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Designation: G 46 – 94 (Reapproved 2005

)

Standard Guide for
Examination and Evaluation of Pitting Corrosion1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation G 46; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original
adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript
epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope ordinary light, with or without the use of a low-power
1.1 This guide covers the selection of procedures that can be magnifying glass, to determine the extent of corrosion and the
used in the identification and examination of pits and in the apparent location of pits. It is often advisable to photograph the
evaluation of pitting (See Terminology G 15) corrosion to corroded surface at this point so that it can be compared with
determine the extent of its effect. the clean surface after the removal of corrosion products.
1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the 4.1.1 If the metal specimen has been exposed to an un-
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the known environment, the composition of the corrosion products
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- may be of value in determining the cause of corrosion. Follow
priate safety and health practices and determine the applica- recommended procedures in the removal of particulate corro-
bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. sion products and reserve them for future identification (see
NACE RP-01-73).
2. Referenced Documents 4.1.2 To expose the pits fully, use recommended cleaning
2.1 ASTM Standards: 2 procedures to remove the corrosion products and avoid solu-
E 3 Methods of Preparation of Metallographic Specimens tions that attack the base metal excessively (see Practice G 1).
G 1 Practice for Preparing, Cleaning, and Evaluating Cor- It may be advisable during cleaning to probe the pits with a
rosion Test Specimens pointed tool to determine the extent of undercutting or subsur-
G 15 Terminology Relating to Corrosion and Corrosion face corrosion (Fig. 1). However, scrubbing with a stiff bristle
Testing brush will often enlarge the pit openings sufficiently by
G 16 Guide for Applying Statistics to Analysis of Corrosion removal of corrosion products, or undercut metal to make the
Data pits easier to evaluate.
2.2 National Association of Corrosion Engineers Standard: 4.1.3 Examine the cleaned metal surface under ordinary
NACE RP-01-73 Collection and Identification of Corrosion light to determine the approximate size and distribution of pits.
Products3 Follow this procedure by a more detailed examination through
a microscope using low magnification (203).
3. Significance and Use 4.1.4 Determine the size, shape, and density of pits.
3.1 It is important to be able to determine the extent of 4.1.4.1 Pits may have various sizes and shapes. A visual

--``,,,``,`,,`,``,,```,`,,``,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
pitting, either in a service application where it is necessary to examination of the metal surface may show a round, elongated,
predict the remaining life in a metal structure, or in laboratory or irregular opening, but it seldom provides an accurate
test programs that are used to select the most pitting-resistant indication of corrosion beneath the surface. Thus, it is often
materials for service. necessary to cross section the pit to see its actual shape and to
determine its true depth. Several variations in the cross-
4. Identification and Examination of Pits sectioned shape of pits are shown in Fig. 1.
4.1 Visual Inspection—A visual examination of the cor- 4.1.4.2 It is a tedious job to determine pit density by
roded metal surface is usually beneficial, and this is done under counting pits through a microscope eyepiece, but the task can
be made easier by the use of a plastic grid. Place the grid,
containing 3 to 6-mm squares, on the metal surface. Count and
1
This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee G01 on Corrosion record the number of pits in each square, and move across the
of Metals, and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee G01.05 on Laboratory grid in a systematic manner until all the surface has been
Corrosion Tests.
Current edition approved May 1, 2005. Published May 2005. Originally covered. This approach minimizes eyestrain because the eyes
approved in 1976. Last previous edition approved in 1999 as G 46 – 94 (1999). can be taken from the field of view without fear of losing the
2
For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or area of interest.
contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM
Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on
4.1.5 Metallographic Examination—Select and cut out a
the ASTM website. representative portion of the metal surface containing the pits
3
Insert in Materials Protection and Performance, Vol 12, June 1973, p. 65. and prepare a metallographic specimen in accordance with the

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Copyright ASTM International 1
Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved);
Provided by IHS under license with ASTM Licensee=Instituto Mexicano Del Petroleo/3139900100
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1 Eddy currents can be used to detect defects or in detecting flaws in metals. The intensity of the emergent rays varies of defects to the magnetic field. onto the as large as 1⁄2 % of the metal thickness to be detected.`. 4.`. quently exudes from the surface after the excess penetrant has Copyright ASTM International 2 Provided by IHS under license with ASTM Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). G 46 – 94 (2005) FIG.2 Nondestructive Inspection—A number of techniques 4. or whether the produce a magnetic field that is different from that of a cavities are true pits or might have resulted from metal dropout reference material without defects. Imperfections may be demagnetization of the material.`. reference standards are required for comparison.. Discontinuities that cavities in a metal surface without destroying the material (1).`.4 are transverse to the direction of the magnetic field cause a These methods are less effective for locating and defining the leakage field to form above the surface of the part. Mon May 16 17:32:50 EDT 2005 . by the possible need for with the thickness of the material. 1 Variations in the Cross-Sectional Shape of Pits recommended procedures given in Methods E 3.``.4 Penetrants—Defects opening to the surface can be 4 The boldface numbers in parentheses refer to the list of references at the end of detected by the application of a penetrating liquid that subse- this practice. 1).. irregularities in the structure of electrically conducting mate- generate high-frequency emissions under thermal or mechani- rials.. and by the limited shape of detected if they cause a change in the absorption of X rays. The metal thickness that can be inspected is 4.. Examine currents are induced in the specimen.1 In the use of ultrasonics. It may also be instantaneous information about the size and location of flaws.`--- microscopically to determine whether there is a relation a magnetic field of their own. 4. and an appropriate detec- caused by intergranular corrosion.``. but they netic particles are placed on the surface to detect the leakage merit consideration because they are often used in situ.``. 4. Materials with defects will between pits and inclusions or microstructure. tion instrument is required to determine these differences. such as X rays.2. Ferromag- shape of pits than some of those previously discussed. Both contact and immersion corrosion to determine whether pitting has occurred and methods are used. dealloying. useful to determine the extent of subsurface and undercutting However. The test has good sensitivity and provides whether it is associated with previous porosity. but it are converted to electrical signals that can be interpreted to might be a useful means to compare specimens before and after show the location of flaws or pits.. and field and to outline the size and shape of the discontinuities.2 Electromagnetic: 4.2.2. 08/10/2006 10:52:41 MDT Reproduction authorized per License Agreement with Kathe Hooper (ASTMIHS Account).2 An alternative approach is to use acoustic emissions 4.3. Pores or pits must be transmitted through a couplant. Imperfections. and pitting (Fig. thus are more applicable to field applications.1 Radiographic—Radiation. Licensee=Instituto Mexicano Del Petroleo/3139900100 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. parts that can be examined. The reflected echoes technique has only slight application to pitting detection.`.2.2. The frequency of emission and the number of produced by connecting an alternating current to a coil.```.2. Rather small imperfections can be detected by this method. cal stress..2 The induction of a magnetic field in ferromagnetic have been developed to assist in the detection of cracks or materials is another approach that is used. and so forth. training is needed to interpret the results properly.3 Sonics: imperfections.``-`-`.2. This metal surface where waves are generated. eddy occurrences per unit time determine the presence of defects.. Detectors or films are used to provide an image of interior 4.2. are passed However. When a specimen is exposed to a varying magnetic field.`. and they in turn produce --``. pulses of sound energy are dependent on the available energy output.3. such as pits.2. 4. such as oil or water. the method is limited by the required directionality through the object.2..

and the probe determined accurately from mass loss. between the unaffected surface and subtract from the original 5.`. mass side of the pit would give a false reading. Repeat this the use of an interference microscope.3 Repeat the steps in 5. mass loss movement is a measurement of pit depth.`.2. a dial micrometer can be attached to the microscope in such a The method is very accurate. and the pit may not have been under the objective lens of the microscope at low magnification sectioned at the deepest point of penetration.`. G 46 – 94 (2005) been removed.2. Mon May 16 17:32:50 EDT 2005 .2 Machining (2. mended for use as a measure of the extent of pitting unless 5. surfaces is recombined. the pit. it completes the electrical circuit.```.4 Microscopical—This method is particularly valuable value. for example..3. The repeatability of pit depth measurements on a single may be obliterated. The difference between the initial and the final unaffected. this eliminates those pits where undercutting or directional orientation has 5.1 Mass Loss—Metal mass loss is not ordinarily recom.4.2. Defects are located by spraying the surface with count the number of visible pits remaining at each stage..``-`-`. Focus the 5.4.2 Pit Depth Measurement: possible in the case of example (e) in Fig. Record the Measure the thickness of the specimen between two areas that initial reading from the fine-focusing knob.2.`--- 4.) Measure the thickness of the specimen pit at four magnifications is shown in Annex A1.`. This method is can only provide information about total metal loss due to limited to very regularly shaped pits because contact with the pitting but nothing about depth of penetration. but they generally are not able to detect small pits. The size of the defect is shown by the 5.. loss should not be neglected in every case because it may be of 5.2. then These fringes can be used to measure vertical deviations on the machine away the surface of the metal in measured stages and metal surface. Increase the objective lens magnification 5. then the fine-focusing knobs of the microscope.2. mounting the 5. then machine the opposite surface where the pits readings on the fine-focusing knob is the pit depth. attach the probe to a general corrosion is slight and pitting is fairly severe. polished example. Select a portion of bottom of the pit with the fine-focusing knob and record the the surface on one side of the specimen that is relatively reading.4. A beam of light is split. (for example. 1 division = 0. Most of these methods were of the pit. under black light. procedure on the unmachined surface unless the thickness has and one portion is projected on the specimen and the other on been reduced by 50% or more during the machining of the first a reference mirror surface.. which would not be 5.1 Use a metallurgical microscope with a magnification cross-sectioned pit metallographically.1 This method requires a sample that is fairly regular specimen surface at the lip of the pit. or the Subtract the number of pits at each stage from the count at the penetrant may contain a fluorescent material that is viewed previous stage to obtain the number of pits at each depth of cut. a developer that reacts with a dye in the penetrant. However. surface by the use of a microscope with a calibrated eyepiece. the contribution of pitting to to the specimen (3. 5.``.2. Count the visible pits. and interference fringes are formed 5. Its limitations are that it is time consuming.2. They can be lip of the pit. attached to a micrometer or calibrated depth gage to penetrate --``. and pits tained.1 This method is based on the use of a pointed needle provides only an approximation of the depth and size of pits.2 In a variation of this method. and polishing the sur..`. The distance traveled by size of pits. Extent of Pitting to accommodate the needle without obstruction. but it requires good judgment in way that it will show movement of the stage relative to the the selection of the pit and good technique in cutting through microscope body.2 This method is equally suitable for determining the that provide a topographical map of the specimen surface. Refocus on the have not been affected by general corrosion. 3): until the pit area covers most of the field under view. 503). The reflected light from these two side. range from 50 to 5003 and a calibrated fine-focus knob (for face.``. and it involves the destruction of the specimen. light can be focused on the base of the pit.4. In any case.4.3.`..4 A variation of the microscopical technique employs thickness to give the maximum depth of pitting. However. The depth of the pit is measured on the flat. If spherometer and connect through a microammeter and battery uniform corrosion is significant. It is best to use constant- and confusion may arise in attempting to differentiate between tension instruments to minimize metal penetration at the base pits and other surface blemishes.2. method is limited to pits that have a sufficiently large opening 5. are located on a precision lathe.5 None of these nondestructive test methods provide the pit cavity. Zero the instrument on an unaffected area at the satisfactory detailed information about pitting. When the probe touches the bottom of total metal loss is small. 1. This technique 5. number of pits with specific depths. 4). the method is limited to the shallower Copyright ASTM International 3 Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). It can be advantageous to use a stereomicroscope in developed to detect cracks or flaws in metals. or mill until all signs 5. Provided by IHS under license with ASTM Licensee=Instituto Mexicano Del Petroleo/3139900100 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. the deepest 5. occurred.2 Locate a single pit on the metal surface and center pit may not have been selected. Insert the needle in the pit until it reaches the base used to locate pits and to provide some information about the where a new measurement is taken.3 Micrometer or Depth Gage: intensity of the color and the rate of bleed-out.1 Metallographic—Pit depth can be determined by sec- tioning vertically through a pre-selected pit.2. the needle is the depth of the pit.2. using first the coarse and in shape.2. grinder. The method is amenable to use as long as resistance of alloys in laboratory tests.001 mm).2.``. and pitting damage cannot be the pit. (Some difficulty from galling measurements or until satisfactory duplication has been ob- and smearing may be encountered with soft metals. The pitting measurements. 08/10/2006 10:52:41 MDT Reproduction authorized per License Agreement with Kathe Hooper (ASTMIHS Account).2.2..2 to obtain additional of corrosion have disappeared. If the latter is not available. but with more conjunction with this technique so that the pit can be magnified refined development they may become more applicable to to ensure that the needle point is at the bottom of the pit.. mass loss along with a visual comparison when pits are too narrow or difficult to penetrate with a probe of pitted surfaces may be adequate to evaluate the pitting type of instrument.2.

pit depths) usually have more significance --``.`. ten deepest pits.1 Rate the pits in terms of density.``. itself. that is. Licensee=Instituto Mexicano Del Petroleo/3139900100 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.3.`.. it is tedious and time consuming to measure cance...2.`. average size of these sites).0 mm2.`--- although it is often found that no single method is sufficient by than average values. and depth on the tion in terms of the maximum pit depth or the average of the basis of standard charts. Evaluation of Pitting tion between those who are familiar with the charts.`. an average pit increases to the point where they are difficult to count. preferably both. values (for example. This type of measurement is Columns A and B relate to the extent of pitting at the surface particularly significant when the metal is associated with an of the metal (that is. This is the ratio of the deepest metal penetration FIG. 6. size. B-2. and the time is usually not justified because maximum more commonly used methods are described in this section.. Some of the all pits. and an average pit depth of 1. and it is a 6.`. and a hole could lead to a loss of of sites per unit area and Column B a means for showing the fluid.```. simple means for storing data for comparison with other test scribed. less than 25 µm. opening of 2. G 46 – 94 (2005) pits.1 Measure the deepest pits and express metal penetra- 6.2 Metal penetration can also be expressed in terms of a average depth of attack. Column A is a means for rating the number enclosure for a gas or liquid.``-`-`..2. because the number of fringes C-3.``. results. 08/10/2006 10:52:41 MDT Reproduction authorized per License Agreement with Kathe Hooper (ASTMIHS Account).3. representing a density of 5 3 104 pits/m2.. Column C rates the intensity or 6. 6.2 Standard Charts (3): 6.`. pitting factor. A typical rating might be A-3.6 mm. However. 2. or used to predict the life of a material..2 This method offers an effective means of communica- 6. given a quantitative expression to indicate its signifi. Mon May 16 17:32:50 EDT 2005 . 2 Standard Rating Charts for Pits Copyright ASTM International 4 Provided by IHS under license with ASTM Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved).1 There are several ways in which pitting can be de.. such as those shown in Fig.3 Metal Penetration: 6.``.

direction of rolling. various waters was found to vary as the cube root of time (t).1..1. and the time of exposure.``. 12) have been as shown in the following relationship: applied successfully to maximum pit depth data to estimate the deepest metal penetration maximum pit depth of a large area of material on the basis of Pitting Factor 5 average metal penetration (1) examination of a small portion of that area (3. The dependence on area is attributed to the increased chance for the deepest pit to 7. surface condi- Np = number of specimens that pit. such as maximum pit depth (D) and the area (A) of a pipeline exposed intergranular or stress corrosion. 7. strength. impact resistance. and tions of exposure.5. In some cases the change in mechanical properties due to pitting may be too where a and b > 0. 7.. 7.3.`. the metal exposed.``.2 Environmental conditions and duration of exposure.2 The probability that pits will initiate on a metal surface observations that must be made to find a particular pit depth. tions. 6): of these mechanical test procedures are covered in most Np standard methods. 8.`.3 Appearance of the corroded surface before and after cleaning. 10): 7.3 The relationship between pit depth and area or time of the same conditions except for the corrosive environment. A plotting position for factor does not apply in those cases where pitting or general each order of ranking is obtained by substituting in the relation.4. and so forth. 14). consideration should where: be given to edge effects. 6.```. but it must be stressed that it is important to P 5 N 3 100 (2) use as nearly replicate specimens as possible for both the exposed and unexposed specimens. den- K is a constant that is a function of the composition of the sity.2 are examples that have been found to apply under the two results is attributed to corrosion. If a straight discussed briefly in this standard to show that statistics have a line is obtained..``-`-`.``. 6.5.`..4.2 The maximum pit depth (D) of aluminum exposed to tion. corrosion is very small because values of zero or infinity can M/(n+1). the greater the depth of penetration. Report the logarithms of the corresponding areas. The depth values in order of increasing rank.4 Statistical: second value out of 10 would be 2/(10+1) = 0.1. the corrosivity of the solution.. is dependent on a number of factors. For example. 6. successively increasing areas on the pipe were plotted against 7. and N = total number of specimens. This relationship has been found to apply to and location of pits with reference to microstructure.5 Loss in Mechanical Properties—If pitting is the pre- tendency of the metal. surface prepara- 6.3.. 9): considered.4.3. Licensee=Instituto Mexicano Del Petroleo/3139900100 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. such as the following: through an increased area of corroded surface. and final surface finish before exposure to test.1 The report should include as much detailed information be found when the size of the sample of pits is increased as possible.4 Identification of corrosion products. A pitting probability relatively high. G 46 – 94 (2005) to the average metal penetration. crevice. elongation. edge. 5. Typical to pitting.`.4 Extreme value probability statistics (11.1 The following relationship was found between the evaluation of other forms of localized corrosion. several aluminum alloys exposed to different waters. the difference between 6.. Mon May 16 17:32:50 EDT 2005 . The pitting probability (P) in % after the burst pressure (13.2 Representative specimens of the metal are exposed to 6.`--- replicate specimens that have pitted. and a and b are constants that were derived small to provide meaningful results.1 Metallurgical treatment of the metal. values are plotted on the ordinate of extreme value probability sion data is covered in detail in Guide G 16.3 Some of these methods are more properly suited to the 6. determined from weight loss.1 The precautions that must be taken in the application conditions can be expressed as follows (5. The exposure may vary with the environment. certain exposure conditions. Copyright ASTM International 5 Provided by IHS under license with ASTM Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). Probably one of the most from the slope and the y-intercept of a straight line curve difficult problems is to separate the effects due to pitting from obtained when the logarithms of the mean pit depth for those caused by some other form of corrosion. and the results are only applicable to the condi. water and alloy. The relationships cited in 6.4.5. face. shape. The subject is paper versus their respective maximum pit depths. fatigue strength. the --``.`. uniformity of distribution. 08/10/2006 10:52:41 MDT Reproduction authorized per License Agreement with Kathe Hooper (ASTMIHS Account). such as the pitting 6. and so forth. Thus.4. specimens or values. and n = total number of readily be obtained when dealing with a ratio.1 and mens are measured after the exposure.1. 10). the change in a mechanical property may be test can be conducted to determine the susceptibility of metals used advantageously to evaluate the degree of pitting. the dominant form of corrosion and the density of pitting is specimen area. The procedure is to measure maximum pit depths on several A pitting factor of one represents uniform corrosion.. so their limitations must be to soil (7.4. as shown in the following relationship (5. where M = order of ranking. the plotting position for the 6.4.5 Characterization of pits to include: size. but it will not provide information about the rate of properties that are considered for this purpose are tensile propagation.1818. mechanical properties of the exposed and unexposed speci- and other variables. These 6. and then arrange the pit larger the number. depth (average and maximum). more detailed Extrapolation of the straight line can be used to determine the information can be obtained from other publications.4. exposure of a number of specimens to a particular set of 6.3.1 The application of statistics to the analysis of corro. it shows that extreme value statistics apply. bearing on the evaluation of pitting data. D 5 Kt1/3 (4) 7. The often erratic nature of pitting and the location D 5 bAa (3) of pits on the specimen can affect results.1. probability that a specific depth will occur or the number of 6.`.

151 mm. and 8. The only limitation to this method is that associated with the range of movement of the calibrated A1..155 0. This result is in A1.1. A1.`.4 Pit depth measurements have been made over the tion.159 0.1 was focusing knob on the microscope.. 08/10/2006 10:52:41 MDT Reproduction authorized per License Agreement with Kathe Hooper (ASTMIHS Account). mm 65 0.1.. pit density. Provided by IHS under license with ASTM Licensee=Instituto Mexicano Del Petroleo/3139900100 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. pitting corrosion.1.2 The data in Table A1. scope with a micrometer reticle.04 to 0. TABLE A1. and. the depth measured in cross section is 0. from 65 to 3703).160 0..``-`-`.159 0.151 0.6 Change in mechanical properties as the result of 8. the average pit and shown in Table A1.151 0.159avg 200 0.`.`.`.`. cation was increased (that is.``. pit 7.149 0.152 mm. As shown in Fig. Mon May 16 17:32:50 EDT 2005 .``. depth that was measured decreased from 0. Repeatability of measurement improved with magnifica- A1.183 0.159 0.```.``.`--- Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved).1 Repeatability of pit depth measurements on a single cross sectioned and photographed at 1003 through a micro- pit at four magnifications is shown in Table A1.1.174avg 132 0.152avg 370 0.157 0. accuracy also showed marked improvement.153 0. morphology.7 Statistical information.. G 46 – 94 (2005) 7..150 0.174 mm to 0.151avg Copyright ASTM International 6 --``. visual inspection ANNEX (Mandatory Information) A1.179 0..1 Microscopical Pit Depth Measurements Magnification Pit Depth.1 indicate that as the magnifi- excellent agreement with that found under high magnification.3 The pit used for the measurements in Table A1.. range from 0.3.1 metallographic inspection.`. as will be shown in A1. REPEATABILITY OF MICROSCOPICAL PIT DEPTH MEASUREMENTS A1. Keywords corrosion. pit depth.1.34 mm. and the method by which determined.152 0.

” Handbook on Corrosion Testing and Evaluation. Underground Corrosion. 577. Vol 14. to the Analysis of Maximum Pit Depth Data for Aluminum. J. 1957. p.`.``-`-`. NY. John Wiley ber 1960.. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute.. National Bureau of Standards for Hydraulic Brake Line Tubing. P. P.. 90P. 1942. Corrosion Testing Procedures. MI. DC: U. of Commerce Applied Mathemat- p. October 1955. 740290. ASTM STP 196.” Materials Engi. 205. p. Vol 12. B. H. p. “A Guide to Nondestructive Testing. New York. F. October 1956. “The Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum in Natural Committee.. (14) Baboian. R. p. “Soil Exposure Tests.`.. Depth Measurements as a Means of Evaluating the Corrosion (7) Scott. A. Pitting Probability of Aluminum.” Journal of the Electrochemical (13) Summerson. p. 157.” Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering.. I. 1972. D. H. G 46 – 94 (2005) NOTE—Use with 103 F.``. Dept. J. 1954.. Section IV.. and Godard. “Corrosion Resistant High Strength Clad Metal System (8) Romanoff.. Objective... H. and Hogan. Vol 146. 71. Pryor.. Waters. 204. H. W.``.” SAE Preprint No.. ics Series 33. A. Special Report for Corrosion (10) Godard.. 2nd ed. E.`. D.`--- Copyright ASTM International 7 Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved)... New (12) Aziz. ASTM. 553. A.. M.``. 1948. New York. 1671.. T.” Metals. NY. John Wiley & Sons.. Octo- (3) Champion. N. Uhlig. Mon May 16 17:32:50 EDT 2005 . NY.`. Statistical Theory of Extreme Values and Some (4) Thornhill. 495t. R.0005 in. “Pit Society. Vol 102.1 Cross Section of Pit Used for Depth Measurements in Table A1 (Each Scale Division Equals 0. A1. (9) Denison. (2) Bengough. FIG. 1934. neering. G. “Influence of Specimen Area on the Corrosion. John Wiley & Sons. J. p. F. p. 08/10/2006 10:52:41 MDT Reproduction authorized per License Agreement with Kathe Hooper (ASTMIHS Account). “Adjustment of Soil Corrosion Pit Depth Measurements Resistance of Aluminum in Sea Water. 1957. Washington. Keir. M. (11) Gumbel. 1971. 1048..” Corrosion Handbook. G. (5) Pathak. Vol 3..” Proceedings of the American Petroleum Institute. Vol 38.. Detroit. Provided by IHS under license with ASTM Licensee=Instituto Mexicano Del Petroleo/3139900100 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. M.S.`... & Sons... p..`. p. “Testing in Fresh Waters. 168. p.. 1935. J. S. for Size of Sample. “Application of the Statistical Theory of Extreme Values York.F. Iron and Steel Institute. Ailor. and Wormwell.” (6) Aziz. M. p. R. Vol 69. P. S. U. ed. Practical Applications. 1965. --``. (13 µm)) REFERENCES (1) Mock.. Circular 579. R. Govt. Printing Office. ed. June 1969. S. 60. J.```. P. H.

```. United States. Provided by IHS under license with ASTM Licensee=Instituto Mexicano Del Petroleo/3139900100 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. West Conshohocken..``. either reapproved or withdrawn..``. 610-832-9555 (fax).`.`--- Copyright ASTM International 8 Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters.`.org (e-mail). This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International. PA 19428-2959. 08/10/2006 10:52:41 MDT Reproduction authorized per License Agreement with Kathe Hooper (ASTMIHS Account). PO Box C700. at the address shown below. Mon May 16 17:32:50 EDT 2005 .astm. and the risk of infringement of such rights.`. or service@astm.org)...`.. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights..``-`-`. or through the ASTM website (www. are entirely their own responsibility. This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and if not revised. --``.`. 100 Barr Harbor Drive. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at 610-832-9585 (phone).. which you may attend.. G 46 – 94 (2005) ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards.``.`. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee.