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3, 2010

**Routing Optimization Technique Using M/M/1 Queuing Model & Genetic Algorithm
**

Madiha Sarfraz, M. Younus Javed, Muhammad Almas Anjum, Shaleeza Sohail

Department of Computer Engineering College of Electrical & Mechanical Engineering Pakistan madya.khan@gmail.com, myjaved@ceme.edu.pk, almasanjum@yahoo.com, shaleezas@hotmail.com

**Abstract— Optimization Approaches have been applied to
**

various real life issues in communication and networking. In this research a new approach has been proposed for network path optimization using Genetic Algorithm. The path which is best fitted in the population is considered as the optimal path. It is obtained after qualifying the fitness function measuring criteria. The fitness function measures the best fitted path based on constraints; bandwidth, delay, link utilization and hop count. Population is composition of valid and invalid paths. The length of the chromosome is variable. So the algorithm executes competently in all scenarios. In this paper the comparison of this approach with the fitness function; measuring delay and bandwidth factor, has also been catered. This work has been performed on smaller network; work is in progress on large network. Thus, the results proved our affirmation that proposed approach finds optimal path more proficiently than existing approaches.

feasible and infeasible paths. Each chromosome has variable number of nodes. This routing strategy is not efficient and robust merely but it also congregates swiftly. The paper is formatted as: The related work is done under section II. Overview of Genetic Algorithm has been structured in section III. In this the outline of GA and its operators are explained. Section IV explains the optimization strategy for routing using GA. In this two fitness functions are compared. The proposed fitness function includes bandwidth, delay, utilization and hop count. It is compared with the fitness function which is catering bandwidth and delay factor. The results and analysis is illustrated in section V. II. RELATED WORK

I.

INTRODUCTION

O

PTIMIZATION in the field of Genetic algorithm is gaining massive magnitude. GA is globally used optimization technique [1] based on natural selection phenomenon [2]. It is considered as an important aspect in networking. From source node to destination node essential solution is optimization which is needed. The network traffic flow is mounting rapidly. So the balance in Quality of Service and Broadcast of traffic should be maintained. Increased in load of network traffic will cause the delay in traffic and affect the QoS as well. The routing problem scenarios can be resolved through optimization [3]. In the research the approach which has been introduced is of network optimization routing strategy using Genetic Algorithm. It involves bandwidth, delay and utilization constraints. All these will be in different catering in scenarios. It digs out the most optimal path from the population lot on the basis of Fitness Function. The fitness function selects the path which has less delay, less utilization factor, more bandwidth availability and less number of hops to be travel. The hop count is used as the decision making factor when there are more than one path with same strength. The chromosome represents the path and the population is showing collection of

Genetic Algorithm which is a versatile technique designed for optimization and searching network planning control in Anton Riedl [4] work. It is also in planning of integration of packet switched network. Yinzhen Li, Ruichun He, Yaohuang Guo [20] work on finding out optimal path with fixed length chromosomes. This is following priority-based mechanism. In this work Mitsuo. Gen technique‟s loophole has also been indicated. In Carlos A. Coello Coello‟s tutorial [26] multiple objectives optimization has been discussed. The pros and cons of these approaches are done by them. Also illustrate research done and their implications in the respective field. Introduction of key-based technology in optimization is done by Mitsuo Gen and Lin Lin [16]. They have combined different operators [16]. They high level of search paradigm leading to improvement in computational time and path optimization. Basela S. Hasan, Mohammad A. Khamees and Ashraf S. Hasan Mahmoud [24] used Heuristic mechanism for Genetic Algorithm. They have considered single source shortest path. For searching heuristic approach is used for crossing over also

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called as recombination and mutation.

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2010

In other work of Anton Riedl [19] title represents the research done is upon path optimization in traffic engineering scenario. It discusses the implications of network optimization and traffic engineering. It main focus is routing with multiple delay and bandwidth constraints for optimization. Andersson and Wallace [25] proposed a GA which is robust and requires few numbers of parameters. It main emphasis is how multiple objectives GA works out on real life scenarios. An approach has been developed for reducing congestion in the network [17] by M. Ericsson, M.G.C. Resende and P.M.Pardalos. Ramon Fabregat, Yezid Donoso, Benjamin Baran, Fernando Solano and Jose L. Marzo [23] presented traffic-engineering load balancing classification. They have not work on packet loss and other factors like backup paths. They introduced GMM model. Diverse and versatile genetic algorithm is proposed in the work of Norio Shimamoto, Atsushi Hiramatsu and Kimiyoshi Yamasaki [18]. In this approach last result of the iteration is used for the next generation. Performance level of the algorithm is good. Abdullah Konak, David W. Coit, Alice E. Smith [21] shows that investigation for solutions is the coherent response for multiple objectives. A real life scenario entails immediately multiple objectives for optimization. It also give overview of GA which are developed for multipurpose objectives and maintaining the diversity. They have introduced GR (Greedy Reduction) technique. In the case of worst scenario GR technique executes in the linear time of framework [22]. For bandwidth allocation Hong Pan and I. Y. Wang [15] proposed GA for optimization. In this the average delay network is lessened. Bandwidth can be reassigned again as per this algorithm.

To improve the concept of understanding of natural selection process To develop artificial structure having functionality analogous to natural system

Genetic Algorithm has been broadly used for solving MOPs because it works on a population of solutions. [13]. Objective function plays an important role for obtaining optimum result. For having “Optimum” result does not mean that the result is “Maximum”. It‟s the best and the most appropriate value as per the objective function criteria. Genetic algorithm is best for optimization and is useful in any state. A. Population The Genetic algorithm starts up with a set of solutions which is taken as a „population‟ with the assumption that next generation will be better than the previous one. The cycle is terminated when the termination condition is satisfied. B. Operators of GA The efficiency of Genetic algorithm is dependent on the way the operators are used, that constitutes Genetic algorithm course of action [9]. The GA operators are as follows [8] [4]: 1) Selection & Reproduction: Chromosomes are selected according to their Objective Function (also called as fitness function). The ultimate node for chromosome survival is Objective Function. It works on Darwinian Theory for survival of the fittest. This is an artificial version of natural selection for survival. Chromosomes having higher fitness have greater likelihood of being into next generation. There are numerous methods for chromosome selection. For selection of chromosomes several methods are in practice. 2) Crossover or Recombination: It is the distinguishing feature from other techniques of optimization. On selected parents the technique is applied as per their crossing-over mechanism. 1-point Crossing over 2-point Crossing over

Crossing over results into new off-springs. III. OVERVIEW OF GENETIC ALGORITHM (GA) 3) Mutation: In GA maneuvering mutation has secondary role [6]. It is required after crossing over segment because there is a probability of information loss at this stage [12]. It is done by flipping by bit as per requirement. The population diversity maintenance is purpose of mutation operator. C. Steps to follow in GA

Genetic Algorithm is a search paradigm. It follows principles which are based on Darwin Theory of evolution. In this population data fights for survival and the „fittest‟ one survives. This algorithm is mainly based on natural selection phenomenon. GA is introduced by John Holland [7] [5]. It is effective technique as its not only encountering mutation but also use crossing over technique (or genetic recombination) [10]. Crossing over technique improves the proficiency of algorithm for having the optimum outcome. Holland had a dual aim [11]:

1) Population Generation: Generate population randomly of „n‟. 2) Fitness Function: Launch function for evaluation of fitness in population.

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3) Applying Operators: Create new population by applying operators of GA until the new population is complete. At the end of iteration another generation is attained. The Rank Based Selection is applied. a) Selection: Parents selection is on the basis of their fitness function creteria. b) Recombination: Recombination also called as crossing over is than applied over the selected parents. It result into offsprings.

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2010

B. Fitness Function I This fitness function is for finding the delay of the path using the delay and bandwidth constraints [27]. The algorithm is as follows: It checks the bandwidth availability of link. After that network delay of link is find out Than delay average of path is calculated.

c) Mutation: The resulting offsprings are than mutated. After that their fitness function is measured. On the basis of this value, their survival in the population is based. 4) Terminating Condition: If the terminating condition is reached, the loop breaks and the best result is obtained. 5) Resulting Generation: Newly generated population is used for further generation. IV. PROPOSED OPTIMIZATION ROUTING APPROACH

All the paths are valid, as they have passed through the bandwidth availability check before calculating the average packet delay as [27]: delay (1) AveragePacketDelay no. of links The delay of the path is calculated as [27]:

delay

In this proposed optimization approach basic unit of a chromosome is gene. Genes constitute to form a chromosome, which in turn constitutes the population. Thus the chromosome in population is represented by string of number as in Figure 1. 5 3 6

i 1 (2) The optimum path selection is based mainly on the bandwidth and delay in this approach. Thus, if two or more paths have same fitness value than the path with less number of hops will be taken as the optimum path. Optimum path leads to a path which has more bandwidth, less delay and less number of hops. Now the proposed strategy involving is illustrated as follows:

n

bwAvailablei DataSize

1

Figure 1. Genetic Representation of Path

The gene represents the node while the chromosome represents the network path. Population is the collection of all possible paths. The chromosome 1-5-3-6 shows network path which is constituted by nodes. The first node is the source node while the last node is the destination node. The hop count in this will be: Hop Count = Chromosome Length - 1 The length of the chromosome is variable. So the number of nodes in the path is directly proportional to number of hop the data has to travel. The chromosome which have source and destination same as defined for the path, they constitute the population lot. The rest unfeasible paths will be discarded after they are generated. From those feasible paths, the population is generated randomly. A. Strategies The proposed strategy is explained in Fitness Function II and is compared with Fitness Function I as well. The proposed strategy is more efficient as it is handling more constraints than the other approach [27].

C. Fitness Function II The proposed strategy is founded on M/M/1 queuing model [14] by using GA for Path Optimization. In our research it is used for handling Bandwidth, Utilization and Delay constraints for finding Optimum path. The fitness function is based mainly on (3). If there is a conflict in making decision among these constraints than path with lesser hops is taken as the optimum path. Constraints defined are Bandwidth Availability, Delay, Utilization and Hop count. The fitness function using M/M/1 queuing model [14] is as follows:

(3)

T 1/µ C ρ = = = = Delay mean (sec) mean packet size (bits) capacity (bps) utilization factor

1) Capacity ‘C’: It is the bandwidth C available over the network path. 2) Utilization factor ‘ρ’: After checking of bandwidth availability, the network utilization factor is obtained as:

utilii DataSize bwAvailablei

(4)

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After summing up of utilization factor a links, utilization factor value for a single path is obtained. Than mean of the utilization factor of path is obtained by dividing the sum of the utilization factor value for a single path with the total number of links in that path as: Mean Utilization = (Σ Utilization)/total number of links

i=1 n

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2010

applied on the selected chromosomes, leading towards the segregation of source and destination node. After this 1-point crossing over technique is done over the resultant chromosome. In this the crossing over point is 2 [27]. 4) Mutation: After crossing over, mutation is being done on the offsprings. Mutation has been done as per the scenarios which are [27]: a) Scenario 1 (repeating node): The location of repeating node is traced out. Any of the missing nodes is find out. Place the missing node at traced location. b) Scenario 2 (no missing or repeating node): Randomly pick two nodes from chromosome Swap those nodes c) Scenario 3 (minimum chromosome length): Minimum length of chromosome is 2 It has only source and destination nodes There will be no mutation d) Scenario 4 (length of chromosome is one more than the minimum): Length of chromosome one more than minimum constitutes of 3 nodes Only middle node is flipped with missing node 5) Evaluation of Mutated Offsprings: The mutated offspring‟s fitness is evaluated. The chromosome with worst fitness is replaced by the offspring having better fitness. The population size will remain unaffected by this replacement. The worst chromosomes are discarded. The network path survival is based on their Fitness Function Criteria. V. EXPERIMENTS, RESULTS & ANALYSIS

(5) 3) Delay Mean: The equation (3) is precisely formulized as follows: Delay Utilization Mean = (Mean Utilization)/ (1- Mean Utilization) (6) It constitutes fitness function of this algorithm: Fitness Function ~ Delay Utilization Mean (7) This utilization factor is calculated for every path. After each generation the mean of all paths is also calculated. All the paths are valid path as their bandwidth availability is checked before finding out their fitness. Optimum path selection is based on the link utilization, Bandwidth, Delay Factor and hop count. The more the bandwidth, the less the delay, utilization and the hop count the more optimum the path will be. When there are two or more paths with same fitness value than hop count will be playing the decision making role. D. Proposed GA for Path Optimization Proposed Routing Strategy using GA for network path optimization is as follows: 1) Initialization of Population:The population is randomly generated [27]. There also exists the probability of valid and invalid paths. The source and destination nodes are fixed. The randomly selected population is 33% of the generated chromosomes. So this 33% constitutes the whole population and 30 generations are produced [27]. 2) Selection of Parents: Parent‟s selection is based on Rank-based Selection. In this the parents are ranked on the basis of their fitness function value. They are not selected randomly except the first generation (in which parents are selected randomly). The parents with high fitness will be higher in ranking and the ones with low fitness will be lower in ranking. Both parents which are best in the population are used for crossing over as they have more tendency of survival in nature. 3) Recombination (or Crossing Over): Crossing over of the best fitted chromosome results into best offsprings. The crossing over technique used is “2-point over 1-point crossover” [27]. In this first 2-point crossing over technique is

A. Experiments and Testbed 1) Network Formation: The delay, bandwidth and utilization factor has been evaluated on the following network:

Figure 2. Network Formation

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Main factors of algorithm are availability of bandwidth, utilization, delay and hop count in network traffic. When the packet is passed through a network, two parameters are involved. One is time packet takes to reach next node and other is bandwidth. Time also shows distance packet travels. The variety of time and bandwidth measures is included in the network, leading to better result in a complicated network.

**(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2010
**

Figure 3. Average Delay (whole population)

In this case number of hops is constant. There is no alteration in hop count till the 50 generation. It might show change later. The graph is constant showing no variation. Now the population is randomly selected and fitness function I is implemented over it. The results are compared with the full population selection results. The 33% of the population is taken and is generated 30 times as per Table I. The minimum of delay average of every generation is shown in the Figure 4. Hence, it is showing better results than shown in the Figure 3. There is a variation in this graph and is reaching the minimum level of delay. The horizontal axis is showing the generation and the vertical axis is showing the delay average (fitness function value) against every generation with random selection of population.

2) Population Selection Criteria: The population is selected randomly. The result of randomly selected population‟s result is compared with whole population and with results of the [15] also. The obtained results are better than both of them. Hence, proved that random selection is best choice [27]. The criterion for population size and population generation is as shown in the following table [27]:

TABLE I. TABLE SHOWING POPULATION SIZE & NUMBER OF GENERATIONS

Population Size Generations

33% 30

3) Experimental Practice: The population is selected randomly. First bandwidth availability is checked and then calculates utilization and delay factor as mentioned in fitness function. The hop count is being considered for resolving the conflict between paths with same fitness value. The paths with less hop count in that case will be considered as an optimum path. Even if the hop count is same, than select any of the path which is not used often. B. Analysis & Results Fitness I is applied over the whole population. The population is generated 50 times. The minimum average Delay is taken till 50 iterations and is shown in the graph below. So, there will be a delay in getting the optimum result. The horizontal axis is showing the generation and the vertical axis is showing the delay average (fitness function value) against every generation.

Figure 4. Average Delay (randomly selected population)

As per the results obtained the number of hops is also reducing. The hops are more at the start of the generation, but as the generations are increasing their number of hops is also reducing. Therefore, it is involving traffic engineering of the network as well. So in this case it is sharing the load of network through delay and bandwidth constraints. In this utilization factor is not involved in fitness function criteria. At start the hops count of the paths are more as per the network scenario, but in final result the number of hops is lesser. Thus, it is also handling the traffic engineering problem of the network. This is thus sharing and balancing the network load as per bandwidth and delay criteria. Now the proposed strategy (fitness function II) is applied over the network. Population selection is random [27]. It involves the delay, bandwidth and utilization constraints. It also involves hop count. The horizontal axis is showing the generation and the vertical axis is showing the delay and utilization measure (fitness

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function II) against every generation with random selection of population.

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2010

Figure 6 is showing comparison of the proposed algorithm with the other algorithm mentioned in this research. VI. CONCLUSION

Bandwidth scaling is elementary driver of popularity and growth among interconnected computer networks. Increase in bandwidth accompanies lesser delay. In this research, the proposed technique is for finding optimized path with delay, bandwidth and utilization measures. In this the comparison is done between the fitness function catering just bandwidth and delay with the fitness function handling bandwidth, delay and utilization. Both of them are tackling the hop count. The results prove our affirmation that proposed algorithm shows better results than the earlier proposed algorithms.

REFERENCES

[1] Figure 5. Proposed Algorithm involving utlization and Delay constraints with randomly selected population [2] David E. Goldberg, “Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization & Machine Learning”, Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc. Boston, MA, USA, 1989. A.W.W.NG and B.J.C. Perera, “Importance of Genetic Alrothim Operators in River Water Quality Model Parameter Optimisation”, school of the Built Environment, Victoris University of Technology, Melbourne. Zhao-Xia Wang, Zeng-Qiang Chen and Zhu-Zhi Yuan, “QoS routing optimization strategy using genetic algorithm in optical fiber communication networks”, Journal of Computer Science and Technology, Volume 19 , Year of Publication: 2004, ISSN:1000-9000, Pages: 213 - 217 Anton Riedl, “A Versatile Genetic Algorithm for Network Planning”, Institute of Communication Networks Munich University of Technology. Darrell Whitley, “A genetic algorithm tutorial”, Statistics and Computing, 1992, volume 4, number 2, pages 65-85. David E. Goldberg, “Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization & Machine Learning”, Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc. Boston, MA, USA, 1989. Darrell Whitley, “A genetic algorithm tutorial”, Statistics and Computing, 1992, volume 4, number 2, pages 65-85. David E. Goldberg, “Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization & Machine Learning”, Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc. Boston, MA, USA, 1989. A.W.W.NG and B.J.C. Perera, “Importance of Genetic Alrothim Operators in River Water Quality Model Parameter Optimisation”, school of the Built Environment, Victoris University of Technology, Melbourne. Emmeche C., “Garden in the Machine. The Emerging Science of Artificial Life”, Princeton University Press, 1994, pp. 114. Goldberg D., “Genetic Algorithms”, Addison Wesley, 1988. David M. Tate, Alice E. Smith, “Expected Allele Coverage and the Role of Mutation in Genetic Algorithms”, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Genetic Algorithms Pages: 31 - 37 Year of Publication: 1993, ISBN:1-55860-299-2 Dinesh Kumar, Y. S. Brar, and V. K. Banga, Multicast Optimization Techniques using Best Effort Genetic Algorithms, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 50 2009 Yantai Shu, Fei Xue, Zhigang Jin and Oliver Yang, “ The Impact of Self-similar Traffic on Network Delay”, Dept. of Computer Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, P.R. China, School of Information Technology and Engineering, University of Ottawa,Ottawa, Ontario Canada KIN 6N5, 0-7803-43 14-X/98/$10.0081998 IEEE

In this graph there is varitaion in fitness value involving delay and utilization factors of the network. Thus it is reaching the minimum value more earlier than the previous algorthims discussed. It is reaching getting value below 1 at ealier stage which fitness function I graph is showing after mid generation. In Figure 6 the fitness function which is involving more constraints are showing better results than compared to the other fitness function results mentioned in this research paper. So for calculating the optimum path of the network the Fitness Function II should be applied over the network for congestion control and traffic engineering problems.

[3]

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[13] Figure 6. Comparison of both fitness function and respective population selected (whole and random selection)

[14]

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[15] Hong Pan, Irving Y. Wang, “The Bandwidth Allocation of ATM through GA”, Global Telecommunications Conference, 1991. GLOBECOM '91, 1991, pages 125-129. [16] Mitsuo Gen, Lin Lin , “A New Approach for Shortest Path Routing Problem by Random Key-based GA”, Genetic And Evolutionary Computation Conference Proceedings of the 8th annual conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation, 2006. [17] M. Ericsson, M. Resende, P. Pardalos, “A Genetic Algorithm for the weight setting problem in OSPF routing”, Journal of Combinatorial Optimization, 2002, volume 6, pages 299-333. [18] Norio. Shimamoto, Atsushi Hiramatsu, Kimiyoshi Yamasaki, “A dynamic Routing Control based on a Genetic Algorithm”, IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, 1993, pages 1123-1128. [19] Anton Riedl, “A Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for Routing Optimization in IP Networks Utilizing Bandwidth and Delay Metrics”, Institute of Communication Networks, Munich University of Technology, Munich, Germany. [20] Yinzhen Li, Ruichun He, Yaohuang Guo, “Faster Genetic Algorithm for Network Paths”, Proceedings of The Sixth International Symposium on Operations Research & Its Applications (ISORA‟06) Xinjiang, China, August 8-12, 2006. Pages 380-389. [21] Abdullah Konak, David W. Coit, Alice E. Smith, “Multi-objective optimization using genetic algorithms: A tutorial” [22] Vandana Venkat, Sheldon H. Jacobson and James A. Stori, “A PostOptimality Analysis Algorithm for Multi-Objective Optimization”,

**(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2010
**

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Journal Computational Optimization and Applications, Volume 28, 2004. Ramon Fabregat, Yezid Donoso, Benjamin Baran, Fernando Solano, Jose L. Marzo, “Multi-objective optimization scheme for multicast flows: a survey, a model and a MOEA solution”, Proceedings of the 3rd international IFIP/ACM Latin American conference on Networking, 2006, pages 73-86. Basela S. Hasan, Mohammad A. Khamees, Ashraf S. Hasan Mahmoud, “A Heuristic Genetic Algorithm for the Single Source Shortest Path Problem”, IEEE/ACS International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications, 2007, pages 187-194. Johan Andersson, “Applications of a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm to Engineering Design Problems”, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linköping University 581 83 Linköping, Sweden Carlos A. Coello Coello, “A Short Tutorial on Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization” Madiha Sarfraz, Younus Javed, Almas Anjum, Shaleeza Sohail, “Routing Optimization Strategy Using Genetic Algorithm Utilizing Bandwidth and Delay Metrics”, 2010 the 2nd International Conference on Computer and Automation Engineering (ICCAE 2010), Singapore

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