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Soc ial Me dia and Migr a.

on:
T he C onne c t e d M ig r a nt


Saskia Kok
United Na.ons University – Maastricht Economic and Social Research
Ins.tute on Innova.on and Technology (UNU-MERIT)
Maastricht, 15 February 2017
S.L.E.Kok@uva.nl
How to study transna.onal migra.on with digital
methods?

Theory
CONNECTED MIGRATION


1. Conceptual History of (Connected) Migra9on Research

2. Digi9zed versus (Na9vely) Digital Methods

3. Opera9onalizing migra9on research with Digital Methods: The Somali Diaspora

4. Opportuni9es for Future Research



The emergence of the connected migrant raises important ques9ons
for the study of the diaspora (through its mobility and connec9vity),
par9cularly regarding rela9onships of iden.ty, territorial or
geographical belonging and (global) poli9cal engagement.
CONNECTED MIGRATION

> 1. Conceptual History of Connected Migra.on Research

2. Digi9zed versus (Na9vely) Digital Methods

3. Opera9onalizing Migra9on Research with Digital Methods

4. Limita9ons and Opportuni9es for Future Research
WHERE ARE WE NOW?
FROM TRANSMIGRANT TO CONNECTED MIGRANT

TYPES OF RESEARCH

•  Social media in facilita9ng transna9onal mobiliza9on

•  Social media in facilita9ng migrant integra9on and iden9ty

•  Social media in facilita9ng diaspora engagement and connec9vity

à Using online data about migrants and their networks, and making ‘online
grounded’ claims.

TRANSNATIONAL MOBILITY

Recogni9on of the “transmigrant”

“Transna9onal migra9on is the process by which immigrants forge and
sustain simultaneous mul9-stranded social rela9ons that link together
their socie9es of origin and seZlement (Glick Schiller et al. 1992).

TRANSNATIONAL MOBILIZATION

The internet as a central framework for analyzing transna9onal diasporic
communi9es, their interests and networks (Kissau and Hunger, 2008).

New media as a significant tool for crea9ng connec9ons among diaspora
networks, civil society actors and policymakers (Newland, 2010).

“Products or outcomes of transna9onal mobiliza9on” (Adamson, 2012)

INTEGRATION AND IDENTITY

Social media aids in building an online diasporic public sphere to support
integra.on, or to help fill in the social void experienced when migra9ng
to a different country (Ridings and Gefen 2004; Diminescu et al. 2010).

The significance of online networks as a ‘safe space’ for diasporic
interac9on is also recognized, where diasporas can nego9ate their sense
of self, express their hybrid iden99es, or demarcate what it means to be a
member of the diaspora
(Brinkerhoff 2009; Swaby 2013).


ENGAGEMENT AND CONNECTIVITY

New media technology can also facilitate cross-border mobiliza.on and
diasporic poli.cal ac.vism (Brinkerhoff 2009, Drissel 2006).

However…

The ontological and epistemological dimension of the connected migrant
and the spa9al complexity of diasporic networked behavior in empirical
analyses has been understudied.


THE CONNECTED MIGRANT

Migrant networks:
Capturing the spa9al complexity of connected migrants with digital
methods

“Studying online structures”
(Kissau and Hunger 2010; Adamson and Kumar 2014)
E-Diaspora Atlas – Dana Diminescu
The Connected Migrant
“Connec.vity, mobility and belonging”
•  Digital transla9ons of physical actors and na9vely
digital actors and phenomena.
•  “The digital migrant versus the connected migrant.”
•  Epistemological dis9nc9on needs to be made.

The e-diaspora is a migrant collec9ve that organizes itself and is ac9ve first and
foremost on the Web: its prac9ces are those of a community whose interac9ons
are ‘enhanced’ by digital exchange.
(Diminescu, 2008).

How to study transna.onal migra.on with digital
methods?

Methodology
CONNECTED MIGRATION


1. Conceptual History of Connected Migra9on Research

> 2. Digi.zed versus (Na.vely) Digital Methods

3. Opera9onalizing migra9on research with Digital Methods

4. Opportuni9es for Future Research
Digi.zed methods versus the na.vely digital, where the na9vely
digital is ‘wriZen for the medium.’

“There is an ontological dis9nc9on between the na9vely digital
and the digi9zed, that is, the objects, content, devices and
environments that are “born” in the new medium, as opposed to
those that have “migrated” to it.”

Richard Rogers, The End of the Virtual, 2008



DIGITAL METHODS

Rogers, R. (2013). Digital Methods. Cambridge,
MA: MIT Press




New media technology such as the web, aids researchers in the study
of new or exis9ng social and cultural condi9ons, as well as the study of
migra9on, thereby making (the connected migrants’) web data an
appropriate source for empirical inves9ga9on.
DIGITIZED METHODS
Imported and migrated methods adapted slightly to the online


•  Online surveys
•  Online samples
•  Online interviews
•  Online user studies
•  Online inves9ga9ve


DIGITAL METHODS
Objects & Methods

•  Twider for generic data analysis (e.g. follow-follower, @men9on networks, co-
hashtag analysis, retweet analysis, shortened URLs as impaclul substance)
•  Facebook for poli9cal preference and engagement (e.g. inter-page like analysis,
most engaged with content)
•  LinkedIn for professional skills/career path analysis
•  Google for issue salience analysis (Web, News, Images, Autosuggest)
•  Web hyperlinks for issue network analysis
•  Wikipedia for the study of the poli9cs of memory
•  Instagram for poli9cs in visual culture
•  Amazon and Kindle for recommended book networks and the poli9cs of public
highlights
•  Discus for (newspaper) comment space analysis
•  Wayback Machine for historical link analysis
•  iTunes store for consumer preference analysis
•  Lexus Nexus for news and aZen9on cycle analysis
•  Web of Science and Google Scholar for cita9on analysis (science metrics)



FACEBOOK STUDIES
What to study on Facebook?


Facebook I
(2006 – 2011):
Presenta9on of self; profile and interest studies
(with ethics)

Facebook II (2011 -):
Social movement/causes; studies of groups and
pages.




[image]
CONNECTED MIGRATION


1. Conceptual History of Connected Migra9on Research

2. Digi9zed versus (Na9vely) Digital Methods

> 3. Opera.onalizing Migra.on Research with Digital Methods: The Somali Diaspora

4. Opportuni9es for Future Research
How to study transna.onal migra.on with digital
methods?

THE SOMALI DIASPORA




The emergence of the connected migrant raises important ques9ons
for the study of the diaspora (through its mobility and connec9vity),
par9cularly regarding rela9onships of iden.ty, territorial or
geographical belonging and (global) poli9cal engagement.


Methodological

Which methods and techniques are best suited to connected Somali migrant?


Digital methods, network analysis, content analysis




Empirical
How may findings of the connected migrant and their rela9onships
between the local, na9onal as well as transna9onal networks inform
policy research?

Types of ac9vi9es (integra9on, advocacy, mobiliza9on, etc.)

Conceptual
Could diasporic engagement, belonging and iden9ty be constructed
through an “imagined transna9onal community”?

Yes and.. no

Social media data as a means to study global diaspora poli.cs, the
challenges and opportuni9es of social integra9on of Somali
migrants, and their transna9onal networks.


Global diaspora poli.cs is defined as the forms of transna9onal poli9cal
engagement that are structured around a par9cularis9c iden9ty category
(such as a na9onal, ethnic, religious or sectarian iden9ty) and a real or
mythical ‘homeland’ (Fiona Adamson, 2012).

1. METHOD
How to locate the geographical dispersions of Somali diaspora on the web?


1.  Determining scope (offline popula9on reports – UNHCR)

2.  Web and Facebook Corpus Building

3.  Data Enrichment

4.  Network Analysis and Visualiza9on

2. MIGRANT CORPUS BUILDING

a.  Associa.ve query snowballing technique: to assemble lists of diaspora websites.
Local domain search engines ( e.g. google.co.uk, google.nl. Google.co.ke.
Google.se. google.dk, google.no, google.ca and google.com) were queried for
[Somali diaspora], [Somali community], [Somali interest group] and [inurl:rwanda
inurl:diaspora].

b.  Issue Crawler network loca.on: URLs of Somali diaspora websites were extracted
from engine results and entered into the Issue Crawler, both per country as well
as collec9vely in one mother crawl. Facebook was found to be a key node.

c.  Facebook search analysis was performed for all organiza9ons and group names.

d.  The inter-page like network and most engaged with content was extracted using
Netvizz.

ISSUE CRAWLER

The Issue Crawler is a network loca9on and
visualiza9on sosware for analyzing hyperlinks.
hZps://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/
ToolIssueCrawler
NETVIZZ

•  Netvizz is a tool that extracts
data from different sec9ons of
the Facebook plalorm (groups,
pages) for social network data.
GEPHI

Gephi is an interac9ve visualiza9on and
explora9on plalorm for all kinds of
networks and complex systems,
dynamic and hierarchical graphs.

Summary Sta.s.cs for the Network Analysis of Somali diaspora on Facebook,

615 nodes and 2021 connec.ons
Somaale.com
Mohamed Kabanle The Somali Voice

Made in somalia

Somali Diaspora U.K
Alta Mahamud Show

Amison out of Somalia s land Quba Centre Somali Women Journalists-SWJ

Somali Youth

Facebook Inter-Page Somaliska ungdomar i Linköping
Ex Reer Bkr
Roshni Charity

Glasgow Somali Youth

Like Network Worldwide Somali Students& Professionals

K NAAN

Tools For Solidarity

Horn of Africa People’s Aid
The Real Somali Vines
Deaf Unity NORSOMbro
Mataano
Somali Diaspora
Somalia
Somali Youth United
Somali National Youth Community Sherissa

Union Youth Development ry
Timbuktu
Hal-abuur SomaliLife.Net

size of nodes
in-degree National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention Credit Suisse Youth For New Vision

Opportunity International Somali Diaspora Organisation

value Education Development Center
SayNO - UNiTE to End Violence Against Women
CARE

United Nations Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) Aid for Africa
Global Fund for Education
Rwanda Girls Initiative
UN Women
Women s Major Group
Institute of Development Studies
Asante Africa Foundation SolarAid
Islamic Relief UK
USAID - US Agency for International Development
The United Nations Girls Education Initiative -(UNGEI) DFID - UK Department for International Development
UN Millennium Development Goals Unicef Somalia
Muslim Aid
Muslim Charities Forum
Women s Environment and Development Organization (WEDO)

UNICEF
African Development Aid Association (ADAA)
Build Africa Save the Children UK
Somali Relief& Development Forum
United Nations Global Compact International Labour Organization (ILO) Somali Humanitarian Operational Consortium (SHOC)
UN Capital Development Fund Mercy Corps World Food Program USA
UNESCO
African World Heritage Fund
Volunteer Community development and health worker) Self Help Africa
London Somali Youth Forum
ADT African Development Trust
Development Policy and Analysis Division of UN-DESA
World Food Programme Walk Free International Rescue Committee
GAVI Alliance Save the Children Boston Youth Zone
color of nodes Unesco - Education in Asia-Pacific Save the Children Italia

betweenness
United Nations UNFPA Young African Leaders for Change (YALC)

Adeso
Somali Women: Agents of Change

United Nations Careers Somali Health and Social Development
United Nations Information Centre Beirut
centrality value United Nations News Centre
UNDP in Somalia
African Development Bank Group
The African Youth Initiative on Climate Change (AYICC)
United Nations Office for Children and Armed Conflict
World Meteorological Organization World Health Organization (WHO) Nordic Somali Youth Summit
Young People s Forum
Young People Speak Out against FGM - Forward UK

United Nations OCHA
Connect African Development Wellspring Healthy Living Centre
International Maritime Organization African Youth Volunteers Corps (AU-YVC)
Puntland Youth and Social Development Association (PSA) Bristol Young Labour
UNHCR Central Europe School of Chemistry University of Bristol
ReliefWeb African Development Center College Green
East and Horn of Africa Human Rights Defenders Project World AIDS Day Band Films Ltd
UNDP Afghanistan AIDS 2012: XIX International AIDS Conference Bristol Community College
Bristol Media
United Nations Human Rights International AIDS Society African Aid Organization Inc. (AFAID)
Hearing Health Foundation Bristol Youth Sports
Volunteers UNHCR UNAIDS
Education Funds for Underprivileged Children
Save the children in Somalie
Mendip Media - Bristol
Mayor of Bristol
Page name Journal of the International AIDS Society (JIAS)
AIDS Healthcare Foundation
Somali Youth Progress Association Plant World
University of Bristol Law School Bristol Somali Youth Network
Bristol Film and Media
UNODC - United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Advantage Africa Governance Africa Foundation
IOM South Sudan
Clifton College Sports Ground
University of Bristol
Bristol Youth Links
Young Bristol
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) IAS 2013: 7th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis Treatment and Prevention Anxiety and Depression Association of America Clifton College
AIDS Daljir Creative Youth Network
Centre for English Language and Foundation Studies University of Bristol
ACT - Against Corruption Today MapAction Horn of Africa Aid and Development Association (HAADA)
Somali Action Alliance Education Fund Bristol Lord Mayor
Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) Africanfemale Entrepreneurs University of Bristol The Station Bristol
black box World Nuclear Association Humber Arboretum
Thomson Foundation Bristol Post
City of Bristol College
Bristol City Council
The Gospel of the Lion of Judah
Bristol News& Media
source page
Islamic Relief Somalia African Youth on Post-2015 Agenda. Bristol News
African Youth Aid Foundation SGS College - Filton and WISE
Global African Development (GAD) BBC Radio Bristol
Garissa Wajir and Mandera counties Forum
UNV Haiti Proudly African Somali Relief& Islamic Cultural Centre BBC News
Somali Youth for Employment Website UWE Bristol
Somali Humanitarian Aid and Development
Danish Refugee Council
Somali Youth Organization
African Reflections Foundation Puntland President Office
Women In Africa Aids(WINAA)
Somali Young Generation Against Jobless Sunlight travel Somali Women s League
Africa Water Project The Somali Youth Community ( SYC) in UAE
Global Observatory U.S. EPA - Housatonic River
Help Somalia Foundation (HSF) Nouman Ali Khan Collection Orphans In Need HARDO
Child Development Media
National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (NOFAS) Africland Somali Youth Empowerment Organization
SomaliDiasporaUK Somali Peace& Progress
Puntland Minority Women Development Organisation (PMWDO)
African Development Jobs
Planet Water Foundation RastafariYouth Initiative Council ICAO
Shams Adduha Muhammad
Somali Youth Action For Change
SaveOgaden.org
Somali Youth for Peace and Development
World Animal Awareness Society - WA2S.Org
3. DATA ENRICHMENT

To what extent are the online prac3ces of Somali diasporas directed towards social
integra3on or issue advocacy, in the homeland as well as host land?


a.  Classifica9on schemes were built (direc9onality of calling, geographical loca9on,
level of ins9tu9onaliza9on, ac9vity and cause).

b.  Plalorm specific content analysis was performed (sum of likes, shares, comments
and liked comments, both per country as well as overall).

Classifica.on of Somali diaspora Facebook and Web corpora by organiza.on
type (N=226)

2NL@KH#H@RONQ@ U K Most engagDC VHSGcontent on Facebook

Ramadhan Mubarak to all of you. May
Allah SWT accept your good deeds,
forgive your sins and may we reach the
next one with good health and Iman.
66 Pray for Somalia and all Somalis and
Muslims who are in hardship this
Ramadhan. Give more Saddaq. Kullu
Worldwide Somali Students & Caam Wa'ntum Bilkhayr. - WSSP
Professionals
London.
→ ENGAGEMENT 66 → ENGAGEMENT 100

Eid Mubarak all
members, supporters, Hello Ethiopian and Kenya.
friends and family. Your Neighbor’s waking up from a coma
gradually. Mogadishu
Have a blessed year Progressing…...Mogadishu taking its first
ahead. steps.
111
Somali
1 - The largest Children's Hospital in East
→ ENGAGEMENT 71 The Journey Back Home
Documentary is online. Share
Professionals Africa is being established.
2 - A $150 million USD modernization project
with friends. Eid Dinner of Aden Adde International Airport.
3 - A $100 million USD Urban Renewal project
→ ENGAGEMENT 111 of the city to start in June.

→ ENGAGEMENT 231 → ENGAGEMENT 258
85

SOMALIA VS KENYA 81-78......Xulka kubadda koleyga
wiilasha Soomaaliya ayaa u soo gudbay semifinal-ka
ciyaaraha FIBA AFRICA ZONE 5 ANC 2013 markii
galabtay oo Talaado ah ay 81 -78 dhibcood kaga
badiyeen Xulka kubadda koleyga wiilasha
Kenya.....Forza SOMALIA..! [...]

→ ENGAGEMENT 85

Eid Mubarak 187
everyone Inaa Lilaalhi Wa inaa Ilaahi Raajicuun. We 334

‫ْمُكْنِم َو َّنِم ُهّللا َلَّبَقَت‬ send our sincere condolences and prayers to
the family and friends of Hussein Samatar
‫ٍماَع ُّلُك ْمُكَمَيِص َو اَنَمَيِص‬ who lost his battle to cancer. A great loss to
the Somali community Worldwide and more
‫ْيَخِب ْمُتْنَأ َو‬ so for those living in Minneapolis. May Allah
swt forgive his shortcomings and make him
one of the residents of Jannatul-Firdows. -
Gacal. Midkee Baa Dooran Laheyd Akhiyaarey Afartaan Passport..?
→ ENGAGEMENT 87 → ENGAGEMENT 187
→ ENGAGEMENT 334
4PNBMJ%JBTQPSB5IF/FUIFSMBOET.PTUFOHBHFEXJUIDPOUFOUPO'BDFCPPL
[...] Peace-building in action:
We are proud of our local partner,
women organisation KARAMA,
who has just played a substantial
role in the reconciliation process
of two clans in Abudwak
23
(South-Central Somalia). HIRDA
ensures women can train
themselves in political
As a 9-year old boy he fled from Somalia to the Netherlands
with five of his brothers and sisters. Now, 19 years later,
participation and peace-building.
→ ENGAGEMENT 17
Omar Munie is a successful bag designer in The Hague, and With results!
will start offering work places to long term unemployed The video below (in Somali)
people. Even Queen Maxima and Hillary Clinton carry his
Somali Zainab designs!!
catches the discussions.
has been → ENGAGEMENT 23 41
elected for the
PvdA to the
city council in
19 Wijchen.

→ ENGAGEMENT 19

25 HIRDA SUMMER CUP 2014 POULES
INDELING!
fatumo farah
Check below the draw for the 2014
and hirda's Summer Cup!Diaspora conference in
chair mr egal Somali Business man (Abuu) donated Istanbul, Turkey.
putting Teakwondo team training Kit. Thank you
together our → ENGAGEMENT 34 → ENGAGEMENT 41
strategic plan
Abuu for your contribution.
2015-2020. [...]
19
→ ENGAGEMENT 25
Fatumo Farah
- Director of
HIRDA
→ ENGAGEMENT 19
departed
today for the
52
Global Somali
27
Diaspora
conference in
19 Istanbul,
Ajax made happy for sport kits to
Somali school boys in Mogadishu. Turkey.
Thank you for the donations. it makes
different! → ENGAGEMENT 52
→ ENGAGEMENT 19 → ENGAGEMENT 27
4PNBMJ%JBTQPSB4DBOEJOBWJB.PTUFOHBHFEXJUIDPOUFOUPO'BDFCPPL

Click here to see
on Youtube:
44
http://www.yout
55 ube.com/watch?
v=vCnfBemR8_c

→ ENGAGEMENT 44

→ ENGAGEMENT 55 → ENGAGEMENT 73

47

58
→ ENGAGEMENT 47

→ ENGAGEMENT 74
→ ENGAGEMENT 58
49

→ ENGAGEMENT 49

99
72

Deadline tomorrow 23rd May to register for Nordic Somali Youth
Summit!! Our key note speakers are Ayaan and Idyl Mohallim. They
are the women in charge of the fashion label ‘Mataano’. About two
50 years ago on completion of their degrees, they decided to move to
New York to pursue their fashion career. Mataano which means
‘twins‘ in Somali language embraces the African culture particularly
that of the Somalian Women which they decided to represent in
their collection. So don't forget to register to take this opportunity
and be a part of an unforgettable day on 7th June. Limited spots
available so register on the website.
→ ENGAGEMENT 50 → ENGAGEMENT 99
→ ENGAGEMENT 72

FINDINGS/CONTRIBUTIONS I

METHODOLOGY



U9lizing the Web for the study of diaspora groups.
How to locate diasporas and characterize their contribu9ons to ‘space’
and ‘place’.


FINDINGS/CONTRIBUTIONS II

EMPIRICAL

1.  Rich descrip9on of ac9vi9es surrounding social integra9on and issue
advocacy.
2.  Web alters the space of global diaspora poli9cs and iden9ty
produc9on in that it furnishes not only knowledge and awareness of
local, na9onal and transna9onal diasporic forma9ons but also what
engages them.

FINGINGS/CONTRIBUTIONS III

CONCEPTUAL

•  Direc9onality of engagement (social integra9on ac9vi9es)
•  Local networked forma9ons on local, na9onal and transna9onal level:

The process of transglocaliza,on aids in the construc9on of diasporic
iden9ty for the connected migrant, where iden9ty and inter-
connectedness refers to the mul9plica9on of loca9ons at all geographical
levels, and where new networks of belonging and calling ac9vi9es are
available and sustained by new media technology.

FINDINGS/CONTRIBUTIONS IV

Recommenda.ons for policy (research): recogni9on of the connected
migrant


Digital footprints should be viewed as a valuable source of data for policy-
makers concerned with places of social integra9on or the lack thereof, as
well as transna9onal engagement, and ac9vi9es that resonate across
mul9ple countries.




CONNECTED MIGRATION


1. Conceptual History of Connected Migra9on Research

2. Digi9zed versus (Na9vely) Digital Methods

3. Opera9onalizing migra9on research with Digital Methods

> 4. Opportuni.es for Future Research
OPPORTUNITIES FOR FUTURE RESEARCH


Considera.ons:
-  Demographic data
-  Digital divide
-  Privacy

Future research:
•  Web data as a proxy for social and poli9cal inference?
•  Connected migra9on in rela9on to “space and place”?

Ques.ons?


Thank you!


Saskia Kok
United Na.ons University – Maastricht Economic and Social Research
Ins.tute on Innova.on and Technology (UNU-MERIT)
Maastricht, 15 February 2017
S.L.E.Kok@uva.nl