produced in Myanmar on a CMP
facturing do not need washing manufacturing7 basis do not need washing.

In 2015 Theparerg invested In 2015 a leading Thai manufacturer of woven and denim products,
in a new plant in the Yangon Theparerg, invested US$6.1 mn in a new garment plant, called
region which includes a Golden Theparerg, in the Yangon region. The plant includes a
laundry laundry.

The laundry serves other The laundry began operating in October 2015 and serves other garment
garment makers in Myanmar manufacturers in Myanmar.

Its capabilities include The laundry has the capacity for: treating 7.2 mn garments a year using
normal washing processes, normal washing processes; treating 2.4 mn garments a year using
enzyme washing processes enzyme washing processes; and washing 1 mn denim garments a year.
and denim washing
WEAVING MACHINERY
Weaving machinery in Weaving machinery in Myanmar is very outdated. This was certainly
Myanmar is outdated so the the view of at least one exhibitor at the 4th MTG, namely the Italian
Italian textile machinery textile machinery company Itema which builds Somet, Sulzer and
company Itema is looking Vamatex weaving machines.
for a partner in Myanmar
to install one of its weaving Itema therefore sees significant potential in the industry and is looking
machines for demonstration for a partner in Myanmar to install one of its weaving machines for
purposes demonstration purposes.

A market for higher quality The Italians, in particular, believe that a market for higher quality
woven fabrics will develop woven fabrics will develop as garment exporters shift from operating on
as garment exporters shift a cutting, making and packaging (CMP) basis to one based on fob (free
from operating on a CMP on board) manufacture8, and that this prospect will spur investment in
basis to an fob basis woven fabric manufacture.

7
Under the cutting, making and packaging (CMP) system, a brand or retailer purchases fabric and supplies the
fabric, along with detailed manufacturing specifications, to a clothing producerusually one in a low cost
countrywho cuts the fabric, carries out the sewing operations needed to produce a finished garment, packages
the garment and then ships the garment to the brand company or retailer. In general, garment producers
operating on a CMP basis do not purchase materials or become involved in the design of the garment. They are
merely concerned with its manufacture and are paid for the operations they carry out.
8
Under the fob (free on board) system, the garment producer takes full responsibility for obtaining the fabric
and other materials and for producing the finished garment, and sells the garment to the brand company or
retailer for an agreed price. Thus the brand company or retailer buys a finished garment without having to get
involved in the details of its manufacture. Having said that, many brand companies and retailers prefer to
maintain control of the fabric procurement process in order to assure quality levels and to obtain fabric from
suppliers on more favourable termsnotably bulk discountsthan the terms negotiable by garment makers,
although the brand companies and retailers may not always pay for the fabric. Such a strategy is sometimes
referred to as controlled fob.

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One shortcoming which One shortcoming which would need to be overcome, however, is that
would need to be overcome, the quality of the cotton yarn used for weaving in Myanmar falls short
however, is the poor quality of the standard required for modern, sophisticated weaving machines
of the cotton yarn used in such as those produced by Itema. Most of the yarn is spun in China or
weaving in Myanmar India from cotton grown in Myanmar.

PRODUCTION OF RAW MATERIALS

NATURAL FIBRES
Several types of natural fibres Several types of natural fibres are cultivated in Myanmar, including
are cultivated in Myanmar bamboo, cotton, jute and kenaf.

Most of the cotton produced In the case of cotton, most production in Myanmar is used in the
is used in textile products manufacture of textile products aimed at the domestic market rather
aimed at the domestic market than products aimed at export markets.

There are an estimated There are an estimated 250,000 farms growing cotton in Myanmar,
250,000 farms growing according to the managing director of Control Union Myanmar, Roshan
cotton in Myanmar Ranawake, based on data from the Department of Industrial Crops
Development of the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation.

Cotton cultivation The total area of land under the cultivation of cottonincluding
accounts for an estimated genetically modified (GM) cotton and traditional varietiesis estimated
295,000 ha of land at about 295,000 ha.

Most cotton farmers operate Most of the cotton farmers operate on a very small scalethe average
on a very small scale and size of a farm is only 1.2 ha.
grow short staple cotton
without using pesticides so Also, they produce mainly short staple cotton without using pesticides.
there are opportunities for According to local laws, farmers are not permitted to grow GM varieties
brands which sell clothing of cotton in Myanmar. Myanmar therefore offers opportunities for
made from organic cotton brands which boast that they sell clothing made from organic cotton.

However, two improved However, there are two main improved varieties which, according to
varieties may be of GM Roshan Ranawake, may be of GM origin. Also, it was recognised
origin and it was recently that the cultivation of Bt cottona genetically modified variety
recognised recently that the of cotton produced by the US chemical company Monsantohas been
cultivation of Bt cotton has in widespread use in Myanmar since 2006/07, according to a statement
been in widespread use in by the agriculture and irrigation minister, U Myint Hlaing, on
Myanmar since 2006/07 February 24, 2014.

In fact, it was stated on Also on February 24, 2014, the founder of the International Service for
February 24, 2014, that a the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA), Dr Clive James,
long staple Bt cotton stated that a long staple Bt cotton variety, Ngwe Chi-6, developed by the
variety had been planted Myanmar Industrial Crops Development Enterprise, had been planted
on 305,000 ha of land by on 305,000 ha of land by 435,000 small-scale farmers (see above),
435,000 farmers which was equivalent to an adoption rate of 85%.

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During 2006/07-2013/14, Bt Over the eight-year period from 2006/07 to 2013/14 inclusive, the use
cotton helped to increase the of Bt cotton helped farmers to increase the yield of cotton grown in
cotton yield almost fivefold Myanmar almost fivefold, from 450 kg per ha to 2,100 kg per ha.

In 2014 Myanmar produced In 2014 Myanmar produced 900,000 bales (196,000 tons) of cotton.
900,000 bales of cotton, This was more than three times the 270,000 bales produced in 2000.
although this made it a However, it was still less than the 1.29 mn bales produced in 2014 in
relatively small producer Greecewhich is regarded as a relatively small producer of cotton.
Table 2: Myanmar: cotton production, 1960-2014

1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2014


Volume (balesa) 75,000 65,000 121,000 91,000 270,000 925,000 900,000
a
480 lb bales.
Source: United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).

There are only a few ginning There are only a few ginning9 factories in Myanmar and all of these
factories in Myanmar and have been privatised. However, the equipment installed in them is old,
the equipment installed in and companies operating such equipment can not be regarded as
them is old compliant.

Most of the cotton spinning The countrys cotton spinning facilities are located in upper Myanmar.
facilities are obsolete and Most of them are obsolete, and are equipped with German and
equipped with German Japanese machines from the 1960s and 1970s. Only a few have newer
and Japanese machines equipment, in the form of Chinese spinning equipment dating back to
from the 1960s and 1970s the 1990s.

Two groups are said to be Two groups are said to be interested in setting up new spinning facilities
interested in setting up in Myanmarone group with headquarters in Hong Kong and the other
new spinning facilities in with headquarters in Luxembourg.
Myanmar
MAN-MADE FIBRES
There is no man-made fibre There is no production of polyester or any other type of man-made fibre
production in Myanmar and in Myanmar.
so there are market oppor-
tunities for foreign suppliers Consequently, there are market opportunities for foreign suppliers of
to sell into the country man-made fibres to sell into the country.

Recognising these Recognising these opportunities, Xianglu Chemical Fibera producer


opportunities, Xianglu based in China with the capacity to produce 350,000 tons of polyester
Chemical Fiber exhibited filament yarns and polyester staple fibre per annumexhibited for
for the first time at the 4th the first time at the 4th Myanmar International Textile & Garment
MTG in June 2015 with the Industry Exhibition (MTG) in June 2015 with the aim of finding new
aim of finding new markets markets.

There is, however, a factory There is, however, a factory in Yangon producing padding for jackets
in Yangon producing poly- made from polyester. The factory is owned by investors based in South
ester padding for jackets Korea.

9
Cotton ginning is the process of separating cotton fibres from their seeds and seed hulls, and other small
objects.

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TEXTILE AND CLOTHING PRODUCTION

TEXTILE PRODUCTION
Location
Myanmars textile Myanmars textile production is concentrated mainly around Mandalay,
production is concentrated Myanmars second largest city (see map on page 98).
mainly around Mandalay
Markets
Most of the textiles produced Most of the textiles produced in Myanmar are destined for the domestic
in Myanmar are destined for market. However, textile output is too small to meet domestic demand.
the domestic market but According to a document entitled National Export Strategy 2015-2019
textile output is too small to (see page 113), only 6% of domestic demand for textiles in 2012 was
meet domestic demand met by domestic production.

This problem can only get This problem can only get worse as the garment industry continues to
worse as the garment expand.
industry expands, although
the shortfall will depend on However, the extent of the shortfall will depend on how much
how much investment goes investment goes into the textile industry.
into the textile industry
GARMENT PRODUCTION
Location
The garment industry is The garment industry is concentrated in Yangon (formerly Rangoon),
concentrated in Yangon the economic capital of Myanmar. Indeed, this area is home to hundreds
(formerly Rangoon) of garment factories.

Further afield, investors are Further afield, investors are being attracted to the Thilawa Industrial
being attracted to the Zonesome 25 km south of Yangonand to the adjacent Thilawa
Thilawa Industrial Zone, Special Economic Zone which is under construction. Most of these
some 25 km south of Yangon investors are foreign garment manufacturers.

There are smaller centres There are smaller centres of garment production in Bagowhich is
of garment production in 87 km north of Yangonand in Pathein, which is 196 km west of
Bago and in Pathein Yangon.

Elsewhere, UMH Garment Elsewhere, UMH Garment Industries, based in Myanmar, established
Industries established the the first garment factory in the Hpa-an Industrial Zone in 2012. The
first garment factory in the zone is near Mawlamyine, which is about 160 km east of Yangon.
Hpa-an Industrial Zone in
2012 in a move expected to The move was expected to reduce pressure on industrial zones in
reduce pressure on Yangon and to generate jobs for local workers who might otherwise
industrial zones in Yangon have moved to other locationssuch as Mae Sot in Thailand.

There are also garment There are also garment factories in Mandalay, which produce traditional
factories in Mandalay garments and attire for the domestic market.

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SUPPLIERS OF GARMENT INPUTS


A number of foreign A number of foreign suppliers of garment inputs10 have established
suppliers of garment operations in Myanmaror are exporting garment inputs to the
inputs have established countryin response to the expansion of the garment industry and in
operations in Myanmar anticipation of further growth.

For example, Coats has set For example, one of the worlds leading producers of sewing thread,
up an office in Yangon Coatswhose headquarters are in the UKhas set up an office in
Yangon.

Also, American & Efird has Also, a leading competitor of Coats, namely American & Efird
recently expanded production (Bangladesh) Ltd, has recently expanded production capacities at its
capacities at its plants in plants in Dhaka and Chittagong, both in Bangladesh, to enable it to
Bangladesh to enable it to respond to additional demand from nearby countries, including
respond to additional demand Myanmar. According to American & Efird, it takes only one or two
from nearby countries, days to send goods by sea from the companys plant in Chittagong to
including Myanmar Yangon port.

Meanwhile, YKK has estab- Meanwhile, a major foreign supplier of zips, YKK, based in Japan, has
lished an office in Yangon established an office in Yangon.

Also, Jiangsu Rixi Zipper Also, a Chinese zip producer, Jiangsu Rixi Zipper Co Ltd, based in
has been selling products Wuxi City, Jiangsu province, China, has been selling products destined
destined for Myanmar via for Myanmar via foreign trade companies in China.
foreign trade companies in
China The trade companies prepare fabrics and accessories in packages to be
sent from China to Myanmar-based factories.

Jiangsu Rixi Zipper produces Jiangsu Rixi Zipper Co Ltd has 650 employees, generates a turnover of
20 mn pieces annually under US$25 mn and produces 20 mn pieces annually under the brand name
the brand name THC THC.

SOURCING FROM MYANMAR

The first Western brand to The first Western brand to source from Myanmar, albeit by placing test
source from Myanmar was orders at first, was H&M in 2013.
H&M in 2013 followed by
Gap in June 2014 Next was Gap, which has been sourcing from Myanmar since June
2014.

These companies appear These companies appear to have paved the way for others to follow.
to have paved the way for Recently, sourcing offices were established in Yangon by Adidas and
others Lidl, and it has been reported that several others are sourcing from
Myanmarincluding Camaeu, Celio, Decathlon, KappAhl, Marks and
Spencer (M&S), Max Mara, Next, Primark, Tesco and Topshop.

10
The term garment inputs is used in this report to describe threads, fabrics, other textiles and accessories which
are used in the manufacture of clothing.

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Meanwhile, Inditexwhich owns the Zara brandis said to have only


explored the market.

Also, offices have been In the wake of foreign manufacturers and brands, offices have also been
established in Yangon by established in Yangon by service providers such as Control Union and
service providers who carry AQM. The former carries out inspections while the latter monitors and
out inspections and monitor controls a factorys compliance with quality standards and those relating
and control a factorys to corporate social responsibility (CSR).
compliance
KEEPING TRACK OF SUPPLIERS
Western fashion brands are Western fashion brands are increasingly eager to keep track of their
increasingly eager to keep suppliers and the factories in which their products are made.
track of their suppliers and
the factories in which their Such a task is especially difficult in the apparel industry as
products are made, subcontracting is common practice in apparel manufacturing and, in
especially since the highly many cases, it takes place without the knowledge or permission of the
publicised fire at the brands.
Tazreen Fashions factory in
Bangladesh and the even The need to keep track of suppliers has become even more important
more highly publicised since the highly publicised fire at the Tazreen Fashions factory in
collapse of Rana Plaza, also Bangladesh11 and the even more highly publicised collapse of Rana
in Bangladesh Plaza, also in Bangladesh12.

However, most garment facto- However, while many garment factories in Bangladesh are in buildings
ries in Myanmar pose less risk with six or more storeys, most garment factories in Myanmar pose less
to human health than those in risk to human health in so far as they are in buildings with only one or
Bangladesh as they are in two storeys.
buildings with only one or two
storeys and are not locked Also, while many factories in Bangladesh are locked while people are
while people are at work at work, this is not the case in Myanmar.

Furthermore, there are no Furthermore, there are no known problems regarding untracked
known problems regarding subcontracting in Myanmaralthough there had been problems before
untracked subcontracting international sanctions were imposed following the violent suppression
in Myanmar although this by the Myanmar military of popular protests in 1988.
may pose a risk in the
future It is possible, therefore, that untracked subcontracting may pose a risk
in the future.

11
On November 24, 2012, a fire broke out at Tazreen Fashionsa factory located in the Ashulia district on the
outskirts of Dhaka, Bangladesh, which manufactured ready-made garments. The fire killed 112 people.
12
Rana Plaza was an eight-storey commercial building, located in Sazar near Dhaka, Bangladesh, which housed
five garment factories and a mall. The building collapsed April 24, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 1,127
garment workers and causing injuries to several hundred others. The building had been sealed off on the
previous day when several cracks appeared on the third floor but it was reopened and employees were asked to
return to work. Some employees refused to do so because of fears over their safety and a number of these were
reportedly threatened with loss of pay. The five factories based in the buildingEther Tex, New Wave Bottoms,
New Wave Style, Phantom Apparels and Phantom Tacemployed more than 3,000 workers. Garments made at
the factories were supplied to a number of apparel retailers in Europe and North America, including Benetton,
Bonmarch, El Corte Ingls, Joe Fresh, Kik, Mango, Matalan, Primark, Texman and The Childrens Place.

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REMOVAL OF SANCTIONS AND PREFERENTIAL ACCESS


ARRANGEMENTS
One of the handicaps faced One of the handicaps faced by the clothing industry in Myanmar is that
by the clothing industry in the country was excluded from global sourcing networks for nearly a
Myanmar is that the decade during 2003-12 because of economic sanctions imposed by
country was excluded from Australia, Canada, the EU, New Zealand and the USA. During this
global sourcing networks period, exports went mainly to Japan and South Korea.
for nearly a decade during
2003-12 because of But in recent years, most of the sanctions have been removed. In mid-
economic sanctions, but in 2013 the EU included Myanmar under the Everything But Arms (EBA)
recent years most of the provision of its Generalised System of Preferences (GSP) scheme13.
sanctions have been Under this provision, imports of all products except arms and
removed and many armaments from designated least developed countries (LDCs) are
countries have granted free provided with full duty-free and quota-free access.
trade or preferential trade
status to clothing made in In March 2015 the Canadian government approved duty-free trade
Myanmar status for Myanmar, thus joining Australia, the EU, Japan, New Zealand
and South Korea in granting free trade or preferential trade status to
clothing made in Myanmar.

In Japan, special tax preferences for clothing made in Myanmar were


extended in April 2015 to include knitwear.

In the USA, imports of In the USA, imports of clothing from Myanmar are subject to duties.
clothing from Myanmar However, Myanmar enjoys Most Favoured Nation (MFN) status, which
enjoy MFN status but they means that the duties which apply to clothing imports from the country
are subject to duties, US are lower, at 2-20%, than those which apply to imports from countries
sanctions have not been that do not enjoy MFN status.
lifted completely, and
American companies need Having said that, US sanctions have not been lifted completely and
to carry out due diligence therefore American companies wanting to do business in Myanmar need
to hire a good lawyer to carry out due diligence.

CLOTHING EXPORTS

Exports of clothing from Exports of clothing from Myanmar increased by 27.4% between 2013
Myanmar increased by and 2014according to the Myanmar Garment Manufacturers
27.4% to US$1,462 mn in Association (MGMA)from US$1,147 mn to US$1,462 mn (Table 3).
2014 following a 26.5%
rise in 2013 The increase followed a rise of 26.5% between 2012 and 2013, when
exports increased from US$907 mn to US$1,147 mn.
13
The Generalised System of Preferences (GSP) is a system of tariff preferences operated by developed
countries. The EUs scheme, introduced in 1971, is designed to foster the development of developing countries
by granting them easier access to the EU market. See also: The European Parliament has finalised changes to
the EUs Generalised System of Preferences (GSP) scheme, Business update, Global Apparel Markets, No
20, 4th quarter 2012, page 103; Editorial: Pakistans Textile and Clothing Exporters May Gain Duty-Free
Access to EU Markets, Textile Outlook International, No 150, June 2011; and The EUs Generalised System
of Preferences (GSP): Impact on Textile and Clothing Trade, Textile Outlook International, No 137,
September-October 2008.

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Within the total for 2014, Within the overall total for clothing exports in 2014, the value of
the value of woven clothing woven clothing exports was 7.6 times the value of knitted clothing
exports was 7.6 times that exports.
of knitted clothing exports
Table 3: Myanmar: clothing exports, 2010-14

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014


Woven clothing 551.2 802.7 851.0 1,044.5 1,291.8
Knitted clothing 33.1 47.3 56.0 102.8 169.8
Total 584.3 850.0 907.0 1,147.3 1,461.6
Source: Comex, Trade Nosis.

In 2015/16 clothing exports In the countrys 2015/16 financial yearwhich began on April 1, 2015,
are expected to exceed and is due to end on March 31, 2016clothing exports are expected to
US$2 bn exceed US$2 bn.

EXPORTS OF WOVEN CLOTHING


Exports of woven clothing Exports of woven clothing from Myanmar grew by 23.7% to
from Myanmar grew by US$1,292 mn in 2014 following a 22.7% increase in the previous year
23.7% in 2014 (Table 4).

The largest market for The largest market for Myanmars woven clothing exports in 2014 was
Myanmars woven clothing Japan, followed by South Korea. Together, these two countries
exports in 2014 was Japan, accounted for as much as 71.7% of the countrys woven clothing
followed by South Korea exports to all destinations.

However, there was strong However, there was strong growth during the year in exports to a
growth during the year in number of European countriesincluding Germany, Italy, Malta, Spain
exports to a number of and the UK.
European countries
Table 4: Myanmar: exportsa of woven clothing, 2010-14
(US$ mn)
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Japan 182.6 342.0 391.5 458.1 518.5
South Korea 118.0 212.2 255.4 335.8 407.2
Germany 67.3 70.5 43.2 53.5 86.8
UK 24.7 27.4 32.6 36.8 58.3
Malta 44.5 40.0 31.1 37.5 47.0
Spain 44.5 40.0 33.6 37.5 46.9
China 1.1 4.8 17.5 34.3 29.5
Italy 5.1 5.6 7.6 7.3 21.7
Austria 8.6 10.4 8.8 8.5 9.7
Russia 7.7 10.9 5.6 5.2 5.4
Others 47.1 38.9 24.0 30.2 60.9
Total 551.2 802.7 851.0 1,044.5 1,291.8
% change n/a 45.6 6.0 22.7 23.7
a
fob values
Source: Comex, Trade Nosis.

EXPORTS OF KNITTED CLOTHING


Exports of knitted clothing Exports of knitted clothing from Myanmar shot up by 65.2% to
from Myanmar shot up by US$170 mn in 2014 following an 83.6% surge in the previous year
65.2% in 2014 after an (Table 5).
83.6% surge in 2013

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Table 5: Myanmar: exportsa of knitted clothing, 2010-14


(US$ mn)
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
South Korea 6.0 20.2 23.2 54.7 55.1
Japan 0.5 6.1 16.0 19.8 41.9
Germany 6.6 7.4 6.0 8.7 24.1
UK 4.3 3.0 1.4 6.4 10.6
Mexico 1.7 1.2 1.2 3.3 4.9
Russia 3.8 2.5 2.1 1.0 2.5
Spain 3.1 2.0 1.0 1.3 3.2
Malta 3.1 2.0 0.8 1.3 3.2
USA n/a n/a n/a 1.1 6.5
Netherlands 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.1 5.9
Others 3.6 2.7 4.0 5.2 11.9
Total 33.1 47.3 56.0 102.8 169.8
% change n/a 42.9 18.4 83.6 65.2
a
fob values.
Source: Comex, Trade Nosis.

South Korea was the largest Among individual countries, South Korea was the largest market in
market although there was 2014 with a 32.4% share.
strong growth between 2012
and 2014 in exports to However, there was strong growth between 2012 and 2014 in exports
Germany and the UK to a number of EU countries, including Germany and the UK.

EU clothing import statistics EU clothing import statistics indicate that knitwear imports from
indicate that knitwear Myanmar fell from Euro13.1 mn in 2009 to Euro7.7 mn in 2012.
imports from Myanmar
jumped from Euro7.7 mn in However, they jumped to Euro13.3 mn in 2013 and to Euro38.6 mn
2012 to Euro38.6 mn in 2014 (US$51.2 mn) in 2014.

Exports to Japan also rose at a Exports to Japan also rose at a rapid pace in 2014, and strong growth in
rapid pace in 2014 and strong exports to the country is expected in the coming years following an
growth in exports to the increase in April 2015 in the number of products eligible for import
country is expected as all tariff exemptions in the country.
knitwear products made in
Myanmar now enjoy duty-free As a result of this increase, all knitwear products made in Myanmar
access to the Japanese market now enjoy duty-free access to the Japanese market.

EXPORT STRATEGY

NATIONAL EXPORT STRATEGY


Under a sector strategy The Myanmar government has published a textile and garment industry
published within the sector strategy as part of a document entitled National Export Strategy
document National 2015-2019. Under the sector strategy, the industry has been advised to
Export Strategy 2015- pursue five goals, namely:
2019, the textile and
garment industry should to move from operating on a cutting, making and packaging (CMP)
pursue five goals basis to operating on an fob (free on boardsee page 105) basis;
to increase volume;
to improve quality;

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to produce a greater volume of knitted products; and


to develop its design expertise so that it can expand from operating
on an fob basis to one embracing original design.

In terms of geographical In terms of geographical markets, the aim will be to build further on the
markets, the aim will be to countrys biggest export markets. In 2015 the most important export
build further on the countrys market was Japan, followed by South Korea, Germany, the UK and
biggest export markets while Spain.
in terms of products the focus
will remain on mens wear In terms of products, the focus will remain on mens
although exports will be clothingincluding jackets, shorts, pants (trousers), suits and
expanded to include more work uniforms. However, exports will be expanded to include more
womens wear womens wear.

Another target is to Another target is to increase employment from an estimated 260,000


increase employment people in 2015 to 700,000-800,000 people in 2019.

However, there is some However, the wording of the National Export Strategy document
hesitation in developing a suggests that there is some hesitation in developing a strong textile
strong textile supply chain supply chain in Myanmar.

It is noted that textiles is It is noted, for example, that exports of garments from Myanmar
notoriously a low margin exceeded US$900 mn in 2012 whereas exports of textiles were valued
and environmentally dirty at only US$2.4 mn, and that textiles is notoriously a low margin and
sector and must not grow environmentally dirty sector and must not grow at the same pace as the
at the same pace as the garment industry.
garment industry
TRANSITION FROM CMP PRODUCTION TO FOB
PRODUCTION
Garment manufacturers in Garment manufacturers in Myanmar have been fairly successful in
Myanmar have found the improving social compliance and productivity in recent years but
transition from CMP to fob the transition from CMP production to fob production appears to be
production difficult more difficult.

The main barriers include The main barriers include:


the inadequacy of the
countrys financial system the inadequacy of the countrys financial system; and
and a lack of locally made a lack of locally made materials and accessoriesmost of the
materials fabrics used by apparel exporters based in Myanmar originate in
China.

Also, current tax legislation Also, current tax legislation in Myanmar appears to favour CMP
in Myanmar appears to production above fob production. There are reportedly no taxes on
favour CMP production imports of materials for use in manufacturing items for export on a
above fob production CMP basis but import taxes are payable on imports of goods for use in
manufacturing items on an fob basis.

Companies looking for Myanmar customs tariffs are based on the Harmonized System (HS).
information about customs However, companies looking for information about imported materials
tariffs on imported mate- on the Myanmar Customs website have found it impossible to find the
rials are best contacting the details they need and say that it is better to contact the Myanmar
MCBA directly Customs Brokers Association (MCBA) directly.

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EXPANDING THE KNITWEAR INDUSTRY


One of Myanmars goals One of the five goals of Myanmars National Export Strategy
for 2015-19 is to increase 2015-2019 for the textile and garment sector (see page 113) is to
knitted clothing production significantly increase the countrys capacity for producing knitted
capacity products.

In 2012 only 7% of Only 7% of the US$907 mn worth of garments exported in 2012 were
garments exported were knitted or crocheted. Within the total for knitted or crocheted garments,
knitted or crocheted the principal articles exported were sweaters and cardigans (8 mn
pieces) and T-shirts (7 mn pieces).

A number of the exhibitors at A number of the exhibitors at the 4th Myanmar International Textile
the 4th MTG were targeting & Garment Industry Exhibition (MTG)held in Yangon during
the knitwear industry, June 26-29, 2015were targeting the fledgling knitwear industry.
including the leading Chinese
manufacturer of flat knitting Among them was the leading Chinese manufacturer of flat knitting
machines, Ningbo Cixing machines, Ningbo Cixing.

At present, all supplies of At present, all supplies of knitted fabric in Myanmar are imported,
knitted fabric in Myanmar mainly from China (Table 6).
are imported, mainly from
China, although Thailand However, Thailand may increase its sales of knitted fabric to
may increase its sales of Myanmaraccording to the Thai company K-Knitas the
knitted fabric to Myanmar transportation time by truck from Bangkok to Yangon has recently been
as the transportation time reduced to four days.
by truck has recently been
reduced Table 6: Myanmar: importsa of knitted or crocheted fabrics, 2010-14
(US$ mn)
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
China 21.7 37.5 46.4 70.9 97.6
South Korea 6.6 14.0 14.1 23.3 21.2
Taiwan n/a n/a 1.0 7.5 8.9
Japan 1.1 2.7 1.3 3.0 4.1
Others 0.1 0.1 0.5 1.0 0.5
Total 29.5 54.3 63.3 105.7 134.3
% change n/a 84.1 16.6 67.0 27.1
a
fob values.
Source: Comex, Trade Nosis.

At present, knitted clothing At present, manufacturers who specialise in knitted clothing account for
manufacturers account for a a minor proportion of the 300 members of the MGMA, according to the
minor proportion of MGMA associations former project manager, Jacob Clere. However, the
members but their number is number of knitwear product manufacturers in the association is growing
growing very quickly very quickly.

Leading knitwear producers In mid-2015 leading knitwear manufacturers included the Chinese-
include the cardigan maker owned cardigan producer Myanmar Century Liaoyuan Knitted Wear
Myanmar Century Liaoyuan with 1,500 workers, the Hong Kong-owned sweater manufacturer
Knitted Wear, and the sweater Prosperity Knitwear Myanmar (see page 120) with 858 workers, and
makers Prosperity Knitwear the Taiwanese-owned sweater producer Zuyuan Edenweiss Sanwa
Myanmar and Zuyuan Industry, which specialises in organic alpaca sweaters and has 458
Edenweiss Sanwa Industry workers.

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There were also a There were also a number of T-shirt producers as well as two sock
number of T-shirt companiesnamely the Hong Kong-owned company United Knitting
producers as well as (Myanmar) with 300 workers and the South Korean-owned company
two sock companies LIA International with 430 workers.

DOMESTIC MARKET

Several foreign brands are Several foreign brands are available in the domestic market. In
available in shopping downtown Yangonthe economic capital of Myanmarsome
centres in the domestic shopping centres sell various Western brands, including Arrow, Guy
market, and branded Laroche, Max Mara and Wacoal, and in October 2014 Hugo Boss
garments are offered in organised an event to launch its brand in Myanmar.
small stalls along the
streets although the items Garments are also being offered under brand names such as Calvin
are probably counterfeited Klein and Lacoste in small stalls along the streets, although the items
are probably counterfeited.

Adidas has begun to sell Meanwhile, Adidas has started to sell footwear and some sportswear in
footwear and sportswear Myanmar but does not have any shops as yet.

One early mover in the retail One early mover in the retail sector in Myanmar was the Hong Kong-
sector in Myanmar was the based clothing retailer Giordano. The company first started to set up
Hong Kong-based clothing shops around the country several years agoin Mandalay, Yangon and
retailer Giordano other cities.

The Thai clothing company Another company to establish a retail presence in Myanmar is the Thai
Mc Group entered the clothing company Mc Group.
market in 2012 and now
claims a 40% share of the The company entered the market in Myanmar in 2012, and now claims
Myanmar jeans market a share of 40% in the Myanmar jeans market.

It acts via its authorised The company acts via its authorised sales agent, HBT Co Ltd, which
sales agent, HBT imports Mc Jeans from Thailand through the Mae Sot border crossing.

FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI) AND DOMESTIC


INVESTMENT

Traditionally, the main There is huge interest from Chinese investors in the Myanmar garment
investor in the Myanmar industry.
garment industry has been
South Korea but in recent Traditionally, the main investor in this industry has been South Korea.
years investment from But investment from South Korea has grown only slowly in recent years
China has soared and in while investment from China has soared.
2015 accumulated invest-
ment from China is In 2015 accumulated investment in the Myanmar garment industry from
expected to have exceeded China is expected to have exceeded accumulated investment in the
that from South Korea industry from South Korea.

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There has also been a lot of There has also been a lot of interest from Thai companies, and interest
interest shown by investors has been shown by investors based in Bangladesh, the EU, Hong Kong,
based in other countries India, Indonesia, Japan, Taiwan, Turkey and Vietnam.

Individual Thai producers Individual Thai manufacturers are keen to take advantage of the
are keen to take advantage difference between the Thai minimum wage of Bt300 (US$8.40) a day
of Myanmars lower and the Myanmar minimum wage of Kt3,600 (US$2.80) a day by
minimum wage investing in Myanmar.

The TGMA is pursuing a One initiative which may help them to do so is the so-called Gateway
Gateway Asean strategy Asean14 strategy. Under this strategy, the Thai Garment Manufacturers
whereby international Association (TGMA) is trying to attract international sourcing centres
buyers can source fob and to the Thai capital, Bangkok. Using these centres, international
OD products from Thai buyersor sourcing companies acting on their behalfcan source fob
companies which may have (free on boardsee page 105) and OD (original design) products from
factories in Myanmar Thai companies which may have factories in Myanmar.

Foreign direct investment Foreign direct investment in the Myanmar garment industry has been a
in the garment industry blessing for the Myanmar economy. However, it has also raised a
has been welcomed number of concerns.
because it has created jobs
for young workers and On the positive side, new investments in the garment industry have
brought in valuable know- created much needed jobs for young workersmostly women with
how and foreign currency limited educationand have brought in valuable know-how and foreign
but locally owned CMP currency.
factories are finding it
hard to compete with But the downside is that locally owned CMP factories are having
foreign investors for good to compete for good workers and export orders and, in this respect,
workers and export orders most of these factories are no match for those set up by foreign
investors.

In response, various In response, various initiatives have been pursued by a number of


initiatives have been organisations with the aim of improving the competitiveness and
pursued by a number of corporate social responsibility (CSR) of locally owned companies. Such
organisations with the aim organisations include:
of improving the
competitiveness and CSR the International Labour Organization (ILO);
of locally owned companies the EU, through its SMART Myanmar initiative; and
the Myanmar Garment Manufacturers Association (MGMA).

Also, eight foreign clothing In another initiative, eight foreign clothing companiesincluding Gap,
companies have joined the Hennes & Mauritz (H&M) and six othershave joined the Business for
BSR Myanmar Responsible Social Responsibility (BSR) Myanmar Responsible Sourcing initiative,
Sourcing initiative, whose aim whose aim is to assist the local industry to grow in a sustainable
is to assist the local industry manner.

14
Asean = Association of Southeast Asian Nations, comprising Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia,
Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.

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But in spite of all these efforts, But in spite of all these support efforts, it is tough for local
it is tough for local manufac- garment manufacturers to bridge the gap caused by ten years of
turers to bridge the gap isolation from international trade during 2003-12 resulting from
caused by isolation from inter- sanctions imposed on Myanmar by the governments of other
national trade during 2003-12 countries.

Investors are attracted by The main attraction of Myanmar to investors is the countrys low labour
Myanmars low labour costs costs. However, there are a number of impediments to investment,
but there are a number of including corruption, environmental policies and procedures, labour
impediments to investment rights, land disputes and worker safety issues.

Myanmar ranked among the In the case of corruption, Myanmar and Cambodia both scored 21 out
most corrupt countries on of 100 on a scale from 0 (highly corrupt) to 100 (very clean) on
Transparency Internationals Transparency Internationals 2014 Corruption Perceptions Index, and
2014 Corruption Perceptions both ranked 156th among the 175 countries listed.
Index and, although it had
improved its score compared Admittedly, Myanmar had improved its score compared with 2012,
with 2012, it was still worse from 15 to 21, while Cambodias score had worsened, from 22 to 21.
than that of Bangladesh
However, the performances of these two countries were worse than the
performance of Bangladesh, which scored 25 and ranked 145th.

FUTURE PROSPECTS

Two events in the second Two events in the second half of 2015 heralded big challenges and
half of 2015 heralded big changes in Myanmar.
challenges and changes in
Myanmar, namely the The first event was the announcement of a minimum wage by the
announcement of a National Minimum Wage Determination Committee on August 28,
minimum wage 2015. The wage was set at Kt3,600 (US$2.80) for an eight-hour day,
calculated at a rate of Kt450 per hour, with effect from September
2015.

and Myanmars first The second event, and one of momentous importance, was
openly contested election Myanmars first openly contested election in decades, which was
in decades held on November 8, 2015.

In both cases the country as On both occasions, economic and political news observers held their
a whole remained calm, breath. But in both cases the country as a whole remained calm,
peaceful and stable, and this peaceful and stableand this bodes well for the future.
bodes well for the future
MINIMUM WAGE
The minimum monthly pay As a result of the decision of the National Minimum Wage
for workers is set at about Determination Committee, the minimum monthly pay for workers was
US$67 based on a six-day set at about US$67, based on a six-day 44-hour week with effect from
44-hour week September 2015.

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This should ensure that This should ensure that Myanmar retains a competitive advantage over
Myanmar retains a rival garment manufacturing countries such as Cambodia and Vietnam.
competitive advantage over
rival garment manufac- In Cambodia, the minimum monthly wage jumped from US$128 to
turing countries such as US$140 in January 2016. In Vietnam, the minimum monthly wage
Cambodia and Vietnam varied by region between US$107 and US$156 in January 2016.

International clothing International clothing brands have welcomed the establishment of a


brands have welcomed the minimum wage, arguing that a wage which is more worker-friendly is
establishment of a more sustainable and will attract more foreign investment in the
minimum wage Myanmar garment industry.

Local manufacturers in Local manufacturers in Myanmar, on the other hand, are finding the
Myanmar, on the other minimum wage difficult to digest. Before the minimum wage was set by
hand, are finding the the National Minimum Wage Determination Committee, the basic wage
minimum wage difficult to averaged about Kt1,852 (US$1.43) a day under free market conditions15.
digest, although the MGMA But in November 2015, the minimum wage was about 94% higher at
reported in November 2015 US$2.80 per day.
that manufactures were
all paying it and there Nonetheless, the MGMA reported in November 2015 that
were few violations manufacturers were all paying it and that there were few violations.

Manufacturers of items Furthermore, manufacturers of items for export have been helped by the
for export have been depreciation of the kyat. When the minimum wage was originally
helped by the depreciation discussed in 2014, it would have been about US$3.50 per day at the
of the kyat exchange rate prevailing at the time. But at the average exchange rate
for January 2016, the minimum wage was 20% lower at around
US$2.80 per day.

ELECTIONS OF NOVEMBER 8, 2015


There was a huge amount of There was a huge amount of anxiety among investors regarding the
anxiety among investors elections of November 8, 2015.
regarding the 2015 elections
but, in the event, there were In the event, there were no reports of killings, other violence or massive
no reports of violence or fraud fraud.

The elections resulted in a The elections resulted in a landslide victory for the National League for
landslide victory for the Democracy (NLD), led by Aung San Suu Kyi (see page 94).
NLD and the result is
likely to encourage further According to several industry sources, the election result is likely to
FDI in the country encourage further foreign direct investment (FDI) in the country.

However, growth in the However, growth in the near future will probably remain less rapid than
near future will probably had been predicted by most observers at the start of the liberalisation
remain less rapid than had policy in 2011-12.
been predicted in 2011-12
as the NLD lacks At the macroeconomic level, growth will be thwarted by the fact that the
experience of government NLD lacks experience of government.

15
This figure is based on interviews carried out by Oxfam with 123 garment workers in 22 factories located in a
range of industrial zones which supply international companies.

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Also, Myanmar will remain Also, Myanmar will remain structurally unstable unless the frontier
structurally unstable unless areas are granted full autonomy in internal administrationas had been
the frontier areas are negotiated in the Panglong Agreement of 1947 by ethnic leaders and
granted full autonomy in General Aung San, the father of Aung San Suu Kyi, who was later
internal administration assassinated in the same year.

LONG-TERM GROWTH PROSPECTS FOR THE INDUSTRY


Industry observers are Industry observers are divided about the garment industrys long-term
divided about the garment growth prospects.
industrys long-term
growth prospects, and in Will the garment industry in Myanmar become a medium-sized
the short term it is likely international player, like the garment industry in Cambodia? Or will it
that buyers will act become a big player like the garment industry in Bangladesh?
cautiously as long as
serious handicaps remain In the short term, it is likely that buyers will act cautiously as long as
serious handicaps remain.

Issues will need to be In the meantime, many issues will need to be resolved if the garment
resolved if the garment industry in Myanmar is to achieve the status of its bigger rivals in
industry in Myanmar is to successful garment exporting countries.
achieve the status of its
bigger rivals in successful In particular, much needs to be done to address concerns about the lack
garment exporting of:
countries
reliable energy sources;
a financing system which runs smoothly;
a logistics infrastructure;
raw materials;
skilled labour; and
widespread social and environmental certification.

COMPANY PROFILE: PROSPERITY KNITWEAR MYANMARA


FAST GROWING CMP SWEATER MANUFACTURER

Prosperity Knitwear Prosperity Knitwear Myanmar is adjacent to the Thilawa Special


Myanmar produces Economic Zone (SEZ)some 25 km south of Yangonand produces
sweaters mainly for M&S sweaters mainly for Marks and Spencer (M&S).

The company started The company started operations at a factory in Myanmar in October
operations at a factory in 2014 after starting to rent a building occupying 65,000 ft2 (6,039 m2).
Myanmar in October 2014 In March 2015 it delivered products to M&S for the first time.

As at January 15, 2016, it As at January 15, 2016, it employed 858 workersup from 600 in
employed 858 workers March 2015.

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Prosperity Knitwear is Prosperity Knitwear is now building a new factory in Myanmar with a
building a new factory in steel structure which can resist winds of up to 200 km/h.
Myanmar which has been
designed to resist winds of This is far in excess of a requirement by Yangon City District Council
up to 200 km/h because of that investors construct buildings which can resist winds of up to
risks from storms 135 km/h because of risks from storms in the region caused by
El Nio16.

Both factories are Both factories are strategically well located. They are adjacent to the
strategically well located as Myanmar International Terminals Thilawa (MITT)an international
they are adjacent to MITT, multi-purpose deep-sea container port which is under construction.
an international multi-
purpose deep-sea container The port is fully owned by Hutchison Port Holdings (HPH), and will
port which is under operate 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
construction, as well as the
Thilawa Special Economic Also, both factories are adjacent to the Thilawa Special Economic Zone
Zone (SEZ) and accom- (SEZ) and accompanying infrastructureincluding electricity, roads
panying infrastructure and telecommunications.

Electricity is provided so Electricity is provided, and therefore Prosperity Knitwear spent only
Prosperity has not spent US$300 on generating electricity during the first eight months of its
much on generating it operations through the burning of diesel.

The operation in Myanmar The operation in Myanmar was set up after a UK citizen, Alan Renton,
was established after the and the owner of the Hong Kong-based company Prosperity Knitwear,
COO and the owner of Mr KC Lau, visited Myanmar on separate occasions. At the time,
Prosperity Knitwear visited Mr Renton was, and remains, the chief operating officer (COO) of
Myanmar separately, the Prosperity Knitwear in Hong Kong, having joined the company in 2012.
latter as part of a group
visit organised by the Mr Lau, who was nearly 80 years old at the time, visited Myanmar as
Chinese Manufacturers part of a group visit organised by the Chinese Manufacturers
Association of Hong Kong Association of Hong Kong.

The men discussed the After the visit, the two men discussed the respective strengths,
respective SWOTs of weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOTs) of Bangladesh,
Bangladesh, Cambodia and Cambodia and Myanmar and, as a result, they decided in favour of
Myanmar, and decided in investing in Myanmar as they felt very comfortable with the local
favour of Myanmar people.

Their original intention was to Their original intention was to produce knitwear in a big factory on land
produce knitwear in a big occupying 17 acres (68,796 m2) in the Thilawa Special Economic Zone
factory in the Thilawa SEZ (SEZ).
but Mr Renton proposed that
they should start production However, Mr Renton proposed that they should start production in a
in a smaller factory outside smaller factory outside the SEZ in order to acquire experience,
the SEZ to acquire know-how knowledge and know-how.

16
El Nio causes global changes in temperatures and rainfall. It is defined by prolonged warming in Pacific
Ocean sea surface temperatures compared with the average value. Typically, this anomaly happens at irregular
intervals of two to seven years, and lasts nine months to two years. When this warming occurs for seven to nine
months, it is classified as El Nio conditions. When its duration is longer, it is classified as an El Nio episode.
Measurements and simulations have found that climate change has led to more extreme El Nios in recent years.

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Before Mr Renton joined Before Mr Renton joined Prosperity Knitwear, he had already obtained
Prosperity Knitwear, he broad international experience in the knitwear industry.
had already obtained
broad international He started his career at a luxury UK knitwear manufacturer, Pringle of
experience in the Scotland. Then he moved to Floreal Knitwear, based in Mauritius, and
knitwear industry worked for the company in Mauritius, Madagascar and South Africa. In
2008 he started working in Bangladesh for Crystal Groupa leading
manufacturer of OEM (original equipment manufacture) and ODM
(original design manufacture) garments based in Hong Kong.

His functions in different His functions in different countries under sometimes very
countries allowed him to challenging production and logistics conditions allowed him to
develop his own system of develop his own system of employee performance and production
employee performance and follow-up.
production follow-up, and to
select and recruit the They also allowed him to select and recruitamong his former
expatriates needed to run an colleaguesthe expatriates which Prosperity Knitwear needed in order
efficient factory in Myanmar to set up and run an efficient factory in Myanmar.

Prosperity is a CMP Prosperity Knitwear is a producer of garments on a cutting, making and


producer and therefore packaging (CMP) basis.
labour cost and
productivity are of the This implies that labour cost and labour productivity are of the utmost
utmost importance importance.

CMP packages are sent The CMP packages needed are sent from the companys Hong Kong
from the Hong Kong office office.

The Myanmar government The company has a factory in China in which 200 Shima Seiki
wanted to create as many automatic flat knitting machines are installed.
jobs as possible so only
hand flat knitting But in Myanmar, the government wanted to create as many jobs as
equipment is used in the possible and so the company responded by investing only in hand flat
factory knitting equipment in its Myanmar factory.

Most of the factory It took some time before the employees at the factory in Myanmar fully
workers needed in-factory understood how international companies operate, and most of the
work education and factory workers needed in-factory work education and training starting
training starting from zero from zero. For some specialist operations, such as linking, it can take
6-8 months of such education and training to enable a worker to achieve
the required standards.

In July 2015 four more expat- In July 2015 another four expatriates from Mr Rentons previous jobs
riates arrived to train people arrived to help train employees faster and better.

Employee turnover is The employee turnover in Prosperity Knitwear is relatively low, at only
relatively low at only 5-10% 5-10%. The employee turnover which does occur is due mostly to the
fact that some candidates fail to acquire sufficient levels of skills.

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Each newcomer gets a Each newcomer gets a salary of Kt3,600 a day or around Kt103,000
salary of around US$80 a (US$80) a month. When the newcomer reaches the criteria required to
month perform the job to the required standards, he or she earns around US$90
a month.

However, those who work Those who work on a piece rate basis can significantly increase their
on a piece rate basis can monthly earnings, starting from a basic salary of US$90 for normal
significantly increase their hours and enjoying an additional 50% for overtime hours. According to
monthly earnings up to Alan Renton, good workers can get a package of up to US$220 a month,
US$220 a month including free transport (US$10 a month) and a daily meal in the
canteen (US$20 a month). The company also provides medical care, and
employs a part-time doctor and a full-time nurse.

Instead of a labour union, The employees in Prosperity Knitwear have not established a labour
the company has created a union in the factory, even though workers in Myanmar have the right to
workers committee do so. Instead, the company has created a workers committee.

Prosperity Knitwear does Prosperity Knitwear does not publish average CMP piece prices or
not publish average CMP standard minute prices.
piece prices or standard
minute prices as these vary These prices vary according to different factors, including: the material
according to different used, whether acrylic or cashmere; the gauge of the garments being
factors knitted, such as 3-gauge or 12-gauge; and the level of efficiency.

In mid-2015, efficiency levels In mid-2015, Mr Renton estimated that levels of efficiency in the
equated to 85-90% of top factory equated to 85-90% of top international standards in the case of
international standards in 3-gauge products, which have been running for a long time.
the case of 3-gauge products
but to only 40-50% in the In the case of 12-gauge products, however, efficiency levels equated to
case of 12-gauge products only 40-50%. This was a concern but efficiency levels are improving.

Alan Renton believes in Alan Renton believes in the management practice of kaizen, or
kaizen continuous improvement17.

Mr Renton has developed a Mr Renton has developed a production and quality control system
production and quality con- which is transparent, and highly visual in terms of colour and text. Each
trol system which is trans- worker is able to follow up his or her own performance compared with
parent, and highly visual in the performance of the production line on which he or she works and,
terms of colour and text indeed, the performance of the whole factory.

The company names an The company awards the title employee of the month to
employee of the month employees on the basis of their attendance, attitude, efficiency and
based on attendance, atti- quality, and the title goes mostly to womenwho represent 70% of the
tude, efficiency and quality workforce.

Mr Renton finds enhancing Enhancing employee productivity and customer satisfaction probably
productivity and customer represent the most rewarding parts of Mr Rentons job.
satisfaction rewarding
17
Kaizen is a Japanese word meaning improvement or change for the better. The word is used to refer to a
philosophy or practices in businesses or other organisations which focus upon the continuous improvement of
processes in manufacturing, engineering, supporting business processes, and management.

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However, he also has to However, Mr Renton also has to invest time in interactions with the
invest time in interactions MGMA and government departments.
with the MGMA and
government departments Often, decision makers in Myanmar do not have the vision, open mind
and skills to respond adequately to the needs of international
companiesa limitation which stems partly from Myanmars long
isolation from global trade.

Most locally owned garment Most locally owned garment manufacturers in Myanmar feel threatened
makers in Myanmar feel by the audits required by Western customers, and some feel incapable
incapable of meeting the of meeting such requirements.
audits required by Western
customers, but Prosperity Prosperity Knitwear, by contrast, feels comfortable with audits. This is
Knitwear feels comfortable because all aspects of sustainability formed part of its investment
with audits policies, management policies and strategy from the start.

Prosperity Knitwear is Prosperity Knitwear is accustomed to working at the high quality and
accustomed to working at sustainability levels required by M&S. Consequently, it feels at ease
the high quality and when representatives from other European companiessuch as
sustainability levels KappAhl and Camaeuvisit Prosperity Knitwear with a view to
required by M&S choosing it as a supplier.

CONTACT DETAILS

Thuta Aung Managing director, HamsaHub. Tel: +95 (0)9 43177327; email:
thuta.aung@hamsahub.com; website: www.hamsahub.com
Jacob Clere Manager, SMART Myanmar project office. Mobile: +95 (0)9 2501
23164; tel +95 (0)9 2626 00436; email: jclere@gmail.com
Alan Renton Chief operating officer (COO), Prosperity Clothing Company Ltd.
Tel: +95 (0)9 2542 09231; email: alan@prosperity.com.hk
Christopher Chief technical advisor, International Labour Organization (ILO)
Land-Kazlauskas Liaison Office in Myanmar. Mobile: +95 (0)9 4211 26482; email:
kazlauskas@ilo.org
MGMA Myanmar Garment Manufacturers Association (MGMA). Tel: +95 (0)1
214 829; website: www.myanmargarments.org
Khine Khine Nwe (Rosaline) Secretary general, Myanmar Garment Manufacturers Association
(MGMA). Mobile: +95 (0)9 5013 329; email: bestind@mptmail.net.mm,
garment.mgma@gmail.com
Dr Monika Strk Delegate, Delegation of German Industry and Commerce in Myanmar.
Office tel: +95 (0)1 230 1823; email: monika.staerk@myanmar.ahk.de
Michal Strahilevitz- Project manager, International Labour Organization (ILO) Liaison Office
Beneliezer in Myanmar. Mobile: +95 (0)9 2508 64127; email: beneliezer@ilo.org
Su Tayar Lin and SMART Myanmar. Email: sutayarlin@googlemail.com,
Theeri Kay Thi tkaythi@gmail.com; website: www.smartmyanmar.org

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Product developments and


innovations in the home textiles
market
SUMMARY

Malouf has expanded its range of scented pillows, London Luxury has developed bedding products which
incorporate traceable down, Boll & Branch has developed a new collection of baby blankets and crib
sheets which are certified as being Fair Trade products, and Pacific Coast Feather Company and 37.5
have entered into a partnership to develop a range of performance bedding products. Luxi Sleep has
developed a mattress which can be customised to provide different levels of support, Sonno Bed has
developed a mattress which can be reversed to alter the level of support that it provides, and Tempur
Sealy has developed a new range of Tempur Breeze mattresses which are designed to help regulate body
temperature and a new mattress called Cocoon by Sealy. Meanwhile, Creative Ticking has developed
a new concept bed, called Sport Support, which incorporates fabrics inspired by sportswear.

HeiQ has developed a new fabric finish which is designed to impart the properties of silk to any textile
substrate, Novozymes has developed an environmentally sustainable process for treating towels, and
Intertek has developed a new chemical screening process which is designed to help potentially harmful
substances from entering the supply chain. Mimaki has developed a new inkjet printer which has the
capacity to print on to rolls of sublimation paper with a width of 3.2 metres, and DyStar has developed
two new ranges of its Jettex inks for industrial digital printers. Meanwhile, Pantone has selected the
combination of Rose Quartz (Pantone: 13-1520) and Serenity (Pantone: 15-3919) as its Color of the
Year for 2016.

Teijin Frontier has developed a new performance fibre called Octa Neo for use in several applications.
Beaulieu Yarns has developed a range of solution-dyed nylon yarns for use in carpets, RadiciGroup has
expanded its range of Radifloor yarns for flooring applications, and Marchi & Fildi has developed yarns
which incorporate recycled pre-consumer waste. Milliken & Company has developed a new range of
carpet tiles which are made from fibres produced from recycled materials, Benecke-Kaliko has
developed a range of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coated fabrics for use in furnishing applications, and
Climashield has developed a new flame resistant (FR) insulation product called Climashield FR.
Meanwhile, Revology has developed a concept chair which is made from a linen composite material.

BEDDING PRODUCTS

MALOUF: EXPANDED RANGE OF SCENTED PILLOWS


Malouf has expanded its Maloufa USA-based provider of bedding and bed linenhas
range of scented pillows in expanded its range of scented pillows. The pillows form part of the
its Z pillow collection companys Z pillow collection.

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The pillows were developed According to the company, the pillows were developed in response to
in response to a growing a growing trend to enhance the sleep experience through smell. In
trend to enhance the sleep particular, the company received a high level of demand for its original
experience through smell lavender scented pillowthe Zoned Dough + Calming Lavender pillow.

The expanded range The expanded range comprises three pillows, namely:
comprises three pillows,
namely the Zoned Dough the Zoned Dough Chamomile pillowwhich incorporates
Chamomile pillow, the chamomile essential oil;
Zoned Dough Lavender the Zoned Dough Lavender pillowwhich incorporates lavender
pillow and the Zoned essential oil; and
Dough Peppermint pillow the Zoned Dough Peppermint pillowwhich incorporates
peppermint essential oil.

Figure 1
New pillows in the Malouf Z collection

Source: Malouf

The pillows are made from All of the pillows are made from Maloufs proprietary Dough memory
Maloufs proprietary Dough foam.
memory foam which has an
open cellular structure that Dough memory foam has an open cellular structure which collapses in
collapses in the presence of the presence of body heat, thereby moulding to the shape of the sleeper.
body heat and moulds to the Furthermore, Dough foam facilitates slower shape recovery compared
shape of the sleeper with conventional memory foam.

The pillows incorporate In addition, the pillows incorporate the companys Zoned technology.
Zoned technology, which
enables the head of the Pillows which incorporate Zoned technology have large perforations in
sleeper to sink into the centre the centre of the pillow and small perforations towards the outer edges
of the pillow while his or her of the pillow. As a result, the head of the sleeper sinks into the centre of
neck remains supported the pillow while his or her neck remains supported.

and they facilitate a Also, the pillows are said to facilitate a high level of breathability as a
high level of breathability result of the perforations.

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The scented pillows are The scented pillows are covered by a mesh fabric made from Tencel
covered by a mesh fabric fibrea lyocell fibre produced by the Austria-based company
made from Tencel lyocell Lenzing.
fibre, which facilitates mois-
ture management, a high Tencel fibre was selected for use in the pillow covers as it facilitates a
level of air flow and, in turn, high level of air flow and, in turn, a high level of scent release. Also, the
a high level of scent release fibre facilitates moisture management.

Essential oil spray is provi- A bottle of essential oil spray is provided with each of the pillows. The
ded with each of the pillows spray can be used to intensify the scent of the pillows.

Each of the pillows is Each of the pillows is available in travel size, standard size, queen size
available in travel size, and king size versions. Travel size versions of the pillows retail at
standard size, queen size US$49.99 each while king size versions retail at US$164.99 each. Also,
and king size versions additional bottles of the essential oils are available for purchase from
Malouf at a cost of US$49.99 each.

The pillows were presented The pillows were presented at the January 2016 edition of Las Vegas
at the January 2016 edition Market, which was held in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, during
of Las Vegas Market January 24-28, 2016.

PACIFIC COAST FEATHER COMPANY AND 37.5:


PERFORMANCE BEDDING PRODUCTS
Pacific Coast Feather Pacific Coast Feather Companya USA-based manufacturer of
Company and 37.5 will bedding productsand 37.5, a USA-based fibre technology brand, have
develop performance entered into a partnership to develop a range of performance bedding
bedding products products which can help to improve the comfort of the sleeper.

Pacific Coast Feather Pacific Coast Feather Company will additionally work with Design
Company will additionally Weavea USA-based manufacturer and distributor of luxury bedding
work with Design Weave on productson the development of the products.
the development of the
products, which will Products in the rangewhich will include comforters, mattress pads,
incorporate 37.5s pillows and sheetswill incorporate 37.5s proprietary 37.5
proprietary 37.5 technology technology.

37.5 technology incorporates 37.5 technology incorporates active carbon particles derived from
active carbon particles which, coconut husks. When the particles are embedded into fibres, their
when embedded into fibres, presence increases the surface area of the fibre by 800%, thereby
facilitate rapid moisture facilitating rapid evaporation of moisture. Also, the particles are able to
evaporation and aid thermo- absorb infrared energy and hence aid thermoregulation.
regulation in order to help
maintain a comfortable body When placed next to the skin, fabrics which incorporate 37.5 technology
temperature are said to help to maintain a comfortable body temperature of 37.5C.

37.5 technology could also As well as improving the comfort of the sleeper, it is hoped that the use
reduce tumble drying times of 37.5 technology in the bedding products could result in lower energy
and hence lower energy costs costs as a result of reduced tumble drying times during laundering
processes.

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BEDDING PRODUCTS FOR BABIES

BOLL & BRANCH: FAIR TRADE CERTIFIED BABY


BLANKETS AND CRIB SHEETS
Boll & Branch has developed Boll & Brancha USA-based provider of luxury organic bedding
a new collection of baby productshas developed a new collection of baby blankets and crib
blankets and crib sheets sheets.

All of the items are made All of the items in the collection are made from 100% organic cotton
from 100% organic cotton, and have been certified as being Fair Trade items by Fair Trade
have been certified as USAa USA-based third party certifier of Fair Trade products.
being Fair Trade items and
are compliant with GOTS Also, the items have been certified as being compliant with the Global
Organic Textile Standard (GOTS)1.

The collection comprises The collection comprises two styles of knitted baby blanket. One of the
two styles of knitted baby styles, called Cable Knit, has a cable knit design and is available in six
blanket, one called Cable different colours, namely grey, light blue, light pink, natural, navy
Knit and one called blue and white. The second style, called Origami, incorporates a
Origami geometric pattern design and is available in three different colour
schemes.

Also, the collection In addition, the collection comprises the following three styles of
comprises three styles of printed crib sheet:
printed crib sheet, namely
Cottontail, Seedling and the Cottontail crib sheet, which features a rabbit print motif and is
Trellis available in two different colour schemes;
the Seedling crib sheet, which incorporates a geometric floral style
print motif and is available in four different colour schemes; and
the Trellis crib sheet, which incorporates a geometric print motif
and is available in four different colour schemes.

The collection also includes The collection also includes a plain crib sheet. This is available in six
a plain crib sheet different colours, namely grey, light blue, light pink, natural, navy
blue and white.

1
The Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS) covers the processing, manufacturing, packaging, labelling,
trading and distribution of all textiles made from a minimum of 70% certified organic natural fibres. The
standard covers a variety of products, including fibre products, yarns, fabrics, clothes and home textiles. In order
to meet the standard, products must comply with set environmental criteria relating to chemical usage, energy
consumption and waste management at every stage of the supply chain. Furthermore, the products must comply
with specified technical quality criteria relating to fastness properties, and manufacturers of the products must
comply with social criteria relating to working conditions. Further information about GOTS can be found by
visiting: http://www.global-standard.org/the-standard/general-description.html. See also Strategies for
sustainability in the global apparel industry, Global Apparel Markets, No 16, 4th quarter 2011.

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The prices of items in the The baby blankets retail at a price of US$50 each, while the Cottontail
collection range from style crib sheets retail at a price of US$45 each, the Seedling and Trellis
US$35 to US$50, and the style sheets retail at a price of US$35 each and the plain crib sheets
products can be purchased retail at a price of US$30 each. All of the products can be purchased via
via the Boll & Branch the Boll & Branch online store.
online store
Figure 2
Boll & Branch Cable Knit baby blanket and Trellis crib sheet

Source: Boll & Branch

BEDDING PRODUCTS INCORPORATING TRACEABLE DOWN

LONDON LUXURY: BEDDING PRODUCTS WHICH


INCORPORATE TRACEABLE DOWN
London Luxury has London Luxurya USA-based company specialising in bed, bath and
developed bedding home productshas developed bedding products which incorporate
products which traceable down.
incorporate traceable
down provided by Allied The down was provided by Allied Feather & Downa USA-based
Feather & Down supplier of Responsible Down Standard (RDS)2 certified down.

Information relating to the Information relating to the down used in London Luxurys products can
down, including content, be obtained using a service developed by Allied Feather & Down called
cleanliness, fill power and Track My Down.
geographical origin, can be
obtained using a service In order to use the service, a customer is provided with a lot number
called Track My Down which corresponds to the batch of down incorporated into his or her
bedding product. This number can then be entered into the Track My
Down website to obtain information relating to content, cleanliness, fill
power and the geographical origin of the down.
2
The Responsible Down Standard (RDS) ensures that down and feathers are traceable, and addresses issues
relating to animal welfare. It was developed by The North Face and Control Union, and is now owned by Textile
Exchange.

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The CEO of London Luxury When news of the development was announced, the chief executive
believes that RDS and officer (CEO) of London Luxury, Marc Jason, said: We are thrilled to
Track My Down provide bring RDS and Track My Down to retail RDS and Track My Down
retailers and consumers provide retailers and consumers alike with a trusted seal of approval that
with a trusted seal of insures the highest standards of quality, transparency and the most
approval important independent verification possible.

The products were presen- The products were presented by London Luxury at the autumn 2015
ted at the autumn 2015 edition of the New York Home Fashions Market trade fair, which took
edition of the New York place in New York City, New York, USA, during September 28-
Home Fashions Market October 1, 2015.

BEDS AND MATTRESSES

CREATIVE TICKING: SPORT SUPPORT CONCEPT BED


Creative Ticking has Creative Tickinga USA-based provider of circular knitted fabrics
developed a new concept for mattresseshas developed a new concept bed called Sport
bed called Sport Support Support.

Sport Support Sport Support incorporates proprietary fabrics which were designed by
incorporates proprietary Creative Ticking and manufactured by the latters parent company,
fabrics which were Beverly Knits.
designed by Creative
Ticking and manufactured Beverly Knits is a USA-based manufacturer of circular knitted fabrics
by the latters parent for everyday apparel, performance apparel, industrial applications and
company, Beverly Knits mattresses.

The fabrics, Air Vent and The proprietary fabrics incorporated in Sport Support include Air Vent
Embrace, were inspired by fabric and Embrace fabric.
the performance properties
of sportswear fabrics The designs of the fabrics were inspired by the performance properties
of fabrics for sportswear.

Figure 3
Sport Support concept bed

Source: Creative Ticking

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Air Vent fabric facilitates Air Vent fabric is designed to facilitate cooling, thereby preventing the
cooling and allows the core sleeper from overheating. The fabric is highly air permeable, and it
of the bed to breathe, allows the core of the bed to breathe.
while Embrace fabric is
used on the top layer of the Embrace fabric is used on the top layer of the Sport Support bed, and is
bed to support the body designed to cradle and support the body during sleep.

Design details of Sport Design details of Sport Support include geometric patterns which have
Support include geometric the appearance of sports footwear fabrics.
patterns which have the
appearance of sports Also, Sport Support is presented in three bright and contrasting
footwear fabrics, and bright coloursnamely black, lime green and whitein order to stand out in
and contrasting colours a showroom.

Sport Support was Sport Support was displayed at the 2016 edition of ISPA EXPOa
displayed at the 2016 trade show for the mattress industry which was organised by the
edition of ISPA EXPO International Sleep Products Association (ISPA) and held during
March 9-12, 2016, in Florida, USA.

LUXI SLEEP: CUSTOMISABLE MATTRESS


Luxi Sleep has developed a Luxi Sleepa USA-based start-up company which specialises in
mattress, called Luxi, whose mattresseshas developed a mattress, called Luxi, which can be
support can be customised customised to provide different levels of support.

The mattress comprises a The Luxi mattress comprises four foam layers, namely:
latex foam layer, a memory
foam layer, a high density a latex foam layer;
urethane foam base layer a memory foam layer;
and a proprietary Support a high density urethane foam base layer; and
Balancing Technology layer a proprietary Support Balancing Technology layer made from
made from urethane foam urethane foam.

The Support Balancing The Support Balancing Technology layer is specially shaped so that it
Technology layer is shaped imitates the effect of springs in a conventional spring mattress.
so that it imitates the effect
of springs in a conventional Figure 4
spring mattress Support Balancing Technology layer

Source: Luxi Sleep

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All four layers are encased All four of the foam layers are encased within a removable zip cover
within a removable cover which has a quilted cotton surface.

The sequence of the foam The customer can remove the zip cover and re-arrange the sequence of
layers can be re-arranged to the foam layers to alter the level of support which the mattress
alter the level of support provides.

Placing the Support Balancing For example, placing the Support Balancing Technology layer at the top
Technology layer at the top of of the mattress facilitates a soft level of support while placing the
the mattress provides soft latex foam layer on top facilitates a medium level of support.
support, the latex foam layer
medium support, and the A firm level of support, meanwhile, can be provided by flipping the
high density urethane foam mattress and using the high density urethane foam base layer as the top
base layer firm support layer.

The mattress is available in The mattress is available in six sizes, namely twin, twin XL, full, queen,
six sizes, and three can be king and California king. Three of these sizesnamely California king,
adjusted so that each half has king and queencan be adjusted so that each half of the bed has a
a different level of support different level of support.

A twin size mattress retails at The twin size version of the mattress retails at a price of US$799 and
US$799 and a California king the California king size version retails at a price of US$1,149.
size mattress at US$1,149
SONNO BED: MATTRESS WHICH CAN BE REVERSED TO
ALTER THE LEVEL OF SUPPORT PROVIDED
Sonno Bed has developed Sonno Beda new company based in California, USA, which
Sonno Mattress which can provides bedding productshas developed a mattress, called Sonno
be reversed to alter the level Mattress, which can be reversed to alter the level of support that it
of support it provides provides.

Two versions of the mattress Two versions of the Sonno Mattress are available, namely medium/firm
are available, namely and medium/soft.
medium/firm which provides
a medium level of support on One side of the medium/firm mattress provides a medium level of
one side and a firm level on support while the other side provides a firm level of support.
the other, and medium/soft
which provides a medium In the case of the medium/soft mattress, one side provides a
level of support on one side medium level of support while the other side provides a soft level of
and a soft level on the other support.

The Sonno Mattress The Sonno Mattress comprises two layers of breathable latex, two
comprises two layers of layers of gel-infused memory foam and one layer of polyurethane
breathable latex, two layers foam.
of gel-infused memory
foam and one layer of The densities of the latex and memory foam layers vary, depending on
polyurethane foam the version of the mattress.

The mattress is covered The fabric used to cover the top and bottom of the mattress is made
by two different types of from 55% polyester and 45% rayon while the fabric used to cover the
fabric and also sides of the mattress is made from 35% polyester, 26% cotton, 22%
incorporates a fire rayon and 16% linen. Also, the mattress has a fire barrier cover made
barrier cover from 95% rayon and 5% polyester.

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The mattress is The mattress is hypoallergenic and is resistant to dust mites, mould and
hypoallergenic and all of mildew.
the materials used in its
manufacture are sourced All of the materials used in the manufacture of the mattress are sourced
from the USA from the USA.

A twin size version of the The Sonno Mattress is available in a number of sizes, namely twin, twin
mattress retails at US$650 XL, full, queen, king and California king. A twin size version of the
and a California king size mattress retails at a price of US$650 and a California king size version
version at US$1,025 at a price of US$1,025.

The mattress is available The mattress is available for purchase via the Sonno Bed online store.
for purchase via the Once purchased, the mattress is compressed into a small box and
Sonno Bed online store delivered directly to the customer.

TEMPUR SEALY: NEW RANGE OF TEMPUR BREEZE


MATTRESSES AND A NEW MATTRESS CALLED COCOON
BY SEALY
Tempur Sealy has Tempur Sealya USA-based manufacturer of mattresses and
developed a new range of beddinghas developed a new range of Tempur Breeze mattresses.
Tempur Breeze mattresses Also, the company has developed a new mattress called Cocoon by
and a new mattress called Sealy.
Cocoon by Sealy
Tempur Breeze
The Tempur Breeze The Tempur Breeze mattress range has been launched under the
mattresses are designed to companys Tempur-Pedic brand name.
help the sleeper to
maintain a comfortable Tempur Breeze mattresses are designed to help the sleeper to maintain
body temperature a comfortable body temperature. In particular, the mattresses are
designed for use by sleepers who suffer from disrupted sleep as a result
of feeling too hot.

The collection includes the The new Tempur Breeze collection comprises several types of mattress,
Tempur-Contour Elite including:
Breeze, Tempur-Cloud
Luxe Breeze, Tempur-Contour Elite Breeze;
Tempur-Cloud Supreme Tempur-Cloud Luxe Breeze;
Breeze and Tempur-Flex Tempur-Cloud Supreme Breeze; and
Supreme Breeze mattresses Tempur-Flex Supreme Breeze.

The top layer of each mattress The top layer of each mattress incorporates the companys proprietary
incorporates Tempur material Tempur materiala polyurethane material with an open cellular
to relieve pressure, and structure which is designed to relieve pressureas well as PureCool
PureCool Comfort material to Comfort, a material which is designed to provide the sleeper with a
provide a cooling effect cooling effect.

The covers of the mattresses Furthermore, the mattresses have mattress covers which are designed to
are cool to the touch be cool to the touch.

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The middle layer of each The middle layer of each mattress incorporates a layer of the companys
mattress incorporates Tempur proprietary Tempur Climate material. The material has an open
Climate material to facilitate structure, and is said to facilitate temperature regulation and promote
temperature regulation the migration of heat and humidity.

The new Tempur Breeze The new Tempur Breeze mattresses became commercially available
mattresses became during March 2016, and have replaced previous models of Tempur
commercially available Breeze mattresses.
during March 2016
Cocoon by Sealy
The Cocoon by Sealy Two versions of the Cocoon by Sealy mattress are available, namely
mattress incorporates a firm feel and soft feel.
bottom layer of Essential
Support Foam to support The mattress incorporates a bottom layer of Essential Support Foama
the sleeper, and an upper heavy memory foam which is designed to support the sleeper. The upper
layer made from Perfect Fit layer of the mattress is made from Perfect Fit Memory Foam, which has
Memory Foam to cradle a high density and is designed to cradle the body of the sleeper. The
the body of the sleeper mattress is covered by a stretchable fabric which has a knitted structure.

A twin size version of the The mattress is available in six sizes, namely twin, twin XL, full, queen,
mattress retails at US$549 king and California king. The twin size version of the mattress retails at
and king size and a price of US$549 and the king size and California king size versions at
California king size a price of US$999 each. Once a mattress has been purchased, it is
versions at US$999 each despatched in a small box directly to the consumer.

The mattress can be The mattress can be purchased only via the specialist Cocoon by Sealy
purchased only via the online store. However, Tempur Sealy has announced that it will offer a
specialist Cocoon by Cocoon by Sealy retail affiliate marketing programme to retailers
Sealy online store during summer 2016.

Figure 5
Cocoon by Sealy mattress

Source: Tempur Sealy

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The mattress was The mattress was developed by Tempur Sealy in order to provide
developed by Tempur products which can be purchased online and which cost below
Sealy in order to provide US$1,000.
products which can be
purchased online and When the development of the mattress was announced, the chairman,
which cost below chief executive officer (CEO) and president of Tempur Sealy, Scott
US$1,000, and is a Thompson, said: Cocoon by Sealy is a logical extension of our family
logical extension to the of products. We have products that serve just about every consumer
companys family of need and at just about every price point. We entered this specialised
products distribution channel because we knew we could provide a product that
meets the needs of this target consumer, is superior to the competition
and [is] consistent with our Sealy brand promise of quality and value.

CHEMICAL SCREENING PROCESSES

INTERTEK: CHEMICAL SCREENING PROCESS FOR USE


BY APPAREL, FOOTWEAR AND TEXTILE
MANUFACTURERS
Intertek has developed a Intertekan international provider of quality and safety services with
new chemical screening operations worldwidehas developed a new chemical screening
process called Chemical process, called Chemical Smart Screening, for use by apparel, footwear
Smart Screening and textile manufacturers.

Chemical Smart Screening is Chemical Smart Screening is intended for use at the beginning of the
intended for use at the begin- production process in order to prevent potentially harmful substances
ning of the production process from entering the supply chain.
to prevent potentially harmful
substances from entering the By doing this, it is thought that manufacturers could reduce production
supply chain, thereby reducing costs, shorten turnaround times and reduce the need for rehandling as
production costs, shortening a result of test failures.
turnaround times and helping
manufacturers to make Furthermore, it is thought that the screening could help manufacturers
products which are more to produce products which are more environmentally sustainable and
environmentally sustainable hence better meet consumer demand for such products.

Chemical Smart Screening Using Chemical Smart Screening, manufacturers can screen a single
can screen a single sample sample for 400 commonly found restricted substances, including
for 400 commonly found disperse dyes, flame retardants, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs)3 and
restricted substances phthalates.

The process was developed to The screening process was developed by Intertek in order to
complement environmental complement environmental regulations, restricted substances lists
regulations, RSLs and (RSLs) and various environmental initiatives. Such initiatives include
environmental initiatives the Roadmap to Zero Discharge of Hazardous Chemicals (ZDHC).
3
Treatments containing perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are commonly used on fabrics and garments in order
to provide them with water repellency and oil repellency. Many PFCs are thought to be potent greenhouse gases.
Also, they tend to be extremely stable, and some have bioaccumulative properties in that they can be stored in
the bodies of humans and animals. Furthermore, some treatments utilise perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in their
manufacture, and PFOA has been declared likely to be carcinogenic to humans by the US Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA).

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COLOUR TRENDS

PANTONE: COLOR OF THE YEAR FOR 2016


Pantone has selected the Pantone, a USA-based colour specialist, has selected the combination
combination of Rose of Rose Quartz (Pantone: 13-1520) and Serenity (Pantone: 15-3919) as
Quartz and Serenity as its its Color of the Year for 2016. Rose Quartz and Serenity have replaced
Color of the Year for 2016 Marsala (Pantone: 18-1438), which was the Color of the Year for 2015.

The Color of the Year for The Color of the Year for 2016 is expected to be seen in products across
2016 is expected to be seen several industriesincluding apparel, beauty, fashion accessories,
in products across several graphic design, interiors, packaging, plastic and print.
industries
Figure 6
Colour swatches of Rose Quartz (Pantone: 13-1520) and
Serenity (Pantone: 15-3919)

Source: Pantone

For interiors, the colours For interiors, it has been suggested that the colours could work well in
should work well in textured textured fabrics and in upholstery fabrics.
fabrics and upholstery fabrics,
and also where solid coloured It has also been suggested that the colours work effectively where solid
fabrics and patterned fabrics coloured fabrics and patterned fabrics are placed in the same
are placed together settingparticularly in bedding, pillows and throws.

Pantone believes that colours According to Pantone, consumers are seeking mindfulness and
associated with reassurance wellbeing as an antidote to the stress of modern day lives. As a result,
and security are becoming colours which are associated with reassurance and security are
more prominent becoming more prominent.

According to the company, Pantone describes Rose Quartz as a colour which conveys compassion
Rose Quartz conveys com- and a sense of composure, and Serenity as a colour which comforts
passion and Serenity com- with a calming effect, bringing feelings of respite and relaxation.
forts with a calming effect

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The colours are intended Rose Quartz and Serenity are intended to be used together in order
to be used together to to create a balance between a warm colour tone and a cool colour
create a balance tone.

Also, they will work well Also, the colours will work well with cool greens and purples and silver,
with cool greens and purples and particularly well with the following Pantone shades:
and silver, and particularly
well with the Pantone shades Fondue Fudge (Pantone: 19-1224);
Fondue Fudge, Lime Lime Popsicle (Pantone: 13-0443); and
Popsicle and Old Rose Old Rose (Pantone: 17-1518).

DIGITAL PRINTERS

MIMAKI: NEW INKJET PRINTER FOR SUBLIMATION


PRINTING
Mimaki has developed an Mimakia Japan-based manufacturer of inkjet printers and
inkjet printer called cutting machineshas developed a new inkjet printer called
TS500P-3200 which is used TS500P-3200.
to print disperse dye inks on
to sublimation paper for The TS500P-3200 printer is used to print disperse dye inks on to
sublimation printing sublimation paper for sublimation printing4.

The printer can print on to The TS500P-3200 printer has the capacity to print on to rolls of
sublimation paper with a sublimation paper which have a width of 3.2 metres.
width of 3.2 metres so the
printed papers are suitable As a result, the printed sublimation papers are highly suitable for use in
for use in the manufacture the manufacture of textiles for products which have a large surface
of bed linens and curtains areaparticularly bed linen and curtains.

The printer can print at The printer has the capacity to print at speeds of up to 180 m2/hour. It
speeds of up to 180 m2/hour incorporates 12 print heads, and has a specialist feeding system to
and incorporates 12 print ensure the smooth feeding of paper.
heads and a Nozzle Check
Unit which detects and Furthermore, it incorporates a Nozzle Check Unit (NCU)which
cleans clogged nozzles detects and cleans clogged nozzles.

The printer was developed The printer was developed to enable producers of home textiles to
to enable producers of home manufacture products economically and in response to customer
textiles to manufacture demand.
products economically and
create personalised Furthermore, the printer enables manufacturers to create personalised
products quickly products quickly.

4
In the sublimation printing process, the design is first printed on to sublimation paper using a printer which
employs dye sublimation inks. The design is then transferred from the sublimation paper on to a textile
substratewhich must contain polyesterby means of a heat press. When the heat press is applied to the
sublimation paper, the solid particles of ink on the paper transfer directly into gas, without passing through the
liquid phase. The gas particles produced in this way then bond with the polymers in the fabric and change back
into a solid.

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According to Mimaki, the When news of the development of the printer was announced, the
trend in the fashion general marketing manager for Europe, the Middle East and Africa at
industry for on demand Mimaki Europe, Mike Horsten, said: It started with the fashion
digital printing is industry putting the benefits of on demand digital printing to good use
becoming more apparent for tailored and variable print quantities. We see the trend expanding
in home textiles now to interior decoration and home styling. Moreover, the change is
not limited to the production method, but also [applies] to production
location. Production sites get shifted from low cost remote locations to
urban areas closer to consumers. We believe this trend will extend to the
production of extra-wide textiles for home furnishingsfrom curtains
to upholstery and bed linens. Personalisation and delayed delivery do
not mix well.

DIGITAL PRINTING INKS

DYSTAR: TWO NEW RANGES OF JETTEX INKS FOR


DIGITAL PRINTERS
DyStar has developed two DyStara Singapore-based provider of dyes and auxiliaries for the
new ranges of its Jettex textile industryhas developed two new ranges of its Jettex inks for
digital printing inks, called industrial digital printers. The ranges are called Jettex 4.0 and Jettex
Jettex 4.0 and Jettex Vat Vat.

Jettex 4.0 inks meet Jettex 4.0 inks were developed in order to meet performance
performance requirements requirements for the latest print head technologies. Such requirements
for the latest print head include tighter drop formation, improved robustness and longer product
technologies and are lifespans compared with existing inks.
environmentally sustainable,
have excellent fastness Furthermore, Jettex 4.0 inks are environmentally sustainable, have
properties and provide a excellent fastness properties and provide a high level of colour
high level of colour strength strength.

Jettex Vat inks meet the Jettex Vat inks were developed in order to meet the performance
performance requirements of requirements of home textile products.
home textile products as they
facilitate excellent fastness to In particular, Jettex Vat inks facilitate excellent fastness to light, to
light, to multiple washing multiple washing cycles and to rubbing. In addition, they do not affect
cycles and to rubbing the handle of fabrics, and fabrics printed with them have vivid
coloration.

FABRIC FINISHES

HEIQ: NEW FABRIC FINISH CALLED HEIQ REAL SILK


HeiQ has developed a new HeiQa Switzerland-based company which develops and manufactures
fabric finish called HeiQ innovative textile effectshas developed a new fabric finish called
Real Silk HeiQ Real Silk.

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The finish is a cost effective HeiQ developed the finish in order to provide a cost effective alternative
alternative to natural silk to natural silk.
and is expected to be
especially beneficial to cost- In particular, the finish is expected to be especially beneficial to
sensitive market segments cost-sensitive market segments and the fashion industry.

Natural silk is a luxury Natural silk is considered to be a luxury fibre, and is costly due to the
fibre and has many complexity of its production process. Natural silk has many favourable
favourable characteristics characteristics, including high lustre, softness and smoothness.
Furthermore, it is highly absorbent, is fast drying and has a high level
of resistance to tearing.

HeiQ Real Silk imparts the HeiQ Real Silk is designed to impart the tactile properties of silk to any
tactile properties of silk to textile substrate. Also, it can be applied to the surface of any fabric
any textile substrate using conventional finishing processes.

The finish comprises short The finish comprises short synthetic fibres which are manufactured
synthetic fibres and is being using a patented process.
produced on a pilot line at
HeiQs research and HeiQ Real Silk is being produced on a pilot line at HeiQs research and
development subsidiary in development subsidiary in Geelong, Australia, and production on the
Geelong, Australia line is in the process of being scaled up.

The finish was first made The finish was first made available to HeiQ innovation partner
available to HeiQ innovation companies. The first such company to have used the finish is Bekaert
partner companies and will Desleea Belgium-based supplier of mattress fabrics.
be made available to third
parties from July 1, 2016 The finish will be made available to third parties from July 1, 2016.

FABRICS FOR INTERIOR APPLICATIONS

BENECKE-KALIKO: POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC)


COATED FABRICS FOR FURNISHING APPLICATIONS
Benecke-Kaliko has Benecke-Kalikoa Germany-based provider of materials for interior
developed a range of PVC applicationshas developed a range of polyvinyl chloride
coated fabrics, including (PVC) coated fabrics which include fabrics for use in furnishing
furnishing fabrics applications.

The range is being The range is being marketed under the Dynactiv Surfaces brand name,
marketed under the and the fabrics in the range are being further branded and categorised
Dynactiv Surfaces brand according to their end use applications, as follows:
name, and the fabrics are
being further branded and Dynactiv Blend;
categorised according to Dynactiv Fashion;
their end use applications Dynactiv Health;
Dynactiv Home;
Dynactiv Hospitality;
Dynactiv Mobility;
Dynactiv Power; and
Dynactiv Protection.

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Dynactiv Health, Dynactiv Dynactiv Health, Dynactiv Home, Dynactiv Hospitality and
Home, Dynactiv Hospitality Dynactiv Mobility fabrics may be utilised in the manufacture of
and Dynactiv Mobility fabrics furnishings.
can be used in furnishings and
incorporate a textile support The fabrics in the range incorporate a textile support layer made from
layer which is given a PVC cotton or polyester, or a cotton/polyester blend.
coating, an antifungal and
antibacterial treatment and The support layer is then coated with PVC and given an antifungal and
a protective finish antibacterial treatment and a protective finish.

In addition, each of the In addition, each of the fabrics has specialist performance properties,
fabrics has specialist depending on the end use application for which it is intended. Examples
performance properties of these properties include:
depending on the end use
application for which it is antimicrobial properties;
intended antistatic properties;
fire retardant properties;
resistance to alcohol and organic solvents;
resistance to artificial light; and
resistance to UV light.

Fabrics from the Dynactiv Fabrics from the Dynactiv Surfaces range were presented at the 2016
Surfaces range were edition of Heimtextila trade fair for home and contract
presented at the 2016 textileswhich was held in Frankfurt, Germany, during January 12-15,
edition of Heimtextil 2016.

FLAME RESISTANT INSULATION

CLIMASHIELD: NEW FLAME RESISTANT INSULATION


PRODUCT CALLED CLIMASHIELD FR
Climashield has developed Climashielda USA-based insulation brand owned by HarVest
a new insulation product Consumer Insulationhas developed a new version of its Climashield
called Climashield FR insulation product called Climashield FR.

Climashield insulation is Climashield insulation is made from continuous filaments, and several
made from continuous fila- variants of the insulation are available.
ments, is available in several
variants and can be incor- Climashield insulation can be incorporated into textile products for a
porated into textile products variety of applications, including comforters, footwear, gloves,
for a variety of applications outerwear and quilts.

Climashield FR is flame Climashield FR is a flame resistant insulation product.


resistant, durable and
lightweight, and provides a It is said to be highly durable and lightweight, and to provide a high
high level of insulation level of insulation.

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Also, it is environmentally Furthermore, Climashield FR is said to be environmentally friendly and


friendly and does not contain does not include compounds containing halogens or other potentially
harmful additives harmful additives.

FLOOR COVERINGS

MILLIKEN & COMPANY: NEW RANGE OF CARPET TILES,


CALLED WHALE SONG, WHICH INCORPORATE FIBRES
DERIVED FROM RECYCLED MATERIALS
Milliken & Company has Milliken & Companya USA-based manufacturer of speciality
developed a new range of chemicals, floor coverings and performance fabricshas developed a
carpet tiles called Whale Song new range of carpet tiles called Whale Song.

The range incorporates six The range incorporates six designs, namely Beluga, Halona, Humpback,
designs, namely Beluga, Narwhal, Kaikoura and Orca. Kaikoura and Orca tiles are made to order
Halona, Humpback, and have a specific minimum order quantity. Beluga, Halona,
Narwhal, Kaikoura and Humpback and Narwhal tiles are available in 24 different colours. The
Orca colours include various shades of beige, blue, grey and green.

Figure 7
Milliken Whale Song Humpback tiles

Source: Milliken

The tiles are manufactured Tiles in the range are manufactured from solution dyed Econyl
from solution dyed Econyl polyamide 6 yarn, which is made from materials derived from recycled
polyamide 6 yarn which is waste.
made from materials
derived from recycled Econyl is a brand of polyamide yarn produced by Aquafilan
waste Italy-based producer of polyamide.

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Design details of the carpet Design details of the carpet tiles include abstract patterns and wave
tiles include abstract motifs. The designs were inspired by the sound waves of whale songs,
patterns and wave motifs and the movement of sounds through water.

FURNITURE MADE FROM COMPOSITE MATERIALS

REVOLOGY: CONCEPT CHAIR MADE FROM A LINEN


COMPOSITE MATERIAL
Revology has developed a Revologya New Zealand-based design technology start-up
concept chair made from a companyhas developed a concept chair which is made from a linen
linen composite material composite material.
which incorporates linen
fibres and a bio-based The composite material incorporates linen fibres and a bio-based resin,
resin and was created using proprietary processing techniques.

It is hoped that the chair It is hoped that the concept chair will help to promote the use of
will help to promote the composite materials in the manufacture of day-to-day objects.
use of composite materials
in the manufacture of According to Revology, existing composite materials are perceived as
day-to-day objects being too technical for the requirements of everyday applications.

The development of the When the development was announced, the chief executive officer
chair is considered to be a (CEO) of Revology, Alex Guichard, said Our ambition is to go as far
real technological feat as as possible in the development of natural materials and bio-based resins.
no other chairs have been Up until today, no one has been able to produce a chair made out of
made from linen on a large linen on a large scale. This is a real technological feat, and we want to
scale accomplish this in order to develop a beautiful, durable and timeless
designer object!

The chair was presented at The concept chair has a bistro chair design and was presented at the JEC
the JEC World 2016 trade World 2016 trade show and conference, which was held in Paris,
show and conference France, during March 8-10, 2016.

PERFORMANCE FIBRES

TEIJIN FRONTIER: NEW PERFORMANCE FIBRE CALLED


OCTA NEO
Teijin has developed a new Teijin Frontiera Japan-based producer of performance fibres and a
sheath-core fibre called subsidiary of Teijin Grouphas developed a new performance fibre
Octa Neo which called Octa Neo.
incorporates a filament
core surrounded by staple Octa Neo is a sheath-core fibre incorporating a filament core which is
fibres surrounded by staple fibres.

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The core is made from the The core of Octa Neo is made from the companys proprietary Octa
companys Octa polyester polyester hollow filament fibre. The cross-section of Octa fibre has
hollow filament fibre which eight projections and, as a result, it facilitates a high level of
facilitates a high level of breathability, water absorption and water diffusion. Also, it provides a
breathability, bulk, water high level of bulk and is lightweight.
absorption and water
diffusion and is lightweight Figure 8
Octa Neo fibre

Source: Teijin Frontier

Various types of staple Various types of staple fibre may be used in the sheath which surrounds
fibre may be used in the the Octa filament core, depending on the performance properties
sheath which surrounds required. In particular, Teijin Frontier recommends:
the Octa filament core,
depending on the acrylic staple fibre for heat insulation;
performance properties cotton for water absorption;
required rayon staple fibre for a cool touch and water absorption; and
wool for water absorption and heat insulation.

Also, speciality performance fibres may be used to cover the core in


order to impart different properties.

Octa Neo can be combined Furthermore, Octa Neo can be combined with other performance fibres
with other fibres and yarns and yarns during fabric construction processes.
during fabric construction and
is suitable for use in a variety Octa Neo fibre is suitable for use in a variety of end use applications,
of end use applications including bedding, industrial materials, sportswear and underwear.

It will be launched in time The fibre is expected to be launched in time for the spring/summer 2017
for spring/summer 2017 season.

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TREATMENTS FOR TOWELS

NOVOZYMES: ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE


PROCESS CALLED GEOTOWEL FOR TREATING TOWELS
Novozymes has developed a Novozymesa Denmark-based biotechnology companyhas
sustainable process for trea- developed an environmentally sustainable process for treating towels,
ting towels called GeoTowel called GeoTowel.

The process uses enzymes to The GeoTowel process utilises enzymes to biopolish, bioscour, clean
biopolish, bioscour, clean and soften towels in a single bath.
and soften towels in a single
bath, and provides towels Towels treated using the process have a natural cotton colour and
with excellent levels of facilitate excellent levels of absorbency and softness which last even
absorbency and softness after washing.

Conventional towel treatment According to Novozymes, conventional towel treatment processes


processes typically take typically take around nine hours in the case of dyed towels, and four to
around four to five hours in five hours in the case of undyed towels.
the case of undyed towels, but
the GeoTowel process takes However, the GeoTowel process takes only two hours. Furthermore, the
only two hours and is carried GeoTowel process is carried out at lower temperatures than
out at lower temperatures conventional towel treatment processes.

Use of the GeoTowel As a result, use of the GeoTowel process results in reductions in energy
process results in reductions consumption, time and water consumption, and can reduce costs by at
in energy consumption, least 50%.
time, water consumption
and costs, and eliminates the Furthermore, the GeoTowel process eliminates the need for chemicals
need for several chemicals such as dispersing agents, dyes and softeners.
so the waste water is cleaner
than that discharged from Consequently, the waste water discharged from the GeoTowel process
conventional processes is cleaner than that discharged from conventional processes.

YARNS FOR FLOOR COVERINGS

BEAULIEU YARNS: SOFTITUDE SOLUTION-DYED NYLON


YARNS FOR USE IN CARPETS
Beaulieu Yarns has Beaulieu Yarnsa division of the Belgium-based Beaulieu
developed a range of International Grouphas developed a range of solution-dyed nylon
solution-dyed nylon yarns, yarns, called Softitude, for use in carpets.
called Softitude, for the
manufacture of broadloom Softitude yarns are suitable for use in the manufacture of broadloom
carpets for residential and carpets for residential and hospitality applications.
hospitality applications

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The yarns are extremely soft The yarns are designed to be extremely soft while also being highly
and highly durable, are durable. Furthermore, they are said to be available in any colour.
available in any colour, and
will help to meet increasing It is hoped that the yarns will enable carpet designers and manufacturers
demand for carpets which are to meet increasing demand for carpets which are soft and luxurious and
soft, luxurious and durable facilitate a high level of durability.

Such requirements are impor- According to the company, such requirements are particularly important
tant in carpets for bedrooms in the case of carpets for bedrooms.

The Softitude range was The Softitude range was presented at the 2016 edition of Domotexan
presented at the January international flooring trade showwhich was held in Hanover,
2016 edition of Domotex Germany, during January 16-19, 2016.

RADICIGROUP: EXPANDED RANGE OF RADIFLOOR


YARNS FOR FLOORING APPLICATIONS
RadiciGroup has expanded RadiciGroupan Italy-based producer of plastics, synthetic fibres and
its range of Radifloor yarns textileshas expanded its range of Radifloor yarns for flooring
for flooring applications applications.

Radifloor is a range of BCF Radifloor is a range of bulked continuous filament (BCF) textured
textured polyamide 6 and polyamide 6 and polyamide 6.6 yarns.
polyamide 6.6 yarns for
flooring, upholstery and The range includes yarns for use in flooring and upholstery applications
automotive applications for contract and residential markets. Also, it includes yarns for
automotive applications.

The latest yarns meet the RadiciGroup developed its latest Radifloor yarns in order to provide
performance requirements of soft yarns which meet the performance requirements of the high end
the high end residential sector residential sector.

The newest yarn is made The newest yarn forms part of the Radifloor Soft collection within the
from polyamide 6.6 and is Radifloor range. The yarn is made from polyamide 6.6 and has a count
a low decitex per filament of 850 decitex5. It comprises 256 filaments, each with a linear density
(dpf) yarn which facilitates of 3.3 decitex. As such, it is a low decitex per filament (dpf) yarn and
a high level of softness therefore facilitates a high level of softness.

RadiciGroup has also imp- RadiciGroup has also improved the lustre and dye affinity of its
roved the dye affinity, lustre, Radifloor PA6.6 1000f49 and Radifloor PA6.6 1350f68 yarns for the
tenacity and resistance to contract sector.
wear of some of its Radifloor
yarns for the contract sector The company claims that these modified yarns facilitate a high level of
tenacity and resistance to wear over time.

The Radifloor range was The Radifloor range was presented at the 2016 edition of Domotexan
presented at the January international flooring trade showwhich was held in Hanover,
2016 edition of Domotex Germany, during January 16-19, 2016.

5
Decitex is a unit of the tex system, and is the weight in grams of 10,000 metres of fibre or yarn.

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YARNS MADE FROM RECYCLED MATERIALS

MARCHI & FILDI: YARNS WHICH INCORPORATE


RECYCLED PRE-CONSUMER WASTE
Marchi & Fildi has Marchi & Fildian Italy-based provider of yarnshas developed yarns
developed yarns which which incorporate recycled pre-consumer waste. The yarns were
incorporate recycled developed as a result of a project called Ecotec which was launched by
pre-consumer waste the company in 2003.

The yarns are made using a The yarns are made using a proprietary production process, which is
process called Ecotec in also called Ecotec.
which pieces of waste dyed
cotton fabric from fabric As part of the production process, pieces of waste dyed cotton fabric
manufacturing, cutting and generated during fabric manufacture and cutting and sewing activities
sewing are collected, are collected.
converted into Ecotec cotton
fibres and blended with These fabric pieces are then processed and converted into Ecotec cotton
other fibres in the yarn fibres, and the latter are blended with other fibres in the yarn
manufacturing process manufacturing process.

Examples of Marchi & Examples of Marchi & Fildi yarns which incorporate Ecotec include:
Fildi yarns which
incorporate Ecotec include Chagallwhich comprises 50% Ecotec, 40% cotton and 10%
Chagall, Ginevra, Pegasus cashmere;
and Polaris Ginevrawhich comprises 65% modal and 35% Ecotec;
Pegasuswhich comprises 65% Ecotec and 35% cotton; and
Polariswhich comprises 80% Ecotec and 20% cotton.

Each of these yarns is Each of these yarns is available in a variety of colours.


available in a variety of
colours, and customised Furthermore, the company is able to provide customised yarns which
yarns can be provided incorporate Ecotec.

The yarns are suitable for The yarns are suitable for use in the manufacture of fabrics for several
several applications applications, including apparel, carpets, hosiery, and upholstery.

Use of Ecotec cotton leads By using Ecotec cotton, the amounts of virgin materials needed are
to reductions in CO2 reduced.
emissions, and consumption
of virgin materials, energy This, in turn, can lead to reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions,
and water energy consumption and water consumption.

A yarn collection under the A yarn collection under the Ecotec brand name was presented by
Ecotec brand name was Marchi & Fildi at the edition of Premire Vision Yarns for
presented at the February spring/summer 2017 which was held in Paris, France, during
2016 edition of Premire February 16-18, 20166.
Vision Yarns
6
See also Survey of the European yarn fairs for spring/summer 2017, starting on page 51 of this issue.

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Glossary
3GT: the name of a family of polymers, fibres and textiles with stretch properties developed by Toray Industries,
based on the polyester polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT). 3GT fibres are marketed by Invista under the brand
name T400 and 3GT fabrics are marketed by Toray under the brand name Fitty.

807: a commonly used term (formerly utilised by US Customs) to describe a category of apparel which has been
assembled in an overseas country from fabric pieces cut in the USA from fabric formed in any country. The duty
levied on apparel imported under 807 is based only on the value added to the goods overseas rather than the whole
customs value of the goods. This provision is now specified under code 9802.00.8065 of the USAs Harmonized
Tariff Schedule (HTS). This outward processing arrangement benefits mainly countries which are close to the
USAparticularly those in the Caribbean Basin (see also 807A).

807A: a commonly used term (formerly utilised by US Customs) to describe a category of apparel which has been
assembled in an overseas country from fabric pieces cut and formed in the USA. The duty levied on apparel imported
under 807A, a modification of 807, is based only on the value added to the goods overseas rather than the whole
customs value of the goods. Also, goods imported under 807A are provided with almost unlimited access to the US
market. This provision is specified under code 9802.00.8015 of the USAs Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS).

Abaca: a banana-like plant (Musa textilis) native to the Philippines which has broad leaves with long stalks. The
fibres obtained from the stalks are used to make cordage, fabric, and paper. (Also called manila and manila hemp.)

Acetate: a type of fibre chemically derived from cellulose.

Agoa: African Growth and Opportunity Act. The act, implemented in October 2000, provides for duty-free and
quota-free access to the US market for apparel made in Sub-Saharan Africa. To qualify for Agoa benefits, apparel
must be made in an eligible Sub-Saharan African country and, normally, be produced from materials formed within
the region or in the USA. For a limited period, however, the third-country fabric provision permits apparel makers
in lesser developed Sub-Saharan African countries to source materials globally without losing Agoa benefits.

Air-laid: a web or batt of staple fibres formed using the air laying process.

Air laying: a method in which fibres are first dispersed into an air stream, and then condensed from the air stream
on to a permeable cage or conveyor to form a web or batt of staple fibres.

Air texturing: a process in which yarns are over-fed through a turbulent air stream so that entangled loops are
formed in the filaments.

Ajour: an embroidery technique which creates open areas, often in figured patterns and usually on a woven fabric.

Alpaca: fibre from the fleece of the alpaca or llama.

Angora: the hair of the angora rabbit. Angora hair should be distinguished from the hair of the angora goat, which
is the source of mohair.

Anti-dumping duty: an extra duty imposed on an imported product by an importing country (or group of countries,
as in the case of the EU) to compensate for the dumping of goods by a foreign supplier.

Appliqu: a pattern constructed by applying one fabric on top of another.

Arran: a traditional style of fishermens cable-knit sweaters.

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Article XIX: an article describing a measure available to a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) which
enables it to protect its market from import surges (see safeguard).

Artificial fibres: see cellulosic fibres.

Art silk: artificial silk, usually made from cellulosic fibres such as viscose rayon.

Asean: Association of Southeast Asian Nations comprising Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar,
Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.

Astrakhan: a thick woven or knitted cloth with a surface of loops or curls which imitates the coat of an Astrakhan
lamb.

ATC: Agreement on Textiles and Clothing, which embodied the results of the negotiations on textiles and clothing
conducted under the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade talks. The ATC provided for the phasing out of MFA
quotas between January 1995 and December 2004.

Bandana: handkerchief designs in simple colour and white stylised patterns, including spots and paisley.

Barathea: a soft fabric with a lightly pebbled or ribbed surface which is constructed in a twilled hopsack or broken
rib weave and is generally made from worsted woolalthough it could be made from silk or other fibres. A worsted
Barathea is often used to make evening jackets and dress coats.

Basket weave: a textile weave consisting of double threads interlaced to produce a checkered pattern similar to that
of a woven basket.

Bast fibre: fibre obtained from the stems of certain types of plant.

Batik: a traditional dyeing process in which portions of cloth are coated with wax and therefore resist the dye,
enabling distinctive patterns to be created. Batik fabrics are characterised by a streaky or mottled appearance.

Batt: single or multiple sheets of fibre used in the production of nonwoven fabric.

Bayadre: a fabric or design with horizontal plain or patterned stripes.

BCF: (bulked continuous filament) textured yarn used mainly in the construction of carpets or upholstery.

Bedford cord: a fabric constructed in such a way as to show rounded cords in the warp direction with pronounced
sunken lines between them.

Bicomponent fibres and yarns: a yarn having two different continuous filament components (see also
multicompartment fibres and yarns and multicomponent fibres and yarns).

Biopolishing: a finishing process which uses cellulase enzymes to remove fibre fuzz and pills from the fabric
surface.

Birdseye: a fabric woven to produce a pattern of very small, uniform spots.

Blooming: the tendency of a yarn to become fuller-looking when wetted and dried under certain conditions. In
practice, the overall yarn diameter increases slightlyresulting in a halo effect or softer lookand the length
diminishes. The effect usually results from a change in fibre crimp and, hence a redistribution of the fibres in a yarn,
rather than shrinkage of the fibre itself.

BOD: biological oxygen demanda measure of pollution by oxygen-consuming organic materials in an effluent
stream.

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Boiling: a process in which a yarn or garment made from staple fibre containing wool or animal hair is left in
boiling water so that the original fabric construction is obscured by the felted surface.

Boucl: a compound yarn, similar to a gimp yarn, comprising a twisted core with an effect yarn wrapped around
it so as to produce wavy projections on its surface. In general, boucl yarns exhibit an irregular pattern of semi-
circular loops and sigmoid spirals whereas gimp yarns display fairly regular semi-circular projections.

Bouclette: a small boucl effect.

Bourette: a silk noil fabric made from short fibre (silk waste) with a textured surface.

Bowl: one of a pair of large rollers forming a nip.

Brocade: usually a jacquard woven fabric in which the figure is developed by floating the warp threads, the weft
threads, or both, and interlacing them in a more or less irregular order.

Brocatelle: a heavy figured cloth in which the pattern is created by warp threads in a satin weave.

Brushed fabrics: fabrics which have undergone a brushing process to produce a napped surface. Brushed fabrics
usually have a soft, slightly weathered, broken-in feel.

Brushing: a finishing process for woven or knitted fabrics in which brushes or other abrading elements are used to
raise a nap (a fuzzy or downy surface).

Cable: to twist together two or more folded yarns.

Cabotage: the transport of goods or passengers between two points in the same country. Originally the term was
used to refer to shipping but it now also covers aviation and road transport. Also commonly used as part of the term
cabotage rights, which means the right of a company from one country to trade, operate aircraft or transport goods
within the domestic borders of another country.

Caged yarn: a strand of yarn enclosed within a fine knitted tube which forms a cage through which the inner core
is visible. In many yarns, the inner strand and the cage are in different but complementary colours.

Calendered: a term used to describe a fabric which has been passed through rollers to smooth and flatten it or confer
surface glaze.

Camel: the hair of the camel or dromedary; also used as a broad description of fawn colour.

Canvas: a plain weave usually made from cotton or linen.

Caprolactam: a chemical intermediate used in the manufacture of polyamide (nylon).

Carbonisation: a chemical process for eliminating vegetable matter from animal fibres such as wool by degrading
it to an easily friable (readily crumbled) condition. The process usually involves treatment with an acid followed by
heating. Hydrochloric acid gas is used in the case of the dry carbonisation process while sulphuric acid solution is
used in wet carbonisation.

Carded: description of a continuous web or sliver produced by carding.

Carding: the disentanglement, cleaning and intermixing of fibres to produce a continuous web or sliver suitable
for subsequent processing. This is achieved by passing the fibres between moving pins, wires or teeth.

Cashmere: hair with a mean diameter of 18.5 microns or less from the downy undercoat of Asiatic or selectively
bred feral goats.

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Caterpillar yarn: yarn with protruding tufts which gives the appearance of a caterpillar.

Cationic dyeable yarn (CDY): a yarn dyed with cationic dye, usually made from modified polyester, modified
nylon or acrylic, which is often used to achieve cross-dyed effects. Cationic dyeable yarn can be used in a pattern
with regular yarn in the same fabric. The pattern becomes visible by dyeing the fabric in two baths, one for each of
the types of yarn. When cationic fibre is fixed with conventional fibre, various multicoloured and cross-dye effects
can be achieved from a single dye bath.

Cationic dye: a type of dye used on modified polyester, modified nylon or acrylic in order to achieve special
effects, such as cross dyeing, in fabric form (see also cationic dyeable yarn (CDY).

Caustic washing: a scouring process which uses sodium hydroxide to remove non-cellulosic impuritiesincluding
hemicelluloses, mineral salts, pectin and waxfrom cotton. The process yields a fabric which possesses a high and
even wettability so that it can be bleached and dyed uniformly.

Cavalry twill: a firm warp-faced cloth, woven to produce a steep twill effect.

CDY: see cationic dyeable yarn.

Cellophane effect: an effect created in a fabric which gives it the iridescent appearance of cellophane.

Cellulosic fibres: fibres made or chemically derived from a naturally occurring cellulose raw material.

Cellulosic filament: filaments made or chemically derived from a naturally occurring cellulose raw material.

Centipoise: a measure of viscosity, equal to 0.001 newton second per m2.

Chainette: a tubular cord produced on a circular knitting machine.

Challis: a lightweight plain-weave fabric, made from cotton or wool, usually with a printed design.

Chambray: a cotton shirting fabric woven with a coloured warp and white weft.

Changeant: see shot.

Cheesecloth: an open lightweight plain-weave fabric, usually made from carded cotton yarns.

Chelator: substance which binds particular ions, removing them from solution.

Chemical bonding: part of a production route for making nonwovens; binders are applied to a web which, when
dried, bond the individual fibres to form a coherent sheet.

Chenille: a yarn consisting of a cut pile which may be one or more of a variety of fibres helically positioned around
axial threads that secure it. Gives a thick, soft tufty silk or worsted velvet cord or yarn typically used in embroidery
and for trimmings.

Chiffon: a very light, transparent fabric in a plain weave.

Chin: textiles with a mottled pattern.

Chinoiserie: fabric designs which are derived from or which are imitations of Chinese motifs.

Chintz: a glazed, printed, plain-weave fabric, usually made of cotton.

CIF: cost, insurance and freight.

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Circular jersey: fabric produced on circular knitting machines (see also weft knitting).

Circular knitting: a fabric production technique in which fabric is knitted in the form of a tube. Usually, this is
subsequently slit and finished as open width fabric. However, in the case of smaller width machines, the circular
knitting process is used to make body width tubes which need not be slit, thus avoiding the need for a seam and
thereby increasing wearer comfort. These machines can be further modified to knit body blanks which incorporate
some shaping and are separated by a draw-thread.

Cir: a lightweight performance fabric with a shiny surface made from synthetic fibres for use in outerwear.

Cloqu: a compound or double fabric with a figured blister effect, produced by using yarns of different character
or twist which respond in different ways to finishing treatments.

CM: cut and make (see CMT).

CMT: cut, make and trim. A system whereby a manufacturer produces garments for a customer by cutting fabric
provided by the customer and sewing the cut fabric into garments in accordance with the customers specification.
In many cases, the customer also arranges for the fabrics, trim and accessories to be supplied. In general,
manufacturers operating on a CMT basis do not become involved in the design of the garment or in the procurement
of materials but are merely concerned with its production.

Comforter: an over-covering on a bed that is made with a fabric shell filled with an insulating material.

Commission manufacturing: a form of production whereby manufacturing is undertaken by one manufacturer, for
a fee, on behalf of another manufacturer or a non-manufacturer. Typically, commission manufacturing involves the
production of goods utilising materials provided by the client, and ownership of materials remains with the client.
Similarly, the goods made using these materials are owned by the client.

Composite, composite material: a product formed by intimately combining two or more discrete physical
phasesusually a solid matrix, such as a resin, and a fibrous reinforcing component.

Conjugate fibres and yarns: see bicomponent fibres and yarns.

Continuous filament: see filament.

Conversationals: printed patterns using depictions of people and recognisable objects.

Cord: a term used to describe the way in which textile strands have been twisted, such as in cabled or plied yarns.

Cordelette: a yarn in which the fibre is wound like a cord.

Corduroy: a cut weft pile fabric in which the cut fibres form a surface of cords or ribs in the warp direction.

Core-spun yarn: a yarn consisting of an inner core yarn surrounded by staple fibres. A core-spun yarn combines
the strength and/or elongation of the core thread and the characteristics of the staple fibres which form the surface.

Core-twisted yarn: a yarn produced by combining one fibre or filament with another during a twisting process.

Count: a measure of linear density. (See also decitex, denier, English cotton count, metric count, Ne and Nm.)

Countervailing duty: an extra duty imposed on an imported product by an importing country (or group of countries,
as in the case of the EU) to compensate for subsidies deemed to be illegal which are given to the manufacturer of
the product in the exporting country.

Courtelle: A brand name for acrylic fibre used by Acordis (formerly Courtaulds).

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Cover factor (knitted fabrics): (tightness factor) a number that indicates the extent to which the area of a knitted
fabric is covered by yarn. It is also an indication of the relative looseness or tightness of the knitting.

Cover factor (woven fabrics): a number that indicates the extent to which the area of a fabric is covered by one
set of threads. For any woven fabric, there are two cover factors: a warp cover factor and a weft cover factor. Under
the cotton system, the cover factor is the ratio of the number of threads per inch to the square root of the cotton yarn
count.

Covert: a warp-faced fabric, usually of a twill weave, with a characteristic mottled appearance obtained by the use
of a grandrelle (two-colour twisted yarn) or mock grandrelle warp.

Crease-resist finish: a finish, usually applied to fabrics made from cotton or other cellulosic fibres or their blends,
which improves the crease recovery and smooth-drying properties of a fabric. In the process used most commonly,
the fabric is impregnated with a solution of a reagent which penetrates the fibres and, after drying and curing, cross-
links the fibre structure under the influence of a catalyst and heat. The crease-resistant effect is durable to washing
and to normal use.

Crpe: a fabric characterised by a crinkled or puckered surface.

Crpe de chine: a lightweight fabric, traditionally of silk, with a crinkly surface.

Crpon: a crpe fabric which is more rugged than the usual crpe with a fluted or crinkled effect in the warp
direction.

Cretonne: a strong, printed cotton cloth which is sometimes made with a weft of cotton waste.

Crimp: the waviness of a fibre or filament.

Crimped yarn: see textured yarn.

Crock: a measure of the resistance of a fabric to the loss of colour due to rubbing or abrasion.

Crocking: the loss of dye colour due to rubbing or abrasion.

Cross-dyeing: the dyeing of a yarn or fabric containing a mixture of fibres, at least one of which is coloured
separately.

Cross-linking: the creation of chemical bonds between polymer molecules to form a three-dimensional polymeric
network, for example in a fibre or pigment binder.

Cupro: a cellulosic fibre obtained by the cuprammonium process.

Curcuma: a fabric with a yellow colour similar to that produced by the curcuma spice.

Cure: see curing.

Curing (chemical finishing): a process carried out after the application of a finish to a textile fabric in which
appropriate conditions are used to effect a chemical reaction. Usually, the fabric is heat treated for several minutes.
However, it may be subject to higher temperatures for short times (flash curing) or to low temperatures for longer
periods and at higher regain (moist curing).

Cut and sew: a system of manufacturing in which shaped pieces are cut from a layer of fabric and stitched together
to form garments. In the case of tubular knitted fabric, the cloth is either cut down one side and opened up into a flat
fabric or left as a tube and cut to shape.

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Cut, make and trim: see CMT.

Damask: a figured woven fabric in which the design is created by the use of satin and sateen weaves.

Decitex: a unit of the tex system. A measure of linear density; the weight in grams of 10,000 metres of fibre or yarn.

Decitex per filament (dpf): the average decitex of each filament in a multifilament yarn.

Decortication (flax): the process of removing woody outer layers from the stem of the flax plant to yield flax fibres.

Dgrad: a textile dyeing technique which is used to produce a gradual change in the shade of a colour from dark
to light or vice versa.

Dlav: a fabric with a washed effect.

Delocalisation: the geographical move of a production unit to a low cost country. (Note that the term is increasingly
being used to describe all forms of shifts in production, including foreign sourcing and subcontracting.)

Denier: a measure of linear density; the weight in grams of 9,000 metres of fibre or yarn.

Denim: a 3/1 warp-faced twill fabric made from a yarn-dyed warp and an undyed weft yarn. Traditionally, the
warp yarn was indigo-dyed.

Denim bleaching: a finishing process which uses sodium hypochlorite to discolour denim fabric. It is used when
the colour of the indigo needs to be lightened and also to clean up the pocket lining and the weft, which is visible
on the inner face of the jeans.

Dent: the space between adjacent wires in a reed.

Dents/inch: a unit of measure which denotes the number of reed wires and spaces between adjacent wires in one
inch.

Dvor: the production of a pattern on a fabric by printing it with a substance that destroys one or more of the fibre
types present.

Differential dyeing: a process in which a coloration treatment is applied to a textile containing fibres with different
dyeing properties. Usually, the term refers to a combination of fibres of the same generic class in which some of the
fibres have been modified to change their affinity for dye so that they dye more deeply or less deeply than standard
fibres. However, differential dyeing can also occur when blends of different generic fibres types, such as cotton and
polyester, are used.

Dip-dyed yarns: yarns produced by dip dyeing.

Dip dyeing: a process in which a textile or garment is dipped into a dye bath to achieve dye take-up only in those
areas immersed.

District check: distinctive woollen checks originally made in different districts of Scotland.

DMT: dimethyl terephthalatea chemical intermediate used in the manufacture of polyester.

Dobby machine: a device fitted to a weaving machine which is capable of being programmed to make dobby
weaves by selectively raising some heald shafts containing warp threads and selectively depressing others. Dobby
machines are capable of weaving a wider range of patterns than non-Dobby machines such as cam looms, but they
are not capable of weaving the wide variety and sophistication of patterns offered by jacquard machines.

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Dobby weave: a fabric, often of a complex construction, woven on a dobby machine by selectively raising some
heald shafts containing warp threads and selectively depressing others.

Dogstooth or houndstooth check: a small colour and weave effect using a 2/2 twill.

Donegal: a tweed yarn or fabric with different colour neps.

Dope dyeing: a method of colouring man-made fibres by incorporating a dye or colorant in the spinning solution
or polymer melt before extrusion into filaments.

Doupion: a fabric made of irregular, raw, rough silk reeled from double cocoons, or a man-made fibre substitute
designed to imitate the silk equivalent.

Dpf: see decitex per filament.

Drafting: a process which reduces the linear density of an assembly of fibres. Drafting typically occurs in the early
stages of producing yarns from staple fibres.

Draw ratio: In a drawing process, the ratio of the linear density of the undrawn yarn to that of the drawn yarn.

Draw spinning: a process for spinning partially or highly oriented filaments in which the orientation is introduced
after melt spinning but prior to the first forwarding or collecting device.

Draw textured yarn (DTY): yarn produced by the draw texturing method.

Draw texturing: a process in which the drawing stage of synthetic yarn manufacture is combined with the texturing
process.

Draw twist: a process of orienting a filament yarn by drawing it and then twisting it in integrated sequential stages.

Drill: a twill fabric, usually piece-dyed, similar in construction to a denim.

Dry spinning: in the dry spinning process, polymer is dissolved in a solvent before being spun into warm air, where
the solvent evaporates. This leaves the fibrous polymer ready for drawing.

DTY: see draw textured yarn.

Dumping: the offer for sale of large quantities of goods in a foreign market at low prices, usually in order to gain
market share, while maintaining higher prices in the home market. Dumping may be deemed to have taken place
when a product is sold in a foreign market at a price which is less than the cost of production plus a normal profit
margin.

Durable press: (also known as permanent press) a finishing treatment designed to impart to a textile material or
garment the retention of specific contours, including defined creases and pleats, which are resistant to normal usage,
washing and/or dry cleaning.

Dye liquor: the liquid that contains the dye and the reagents necessary for dyeing.

Elastane: a fibre containing at least 85% by mass of a segmented polyurethane which possesses inherent stretch
properties (also known as spandex, especially in the USA). Elastane fibre can be stretched by up to 700% without
breaking and recovers to its original length after being stretched.

Elastolefin fibre: an inherently elastic fibre composed of at least 95% by mass of macromolecules made up of
ethylene and at least one other olefin. The molecules are partially cross-linked. When the fibre is stretched to one
and a half times its original length and released, it recovers rapidly and substantially to its initial length.

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Elastomeric fibre: a fibre which possesses extremely high elongations at break and recovers fully and rapidly from
high elongations up to its breaking point. The term elastomer is derived from elastic polymer.

Electret: a permanently polarised dielectric material whose electric field is similar to the magnetic field of a
permanent magnet.

Elite: a brand name used by Nylstar for a stretch polyamide 6.6 fibre.

Embossing: a process in which a pattern is formed in relief by passing fabric through a calender in which a heated
metal bowl engraved with a pattern is compressed against a soft bowl.

Embroidery: a decorative pattern superimposed on an existing fabric by machine stitching or hand needlework.

Emerised: a fabric which has been passed over a series of emery-covered rollers to produce a suede-like finish.

End: (in weaving) an individual warp yarn.

End-and-end: fabrics having alternating warp yarns, usually one in a colour and one in white.

Engineered stripes: yarn dyed knitwear made on modern knitting equipment with wide bands of multiple colours.
The effect is not possible to achieve on less sophisticated repeat machines.

English cotton count: see Ne.

Entrept: a trading centre or port at a geographically convenient location where goods are imported and re-exported
without directly entering the local economy. According to the strict definition, goods are imported into and re-
exported from an entrept without incurring liability for duties.

Enzyme washing: a bio-scouring process which is used as an alternative to caustic washing to remove non-cellulosic
impurities from cotton. Bio-scouring involves treating the cotton with a mixture of enzymes, often cellulase and
pectinase. The bio-scouring process yields a cotton substrate which possesses an intact cellulose structure with
relatively low loss of weight and loss of strength.

Etamine: a fine wool crpe.

Exhaustion: see exhaust treatment.

Exhaust treatment: a batchwise treatment in which a substance (such as a finish) is selectively adsorbed by a textile
material immersed in the treatment liquor.

Fairisle: a type of sweater knitted with a coloured pattern in a traditional design originating in Scotland.

False twist: the twist inserted in a yarn using false twisting such that the net twist in the yarn is zero.

False twisting: a twisting operation applied at an intermediate position on a yarn so that no net twist can be inserted,
as distinct from twisting at the end of a yarn where real twist is inserted.

False-twist texturing: a process in which a single filament yarn is twisted, set and untwisted. When yarns made
from thermoplastic materials are heat-set in a twisted condition, the deformation of the filaments is memorised
and the yarn is given greater bulk.

Fancy yarn: a yarn which differs from the normal construction of single and folded yarns by way of deliberately
produced irregularities in its construction. These irregularities are formed by increasing the input of one or more of
the yarns components, or including periodic effects such as knops, loops, curls or slubs.

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FDY: fully drawn yarn.

Fell (of the cloth): the edge of the fabric in a weaving loom formed by the last weft thread.

Felting: the matting together of fibres during processing. This is achieved on animal hair or wool by the application
of moisture or heat, which causes the constituent fibres to mat together.

Fibre: a material used to make textiles which is flexible, fine, and has a high ratio of length to thickness.

Fibrillation: the longitudinal splitting of a fibre or filament to give either micro-fine surface hairs or a complete
breakdown into sub-micron fibres. In fabrics for apparel, fibrillation can be used to create a variety of surface
textures and attractive aesthetics. In hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics, the fibrils make entanglement easier and
can give added strength to the fabric.

Fibroin: a tough, elastic protein which forms the principal component of raw silk.

Filament: a fibre of indefinite length.

Fil coup: extra, floating, wefts which are embodied in a fabric, particularly a jacquard, and can be cut to produce
a fringe effect.

Filigree: fine, intricate jewellers work in gold or silver wire or a printed or embroidered pattern of swirling motifs
resembling such work.

Filling: see weft.

Finish oil: oil that is put on a yarn, either flat or textured, to reduce friction during subsequent processing stages.

Flamm: a slub yarn.

Flannel: generally, a cotton or wool fabric, which has been napped on one or both sides (usually both) followed
by a bleaching, dyeing or printing process and then brushed or rerun through the napping machine to revive the nap.
Flannel fabrics are perceived to have a soft and warm feel.

Flannelette: a woven cotton fabric with a soft, raised surface.

Flax: the fibre used to make linen textiles.

Fleece fabric: a fabric, usually knitted, with a heavy napped surface on one side. The fabric is produced using two
types of yarn, one for the face area and the other for the reverse. After fabric formation and processing, the reverse
area is brushed to produce the fleece effect. The inside surface of a sweatshirt is usually napped.

Floating (warp): a length of warp yarn which passes over two or more weft threads (rather than intersecting with
them) in a woven structure.

Floating (weft): a length of weft yarn which passes over two or more warp threads (rather than intersecting with
them) in a woven structure.

Flock: a material obtained by reducing textile fibres to fragments by, for example, cutting, tearing, or grinding.

Flocking: a process in which short chopped lengths of fibre (flock) are applied to an adhesive coated backing fabric
or other substrate. The application is usually carried out electrostatically.

Flock printing: a process in which a fabric is printed with an adhesive, followed by the application of finely
chopped fibres over the whole surface of the fabric by means of dusting-on, an air blast, or electrostatic attraction.
The fibres adhere to the printed areas, and are removed from the unprinted areas by mechanical action.

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Flounce: hanging strips of material which are normally sewn to the hem of a skirt.

Foam printing: a process in which a rubber solution is turned into a foam and squeezed through a screen to make
a rubber print. Also known as puff rubber printing.

Fob: free on board: a term used in international commercial law specifying at what point the seller transfers
ownership of the goods to the buyer. The point at which ownership is transferred is important as the owner of the
goods is responsible for damage or loss during transport. In fob transactions, goods are delivered on board a ship
or to another carrier at no cost to the buyer.

Folded yarn: a yarn made by twisting two or more single yarns together in one operation.

FOY: fully oriented yarn.

Fris: a fine boucl yarn.

Fuji silk: a spun-silk fabric woven in a plain weave.

Full package supplier (garments): a supplier who carries out all steps involved in the production of a finished
garmentincluding design, fabric purchasing, cutting, sewing, trimming, packaging, and distribution. Typically,
a full package supplier will organise and coordinate: the design of the product; the approval of samples; the selection,
purchasing and production of materials; the completion of production; and, in some cases, the delivery of the finished
product to the final customer.

Gaberdine: a firmly woven, warp-faced twill cloth.

Garnetting: a type of carding process employed to open up waste fibres and yarns for subsequent recycling.

Gatt: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, a multinational trade organisation established in 1947 and based
in Geneva, Switzerland. Gatt was superseded by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995.

Gauge: the number of needles per unit length (usually 1 inch) along a needle bed or needle bar or flat knitting
machine. For circular knitting machines, the unit length is the circumference of the needle cylinder.

Gauze: a lightweight open texture fabric produced in a plain weave or a simple leno woven fabric.

Generalised System of Preferences (GSP): a system of tariff preferences operated by developed countries. The
EUs scheme, introduced in 1971, was designed to foster the development of developing countries by granting them
easier access to the EU market. Beneficiary countries granted GSP treatment were not required to contribute anything
in return.

Georgette: a fine lightweight open fabric woven in crpe yarns.

Geotextile: a permeable textile cloth used in contact with soil or rock as part of a civil engineering operation.

Greige cloth: see grey cloth.

Grey cloth: Grey cloth, also known as loom-state cloth or greige cloth, is a fabric in the condition in which it leaves
the loom or knitting machine, ie before any bleaching, dyeing or finishing treatment has been given to it.

Gilet: a waist- or hip-length garment, usually sleeveless, fastening up the front; sometimes made from a quilted
fabric, and designed to be worn over a blouse or shirt.

Gimped yarn: a yarn similar to boucl in which the effect component is wrapped around the core yarn either tightly
or loosely according to the amount of excess delivery and the doubling twist inserted. Generally speaking, boucl
yarns exhibit an irregular pattern of semi-circular loops and sigmoid spirals whereas gimp yarns display fairly regular
semi-circular projections.

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Gingham: a plain-weave lightweight fabric, usually made of cotton, with small checks.

Ginnery: a factory where cotton ginning takes place.

Ginning: the process of separating cotton lint from the seed.

Grading (in garment manufacture): a process of adjusting the size of each pattern piece to fit different body sizes.

Grandrelle: a two-ply yarn composed of single yarns of different colours or contrasting lustre.

Greige: a term used to describe textile products prior to bleaching, dying or finishing. Some greige textiles may,
however, contain dyed or finished yarns.

Grinning: a flaw in a fabric, especially a ribbed fabric, that occurs either when warp threads show through the
covering weft threads or when the threads have slipped, leaving open spaces on either side.

Grosgrain: a plain-weave fabric with a rib in the weft direction, the rib being more pronounced than in a taffeta.

Ground: a base cloth for printing.

GSP: see Generalised System of Preferences.

Guipure: a lace construction produced by embroidering a thread pattern onto a fabric, the fabric being
subsequently removed by chemical or other means to leave an open work lace.

Habotai: a lightweight silk fabric commonly used for linings, hangings and underwear.

Hand: fabric quality or characteristicssuch as softness, firmness, drapability, or finenessperceived by touch.

Hand feel: see hand.

Handle: see hand.

Hand scraping: a process in which dyed denim fabric is rubbed with sand paper to impart a worn look to its surface.

Hank: an unsupported coil comprising wraps of yarn (or sliver) made by winding the yarn on a reeling machine
with a cross-wound pattern and then binding it to prevent tangling.

Hank dyeing: the process of dyeing a yarn in hank form; hank dyeing is used where the yarn must preserve a fuller
handle and bulk in order to obtain the desired effect in a knitted garment.

Harris tweed: a woollen tweed fabric woven on handlooms by crofters in the Outer Hebrides in Scotland. Harris
tweed is traditionally woven 75 cm wide but modern handlooms can produce 150 cm width fabric.

Heald: a steel wire or strip with an eye in the centre, or a similar device through which a warp yarn is threaded. The
heald enables the yarn to be raised or lowered during weaving to create a shed.

Heald shaft: a frame in which a large number of healds are mounted. Typically a loom contains two or more heald
shafts, depending upon the complexity of the weave pattern required. The heald shaft is raised or lowered by means
of cams or a dobby mechanism to form a shed and to create different weave patterns.

Heddle: another word for heald.

Hemp: a light-coloured, strong bast fibre obtained from the hemp plant Cannabis sativa.

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Herringbone: a broken twill weave giving a zigzag or herringbone effect.

Hollow spindle system: a system of yarn formation in which sliver or roving is drafted and the drafted twistless
strand is wrapped with a yarn as it passes through a rotating hollow spindle. The binder or wrapping yarn is mounted
on the hollow spindle and is unwound and wrapped around the core by rotation of the spindle. The technique may
be used for producing a range of wrap spun yarns or fancy yarns.

Honeycomb: a fabric structure in which the warp and weft threads form ridges and hollows, so as to give a cellular
appearance.

Hopsack: a modification of a plain weave in which two or more ends or picks weave as one.

Hydroentanglement: a process for bonding a nonwoven fabric by using high pressure water jets to intermingle
the fibres.

Hydrophilic: a term used to describe a material which tends to mix with or to be wetted by water.

Hydrophilicity: the extent to which a material is hydrophilic.

Hydrophobic: a term used to describe a material which tends to repel or not to be wetted by water.

Hydrostatic head: a way of describing the pressure applied to a material in terms of the height of an equivalent
column of water. Because the pressure exerted is determined solely by the height of the column, it is possible to use
this figure to quantify how waterproof a fabric is. For example, a fabric which can withstand a hydrostatic head of
one metre will resist the passage of water until the pressure of the water exceeds this value.

Ikat: a traditional technique resulting in a streaky effect, created by tying and dyeing lengths of yarn before weaving.

Industrial textiles: a category of technical textiles used as part of an industrial process, or incorporated into final
products.

Innerwear: clothing, such as lingerie, designed to be worn next to the skin.

Intarsia: a motif design knitted in solid colours into a weft knitted fabric.

Interlaced yarn: see intermingled yarn.

Interlock fabric: an interlock fabric is a double faced rib-based weft knitted structure consisting of two 1x1 rib
fabrics joined by interlocking sinker groups. It is made on machines equipped with two sets of opposed needles. This
type of fabric has a bulky and soft handle and is used for making mens and womens T-shirts and also for producing
furnishings.

Intermingled yarn: a multifilament yarn in which cohesion is imparted to the filament bundle by entwining the
filaments instead of, or in addition to, twisting. The effect is usually achieved by passing the yarn under light tension
through the turbulent zone of an air-jet.

Intumescent system (flame retardancy): a flame retardant system which undergoes charring and foaming upon
thermal degradation (for example, when exposed to an ignition source such as a flame). A blown protective cellular
char is formed on the surface of the textile, providing protection from heat and flame.

Islands-in-the-sea: a type of bicomponent yarn in which one component polymer is formed, during extrusion, as
longitudinal strands within the matrix of a second polymer.

Jacobs fleece: the natural brown shade of the Jacobs sheep.

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Jacquard: a description of techniques used for knitting and weaving to obtain large-scale and/or figured designs
(named after the inventor, Joseph Marie Jacquard, 1752-1834). Jacquard looms are fitted with harnesses which
facilitate control over individual warp threads, rather than groups of warp threads as in the case of non-jacquard
looms. Consequently, jacquard looms are capable of weaving much more complex and sophisticated patterns than
are possible using dobby machines.

Jasp: a fabric characterised by a subtle striped effect.

Javanese: a viscose cloth made from a spun weft and filament warp, characterised by a dull sheen.

Jersey fabric: a generic name applied to weft knitted fabric.

Joint venture: a joint undertaking of a new, usually risky business in, for example, a developing country or in
Eastern Europe.

Judo: a structured cloth constructed in varieties of piqu weave and usually made in cotton.

Jute: a fibre obtained from the bast layer of the plants Corchorus capsularis and Corchorus olitorius.

Kaftan: an oriental garment consisting of a long under-tunic tied at the waist by a girdle.

Kelim: Turkish carpets with stylised geometric patterns.

Kemp: coarse, white, dead animal-hair mixed with animal fibre which shows up in a finished yarn or fabric as a
lighter colour.

Knop: a bunch of fibres appearing along the length of a yarn, giving a spot effect.

Lace: fine open-work fabric with a mesh ground upon which patterns are worked.

Lacquer: a fabric finish which achieves a varnished look.

Ladder yarn: a knitted tape yarn with the appearance of a ladder.

Lawn (fabric): a plain weave textile which was originally made from linen but is now made chiefly from cotton.
The fabric is designed using fine, high count yarns, which results in a silky, untextured feel. The term lawn is also
used in the textile industry to refer to a type of starched crisp finish given to a cloth product. The finish can be
applied to a variety of fine printed or plain fabrics (see also tana lawn).

Lay: lengths of fabric, several plies high, which have been spread on a cutting table ready for cutting. The fabric
is subsequently cut in accordance with a cutting plan which is usually designed to optimise materials utilisation.

Laying-up: the process of spreading lengths of fabric on a cutting table to make a lay.

Lay plan: a plan in garment making of the lay height, lay length, colour mix, selection of fabric pieces to be cut,
and the batches from which the fabric is to be used.

Leaching: the removal of a substance (such as a dyestuff) by a liquid which is in contact with the substance.

Leno-mesh: a fabric in which warp threads have been made to cross one another between picks during leno
weaving.

Leno weaving: a form of weaving in which warp threads are made to cross one another between weft insertions.

Leno woven fabric: a fabric characterised by an open cellular appearance.

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Linear density: the weight per unit length of a yarn or fibre. Units of linear density include decitex and denier.

Liquor ratio: the ratio between the mass of liquor employed in a wet processing treatment and the mass of fibrous
material treated.

Loden: a thick heavy waterproof woollen cloth which is used to make garments, especially coats.

LOI (limiting oxygen index): a measure of flammability; the level of oxygen in the oxygen/nitrogen atmosphere
(expressed as a percentage) that must be present before a fibre will ignite and burn when exposed to flame.

Looper: an eyed stitch-forming element which carries an under thread or a cover thread on some types of sewing
machine.

LOY: low orientation yarn.

Lurex: the brand name for a yarn with a metallic appearance, made by the company Lurex. The word is also used
by the trade as a generic description.

Lycra: Invistas brand name for its elastane or spandex fibre.

Lyocell: the generic name given to a relatively new family of cellulosic fibres and yarns which have been produced
by solvent spinning. The process is widely regarded as being environmentally-friendly, and the product offers a
number of advantages over traditional cellulosic fibres.

Macram: knotted threadwork.

Madras check: a colour-woven cotton fabric designed in colourful checks and usually associated with typical cotton
checks from Madras in India.

Maguey (Agave americana): (also known as the Century Plant) an agave originally from Mexico but now cultivated
worldwide The leaves of the plant yield fibres, known as pita, which are suitable for making rope, matting and coarse
cloth. They are also used for the embroidery of leather in a technique known as piteado.

Mako cotton: very fine cotton spun from extra long staple Egyptian fibre.

Maltint: a yarn that is dyed unevenly to achieve an artificial aged effect.

Manila, manila help: see abaca.

Man-made fibre: a fibre which is manufactured rather than occurring naturally. Man-made fibres can be further
divided into: cellulosic or artificial fibres, which are made from naturally occurring polymers such as wood pulp;
and synthetic fibres, which are made from chemically derived polymers.

Man-made filaments: filaments which are manufactured and which do not occur in nature.

Maquiladoras: plants, common in Mexico and other Latin American countries, which process and assemble
components or part-assembled goods made in the USA or another country and return the finished products to the
USA or elsewhere for final sale. Usually, maquiladoras are in-bond assembly plants, which means that incoming
goods can be freely imported without being liable to customs duty.

Maquilas: see maquiladoras.

Marker (in garment manufacture): a plan of pattern pieces from which the cloth will be cut. Effectively it is the
final jigsaw of all the pattern pieces to be cut in a particular lay.

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Market capitalisation: a measure of company size, calculated by multiplying the number of shares which a
company has issued by the current market price.

Marl yarn: a yarn, usually woollen-spun, consisting of two or more single ends of different colours twisted together.
(See also Grandrelle.)

Marocain: a crpe fabric with a weft-ways rib.

Masterbatch: a concentrated blend of pigments, additives and/or fillers in a base polymer. Masterbatch is added
in small amounts to a large volume of material which is same as, or is compatible with, the base polymer to produce
the desired formulation.

Matelass: a double cloth with a quilted appearance.

mcd/m2: millicandela per m2. The candela is the SI (Systme International) unit for luminous intensity.

Mlange: a yarn produced from coloured printed tops or slivers. It is indistinguishable from a mixture yarn in that
each fibre carries more than one colour.

Meltblown: part of a production route for making nonwovens; extruded synthetic filaments are sucked by high
pressure air jets from the die to form random length, very fine fibres which are deposited on to a belt.

Melt flow index: an indication of the viscosity of molten polymer. The index serves to indicate the flow
characteristics of a melt under given temperature and pressure conditions.

Melt spinning: the conversion of molten polymer into filaments by extrusion through a spinneret and subsequent
cooling of the extrudate.

Mercerisation: a treatment of yarns or fabrics with caustic alkali, in which fibres are swollen and stretched to
increase lustre in the finished product.

Merino wool: wool from the Merino sheep, with a mean fibre diameter generally of 24 microns or less.

Metallo-plastic: a yarn made from a synthetic or plastic material with a metallic appearance.

Metric count: see Nm.

MFA: Multi-Fibre Arrangementa special protocol agreed by members of Gatt as derogation from normal Gatt
rules. The MFA, which ran from 1974 to 1994, established a framework for individual pairs of Gatt member
countries to negotiate bilateral agreements with a view to establishing quantitative restraints (quotas) on textile and
clothing trade between the two partners. Normal Gatt rules insist that all Gatt parties are to be treated equally (see
MFN). On January 1, 1995, the MFA was superseded by the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC).

MFN: most favoured nation: a basic principle of the World Trade Organization (WTO) which requires countries
to treat imports from one WTO member no less favourably than imports from another WTO member.

Microfibre: a fibre or filament with a linear density of less than 1.0 decitex. Some commercial fibres or filaments
as coarse as 1.3 decitex are classified as microfibres by their producers.

Microfilament: a continuous filament with a linear density of less than 1.0 decitex. Some commercial filaments
as coarse as 1.3 decitex are classified as microfilaments by their producers.

Micron (micrometre): one millionth (10-6) of a metre.

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Micronaire value: a measurement of cotton fibre quality. The micronaire value is a function of fibre fineness and
maturity: low values indicate fine and/or immature fibres, whereas high values indicate coarse and/or mature fibres.
The micronaire value is determined in practice by measuring the resistance to air flow of a specified mass of fibres
(in the form of a plug) confined in a chamber of a specified volume.

Microyarn: a yarn consisting of several microfilaments.

Milling: a process in which wool and other animal fibre fabrics are compacted by wetting them and putting them
through a rotary milling machine.

Mock leno: a woven structure which imitates the appearance of leno weaves, ie it has an open structure.

Modal: a type of cellulosic fibre which has improved strength and modulus when wet.

Modulus: a measure of the ability of a fibre to resist extension. Normally measured as the ratio of the stress (or
load) applied on a yarn or filament to the elongation (strain) resulting from the application of that stress.

Mohair: the hair of the angora goat.

Moir: a rippled effect created by applying heat and heavy pressure by means of rollers on a ribbed or corded
fabric. Where not deliberately introduced as part of a design, moir effects are caused by faults in the fabric and have
the appearance of wavy lines.

Moisture vapour transmission rate (MVTR): the rate at which a fabric allows moisture vapour to pass through
to the outside air in a given time.

Moleskin: a thick cotton fabric, originally uncut corduroy having a very high weft sett, which is piece-dyed and
given a smooth raised finish to simulate the fur of a mole.

Monofilament yarn: a yarn consisting of a single filament.

Mordant: a substance, usually a metallic compound, applied to a substrate to form a complex with a dye, which is
retained by the substrate more firmly than the dye itself.

Moulin: a type of two-colour twist yarn which gives a mottled effect in fabric.

Mousseline: a general term for very fine, semi-opaque fabricsfiner than muslinsmade of silk, wool or cotton.

Multicompartment fibres: fibres formed from multicomponent (or conjugate) fibres by separately extruding
fibres of different polymers. While still in the molten state, the fibres are combined and blown with fluid jets. This
produces vortices within the fibre. As the fibre is drawn, the vortices can, under the right conditions, be converted
to hollow structures running along the length of the fibre. The compartments so formed may lie side by side within
the composite fibre or contained within it in an annular structure.

Multicomponent fibres and yarns: a yarn having two or more different continuous filament components (see also
multicompartment fibres and yarns and bicomponent fibres and yarns).

Multifilament yarn: a yarn made up of more than one filament.

Nap: a soft or fuzzy surface on a fabric, usually achieved by brushing.

Napped: a fabric which has been treated to give a soft or fuzzy surface (nap) usually by brushing.

Ne: a unit denoting English cotton count, and an indirect (length per unit weight) measure of linear density. The
Ne value is the number of 840 yd lengths of yarn weighing 1 lb.

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Needlebonding: see needlepunching.

Needlefelting: see needlepunching.

Needlepunching: a process for making a nonwoven textile in which a continuous mat of randomly laid fibres or
filaments is entangled with barbed needles. This causes matting and the production of a felt textile.

Needling: see needlepunching.

Nep: a small knot of entangled fibres commonly regarded as a fault but sometimes introduced as an effect.

Nip: a line or area of contact or proximity between two contiguous surfaces which move so as to compress and/or
control the velocity of textile material passed between them.

Nm: a unit denoting metric count, an indirect (length per unit weight) measure of linear density. The metric count
is the number of 1 km lengths of yarn weighing 1 kg.

Noil: shorter fibres separated from longer fibres in combing.

Nonwoven: (according to ISO 9092:1988) a manufactured sheet, web or batt of directionally or randomly
orientated fibres, bonded by friction and/or cohesion and/or adhesion, excluding paper and products which are
woven, knitted, tufted, stitchbonded incorporating binding yarns or filaments, or felted by wet-milling, whether
or not additionally needled.

Nylon: another word for polyamide.

OBM: original brand manufacturing. See also original design manufacturing (ODM) and original equipment
manufacturing (OEM).

ODM: original design manufacturing. See also original brand manufacturing (OBM) and original equipment
manufacturing (OEM).

OEM: see original equipment manufacturing.

Offshore processing: see outward processing.

Ombr: a term used to describe fabrics with a dyed, printed or woven design in which the colour is graduated from
light to dark and often into stripes of varying shades.

Ond: a fabric with a waved effect produced by calendering or weaving.

Open-end spinning: a spinning system in which sliver feedstock is highly drafted and thus creates an open end
or break in the fibre flow. The fibres are subsequently assembled on the end of a rotating yarn and twisted in.
Techniques for collecting and twisting the fibres into a yarn include rotor spinning and friction spinning.

OPA: outward processing arrangements.

OPT: outward processing trade.

Organdie: a plain-weave fabric of light weight and with a permanent stiff finish.

Organza: a thin but stiff plain woven silk fabric.

Organzine: a silk yarn used for weaving or knitting. The yarn comprises single threads which are twisted, folded
two-, three- or four-fold, and finally twisted in the direction opposite to that of the single yarn.

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Original brand manufacturing (OBM): a business model which focuses on branding rather than on design
(original design manufacturingODM) or manufacturing (original equipment manufacturingOEM).

Original design manufacturing (ODM): a business model which focuses on design rather than on branding
(original brand manufacturingOBM) or manufacturing (original equipment manufacturingOEM).

Original equipment manufacturing (OEM): a business model which focuses on the manufacturing process rather
than on design (original design manufacturingODM) or branding (original brand manufacturingOBM).
In the clothing industry, OEMs typically manufacture according to customer specifications and in many cases use
raw materials supplied or specified by the customer.

Ottoman: a warp-faced fabric showing a bold weft-way rib.

Outward processing: a procedure whereby a company based in one country exports material to another country
for additional processing, and then reimports the processed products for further treatment, for domestic distribution,
or for re-export. The most common form of outward processing involves the exporting of fabric from a high cost
country to a low cost country for assembly or part-assembly into garments.

Oxford: a plain-weave shirting of good quality yarns that has two warp ends weaving as one.

Padding (finishing): the impregnation of a substrate with a liquor or paste followed by squeezingusually by
passing the substrate through a nipto leave a specific quantity of liquor or paste on the substrate.

Paisley: a traditional decorative pattern featuring an Indian cone or pine.

Pann: a satin-faced velvet or silk fabric with a high lustre which is achieved by finishing.

Partially oriented yarn (POY): a continuous filament yam made by extruding a synthetic polymer so that a
substantial degree of molecular orientation is present in the resulting filaments, but further molecular orientation
is possible. The resulting yarn will usually require a positive draw ratio in subsequent processing in order to orient
the molecular structure fully and optimise the yarns tensile properties.

Passementerie: an open-work braid technique, traditionally used for furnishing braid.

PBT: polybutylterephthalate, a type of polyester used as an engineering plastic and, for specialist uses, in the form
of a fibre.

Peachskin: the term used to describe the soft surface of certain textiles which feels like, and has the appearance of,
the skin of a peach.

Pepper and salt: a fabric with a speckled effect, often black and white.

PET: polyethylene terephthalate polymer, the most common form of polyester.

Pick: a single weft thread in a fabric, as woven.

Pigment dyeing: a process used to give garments a characteristic washed out or weathered look, while offering
good light- and wash-fastness and reasonable crocking (wet-rub) resistance. By their nature, pigments produce
garments which change and age over time as they are washed. Unlike dyes, pigments are insoluble in water and are
milled into a paste for garment dyeing or printing. The addition of anionic dispersing agents induces a slight negative
charge on the surface of the pigment particles and, if the fibre has been treated to give it a positive charge, a polar
bond is formed. The process is completed when a resinous binder is applied to lock the pigment in place.
Alternatively, pigments such as Indigo can be reduced to a water-soluble or leuco form which may be used to dye
fabrics in the same manner as dyestuffs. Once the dyeing stage is completed the material is exposed to air and this
regenerates the pigment that is trapped inside the fibres. Surplus pigment is removed from the fibre surface by
washing in a slurry of an abrasive material such as Fullers Earth in a process known as fulling. This has been the
method used traditionally on worsted mens suitings and, in recent years, on cotton denim for blue jeans.

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Pima: a type of fine, extra-long staple cotton.

Piqu (knitted): a jersey fabric with a special pattern of loop formation.

Piqu (woven): a woven cloth showing rounded cords in the weft direction with sunken lines between them.

Placement print: a fabric printed with a single motif, such as a portrait head, for display on a particular part of a
garment, as opposed to a fabric printed with a repeat pattern.

Plating: a process for making a knitted fabric from two yarns of different propertiesone on the face of the fabric,
the other on the back.

Pliss: a French term, meaning pleated, which is applied to fabrics with a puckered or crinkled effect.

Ply yarn: see folded yarn.

Pointelle: a form of knit stitch resembling lace.

Polar fleece: a fleece-back jersey fabric.

Polymer: a long molecule made up of many smaller repeat molecules; the following polymers are the main ones
used to make synthetic fibres:

polyacrylic;
polyamide (nylon);
polyester;
polypropylene; and
polyurethane.

Polymerise: the process of linking small chemical units together to form larger molecules.

Polynosic: a type of cellulosic fibre characterised by a high wet modulus of elasticity. When sanded or raised,
fabrics made from this fibre have the soft, peachskin surface found in washed silks.

Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT): a polymer used in the manufacture of fibres and textiles with stretch
properties, including those developed by Toray Industries and known as 3GT.

Pongee: a lustrous lightweight plain-weave fabric, originally woven in silk.

Popcorn: a fabric which has undergone a special finishing technique to give it a texture resembling fluffy kernels
of popcorn.

Poplin: a plain-weave cotton-type fabric with weftways ribs and a high warp sett.

POY: see partially oriented yarn.

Prepreg: an assembly of fibres impregnated with resin that has been prepared for preforming into a composite
shape; a subsequent curing process is used to set the resin and form the composite.

Prince of Wales: a large-scale check, typified by a reversing effect ground with an overcheck.

Product-specific safeguard: (see also safeguards, textile safeguard) a measure available to a member of the
World Trade Organization (WTO) which enables it to protect its market from import surges of particular products
from China which cause market disruption. The measure is applicable to any type of product (industrial and
agricultural goods) and will remain available for use by WTO members until December 11, 2013.

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Progressive bundle system: a system traditionally employed in apparel production where the task of assembling
the garment is broken down into small operations, and bundles of work are progressed down the production line
through each operation in sequence until the assembly process is complete (see also unit production system).

Provenal: small stylised florals typical of the Provence region of France.

PTA: purified terephthalic acid, used in the manufacture of polyester.

PTT: polytrimethylene terephthalate (see also T400 and 3GT).

Puff rubber printing: see foam printing.

Qiviut: hair from the musk ox. Qiviut is finer and more expensive than cashmere.

Quantitative limit: see quota.

Quilting: layers of padded cloth held together by stitching.

Quota: a quantitative restraint imposed by an importing country on an exporting countryor established by


agreement between the two trading partnerswhich is designed to limit shipments of a product from the exporting
to the importing country. (See also MFA and ATC.)

Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems: radio frequency identification (RFID) systems provide a method
to automatically identify and locate manufactured products over distances of up to several hundred metres. They rely
on storing and remotely retrieving data from electronic tags using devices which can transmit and pick up data via
radio waves. The systems usually comprise a universal infrastructure which consists of electronic readers, tags and
radio-frequency identification management computer software.

Raffia: a fibre obtained from the leaves of the raffia palm.

Ramie: a bast fibre similar to flax, the fibre used for making linen textiles.

Raschel: a two-needle warp knitting system.

Ratin: a cloth with a rough surface, which has been achieved by finishing and/or the use of fancy yarns.

Rayon: a term used to describe fibres made from regenerated cellulose. (See also viscose, modal and acetate.)

Real twist: twist inserted in a yarn through the rotation of a yam end (as in uptwisting or downtwisting) or the
repeated passage of a thread loop around an end, as in two-for-one twisting.

Redox: a type of chemical reaction in which one of the reagents is reduced, while another is oxidised.

Redox agent: a substance which promotes redox reactions.

Reed: a device consisting of several wires closely set which separate warp threads in a loom. The reed determines
the spacing of the warp threads, guides the weft carrying device, and beats up the weft against the fell of the cloth.

Reed width: the width of the fabric in the reed.

Regain: the ratio of the weight of water in a material to the oven-dry weight of the material.

Resin: see prepreg, composite; also used as another word for polymer.

Resist treatment: a treatment applied to part of a fabric which causes the area treated to resist the take-up of dye.

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Retting (flax): the subjection of a crop of flax or deseeded flax straw to chemical or biological treatment in order
to make fibre bundles more easily separable from the woody part of the stem. (See also decortication.)

RFID: see radio frequency identification (RFID) systems.

Ribbon yarns: yarns that are woven or knitted in the form of a ribbon.

Rib fabric: a knitted fabric with a rib pattern. Depending upon the usage, the pattern can be altered to exhibit
different rib effects. Rib fabric is used mainly in round necks and cuffs for certain types of T-shirts. It is also used
for making undergarments.

Ring spun: a spinning system in which twist is inserted in a yarn by using a revolving traveller. This method gives
a tighter twist than the more modern, faster and usually cheaper open-end spinning process.

Rinses: washing processes during which denim fabric is desized, rinsed and softened. Rinsing provides fabrics with
a softer handle but does not discolour them.

Rotor spinning: a method of open-end spinning which uses a rotor (a high speed centrifuge) to collect and twist
individual fibres into a yarn.

Roving: a collection of relatively fine fibrous strands used in the later or final processes of preparation for spinning.

Rubber printing: see foam printing.

Ruching: adding a frill of lace or other material, often pleated.

Safeguard: (see also textile safeguard, product-specific safeguard) a measure available to a member of the World
Trade Organization (WTO), enabling it to restrict imports of a product temporarily (take safeguard action) under
Article XIX of the WTO if its domestic industry is injured or threatened with serious injury caused by a surge in
imports. An import surge justifying safeguard action can be a real increase in imports (an absolute increase), or
it can be an increase in the share of imports in a shrinking market, even if the import quantity has not increased
(relative increase). Industries or companies may request safeguard action by their government. A safeguard measure
should not last more than four years, although this can be extended up to eight years. Measures imposed for more
than a year must be progressively liberalised. An exporting country can retaliate against the imposition of a safeguard
against it by, for instance, raising tariffs on exports from the country which is enforcing the safeguard measure.

Sandwash: the soft peachskin finish obtained by blasting a fabric with fine sand.

Sanforizing: a controlled compressive shrinkage process. The word Sanforized is a registered trade mark and can
be used to describe fabrics which meet defined and approved standards of washing shrinkage.

Sari patterns: traditional Indian sari designs.

Satin weave: a warp-faced fabric with binders arranged to produce a smooth surface.

Schappe silk yarns: spun silk yarns which have not been degummed through a fermentation process. Up to 10%
of gum may remain on the fibre prior to spinning.

Scouring: the treatment of textiles in aqueous or other solutions in order to remove natural fats, waxes, proteins and
other constituents, as well as dirt, oil and other impurities.

Scutching (flax): the operation of separating the woody part of deseeded or retted flax straw.

SDY: see spin draw yarn.

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Seasonless solids: basic colours which do not change from season to season, including black, white and navy.

Seersucker: a fabric characterised by the presence of puckered areas contrasted by flat areas, usually in stripes along
the length of the cloth.

Sett: a term used to define the weft or warp density of a woven fabric, usually in terms of the number of threads
per centimetre.

Shantung: a silk fabric similar to pongee, but heavier, which was originally woven in wild silk from Shantung,
China.

Shape memory polymers (SMPs): chemical compounds which have one form at a certain temperature, which can
be given a different shape when subjected to a stimulus such as heat, and which, under certain conditions, can return
to their original memorised form. Current textile research is focused on using shape memory polymers to create
smart fabrics with protective and moisture management capabilities.

Shed: an opening formed during weaving by raising some warp threads and lowering others to facilitate the passage
of a weft yarn or a weft carrying device across the weaving machine.

Shepherds check: a small check effect in contrasting colours, often black and white.

Shetland: a wool yarn or fabric with a soft yet firm handle, plain dyed or in mixture shades.

Shin gosen: fabrics made from ultra-fine polyester filament yarns with enhanced comfort, handle, drape and
aesthetics. Shin gosen fabrics are designed specifically to appeal to end users by employing a combination of
sophisticated fibre and fabric processing technologies.

Shirring: making puckers or gathers in a fabric, often by using elasticated thread in parallel rows.

Shives (flax): short pieces of woody waste beaten from flax straw during scutching.

Shot: a colour effect seen in a fabric woven with a warp of one colour and a weft of a contrasting colour.

Silicone softeners: softeners applied to improve the softness and handle of a fabric. Silicone softeners work by
filling in irregularities in the fibre surface and thereby make surfaces feel and appear smoother. This, in turn, enables
the fibres to slip easily past one another and prevent fibres sticking together.

Single knitted fabric: a fabric produced by knitting a single yarn continuously. In this type of fabric, the face and
the back show different patterns.

Sinker: a sinker is a blade which works in conjunction with knitting needles, and assists with loop formation and
holding a fabric down.

Sirospun yarns: worsted ply yarns spun on a slightly modified ring-spinning frame, which creates the yarns
directly from two rovings. In forming the yarns, the spinning frame twists the two rovings together, thereby holding
the fibres in place. The process, developed in Australia, eliminates the step of forming two separate single yarns.

Size: a substance applied to warp yarns (but also sometimes to weft yarns) prior to weaving in order to protect the
yarns from abrasion, to strengthen them, and to lubricate them.

Sliver: fibres in rope form prior to twisting in the spinning process.

Slub yarns: yarns with a deliberately uneven surface.

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Snarl yarns: yarns which are so highly twisted that they curl back on themselves into knots and snarls, like twisted
strands of elastic.

Soleiado: a term, originally the name of a company, used to describe a Provenal print.

Sorona: a brand name for Invistas PBT fibre.

Space-dyed yarns: yarns produced by the space dyeing process.

Space dyeing: a dyeing process in which yarn is coloured at intervals.

Spandex: the generic name used in the USA to denote elastane fibre.

Spin drawing: a process for spinning partially or highly oriented filaments in which the spinning and drawing
processes are integrated sequential stages. Most of the orientation in spin drawing is introduced between the first
forwarding device and the take-up.

Spin draw yarn (SDY): yarn produced by the spin drawing method.

Spinneret: a nozzle or plate provided with fine holes or slits through which a fibre-forming solution or melt is
extruded during fibre manufacture.

Spinning solution: a solution of fibre-forming polymer ready for extrusion through a spinneret.

Spunbond: nonwovens made from a continuous mat of randomly laid filaments. The filaments are bonded together
by heat and pressure or needlepunching.

Spunmelt: a nonwoven structure made by extruding molten polymer through spinnerets to form fibres. Spunmelt
processes are used in the manufacture of spunbond nonwovens, meltblown nonwovens and combinations of the two.

Spunbonding: the process used to manufacture spunbonded nonwovens.

Standard minute: the amount of effort expended in one minute by the average worker, suited and accustomed to
his or her task, working at normal speed under normal conditions, with due allowance for fatigue resulting from the
effort expended. A standard minute corresponds to the productivity to be expected from an average worker for a
guaranteed minimum wage without financial incentives.

Standard performance: the rate of output which qualified workers will naturally achieve without over-exertion as
an average over the working day or shift provided they know and adhere to the specified method and provided they
are motivated to apply themselves to their work. This performance is denoted as 100 on the standard rating and
performance scales.

Staple fibres (man-made): man-made fibres of predetermined short lengths, usually prepared by cutting or
breaking filaments of the material into lengths suitable for their intended processing route.

Stitchbonding: a process in which a series of interlooped stitches are inserted along the length of a pre-formed
fabric, an array of cross-laid yarns or a fibre web. Proprietary systems include Arachne, Malipol and Maliwatt.

Stone washing: a washing process in which jeans are put into a machine with a perforated drum, pumice stone is
added, and the jeans are then tumbled in the machine. Stone washing creates a worn look on the surface of the fabric
and imparts a soft handle.

Striated: an effect applied to a yarn to give the appearance of striationslines of colour or fine parallel scratches
or grooves, as on the surface of a rock over which a glacier has flowed.

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Subcontracting: an arrangement whereby one business (subcontractor) manufactures all or part of a specific product
on behalf of another business (main contractor) in accordance with plans and technical specifications supplied by
the main contractor. The main contractor has final economic responsibility in such an arrangement.

Sublimation: a process in which a substance is changed directly from a solid into a gas or vapour without first
melting.

Substantivity: the attraction between a fibre and a substance (such as a chemical finish) under conditions whereby
the substance is selectively extracted by the fibre from the application medium (for example, water).

Sueded fabric: a fabric finished in such a way as to imitate suede leather.

Surfactant (surface active agent): a molecule which, when added to a liquid at low concentration, changes the
properties of that liquid at a surface or interface. Surfactants are used in cleaners and detergents to: improve wetting
and spreading; provide detergency by solubilising and suspending soils; produce, modify or control foam; emulsify
and disperse substances such as silicone wax; couple or compatibilise formulation components; and modify viscosity.

Synthetic fibres: man-made fibres made from a polymer that has been produced artificially, in contrast to fibres
made from naturally occurring polymers such as cellulose. The term synthetic fibres is also used to refer to
synthetic filaments.

Synthetic filaments: man-made filaments made from a polymer that has been produced artificially, in contrast
to filaments made from naturally occurring polymers such as cellulose.

T400: see 3GT.

Tacking (jeans): a process which is used to make fold marks in jeans. Sections of the jeans are folded and then fixed
using plastic tags which are inserted using tag guns. After washing, the tags are removed from the jeans.

Tactel: a brand name used by Invista for its nylon fibre.

Taffeta: a closely woven, plain-weave fabric with a crisp handle and a smooth surface.

Tana lawn: a cool, crisp, fine cotton fabric. It is named after Lake Tana in Sudan, from where Liberty sourced the
yarn when it first introduced the fabric after the First World War.

Tanquis: a type of long staple fibre cotton.

Tape yarn: a yarn used for knitwear in the form of a tape with a large width-to-thickness ratio. Such yarns are
typically formed by weaving or knitting. Knitted tape yarns are often made on circular knitting machines, giving them
a tubular cross-section.

Tapestry: a closely woven figured fabric with a compound structure in which a pattern is developed by the use of
coloured yarns in the warp or in the weft or both. A fine binder warp and weft may be incorporated. The fabric is
woven on jacquard looms and is normally used for upholstery.

Tartan: a fabric, originally a woollen 2/2 twill worn by Scottish Highlanders, woven in checks of various colours.

Taupe: a brownish-grey colour, from the French word for mole.

Technical textiles: textile materials and products manufactured primarily for their technical performance and
functional properties rather than their aesthetic or decorative characteristics. End uses include aerospace, industrial,
marine, medical, military, safety and transport textiles, and geotextiles.

Teflon: a brand name used by DuPont for a stain-resist fabric treatment.

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Tenacity: a unit used to measure the strength of a fibre or yarn, usually calculated by dividing the breaking force
by the linear density.

Tencel: a brand name used by Lenzing for a recently developed cellulosic fibre which is generically known as
lyocell. Tencel, originally developed by Courtaulds, is stronger than viscose cellulosic fibre and is characterised
by its softness and drape.

Tex: a measure of linear density; the weight in grams of 1,000 metres of fibre or yarn.

Textile safeguard: Under the terms of Chinas accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO), a special
safeguard provision is available to members of the WTO for restricting imports of Chinese textile and apparel
products in the event of market disruption due to increased imports. In general, any export restraint imposed may
not last longer than one year unless it is reapplied through further consultations, or otherwise agreed to by China and
the WTO member. The special textile safeguard mechanism will be applicable until the end of 2008.

Textured yarn: a continuous filament yarn that has been processed to introduce durable crimps, coils, loops or
other fine distortions along the lengths of the filaments.

Texturing: a process during which a textured yarn is produced.

Thai silk: silk from Thailand typified by a rough texture.

Thermal bonding: part of a production route for making nonwovens in which a web, which must contain some
meltable synthetic fibres, is heated by a hot gas or by calendering. The fibres melt and form inter-fibre bonds.

Third-country fabric provision: also referred to as the special apparel provision. See Agoa.

Tie-dye: a traditional dyeing process in which fabric is tied and dyed.

Tinting (denim): a process used to overdye pre-dyed denim with a tinting dye to give the correct shade of blue
required. Tinting can also be used to treat fabric with a pale blue tinting dye in order to improve the whiteness of
any undyed parts. This process is often carried out as an alternative to using a fluorescent whitening agent to improve
the whiteness of undyed material.

Titre: linear density. (See also denier, decitex.)

Toile de Jouy: classic designs originally created in the 1760s for the French court by textile designers in the town
of Jouy en Josas.

Ton: (in this publication) 1,000 kilograms.

Top: sliver which forms the starting material for the worsted and other drawing systems. Tops are usually formed
by combing, or by the cutting or controlled breaking of continuous filament man-made fibres and the assembly
of the resultant staple fibres into sliver.

Tow: the name given to an untwisted assembly of a large number of filaments; tows are cut up to produce staple
fibres.

Trashed denim: denim which has been given a highly distressed effect by cutting through the warp yarns on the
surface of the fabric to reveal the white weft yarns underneath.

Tree bark: the visual effect of tree bark created in a fabric weave.

Tricotine: a weft-face woven fabric, originally with a cotton warp and worsted weft, which displays a fine, flat
twill line.

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Tricot, warp knitted: a warp knitted fabric knitted with two full sets of warp threads, each set making a 1 and 1
lapping movement but in opposite directions. Additionally the term is now used generically to cover all types of
warp knitted fabric made on tricot warp knitting machines.

Tricot warp knitting machine: a warp knitting machine using bearded or compound needles mounted vertically,
or nearly so, in which the fabric is supported and controlled by sinkers. The fabric is removed from the knitting point
at approximately 90E to the needles movement (nearer the horizontal than the vertical).

Tuck stitch: a stitch consisting of a held loop.

Tulle: a fine net fabric made from silk yarn.

Tussah: wild silk from Thailand characterised by an irregular surface.

Tweed: originally, a coarse, heavyweight, rough surfaced wool fabric for outerwear, woven in Scotland. The term
is now applied to fabrics made in a wide range of weights and qualities, generally from woollen spun yarns.

Twill: a fabric produced by constructing a weave that repeats on three or more warp threads and weft threads, and
produces diagonal lines on the face of the fabric.

Unit production systems: an advanced apparel manufacturing system in which a single garment is progressed
through a sequence of operations. Using a unit production system, a garment is automatically transported via a
computer-controlled overhead hanging system, which has been ergonomically designed to reduce the amount of
handling of the garment (see also progressive bundle system).

UPS: see unit production systems.

Uptwisting: a system of twisting one or more yarns by withdrawing them over-end from a rotating package.
Uptwisting forms the second stage in two-stage twisting.

Vegetal fibres: fibres derived from annual and perennial plants.

Velour: a knitted or woven pile fabric.

Velvet: a cut warp pile fabric in which the cut fibrous ends of yarn form the surface of the fabric.

Venetian fabric: a lightweight wool or worsted fabric in a satin or twill weave. In some cases the fabric is napped.

Viloft: a brand name for a viscose fibre with a hollow cross-section which offers softness, extra bulk and
absorbency.

Viscose: the generic name for a type of cellulosic fibre or cellulosic filament obtained by the viscose process.

Voile: a lightweight open textured plain-weave cloth.

Waffle: a figured structure based on the piqu weave, which is often associated with the appearance of a
honeycomb.

Wale: a column of loops along the length of a knitted fabric.

Warp: yarns which run along the length of a fabric.

Warp knitting: a method of making a knitted fabric in which the loops made from each of several warp threads
are formed substantially along the length of the fabric. Warp knitting is characterised by the fact that each warp
thread is fed more or less in line with the direction in which the fabric is produced.

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Web: a sheet of fibres produced by a carding machine (carded web) or combing machine (combed web). (See also
batt.)

Weft: yarns which run across the width of a fabric (also known as filling).

Weft knitting: a method of making a knitted fabric in which the loops made by each weft thread are formed
substantially across the width of the fabric. Weft knitting is characterised by the fact that each weft thread is fed
more or less at right angles to the direction in which the fabric is produced.

Whipcord: a firmly constructed fabric with a bold, warp twill.

Whiskering: a term used to refer to processes in which permanent three-dimensional creases and crinkles are added
to jeans. Whiskers are normally added to jeans at the tops of the legs, around the buttocks and behind the knees.

Wicking: the passage of fluids along or through a textile material.

Worsted: term used to describe yarns which are spun wholly from combed wool in which the fibres are reasonably
parallel, and to describe fabrics or garments made from such yarns.

Wrapped yarn: see wrap-spun yarn.

Wrap spinning: a system for manufacturing wrap-spun yarn.

Wrap-spun yarn: a yarn consisting of a core wrapped with a binder.

WTO: World Trade Organization, a body based in Geneva, Switzerland, which superseded the General Agreement
on Tariffs and Trade (Gatt) in 1995 following negotiations conducted between 1986 and 1993 under the Uruguay
Round of multilateral trade talks.

Yarn-dyed: a term used to describe a design or fabric which is constructed from, and coloured by means of, pre-
dyed yarns.

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Textile Outlook International, No 179 April 2016 Index to Textile Outlook International

Index to
Textile Outlook International
No 1 September 1985 No 6 July 1986
An Important New Journal for a Rapidly Time to Lower the Barriers Against World
Changing Industry Textile Trade
Foreign Direct Investment and the Hong Kong Textile Multinational Activities in the Eastern Bloc
and Clothing Industry Fibre and Textile Industry of Eastern Europe and the
Vantona Viyella and Nottingham Manufacturing USSR
International Yarn and Fabric Cost Comparisons Why the MFA Should be Renewed
Time to Plan an End to the MFA? Evaluating Overseas Sourcing Options
Staple Yarn ManufacturingThe New Spinning Systems World Textile Trade and Production Trends
World Textile Machinery Shipments No 7 September 1986
Has Linen Reached its Peak? Towards MFA V
No 2 November 1985 Profile of the Turkish Textile Industry
Multi-Fibre Disarrangement? Fourth Multi-Fibre Arrangement
Internationalisation of the Japanese Textile Industry Profile of Coats Viyella plc
World Textile Trade and Production Trends Why the Developing Countries Deserve a Fairer Deal
Multi-Fibre ArrangementThe Case for Renewal High Technology in the Clothing Industry
Australias Protection System Up for Review No 8 November 1986
Profile of Courtaulds plc Survival Through Specialisation, High Added
Fire Barriers in Aircraft Seats Value and High Technology
Yarn and Fabric OutlookA Textile Agents View Polypropylene FibresA Growth Market
No 3 January 1986 World Textile Trade and Production Trends
MFA Conference, Brussels MFA IVThe US Textile Industry Response
Multinational Activity in the Mediterranean Rim A Market and Financial Profile of Courtaulds Fibres
Role of Spain and Portugal in an Enlarged European Luxury Fibres
Textile Community No 9 January 1987
The MFA and its Alternatives UK Imports Up As a New MFA Begins
Survival Strategies for the US Textile Fibre-Apparel Internationalisation of the US Textile Industry
Pipeline Profiles of Seven Leading Brazilian Textile Companies
An Analysis of Textile Patents MFA IV Bilaterals and the European Community
Licensing LegendsMurjanis Strategy for Apparel Profile of the Belgian Textile and Clothing Industry
Marketing in the Late 1980s Carpets: World Manufacture and Markets
No 4 March 1986 No 10 March 1987
MFA Developments Man-Made FibresA New Mood of
China Report Confidence
US Nonwovens Outlook Internationalisation of the West German Textile Industry
After the VetoThe US Textile Industrys Response World Textile Trade and Consumption: Forecasts to 1990
Why a UK Textile and Clothing Manufacturer Seeks Australia: A New Textiles and Clothing Protection
Liberalisation of the MFA System
Profile of the French Textile Industry Quick Response: US and UK Experiences
Putting Designers in their Place International Design Connections
No 5 May 1986 No 11 May 1987
The Relevance of the MFA in Textile Sourcing Why the UK Textile Industrys Revival Could
West European Nonwovens Industry Be Short-Lived
MFA RenewalThe European Communitys Position Internationalisation of the UK Textile Industry
Rapid Emergence of the Southern Mediterranean Textile Profile of Jamaicas Export Clothing Industry
Producers Face to Face: Alan Pedder of ICI Fibres
Profile of the French Clothing Industry Changing Patterns of UK Fabric Converting
Profiles of Bidermann SA, DMC, SFFAW-Boussac and Clothing Assembly: Automation Versus Flexibility
Prouvost
Man-Made Fibre Capacity GrowthThe Leading
Suppliers of Plant and Technology

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No 12 July 1987 No 19 September 1988


Dollar Depreciation: Some Winners, Some Feel the Quality or Measure the Width?
Losers Restructuring of the Mexican Textile and Clothing Industry
Outward Processing of Apparel: West Germany to Eastern Profile of the Italian Clothing Industry
Europe and Yugoslavia Using Consumption Forecasts to Evaluate Trends in Textile
World Textile Trade and Production Trends Trade
Textile Bedding Products: An International Survey Portuguese Textiles: Living with EC Membership
Survey of West European Textile Mill Fibre Consumption UK Home Furnishings Market
by End Use No 20 November 1988
Nonwovens: Textile Substitution in Hospital Operating 1992: Dream or Nightmare?
Rooms Israels Textile and Clothing Industry
No 13 September 1987 Profiles of Italian Textile and Clothing Companies
Textile Aid Face to Face: Udo Stark of Akzo Fibres and Polymers
Nonwovens: Challenge from the Far East Design attitudes: Spain, Italy, USA and UK
Profile of the Swiss Textile and Clothing Industry Profile of Coloroll: Creators of Home Interiors for the
French Woven Fabrics Industry Mass Market
French Woven Fabric Producers No 21 January 1989
Textiles into the 1990s Cellulosics Fight Back
No 14 November 1987 Profile of the Biella Wool Textile Industry
Itma 87 World Textile Trade and Production Trends
Egyptian Textiles and Clothing: Growth and Prospects US Textile and Apparel Outlook
Profile of Tootal: International Manufacturing and Labelling Requirements for the UK Textile and Clothing
Distribution Market
South Korean Textile and Clothing Industry 1992: Implications for the EC Textile and Clothing
Supplying the Automobile Industry with Fabrics Industry
Internationalisation of Benetton No 22 March 1989
No 15 January 1988 Getting Their Akt Together
Post-Crash Scenarios Thailands Garment Export Trade
Italys Prato Textile Industry West European Market for Cotton Yarns and Grey Cloth
World Textile Trade and Production Trends US Nonwovens Industry
After the Crash: US Textile and Apparel Outlook Japanese Man-Made Fibres and Textiles: Facing up to Low
Frankfurt Trade Fairs: Face to Face with Dr Horstmar Cost Competition
Stauber Profile of the West German Textile and Clothing Industry
Globalisation of Retailing No 23 May 1989
No 16 March 1988 Fibre Maker Looks East
Locating Textile Agents Tunisian Textiles and Clothing: Prospects for Exports and
Prospects for Brazils Textile and Clothing Industry Foreign Investment
Profile of Dawson International EC/China Textile Trade Agreement
Malaysian Textile and Clothing Industry Face to Face: Guillaume Hofmann and D OSullivan on the
US Nonwovens Market EC/China Agreement
UK Wool Textile Industry Workwear and Thermal Protection
No 17 May 1988 Ramie: Short Lived Curiosity or Fibre of the Future?
Turkey: the Communitys 13th Member State? No 24 July 1989
Caribbean Apparel: US Policy on Imports China in Their Hands
World Textile Trade and Consumption: Forecasts to 1995 Profile of the Textile and Clothing Industry in Pakistan
Prospects for Spains Textile Industry World Textile Trade and Production Trends
US Nonwovens: the Ten Leading Companies ECs Strategy in Textiles and Clothing for 1992 and
UK Carpet Market Beyond
No 18 July 1988 Profiles of Leading West German Textile Companies
Learning to Live with the Dollars Fall World Market for Silk Products
Indias Apparel Export Industry No 25 September 1989
World Textile Trade and Production Trends Plus a Change
Profile of the Italian Textile Industry Cotton Industries of Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and
Elastane Fibres: Focus on Du Ponts Lycra Zimbabwe
Profile of the Linen Industry Changing Structures in the US Carpet Industry
Apparel Retailing in the USA
Managing for Production Flexibility in the Clothing
Industry
Profiles of Hugo Boss, Escada and Mondi

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No 26 November 1989 No 33 January 1991


Cutting the Cord The Gulf Crisis: Boom or Bust for the Textile
Profile of Indias Apparel Export Industry Industry?
Profile of Dominion Textile Inc World Textile Trade and Production Trends
Textiles and Clothing Trends in North America, Japan Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for
and Western Europe Autumn/Winter 1991/92
Nonwovens Industry in Western Europe Profile of Bonas Machine Company
Profile of the Textile Industry in Hungary Clothing Distribution in France
No 27 January 1990 Merino Sheep: Bringing Fine Wool Production to the UK
The 1990s: When Competition Goes Truly No 34 March 1991
Global Towards MFA V?
Profile of Courtaulds plc: Strategies for the 1990s The Future of Clothing Retailing in Europe
World Textile Trade and Production Trends Profile of the Textile and Clothing Industry in Romania
Silk-Like, Breathable and Other Microfilament Fabrics A Japanese Approach to Investment
Profile of Laura Ashley Profile of the Belgian Textile and Clothing Industry
Profile of the Canadian Apparel Industry The Textile and Clothing Industry in Bangladesh
No 28 March 1990 No 35 May 1991
Gatt Rules OK? A New Lease of Life for the Textile
Profile of the Knitting Industry in Israel Industryby Transplant
The US Nonwovens Industry The World Market for Polyester
Marketing Factors Affecting the Globalisation of Textiles South Koreas Textile and Clothing Industry: An Export
Profile of the French Clothing Industry Perspective
Survey of Attitudes to 1992 The Rise and Fall of Northern Feather
No 29 May 1990 The Portuguese Textile and Clothing Industry
Redrawing Europes Textile Map The Consequences of Abolishing the MFA
World Textile Trade and Consumption: Forecasts to 2000 No 36 July 1991
The Brazilian Textile and Clothing Industry: the MFA 4
Barriers Come Down World Textile Trade and Production Trends
The MFA and Beyond: the EC Perspective Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for
Clothing Manufacture: New Methods of Working Spring/Summer 1992
Profile of Burlington Industries The Turkish Textile and Clothing Industry
No 30 July 1990 The Man-Made Fibre Industry in Western Europe
Gatt Talks: Storm Clouds Gathering Textiles and Clothing in Scandinavia
World Textile Trade and Production Trends No 37 September 1991
The Textile Industry in China Spinning Old Yarns
The French Textile Industry The Australian Wool Crisis
Networking a Brand: the Case of Poron Changing Attitudes to the Management of Quality
The Irish Textile and Clothing Industry: Preparing for Profiles of Liz Claiborne and VF Corporation
the Single Market Northern Irelands Linen Weavers
No 31 September 1990 Incentives for Abolishing Piecework in Quick Response
Retracing the Old Silk Road Clothing Manufacture
Textiles and Clothing in Spain: Facing the EC Challenge No 38 November 1991
Liberalising the MFA: Implications for the European Small May No Longer Be Beautiful
Textile and Clothing Industry Textiles and Clothing In Eastern Europe: Industries in
Australian Textiles, Clothing and Footwear: Learning Crisis
to Live With Lower Protection Consumer Spending on Clothing and Footwear in the EC
Profile of West Point-Pepperell Inc: A US Giant Caught High Technology in the Clothing Industry
in a Hostile Takeover Textiles and Clothing in Mauritius
Apparel Retailing in Canada Apparel Sourcing: A Survey of Retail Buyers Attitudes in
No 32 November 1990 Canada, the USA and Western Europe
Far Sighted Vision No 39 January 1992
Cotton in the USA The Uruguay Round: the Final Haul?
Profiles of Devanlay, DMC and the VEV Group World Textile Trade and Production Trends
Mergermania in US Textiles and Clothing Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for
Fair Trade in Textiles and Clothing: A Battle Still to Autumn/Winter 1992/93
be Won Profile of the Indian Textile and Clothing Industry
Automation in Textiles: the Mill of the Future Profile of Marks & Spencer
Competitiveness of the EC Soft Goods Industry

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No 40 March 1992 No 47 May 1993


In Pursuit of the Holy Grail Make or Buy?
Outlook for the US Textile and Apparel Industries The World Silk Market
Microfibres: A Whim of Fashion or Tomorrows Denim: Trends in European Production and Trade
Commodity? Profile of Ratti Group
Profile of Coats Viyella plc Garment Sourcing Options for EC Markets
Profile of the South African Textile and Clothing Industry Computer-Aided Design and Manufacture in the UK
Clothing Manufacturer-Retailers in Europe Textile and Clothing Industry
No 41 May 1992 No 48 July 1993
ICI Finally Pulls the Plug Asia Pacific: A Glimpse of the Future
World Fibre Consumption Trends: Part 1European World Textile Trade and Production Trends
Community Australian Textiles, Clothing and Footwear: Living Without
The Man-Made Fibre Industry in Taiwan Quotas
China Report Outlook for the US Textile and Apparel Industries
Textiles and Clothing in Bulgaria: Struggling to Survive Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for
Trends in the West European Market for Denim Jeans Spring/Summer 1994
No 42 July 1992 Retailing of Clothing and Home Textiles in the European
Regrouping the Troops Community
World Textile Trade and Production Trends No 49 September 1993
Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for A Long-Term Investment
Spring/Summer 1993 Structural Changes in Asian Textiles and Clothing
World Fibre Consumption Trends: Part 2USA, Industries: the Second Migration of Production
Canada, Mexico, Japan and China Prospects for Textiles and Clothing in Portugal
The Textile Industry in Hong Kong Outlook for the US Carpet Industry
Profiles of Interior Fabric Producers in the Netherlands The Israeli Textile and Apparel Industries: Adjusting to
No 43 September 1992 Liberal Economic Policies
Making Money in a Recession A Balanced Sourcing Strategy for the UK Textile and
Textiles and Clothing in Tunisia Clothing Market
World Fibre Consumption Trends: Part 3India, No 50 November 1993
Pakistan, Indonesia, Philippines, South Korea, Turkey The Multi-Fibre Arrangement Comes of Age
and Brazil World Textile and Clothing Consumption: Forecasts to
The Clothing Industry in Hong Kong 2002
Profile of Barmag Realising the Opportunities in the New Europe
Vietnam Report Trends in US and EC Textiles and Clothing Imports
No 44 November 1992 Textile Floorcoverings in Western Europe: New Initiatives
Shifting Sands in the Worlds Textile and for the 1990s
Apparel Industries Textiles and Clothing in Turkey: Part 1
Courtaulds Tencel: A New Fibre for the Mass Market No 51 January 1994
Competitiveness of the Mexican Textile Chain End of the Line for the MFA
Textiles and Clothing in South Korea World Textile Trade and Production Trends
Prospects for Textiles and Clothing in Brazil Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for
Foreign Investment in the Mauritian Textiles and Autumn/Winter 1994/95
Clothing Industry Sourcing from Albania
No 45 January 1993 Internationalisation of Production by EC Textile and
The MFA Lives On for Another Year Clothing Manufacturers
World Textile Trade and Production Trends Textiles and Clothing in Turkey: Part 2
Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for No 52 March 1994
Autumn/Winter 1993/94 USA puts MFA on Life Support
Prospects for Sri Lankas Export Apparel Industry The New Gatt Agreement: Implications for the Worlds
Profile of the Verbeke-Van Damme Group Textile and Clothing Industries
Franchised Retailing of Textiles and Clothing in France World Textile and Clothing Consumption: Forecasts to
No 46 March 1993 2002 for 17 Leading Countries
European Textiles after the Recession Textiles and Clothing in the Persian Gulf
Apparel Retailing in the USA Outlook for Consumer Spending on Clothing in the
CIS Report European Union
Team Working in the UK Garment Industries Japans Changing Textiles and Clothing Market
The Belgian Tufted Carpet Industry
European Fashion in Recession

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No 53 May 1994 No 60 July 1995


The Quota is Dead, Long Live the Quota Counting the Cost of Cotton
Profile of Sara Lee World Textile Trade and Production Trends
Hong Kongs Textile and Clothing Industry: Prospects to 1997 Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for
and Beyond Spring/Summer 1996
Trends in Cotton Consumption in Western Europe Profile of Burlington Industries
The Changing Role of First-Line Management in the Outlook for Textiles and Clothing in South Africa
Textile and Clothing Industry Apparel Retailing in the USAPart 2
Profile of the Textile and Clothing Industry in Bangladesh No 61 September 1995
No 54 July 1994 The Next Ten Years
Me-Too, says Hualon World Textile and Clothing Consumption: Forecasts to
World Textile Trade and Production Trends 2004
Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for Production and Sourcing Strategies of German Apparel
Spring/Summer 1995 Manufacturing Companies
Profile of Indias Textile and Apparel Industries Profile of Courtaulds Textiles
Competitiveness of the EU Fabrics Industry The European Market for Bodyfashion: Part 1Lingerie
Profile of Moroccos Textile and Clothing Export Industry and Mens Underwear
No 55 September 1994 Outlook for the US Textile Industry
USA Goes Global No 62 November 1995
World Textile and Clothing Consumption: Developed Growing Job Opportunities in West European
Countries Update ClothingBut Only for Some
Outlook for the US Textile Industry Textiles and Clothing in Eastern Europe: Business
Textiles and Clothing in Spain Opportunities Not to be Missed
Global Changes in the Market for Silk and Silk Products World Textile and Clothing Consumption: Forecasts to
Profile of Marks and Spencer: A Growing International 2004 for Developed Countries
Presence Customer Bonding: A Major Challenge for the Textile and
No 56 November 1994 Clothing Industry
Has the Quota Phase-out Already Begun? Outlook for the US Apparel Industry
Trends in US and EU Textile and Clothing Imports Innovations in Fibres, Textiles and Machinery
Outlook for the US Apparel Industry No 63 January 1996
The Market for Mens and Boys Woven Shirts in the EU New Markets, New Suppliers, New Opportunities
Leading Producers in the North American Carpet Industry World Textile Trade and Production Trends
Interfibre Competition in the 1990s Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for
No 57 January 1995 Autumn/Winter 1995/96
Countdown to 2005 Trends in US and EU Textile and Clothing Imports
World Textile Trade and Production Trends Fabric Purchasing by the German Apparel Manufacturing
Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for Industry
Autumn/Winter 1995/96 Textiles and Clothing in Taiwan: Industry at a Cross-Roads
Profile of Kellwood Co No 64 March 1996
Corporate Re-engineering and Organisational Change Spinning a Fine Yarn
in the Textile and Clothing Sector Denim and Jeans: Trends in EU Production and Trade
Textile and Garment Sourcing and the Single European The MFA Phase-Out and EU Clothing Sourcing: Forecasts
Market to 2005
No 58 March 1995 Profile of Dominion Textile
Globalisation Gathers Pace European Clothing: New Training Practices, New Payment
Textiles and Clothing in China Systems
Apparel Retailing in the USAPart 1 The European Market for Bodyfashion: Part 2Nightwear
Profile of the Textile Industry in Pakistan: Problems and Loungewear
and Prospects No 65 May 1996
Impact of New Technology in the Clothing Industry: Brazil Points the Way to Trade Liberalisation
Outlook to 2000 Profile of Springs Industries
Globalisation of South Americas Textile and Clothing Brazilian Textiles and Clothing: Adapting to Liberalisation
Industry Profiles of Reliance, Arvind Mills, Raymond, Century and
No 59 May 1995 Morarjee
The Globalisation of Delocalisation Colombias Textile and Clothing Industry
Textiles and Clothing in Indonesia Profiles of Coltejer, Fabricato, El Cid, and Everfit-Indulana
Clothing Manufacturing and Distribution in France
Profiles of Jean Cacharel, Grard Pasquier and Zannier
Apparel Retailing in Mexico
Profile of Shaw Industries

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No 66 July 1996 No 73 September 1997


A Question of Origin Will Asia Make a Comeback?
World Textile Trade and Production Trends World Capacities and Shipments of Textile Machinery
Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for Textile and Clothing Consumption in China, the European
Spring/Summer 1997 Union, Japan, and the USA:
Profiles of Indo Rama, Vardhman, GTN Group and Forecasts to 2005
Ginni Filaments Trends in US Textile and Clothing Imports
Trends in the North American Carpet Market Prospects for the European Textile Finishing Industry
Liberalisation of World Trade in Textiles and Clothing: Outlook for the US Apparel Industry
the Views of Exporting and Importing Countries No 74 November 1997
No 67 September 1996 EU Clothing Production May Still Have a Bright
Liberalisation or Procrastination? Future
Profile of Levi Strauss Profile of Cotton Incorporated
Foreign Investment in the Indian Textile and Clothing Textile and Clothing Consumption in Ten EU Countries:
Industry Forecasts to 2005
Profile of the Textile and Clothing Industry in Ireland Developments in Ink Jet Printing
Profiles of KBC and Kunert Profiles of Readicut International and Welbeck
Profile of the Textile and Clothing Industry in Zimbabwe Investing in Textiles and Clothing: Eastern Europe or Asia?
No 68 November 1996 No 75 January 1998
Move East, Move South, or Move Out The End of an Era for Dominion Textile
Profile of the Schiesser Eminence Group World Textile Trade and Production Trends
Trends in EU Textile and Clothing Imports Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for
Hong Kong and China: the Joining of Two Giants in Autumn/Winter 1997/98
Textiles and Clothing Trends in EU Textile and Clothing Imports
Productivity: A Key Strategy of the Hong Kong Textile Ensuring Successorship in the Textile and Clothing
and Clothing Industry Industry
Knitting: A High Technology Industry Innovations in Fibres, Textiles and Machinery
No 69 January 1997 No 76 March 1998
Sourcing Apparel, Down Mexico Way Another Wave of Restructuring Hits the UKs
World Textile Trade and Production Trends Textile and Apparel Chain
Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for Profile of Tommy Hilfiger
Autumn/Winter 1997/98 International Trade in Dyestuffs
Trends in US Textile and Clothing Imports Profiles of Galey & Lord and Guilford Mills
World Capacities and Shipments of Textile Machinery Manufacturer-Retailer Panels: Helping UK Producers to
Profiles of Gruppo Tessile Miroglio and Benetton Compete Against Imports
No 70 March 1997 The European Market for Bodyfashion: Market Overview
Customs Union? What Customs Union? No 77 May 1998
Profile of the Textile Industry in Turkey Israeli Firms Move Offshore
World Textile and Clothing Consumption: Forecasts to Profiles of Cone Mills and Shaw Industries
2005 Sports Fashion Retailing in the UK
Profile of Gamma Holding Textile and Apparel Exports from Israel and Jordan are Set
Structured On-the-Job Training for Greater Competitiveness for Growth
International Trade in Dyestuffs The European Market for Bodyfashion: Hosiery, Socks,
No 71 May 1997 Beachwear and Swimwear
Growing Competition Threatens Mexicos Outlook for the US Textile Industry
Honeymoon No 78 July 1998
Profile of Coats Viyella Asian Crisis: the Impact Spreads Far and Wide
The Clothing Industry in Turkey World Textile Trade and Production Trends
The Rise of Shiloh: Bucking the Trend in UK Spinning Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for
Outlook for the US Textile Industry Spring/Summer 1999
Profiles of Domo, Louis de Poortere, Bekaert Textiles Trends in US Textile and Clothing Imports
and Textiles De Witte Lietaer Profiles of Nisshinbo Industries and Toyobo
No 72 July 1997 Profiles of US Textile Companies
A Tougher Line on Illegal Shipments No 79 January 1999
World Textile Trade and Production Trends Europes Fibre Makers in a Spin
Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for Profile of WestPoint Stevens
Spring/Summer 1998 Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for
Profiles of DMC and Chargeurs Autumn/Winter 1999/2000
Trends in the North American Carpet Market Profile of Mexicos Textile and Clothing Industry
Setting the Pace in Global Retailing World Capacities and Shipments of Textile Machinery
Profile of Courtaulds Textiles

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No 80 March 1999 No 87 May 2000


Caribbean Parity May Now Become a Even the US Industry Approves of a New Act to
Reality, Thanks to the Asian Crisis Liberalise US Imports
World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends Profile of Wal-Mart
Profiles of the Dewhirst Group and Martin International Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for
Trends in EU Textile and Clothing Imports Spring/Summer 2001
Outlook for the US Apparel Industry Trends in US Textile and Clothing Imports
Profile of Marks and Spencer Outlook for Japans Man-Made Fibre Industry
No 81 May 1999 Changing Strategies in Japans Apparel Market
Falling Confidence Hits Global Textile Industry No 88 July 2000
Profiles of 17 US Apparel Companies Innovation Helps Japans Apparel Makers to Stay
Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for Ahead of the Competition
Spring/Summer 2000 Denim and Jeans: Trends in EU Production and Trade
Textile and Clothing Consumption in Six Asian Profiles of Onward Kashiyama, Renown and World
Countries: Forecasts to 2005 World Capacities and Shipments of Textile Machinery
Textiles and Apparel in the Gulf States Total Customer Care in the Clothing Industry
Profile of Arcadia Group Prospects for Household Textile Markets in Developed
No 82 July 1999 Countries
In Japan, the Torch of Giantism Is Still Burning No 89 September 2000
Profile of Toray In an Era of Liberalisation, Trade Restrictions
World Capacities and Shipments of Textile Machinery Seem More Complex than Ever
Textiles and Clothing in the Middle East: Focus on World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends
Jordan and the Occupied Territories Profiles of 12 US Textile Companies
Outlook for the Womens Bodyfashion Market in Europe Prospects for Indias Man-Made Fibre Industry
Polyester into the Next Millennium New US Legislation Helps Caribbean Countries to Remain
No 83 September 1999 Competitive Against Mexico and Asian Countries
Who Wants Global Free Trade in Textiles and Trends in the Market for Swimwear
Apparel? No 90 November 2000
Profile of the Spinning and Weaving Industry in Pakistan Will 2005 Kill Cambodias Golden Goose?
World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends Prospects for Cambodias Garment Industry
Profile of the Guatemalan Clothing Export Industry Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for
Competitiveness of the Indian Textile Supply Chain Autumn/Winter 2001/02
Profile of Coats Viyella Trends in EU Textile and Clothing Imports
No 84 November 1999 Managing People for Competitiveness in the Clothing
Textiles and Apparel for the Upwardly Mobile Industry
Profile of the Brazilian Textile and Clothing Industry Innovations in Fibres, Textiles, Apparel and Machinery
Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for No 91 January 2001
Autumn/Winter 2000/01 Southern Africa: Ramatex Hopes to Be the Early
Trends in US Textile and Clothing Imports Bird That Catches the Worm
Profiles of Companies in Jordan and the Palestinian World Markets for Elastane (Spandex) Yarns
Territories Profiles of Hualon and Apacinti
Innovations in Fibres, Textiles and Machinery Trends in World Textile and Clothing Trade
No 85 January 2000 Profile of Ramatex: A Malaysian Group with Investments
New Windows of Opportunity in the Global in China and South Africa
Textile and Clothing Market Europes Main Corporatewear Markets: Forecasts to 2010
Profile of St John Knits No 92 March 2001
Indias Apparel Export Industry: Meeting the Challenge Chinas WTO Membership Put on Hold?
of a Quota-Free Market World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends
Trends in EU Textile and Clothing Imports Profiles of Allied Textile and Sirdar
Thailands Textile and Garment Industry: After the Developments in Chemical Finishes for Textile Fabrics
Asian Crisis Profiles of Pillowtex and Culp
Trends in World Textile and Clothing Trade Sports Clothing in the UK
No 86 March 2000 No 93 May 2001
Offshore Manufacturing May Be No Panacea Asian Countries Have Been Hit Hardest by the
World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends US Economic Slowdown
Textiles and Clothing in Tunisia: Gearing up for Market Profile of Fruit of the Loom
Liberalisation Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for
Clothing Retailing in the UK: Forecasts to 2004 Spring/Summer 2002
Outlook for the Mens Bodyfashion Market in Europe Trends in US Textile and Clothing Imports
Profiles of Two German Retail Giants: Karstadt and Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in South
Kaufhof Africa
Andean Countries Seek Parity with Caribbean Basin
Countries to Compete in the US Market

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No 94 July 2001 No 100 July-August 2002


Is There a Future for Apparel Manufacturing in the USA? Lithuania: Small and Thriving. But Can the Momentum
Profile of VF Corporation be Maintained?
Trends in EU Textile and Clothing Imports Profile of the Textile and Clothing Industry in Lithuania
Profile of William Baird Global Trends in Fibre Production, Consumption and Prices
World Capacities and Shipments of Textile Machinery Trends in EU Textile and Clothing Imports
Global Apparel Sourcing: Options for the Future World Capacities and Shipments of Textile Machinery
No 95 September 2001 Profile of Leggett & Platt: Rapid Growth Through
September 11 and its Aftermath: Is a Global Downturn Acquisition
in Textiles and Apparel Inevitable? No 101 September-October 2002
World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends US Textile and Apparel Imports from China DoubleA
Profiles of 12 US Apparel Companies Wake-Up Call for Other Developing Countries?
Textile Chemicals: Profiles of Five Global Players World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends
Profiles of Chargeurs and DMC Textiles and Apparel in China: Competitive Threat or
Outlook for the US Apparel Industry Investment Opportunity?
No 96 November 2001 Profile of Dogi: A World Leader in Stretch Knitted Fabrics
Speed, Connectivity and Value-Creating Intangibles: the New Opportunities for Textiles and Clothing in Sub-Saharan
Rules of the International Apparel Sourcing Business Africa
Profile of MAS Holdings: Managing Joint Ventures in Sri Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in Malaysia
Lanka No 102 November-December 2002
Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for Natural Man-Made Fibres: a Way Forward for Companies
Autumn/Winter 2002/03 in High Cost Countries?
Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in Sri Lanka
Yugoslavia Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for
Profile of Polo Ralph Lauren Autumn/Winter 2003/04
Innovations in Fibres, Textiles, Apparel and Machinery Innovations in Fibres, Textiles, Apparel and Machinery
No 97 January-February 2002 Profiles of Textile and Clothing Companies in Botswana and
Can Fast Retailing Maintain its Unique Glow? Zambia
Profile of Levi Strauss Discount and Value Clothing Retailing in the UK
Prospects for the Fibre, Textile and Apparel Markets in No 103 January-February 2003
India Vietnams Textile and Apparel Exports Soar. But Will US
Profiles of 12 Yugoslav Textile and Clothing Companies Quotas Clip the Industrys Wings?
Trends in World Textile and Clothing Trade Prospects for the Textile and Garment Industry in Vietnam
Fast Retailing: Japans Biggest Apparel Retailer Goes Global Trends in Fibre Production, Consumption and Prices
Global Profiles of Five Malaysian Textile and Apparel Producers
No 98 March-April 2002 Trends in World Textile and Clothing Trade
AGOA: A Flash in the Pan? Or a Real Opportunity for Profiles of Arvind Mills, GTN Textiles, and Vardhman
Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa? No 104 March-April 2003
World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends Will a Free Trade Area of the Americas Solve Latin
Profiles of Nisshinbo and Toyobo Americas Textile and Clothing Crisis?
AGOA: New Opportunities for the Textile and Clothing World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends
Industries in Sub-Saharan Africa Profiles of Leading Textile and Apparel Companies in
Asias Textile Machinery Builders Seek Wider Global Vietnam
Markets Digital Textile Printing: A Design Tool or Technology for
Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in Full-Scale Production?
Madagascar Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industries in Belarus
No 99 May-June 2002 Trends in the Market for Sports and Other Performance
Sourcing for Western Markets: Quick Response or Apparel
Lowest Cost? No 105 May-June 2003
Profiles of CIEL Textile and Groupe Socota Will China Sweep the Board When Textile and
Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for Apparel Quotas Are Finally Eliminated?
Spring/Summer 2003 Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in Taiwan
Trends in US Textile and Clothing Imports Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for
Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in Mauritius Spring/Summer 2004
Profile of Inditex: Building on the Success of Zara Trends in US Textile and Clothing Imports
Indias Apparel Exporters: Planning for the End of Quotas in
2005
Profiles of Five Leading Textile and Apparel Companies in
Brazil

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No 106 July-August 2003 No 112 July-August 2004


An Uncertain Future for the Garment Industries in Post-Quota Scenarios in Textiles and Clothing
Bangladesh and Mexico The Rise and Fall of the Garment Industries in Mexico and
Textiles and Clothing in Mexico: Facing Up to Growing the Caribbean Basin
International Competition Global Trends in Fibre Prices, Production and Consumption
Global Trends in Fibre Prices, Production and Consumption Trends in EU Textile and Clothing Imports
Trends in EU Textile and Clothing Imports World Capacities and Shipments of Textile Machinery
World Capacities and Shipments of Textile Machinery Trade in Textiles and Clothing: The Way Forward from 2005
Prospects for the Textile and Apparel Industry in Bangladesh No 113 September-October 2004
No 107 September-October 2003 Post-Quota Scenarios: Restrictions on Textile and Clothing
The Big Bang: Winners and Losers in the Textile Trade Will Continue Beyond January 1, 2005
and Clothing Industry in 2005 and Beyond World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends
World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends Survey of the European Yarn Fairs for Autumn/Winter
Survey of the European Yarn Fairs for Autumn/Winter 2005/06
2004/05 Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in Egypt
Clothing Retailing in China Profiles of Four Leading Chinese Clothing Companies
Profile of the Textile and Clothing Industry in Portugal Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in Pakistan
Competitiveness of the Hong Kong Apparel Industry: from No 114 November-December 2004
Manufacturer to Fashion Hub Post-Quota Scenarios: China Applies the Brakes to
No 108 November-December 2003 its Textile and Clothing Export Growth
Chinese Quotas and a New AGOA Could Give Poorer Profiles of Three Leading Hong Kong Textile and Clothing
Countries Another Chance Companies: Ace Style, Crystal Group and Pacific Textiles
Profile of the Maquila Apparel Industry in Honduras Survey of the European Fabric Fairs for Autumn/Winter
Survey of the European Fabric Fairs for Autumn/Winter 2005/06
2004/05 Innovations in Fibres, Textiles, Apparel and Machinery
Innovations in Fibres, Textiles, Apparel and Machinery World Textiles and Clothing After Quota Elimination:
Profiles of Liz Claiborne and Jones Apparel Group Winners and Losers
Impact of New US Textile and Apparel Quotas Against A New Era for Global Textile and Clothing Supply Chains
China No 115 January-February 2005
No 109 January-February 2004 Post-Quota Scenarios: How Free Is Free Textile and Clothing
Thinking the Unthinkable: Will the Textile and Apparel Trade?
Quota Phase-Out Be Postponed? Profile of Klopman International: European Leader in
Textiles and Apparel in China: Preparing for Quota-Free Polyester/Cotton Workwear
Markets in 2005 and Beyond Global Trends in Fibre Production, Consumption and Prices
Global Trends in Fibre Production, Consumption and Prices Profiles of Two Chinese Clothing Companies: Jiangsu
Profiles of Four Leading Indian Apparel Exporters: Gokuldas Sunshine Group and Youngor Group
Exports, Poppys, Orient Craft, and Jyoti Apparels Trends in World Textile and Clothing Trade
Trends in World Textile and Clothing Trade Survey of Chinese Garment Company Strategies: Summer
Creating and Preserving Value in the Textile and Apparel 2005 Buying Season
Supply Chain: From Fibre to Retail No 116 March-April 2005
No 110 March-April 2004 Post-Quota Scenarios: the EU Prepares to Impose Safeguard
Global Textiles and Clothing: A Crisis of Unprecedented Quotas Against China
Proportions? World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends
World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends Profile of TAL Group: A Leading Hong Kong Apparel
Profile of Tavex Algodonera Company with an International Presence
Trends in US Textile and Clothing Imports Trends in US Textile and Clothing Imports
Survey of the European Yarn Fairs for Spring/Summer 2005 Survey of the European Yarn Fairs for Spring/Summer 2006
Profiles of Textile and Apparel Companies in Sri Lanka Profile of Manama Textile Mills: Expanding in the Middle
No 111 May-June 2004 East
Post-2004 Strategies: Companies Avoid Putting All Their No 117 May-June 2005
Eggs in Chinas Basket US-Central American-Dominican Republic Free Trade
Apparel Retailing in India: Opportunities for Foreign Firms Agreement (CAFTA-DR): Another Step Towards American
Survey of the European Fabric Fairs for Spring/Summer Integration
2005 Profile of Marks & Spencer: Focus on Clothing
Trends in Japanese Textile and Clothing Imports Survey of the European Fabric Fairs for Spring/Summer 2006
Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in Colombia Trends in Japanese Textile and Clothing Imports
Profiles of Three Leading Singapore Clothing Companies: Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in Thailand
Ocean Sky, Sing Lun, and Unistar Goo-Way Sourcing Market Access in Textiles and Clothing: Linkages Between
Trade and Trade Policy

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No 118 July-August 2005 No 125 September-October 2006


Post-Quota Scenarios in Textiles and Clothing: Europes Bra Post-Quota Scenarios in Textiles and Clothing: China Is Not
Wars the Only Winner
Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in Guatemala World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends
Global Trends in Fibre Prices, Production and Consumption Global Trends in Fibre Prices, Production and Consumption
Trends in EU Textile and Clothing Imports Prospects for the Textile and Garment Industry in the
World Capacities and Shipments of Textile Machinery Philippines
Trends in Consumer Behaviour and the Global Clothing World Markets for Textile Machinery: Part 2Fabric
Market Manufacture
No 119 September-October 2005 Developments in Home Textiles
Post-Quota Scenarios in Textiles and Clothing: Chinese No 126 November-December 2006
Producers Re-Assess Their Production and Export Strategies UK Clothing Retailer Marks & Spencer Turns the Corner
World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends Prospects for the Textile and Garment Industry in Malaysia
Profiles of Six Textile and Clothing Companies in Thailand Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for
Profile of Nano-Tex: A Leader in Nanotechnology-Based Autumn/Winter 2007/08
Textile Treatments Innovations in Fibres, Textiles, Apparel and Machinery
Profile of the Textile and Clothing Industry in Turkey Trends in World Textile and Clothing Trade
Fast Retailing: Raising the Profile of the Uniqlo Brand Profile of IC Companys: a Multi-Branded Approach to
No 120 November-December 2005 Fashion Retail
Counterfeiting of Textiles and Apparel: A Growing Global No 127 January-February 2007
Business World Fibre ProductionAnother Leap Forward
Profiles of Three Leading Indian Exporters of Home Textiles Profile of Oxford Industries
Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for Developments in Textile Colorants
Autumn/Winter 2006/07 Sourcing Apparel from India
Innovations in Fibres, Textiles, Apparel and Machinery World Markets for Textile Machinery: Part 3Finishing
Trends in World Textile and Clothing Trade Profile of KappAhl: A Nordic Fashion Retailer With a
Outlook for Asian Textile and Clothing Trade in the Post- Distinct Product Concept
Quota Era No 128 March-April 2007
No 121 January-February 2006 Ethiopia Sets Ambitious Expansion Targets for its Textile and
Indian Textile and Clothing Companies Go Global Clothing Industry
Prospects for the Textile and Garment Industry in India World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends
Global Trends in Fibre Production, Consumption and Prices Textiles and Apparel in Bulgaria: Prospects for the Industry
Profile of Spyder Active Sports: A Leader in Performance Following EU Accession
Ski Wear Global Trends in Fibre Production, Consumption and Prices
Trends and Innovations in the Denim Industry Foreign Investment and Collaboration in Indias Textile and
Cotton and the WTO: What Has Been Achieved? Apparel Industry
No 122 March-April 2006 Trends in US Textile and Clothing Imports
Post-Quota Scenarios in Textiles and Clothing: Sub-Saharan No 129 May-June 2007
African Producers Invest for Survival Smaller Textile and Clothing Suppliers Under Threat as
World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends EU Quotas on Imports from China Come to an End
Profile of the Textile and Clothing Industry in Brazil Prospects for the Textile and Garment Industry in Vietnam
Trends in US Textile and Clothing Imports Survey of the European Fabric Fairs for Spring/Summer 2008
Profile of the Textile and Clothing Industry in Syria Denim Fabric: Global Trade and Leading Players
The West European Market for Womens Hosiery Profile of Raymond: Growth Through Foreign Collaboration
No 123 May-June 2006 and Vertical Integration
Vietnam and WTO Membership: Is a Boom in Textiles and Smart Fabrics and Intelligent Textiles in the UK: Seven
Clothing Around the Corner? Companies at the Forefront of Innovation
Prospects for the Textile and Garment Industry in Indonesia No 130 July-August 2007
Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for Organic Cotton: Small But Growing
Spring/Summer 2007 Profile of H&M: A Pioneer of Fast Fashion
Trends in Japanese Textile and Clothing Imports Developments in Apparel Technology
Profile of the Textile and Clothing Industry in Ukraine Trends in EU Textile and Clothing Imports
The European Market for Womens Lingerie World Markets for Textile Machinery: Part 1Yarn
No 124 July-August 2006 Manufacture
Chinas Apparel Export Growth Collapses in the US Market Strategies For Textile and Apparel Manufacturers in the
Challenges in Global Textile and Apparel Sourcing: Focus on Post-Quota Era: Prospects to 2015
Li & Fung
Profile of the Textile and Clothing Industry in Lithuania
Trends in EU Textile and Clothing Imports
World Markets for Textile Machinery: Part 1Yarn
Manufacture
The European Market for Womens Swimwear

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No 131 September-October 2007 No 137 September-October 2008


Textiles and Clothing in China: Competitive Threat or The Global Economic Crisis Looks Set to Engulf the Textile
Market Opportunity? and Clothing Industry in Asia
World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends:
Global Trends in Fibre Prices, Production and Consumption China, South-East Asia and South Asia
Survey of the European Yarn and Fabric Fairs for Survey of the European Fabric Fairs for Autumn/Winter
Autumn/Winter 2008/09 2009/10
World Markets for Textile Machinery: Part 2Fabric Global Trends in Fibre Prices, Production and Consumption
Manufacture World Markets for Textile Machinery: Part 2Fabric
The Rise of Japanese Textile Suppliers to the US Manufacture
Automotive Industry The EUs Generalised System of Preferences (GSP): Impact
No 132 November-December 2007 on Textile and Clothing Trade
How Green Is Our Clothing? No 138 November-December 2008
World Trade in T-Shirts Protectionism Looms Over the Global Textile and Clothing
Innovations in Fibres, Textiles, Apparel and Machinery Industry
Trends in World Textile and Clothing Trade World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends:
World Markets for Textile Machinery: Part 3Finishing USA and EU
Green Textiles and Apparel: Environmental Impact and Prospects for the Textile and Garment Industry in Hong Kong
Strategies for Improvement Innovations in Fibres, Textiles, Apparel and Machinery
No 133 January-February 2008 Trends in World Textile and Clothing Trade
Sri Lankan Clothing Firms Invest in India World Markets for Textile Machinery: Part 3Finishing
Prospects for the Textile and Garment Industry in Cambodia No 139 June 2009
Profile of Iconix Brand Group: A Unique Business Model for Brazils Textile and Clothing Industry Rides out the
Maximising Brand Value Stormbut for How Long?
Textiles and Clothing in Sri Lanka: Profiles of Five Prospects for the Textile and Garment Industry in China
Companies Survey of the European Yarn Fairs for Spring/Summer 2010
Textile Lobbyists in Brussels International Comparison of Production Costs: Spinning,
Fibres and Fabrics for Performance Footwear Texturing, Weaving and Knitting
No 134 March-April 2008 Textiles and Clothing: Opportunities for Recycling
Is China Losing its Competitive Edge in Textiles and World Trade in Socks
Clothing? No 140 August 2009
World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends Even China Is Struggling in the Recession-Hit US Textile
Survey of the European Yarn Fairs for Spring/Summer 2009 and Apparel MarketDespite the Lifting of Quotas
Global Trends in Fibre Production, Consumption and Prices Product Life Cycle Management in the Textile and Apparel
Prospects for Garment Production in Romania: One of Industry
Europes Most Important Sources Survey of the European Fabric Fairs for Spring/Summer 2010
Trends in US Textile and Clothing Imports World Markets for Textile Machinery: Part 1Yarn
No 135 May-June 2008 Manufacture
Specialisation: The Key to Competitiveness in the Post-Quota Anti-Odour Clothing: Bringing Fresh Appeal to the Textile
Global Apparel Market? and Apparel Market
Prospects for the Textile and Garment Industry in Bangladesh Trends in US Textile and Clothing Imports
Survey of the European Fabric Fairs for Spring/Summer 2009 No 141 September 2009
Textiles and Clothing in Colombia: Profiles of Eight Geographical Proximity May No Be Longer a Critical Factor
Companies in Textile and Apparel Sourcing
New Uses for Wearable Textile-Based Health Monitoring World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends:
Technology China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan
Indias Apparel Exports: Strategic Responses to Slower Profile of Delta Galil: A Global Innovator in Underwear,
Growth Socks and Seamless Apparel
No 136 July-August 2008 Global Trends in Fibre Prices, Production and Consumption
Crisis Hits Chinas Clothing Industry World Markets for Textile Machinery: Part 2Woven Fabric
Profile of Gildan: A Vertically Integrated Producer of Low Manufacture
Cost Activewear, Underwear and Socks Trends in EU Textile and Clothing Imports
Survey of the European Yarn Fairs for Autumn/Winter 2009/10 No 142 November 2009
Trends in EU Textile and Clothing Imports Instability and Social Unrest Could Undermine Growth in
World Markets for Textile Machinery: Part 1Yarn Garment Sourcing from Low Cost Asian Countries
Manufacture World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends:
Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in the Czech the USA, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico
Republic Survey of the European Yarn Fairs for Autumn/Winter 2010/11
Prospects for the Textile and Garment Industry in Pakistan
World Markets for Textile Machinery: Part 3Knitted Fabric
Manufacture
Strategies of Online Clothing Retailers: Gap, Asos, Yoox,
Marks & Spencer (M&S), Future Bazaar and Bivolino

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No 143 February 2010 No 149 March 2011


Can Apparel Still Be Made Competitively in Developed After the Earthquakes: Impact on the Textile and Clothing
Countries? Industry
World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends: World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends:
the EU the EU
Survey of the European Fabric Fairs for Autumn/Winter Survey of the European Yarn Fairs for Spring/Summer 2012
2010/11 Prospects for the Apparel Industry in Haiti
World Markets for Textile Machinery: Part 4Dyeing and UK Apparel Retailing: Profiles of Arcadia Group, Marks &
Finishing Spencer, New Look, Next and Primark
Trends in World Textile and Clothing Trade Comparisons of Spinning, Texturing, Weaving and Knitting
Profile of American Apparel: US Manufacturing and Strong Costs in Eight Countries
Brand Recognition Bring Success No 150 June 2011
No 144 April 2010 Pakistans Textile and Clothing Exporters May Gain Duty-Free
Li & Fung Will Source Less Apparel from China and More Access to EU Markets
from Bangladesh and Other Asian Countries World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends:
Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in Thailand South Asia and South-East Asia
Survey of the European Yarn Fairs for Spring/Summer 2011 Survey of the European Fabric Fairs for Spring/Summer 2012
Global Trends in Fibre Prices, Production and Consumption Global Trends in Fibre Prices, Production and Consumption
Technological Developments in the Clothing Industry Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in Guatemala
Trends in US Textile and Clothing Imports Trends in US Textile and Clothing Imports
No 145 June 2010 No 151 July 2011
Global Textile and Apparel SourcingThe Views of Four TexprocessA New Trade Fair for the Global Sewn
Brands Products Industry
World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends: World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends:
South Asia and South-East Asia China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan
Survey of the European Fabric Fairs for Spring/Summer 2011 Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in Taiwan
World Markets for Textile Machinery: Part 1Yarn World Markets for Home Textiles: Focus on Home Linen
Manufacture and Profiles of Leading Players
Profile of Tukatech: Pioneering Clothing Design Technology Product Developments and Innovations
for Developing Countries Trends in EU Textile and Clothing Imports
Trends in EU Textile and Clothing Imports No 152 September 2011
No 146 August 2010 Are Denim Prices Set for a Major Price Hike?
The Hidden Costs of Textile and Apparel Sourcing World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends:
World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends: Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey
China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in South
Denim Fabric: Global Trade and Leading Players Korea
Evolving Business Models in the Textile and Apparel Forecasts of Global End Use Demand for Textile Fibres
Industry Leading Edge Technologies for Textile Finishing
Textiles and Clothing in Vietnam: Riding the Crest of a Profile of Pacific Brands
Wave No 153 December 2011
World Markets for Textile Machinery: Part 2Woven Global Fibre Demand to 2030: What Will Happen When
Fabric Manufacture Cotton Stops Growing?
No 147 October 2010 World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends:
End of the Line for Cheap Clothing? the USA, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico
World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends: Survey of the European Yarn Fairs for Autumn/Winter
the USA, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico 2012/13
Survey of the European Yarn Fairs for Autumn/Winter Global Trends in Fibre Prices, Production and Consumption
2011/12 World Markets for Textile Machinery: Part 1Yarn
Global Trends in Fibre Prices, Production and Consumption Manufacture
Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in Sri Lanka Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in Brazil
World Markets for Textile Machinery: Part 3Knitted No 154 January 2012
Fabric Manufacture Are Companies Sourcing Closer to Home as Uncertainty
No 148 December 2010 Continues in the Global Textile and Apparel Market?
Strategic Sourcing for Sustainable Savings World Markets for Babies Garments: Global Trade and
Prospects for the Textile and Apparel Industries in Bulgaria, Leading Players
Kosovo and Macedonia Survey of the European Fabric Fairs for Autumn/Winter
Survey of the European Fabric Fairs for Autumn/Winter 2012/13
2011/12 Trends in World Textile and Clothing Trade
Profiles of 18 Textile and Apparel Companies in Indonesia Carpet Recycling
Trends in World Textile and Clothing Trade World Markets for Textile Machinery: Part 2Fabric
Taiwan Leads Asia in Sustainable High Performance Fibres Manufacture
and Fabrics

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No 155 April 2012 No 161 April 2013


Price Hikes Hit Textile and Clothing Trade Hard Overcoming Obstacles to Environmental Sustainability in
World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends: the Textile and Apparel Industry
the EU World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends:
Survey of the European Yarn Fairs for Spring/Summer 2013 the EU
Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in Indonesia Survey of the European Yarn Fairs for Spring/Summer 2014
Trends in US Textile and Clothing Imports Costs of Spinning, Texturing, Weaving and Knitting
Developments in Fabric Testing, Test Methods and Equipment Production in Nine Countries
No 156 July 2012 Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in Cambodia
Uncertainty Over Cotton Prices Continues to Depress EU Trends in US Textile and Clothing Imports
and US Textile and Clothing Markets No 162 June 2013
World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends: Texprocess Innovation Award Winners Address Issues of
South-East Asia Colour Variation, Energy Usage, Labour Costs, Productivity,
Survey of the European Fabric Fairs for Spring/Summer 2013 Quality Control, Skills Shortages and Waste
Global Trends in Fibre Prices, Production and Consumption World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends:
Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in India South-East Asia
Trends in EU Textile and Clothing Imports Survey of the European Fabric Fairs for Spring/Summer 2014
No 157 August 2012 Global Trends in Fibre Prices, Production and Consumption
Textiles and Apparel Will Play a Major Role in Helping Product Developments and Innovations in the Home Textiles
Turkey to Meet Ambitious Export Targets Market
World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends: Profile of H&M: A Leader in Eco Chic
South Asia No 163 July 2013
Product Developments and Innovations in the Home Textiles Counting the Human Cost of Cheap Clothing
Market World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends:
The Effect of Rises in Cotton Fibre Prices on Textile and South Asia
Apparel Prices in the Supply Chain Recent Developments in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
Global Apparel Business Update in the Global Textile and Clothing Industry
Geographical Trends in Man-Made Fibre Production Profile of Patagonia: A Pioneer in Corporate Social
No 158 September 2012 Responsibility (CSR)
Factory Safety Issues Raised as Textile and Garment Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in Bangladesh
Exports from Pakistan Gain Easier Access to the EU Trends in EU Textile and Clothing Imports
Market No 164 September 2013
World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends: Cotton to Keep its Share of the Global Textile and Apparel
China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan Market in 2020-30 as Chinas Fibre Consumption Growth
Product Developments and Innovations Slows
Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in Malaysia World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends:
New Technologies and Techniques for Garment Decoration China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan
World Markets for Textile Machinery: Part 1Yarn Profile of Marzotto Group: A Major Player in the Italian
Manufacture Textile Industry
No 159 December 2012 Product Developments and Innovations in Textiles and
Can the Shift of Textile and Clothing Production to Asia be Apparel
Reversed? Profiles of Six Leading US Apparel Retailers
World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends: World Markets for Textile Machinery: Part 1Yarn
Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey Manufacture
Survey of the European Yarn Fairs for Autumn/Winter No 165 October 2013
2013/14 Cellulosic Fibres Remain in the Minority but Offer Scope for
Global Trends in Fibre Prices, Production and Consumption Textile and Apparel Companies to Move Upmarket
Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in Vietnam World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends:
World Markets for Textile Machinery: Part 2Fabric Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey
Manufacture Survey of the European Yarn Fairs for Autumn/Winter
No 160 January 2013 2014/15
HeimtextilA Successful Fair Despite Economic Difficulties Global Trends in Fibre Prices, Production and Consumption
World Textile and Apparel Trade and Production Trends: Global Apparel Business Update
the USA, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico World Markets for Textile Machinery: Part 2Fabric
Survey of the European Fabric Fairs for Autumn/Winter Manufacture
2013/14
Trends in World Textile and Clothing Trade
Global and Regional Trends in Mill Fibre Consumption and
Man-Made Fibre Production
Profile of Miroglio: A Leading Vertically Integrated Textile
and Apparel Group in Italy

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No 166 December 2013 No 171 October 2014


Pakistans Textile and Clothing Exporters Gain Duty-Free Discharge of hazardous chemicals from textile dyeing and
Access to the EU: Who Will Win and Who Will Lose? printing plantsa retail viewpoint
Prospects for the Textile and Clothing Industry in South World textile and apparel trade and production trends:
Africa China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan
Survey of the European Fabric Fairs for Autumn/Winter Survey of the European yarn fairs for autumn/winter 2015/16
2014/15 Profile of Sun Capital Partners: a specialist which turns
Trends in World Textile and Clothing Trade around textile and apparel companies
Profile of Jack Wolfskin: A Premium Outdoor Apparel The worlds leading clothing exporters and key markets
Brand World markets for textile machinery: part 1yarn
Man-Made Fibre Production and Consumption in manufacture
Europe No 172 December 2014
No 167 February 2014 The Italian textile industry invests in inventiveness and
Another successful Heimtextil with a digital textile printing craftsmanship
conference as a bonus World textile and apparel trade and production trends:
World textile and apparel trade and production trends: the Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey
USA, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico Survey of the European fabric fairs for autumn/winter 2015/16
Prospects for the textile and clothing industry in the Global trends in fibre prices, production and consumption
Philippines Prospects for the textile and clothing industry in Mexico
Profiles of major textile and clothing manufacturers and World markets for textile machinery: part 2fabric
retailers in South Africa manufacture
Profile of Madura Fashion & Lifestyle: a leading retailer of No 173 February 2015
premium branded apparel in India Heimtextil goes from strength to strength and hosts a digital
Global and regional trends in mill consumption of textile textile printing conference for the second year running
fibres World textile and apparel trade and production trends: the
No 168 April 2014 USA, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico
China: from apparel manufacturer to apparel consumer Sourcing apparel from Kenya and Ethiopia
World textile and apparel trade and production trends: the EU Trends in world textile and clothing trade
Survey of the European yarn fairs for spring/summer 2015 Product developments and innovations in the home textiles
Prospects for the textile and clothing industry in China market
Product developments and innovations in the home textiles Global and regional trends in mill consumption of textile
market fibres
Trends in US textile and clothing imports No 174 May 2015
No 169 June 2014 US apparel retailers hold on to their price gains after the cotton
Will textile and clothing suppliers in Bangladesh, Cambodia price hike
and Vietnam gain market share from China? World textile and apparel trade and production trends: the EU
World textile and apparel trade and production trends: Survey of the European yarn fairs for spring/summer 2016
South-East Asia Prospects for the textile and clothing industry in Pakistan
Survey of the European fabric fairs for spring/summer 2015 Profile of Vaude: a role model for sustainability
Global trends in fibre prices, production and consumption Trends in US textile and clothing imports
Product developments and innovations in textiles and No 175 July 2015
apparel Tougher times ahead for textile and clothing suppliers
Trends in EU textile and clothing imports to eurozone countries?
No 170 July 2014 World textile and apparel trade and production trends:
How leadership in textile machinery has passed from South-East Asia
Switzerland to China Survey of the European fabric fairs for spring/summer 2016
World textile and apparel trade and production trends: Global trends in fibre prices, production and consumption
South Asia Profile of Mount Vernon Mills: a US leader in flame
Prospects for the textile and clothing industry in Turkey resistant fabrics
Opportunities and applications for digital textile printing Trends in EU textile and clothing imports
Home textiles business update No 176 September 2015
Profile of Craghoppers: a leading supplier of world travel Is another global recession around the corner?
and adventure clothing World textile and apparel trade and production trends: South
Asia
Prospects for the textile and clothing industry in Sri Lanka
Product developments and innovations in textiles and
apparel
International trade in denim fabric and denim jeans
Biomimicry: science of nature inspires design of high-tech
performance apparel

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No 177 December 2015


Textile machinery at ITMA 2015mastering the art of
sustainable innovation
World textile and apparel trade and production trends:
China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan
Survey of the European yarn fairs for autumn/winter 2016/17
Cotton fibre prices, production and consumption forecasts
Home textiles business update
World markets for textile machinery: part 1yarn
manufacture
No 178 January 2016
Heimtextil 2016 shows the latest home textiles and hosts a
digital textile printing conference for the third year running
World textile and apparel trade and production trends:
Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey
Survey of the European fabric fairs for autumn/winter 2016/17
Trends in world textile and clothing trade
Trends in global and regional man-made fibre production
World markets for textile machinery: part 2fabric
manufacture
No 179 April 2016
Will sales from the Chinese cotton stockpile drive down
world prices?
World textile and apparel trade and production trends:
the USA, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico
Survey of the European yarn fairs for spring/summer 2017
Global trends in fibre prices, production and consumption
Myanmar: re-emergence as a global clothing exporter
Product developments and innovations in the home textiles
market

Textiles Intelligence Limited 2016 189


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the sectors growth prospects are helped by the trend of increasing demand for various topics, including antimicrobial fibres and fabrics, antistatic
performance features in mainstream fashion. technology, flame resistant fibres and fabrics, high strength fibres and
fabrics, high visibility apparel, microencapsulation, moisture
Performance Apparel Markets provides market data and analysis of new
and established markets for performance fibres, yarns, fabrics and clothing, management fabrics, performance swimwear, seamless knitting and
and is essential reading for executives who are working in, or supplying, this stitch-free seaming technologies, smart and interactive textiles, stain
fast growing sector. protective apparel, stretch fibres and fabrics, surfwear and
surf-inspired clothing, temperature regulation,
It is also an invaluable one-stop shop where people who are not involved in UV protective fibres and fabrics, and waterproof
the industry on a day-to-day basis can find an authoritative source of relevant breathable fabrics.
information which helps them to quickly gain an understanding of the key
issues facing the companies in this sector. Company profiles outlining the
business, product, market and manufacturing
Reports in Performance Apparel Markets include the following: strategies employed by key players in the
Fast track an editorial feature which draws attention to issues that are performance apparel industry.
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likely to have an impact on companies involved in the performance apparel Business update business news +44 (0)1625 536136
sector, such as reviews of related conferences and exhibitions, or topical and developments affecting global for further
issues which have received coverage in the trade press. performance apparel markets, majoring on information or
to place an
Product developments and innovations reports on major mergers and acquisitions, investments,
order
developments in the global performance apparel market, focusing on new joint ventures, and financial
products and technologies, innovative fibres and key players. performances.

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Company name Textiles Intelligence Limited, Alderley House,
Alderley Road, Wilmslow SK9 1AT, UK
Address Tel: +44 (0)1625 536136
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Email: info@textilesintelligence.com
Tel Fax Website: www.textilesintelligence.com
Email address Textiles Intelligence Limited. Registered in England and Wales No. 03567033.
Registered Office: MBL House, 16 Edward Court, Altrincham Business Park, George Richards Way, Altrincham WA14 5GL, UK.
Home Textiles UPDATE
Essential and up-to-date information on the global home textiles sector
A subscription to Home Textiles UPDATE includes twelve issues, delivered once a month by email.

Home Textiles UPDATE is an executive briefing which includes details Recent issues have included information on the following:
of the latest developments and business news in the home textiles sector. Product developments and innovations
Every issue focuses on product developments and innovations in the
Anti-dust mite bedding New bedding products containing
sector. In addition, we provide a business update each month so that novel fibres
Bed and bath linen products
you remain aware of the key players and their activities, and are able to
Composite materials for interiors Smart textiles
plan your company's strategy with confidence.
Dyes and finishing treatments for Sustainable fibres
Home Textiles UPDATE includes information on the home textiles Trend forecasts
following: Fibres, yarns and fabrics for home Wallcoverings
bedding products textiles

carpets Business update


curtains Acquisitions, divestments and mergers Markets
outdoor fabrics Carpet recycling New brands
sun protection fabrics Corporate social responsibility (CSR) Retailing
Events
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International trade policy for further
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Company name Textiles Intelligence Limited, Alderley House,
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Email: info@textilesintelligence.com
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Textiles Intelligence Limited. Registered in England and Wales No. 03567033.
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Global Apparel Markets


Essential and up-to-date analysis and insight into the global apparel industry
A subscription to Global Apparel Markets includes four issues, and each issue contains five reports. The subscription also includes a
monthly bulletin, sent by email, called Global Apparel UPDATE.

Global Apparel Markets provides market intelligence on the apparel Reports in Global Apparel Markets include the following:
sector, focusing on developments in dyes, fibres, yarns, fabrics and Talking strategy expert advice and inspiration for your own
apparel, environmental sustainability, sourcing strategies, and trends in companys strategy, based on one-to-one interviews with industry experts.
international trade.
Product developments and innovations a round-up of
Product development teams use the reports to keep abreast of developments which will make a difference to the industry, independently
developments within the sector, and to be aware of the activities of their researched by our editors.
competitors. Research reports including profiles of sourcing locations,
Marketing and sourcing directors use the reports to understand trends in companies or market sectors and dealing with issues such as sourcing,
international trade, as well as trade policy and other issues which affect technology, or yarn and fabric trends.
trade. Our editors identify key sourcing locations and emerging markets, Trade and trade policy analysis and insight
and provide analysis, insight and an international perspective thereby into international trade including illustrations of
providing the support you need to react to changes in the industry and to the impact of trade policy on key exporting
adapt your strategies in order to maintain a competitive edge. countries, established importers and
emerging markets.
Consultants use the reports to gain a snapshot of the apparel supply Call now on:
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chain and its influences, and to help them identify opportunities for their
results of key players, investments, market for further
clients. information or
data, joint ventures, licensing, mergers and to place an
Global Apparel Markets is the one-stop shop for business acquisitions, new facilities, new stores and order
information relating specifically to the international apparel supply chain. other news in the apparel sector.

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Company name Textiles Intelligence Limited, Alderley House,
Alderley Road, Wilmslow SK9 1AT, UK
Address Tel: +44 (0)1625 536136
Country Postcode Fax: +44 (0)1625 536137
Email: info@textilesintelligence.com
Tel Fax Website: www.textilesintelligence.com
Email address Textiles Intelligence Limited. Registered in England and Wales No. 03567033.
Registered Office: MBL House, 16 Edward Court, Altrincham Business Park, George Richards Way, Altrincham WA14 5GL, UK.
Textiles Intelligence Limited
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Alderley House
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Cheshire SK9 1AT
United Kingdom

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Website: www.textilesintelligence.com