You are on page 1of 52

Testing Voice over LTE (VoLTE) on

your device
January 2016

Sandy Fraser
Agenda Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 2

Intro: a very brief history of IMS, Legacy (CS) vs. LTE (PS) domain
considerations

Architecture of IMS, components

IMS call, SIP call-flow

Access Network features for VoLTE

What happens when out-of-coverage: flavors of fallback

IMS and Voice test, Keysight VoLTE solutions

What is next WiFi Calling, EVS


Agenda Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 3

Intro: a very brief history of IMS, Legacy (CS) vs. LTE (PS) domain
considerations

Architecture of IMS, components

IMS call, SIP call-flow

Access Network features for VoLTE

What happens when out-of-coverage: flavors of fallback

IMS and Voice test, Keysight VoLTE solutions

What is next WiFi Calling, EVS


IMS - IP Multimedia Subsystem
how it all began
3GPP defined IMS in 1999

IMS as the framework for delivery of multimedia services was standardized


in 3GPP rel.5 for delivery of Internet services on GPRS. This was updated
and extended to CDMA and WLAN.

In 2009 a group of over 40 organizations, operators, vendors etc. came


together to form One Voice, whose aim was essentially to decide or drive
the method of voice delivery on LTE through IMS.

GSMA finally adopted VoLTE in 2010, and so did many of the industry big
companies

The first use of IMS through the Verizon LTE network in the USA
accelerated the use of IMS development for mobile devices.

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 4
Support for Voice with LTE
2G/3G Circuit Switched calls have an allocated resource even
during times of inactivity - even when nothing is being said
Inefficient use of available bandwidth
Access times between requesting resource and being able to talk were too
slow to enable a reaction based allocation plus reduced flexibility for
resource allocation
An LTE UE will generally only be provided resources when it is necessary
even for voice
Allows efficient use of network resources. If we are saying nothing we will require
no network resources
Places stress on the network to ensure suitable access timing and quality of
service (QoS).

LTE transportation is fully IP no circuit switched services

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 5
Voice with LTE: What is the goal and how to get there
To deliver same standard of voice call with VoLTE as is
delivered by 2G/3G
The long term solution for voice is to use VoIP and an IMS based core
network, there are already many networks fully operational
For networks which do not support IMS or have incomplete coverage,
several fall back technologies are required:
CSFB (Circuit Switched Fall Back) - single radio approach
SVLTE or Dual Standby approach (Simultaneous Voice and Data LTE) -
dual radio approach
SRVCC (Single Radio Voice Call Continuity) Voice on LTE with CS
backup
CSFB, SVLTE and SRVCC all involve some level of I-RAT behavior

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 6
Agenda Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 7

Intro: a very brief history of IMS, Legacy (CS) vs. LTE (PS) domain
considerations

Architecture of IMS, components

IMS call, SIP call-flow

Access Network features for VoLTE

What happens when out-of-coverage: flavors of fallback

IMS and Voice test, Keysight VoLTE solutions

What is next WiFi Calling, EVS


P-CSCF: Proxy-Call Session Control Function of IMS
Assigned to an IMS-capable UE terminal through various means, and does not change for
the duration of the registration.
May be in the home domain or in the visited domain.
Facilitates the routing path for mobile originated or mobile terminated session requests.
It is responsible for allocating resources for the media flows (bandwidth management)
It can also compress/decompress SIP messages using SigComp, which improved signaling
efficiency and reduces the RTT over slow radio links.

It provides subscriber authentication, and is


responsible for the security of the messages between
the network and the user (ex: may establish IPsec).
It may include a Policy Decision Function (PDF), which
authorizes media plane resources e.g. QoS over the
media plane

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 8
SIP and IMS
SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) was initially designed to work in an open
homogeneous IP network
SIP provides the signaling required to support call set-up procedures
SIP also provides many other services (caller id, multi-party & emergency calls)

SIP server

PSTN
IP Network

GSM

IP Network 3G
Telephone Network

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 9
Agenda Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 10

Intro: a very brief history of IMS, Legacy (CS) vs. LTE (PS) domain
considerations

Architecture of IMS, components

IMS call, SIP call-flow

Access Network features for VoLTE

What happens when out-of-coverage: flavors of fallback

IMS and Voice test, Keysight VoLTE solutions

What is next WLAN Calling, EVS


IMS Uses SIP
(Session Initiation Protocol)
User A CSCF Proxy User B
Optional AKAv2 authentication and IPsec
REGISTER
REGISTER

OK OK SIP (Session Initiation Protocol)


e.g. INVITE, TRYING, RING, OK, BYE etc.

INVITE SDP (Session Description Protocol)


e.g. m (media), a (attribute) etc.
TRYING
INVITE m=audio 49120 RTP/AVP 98 97
TRYING a=rtpmap:98 AMR/8000
a=fmtp:98 mode-set=7
RING
RING
OK
OK RTP (Real-time Transport Protocol)
e.g. AMR encoded speech
ACK
ACK
RTCP (RT Control Protocol)
e.g. Send/receive quality metrics
RTP/RTCP

BYE
BYE
ACK
ACK CSCF = Call Session Control Function

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 11
IMS Uses SIP
(Session Initiation Protocol)
User A CSCF Proxy User B
REGISTER CSCF Proxy
REGISTER

OK OK

INVITE
TRYING
INVITE
TRYING
RING Router/IP
RING network
OK
OK
IP
ACK User A User B
ACK

SIP messages go via proxy server


RTP/RTCP
RTP voice traffic ~ peer to peer (or
via other network nodes)
BYE
BYE
ACK CSCF = Call Session Control Function
ACK

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 12
RTP
RTP is used for the delivery of the user data

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 13
RTCP
Control information
RTCP (RFC3550)
Packet Loss Rate
Jitter
Timing Information

RTCP XR (RFC3611)
Delay
Signal Level
Noise Level
Call metrics
Buffering

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 14
SIP logging with Wireshark Call tracing

Detailed RTP and SIP message decodes


Ladder diagrams (call flow) Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 15
IP Sec
Tunnel Mode (VPN like)
Entire original IP datagram encrypted, Client to Server
Transport Mode
Between two end points
AH added to protect against alteration of datagrams while in transit
Differences between the key generation between LTE and normal network IP Sec

Normal IP traffic IP Header Data

Transport Mode IP Header AH Data

Tunnel Mode New IP Hdr AH IP Header Data

More IPSec info in


RFC4301, 4302, 4303

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 16
SigComp (SIP Signalling Compression)

Compresses text based SIP and SDP


SIP/SDP signalling RTP/RTCP
Media stack
messages
stack
Up to 3:1 compression
State full Compressor
/De-compressor
Standardized by the IETF RoHC
working group

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 17
VoIP QoS and Multiple PDNs
Strict packet delay-based QoS

QoS will vary by allocation, by application


and will be heavily dependent on system
capacity.

UEs can have multiple data streams,


Multiple PDNs, Addresses, Port numbers
etc. All with different parameters:
Default DRB or Dedicated DRB
Guaranteed or non Guaranteed Bit Rate
Packet delay budget e.g. 50 to 300ms
Packet Error rate e.g. 10-2 to 10-6

Example from Keysight UXM, E7515A Keysight


Technologies 2016 Page 18
Traffic Flow Template (TFT)

Create, Modify or Deactivate


dedicated or default bearers
Dedicated bearers associated
with default bearer

Sort IP packets based on;


IP protocol; e.g. UDP, TCP
IP address
Port number or range
Priority
Type of Traffic (traffic class)

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 19
GBR, TFT, QoS, DRBs signalled to UE

GBR

Example from Keysight UXM,


TFT E7515A Message Editor

Negotiated
QoS

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 20
Agenda Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 21

Intro: a very brief history of IMS, Legacy (CS) vs. LTE (PS) domain
considerations

Architecture of IMS, components

IMS call, SIP call-flow

Access Network features for VoLTE

What happens when out-of-coverage: flavors of fallback

IMS and Voice test, Keysight VoLTE solutions

What is next WLAN Calling, EVS


Semi-persistent scheduling (SPS)
Normal LTE operation each SF is allocated individually.
For highly repeatable applications such as voice this is un-necessarily wasteful
of the DL signalling channel bandwidth.
In voice we normally only need a few 100s of bits at regularly spaced intervals.
SPS is used to tell the UE to use specific resources for a fixed time period and
can reduce significantly the DL signalling bandwidth required.

SPS can be UL or DL specific

Normal allocation - Each time a PDSCH allocation is made, PDCCH resources are required
Normal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5

SPS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5

SPS allocation reduced PDCCH signalling

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 22
TTI bundling
If at the cell edge UE can either increase power or increase coding rate to
ensure reception at eNB
If the UE cannot increase its power - eNB gets power headroom status reports
from each UE - the UE can be instructed to use TTI bundling.
TTI bundling prevents round trip ACK/NACK delays by transmitting all
Redundancy versions in successive TTIs.
DL signalling is reduced (less ACKs/NACKs) and round trip delay is minimised.

NACK NACK NACK ACK

TTI 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Normal transmission with HARQ feedback


delay of 4ms for each 8ms HARQ cycle up
RV# 0 1 2 3 to 28ms for final ACK.

ACK ACK ACK


TTI 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Bundled TTI HARQ process 0 in 4
consecutive TTIs (different RV). Total
RV# 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
feedback delay is only 8ms.

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 23
ROHC - Robust Header Compression

Typical VoIP Header for IPv4 = 40bytes


Typical VoIP Header for IPv6 = 60Bytes
With a typical voice rate of 12kbps, uncompressed
IPv6 headers represent approximately 60% of the
data sent / received
LTE network efficiency very poor without RoHC
Robust Header Compression is therefore required for
LTE VoIP

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 24
Agenda Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 25

Intro: a very brief history of IMS, Legacy (CS) vs. LTE (PS) domain
considerations

Architecture of IMS, components

IMS call, SIP call-flow

Access Network features for VoLTE

What happens when out-of-coverage: flavors of fallback

IMS and Voice test, Keysight VoLTE solutions

What is next WLAN Calling, EVS


SVLTE
Simultaneous Voice and LTE
CDMA

Two simultaneous radios


connected separately.
LTE
No radio interoperability eHRPD
required
UE is voice enabled through
CDMA2000 1xRTT plus data
on LTE
In areas of poor LTE
coverage, handover from
LTE to eHRPD is possible
irrespective whether a voice
call is active or not

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 26
CSFB
Circuit Switched Fall Back

UE is not VoLTE enabled, voice


calls must be Circuit Switched
LTE
on 2G/3G 2G/3G
1. UE receives incoming
Voice page in LTE
2. UE sends extended
service request
3. Network sends RRC
Release with Redirect to
send UE to 2G/3G
May include existing LTE
packet data connections
(depending on UE capability)

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 27
SRVCC
Single Radio Voice Call Connectivity

UE can no longer maintain LTE


coverage, cell conditions in
LTE
2G/3G are advantageous 2G/3G
IMS - VoLTE voice calling in
LTE coverage areas, Circuit
Switched calls in 2G/3G
Quickly handover from LTE to
legacy 2G/3G at LTE edge
using Packet Switched
Handover method
May include existing LTE
packet data connections

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 28
SMS over SGs
What if my LTE network does not
support IMS, how do I get 2G/3G
SMS while in LTE?

SMS over SGs Normal circuit


switched native SMS is
encapsulated message within NAS
messaging

SGs is actually the interface


between the MME and MSC,
normally used for mobility
management processes between
2G/3G and LTE

Requires combined attach with SMS


only update IE.

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 29
Agenda Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 30

Intro: a very brief history of IMS, Legacy (CS) vs. LTE (PS) domain
considerations

Architecture of IMS, components

IMS call, SIP call-flow

Access Network features for VoLTE

What happens when out-of-coverage: flavors of fallback

IMS and Voice test, Keysight VoLTE solutions

What is next WLAN Calling, EVS


To Test VoLTE Today, You Need:

IMS/VoLTE capable device

IMS/VoLTE capable Base


Station / Network emulator

IMS Server

Somebody to talk to: Either


another UE or IMS Client
emulator

Audio Analysis

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 31
E7515A UXM LTE FDD/TDD, 2G, 3G
Comprehensive support for VoLTE testing
UXM Test Set

VoLTE UE VoLTE Feature Support


IPv4, IPv4v6, IPv6
Multiple bearers/ PDNs
Dedicated bearers
RoHC
TTI bundling
SPS
SRVCC
CSFB

Keysight IMS-SIP server and client

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 32
Keysight E6966B-1FP IMS/SIP Server
Easy to install and use Windows XP/7 PC-based IMS-SIP server (P-CSCF emulator)
IPv4, IPv6, supports registration of multiple soft client and (via UXM) VoLTE UE, RUI/GUI
Voice/Video connection, call waiting, SMS forwarding, PRACK support
AKAv2 authentication, IP Sec, SMS sending
Message Logging, error insertion
Proven interop with VoLTE UEs

Integrated UXM IMS

Detail Log

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 33
Keysight E6966B-2FP IMS/SIP Client
Easy to install and use Windows XP/7 PC-based IMS-SIP client
IPv4, IPv6, Voice, Video, SMS, RUI/GUI
EVS, AMR, AMR-WB, G711 a/uLaw, G722/.1, G729, GSM, iLBC, Speex/wb voice codecs
AMR/AMR-WB Octet-align, bandwidth-efficient, Mode-set negotiation and fixing
H264, H263, H263-1998 video codecs with H264 level and packetization mode selection
Play test files, audio loopback, auto-answer, audio level cal features, scope display
VAD (SCR/DTX), Echo cancellation, jitter buffering
Proven voice interop with VoLTE UEs

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 34
Keysight U8903B Audio Analsyser
Comprehensive support for VoLTE testing

PESQ and PoLQA supported


Low residual distortion
Wide measurement bandwidth
Flexible choice of analog and digital interface (AES/SPDIFor DSI) options
Characterize signal to noise ratios
Apply weighting functions and filters

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 35
Audio Test Scenario
Audio quality measurements on the Keysight U8903B

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 36
Voice / Video Loopback
Simple test
UXM Test Set

VoLTE UE
UXM Test Set

Video loopback (IMS feature)


SIP registration procedure
Negative registration processes VoLTE UE VoLTE UE
Test call set up
Soft client must enable loopback 2 phone Testing
No quality measurements UE to UE interaction
Test with reference/ commercial phones

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 37
Voice Quality Testing with U8903B Audio Analyser
PESQ and PoLQA supported
Test UE loop-back
USB sound card Soft client loop-back
USB Keysight IMS-SIP server & client

VoLTE UE

Audio Line Ethernet


in/out

RF
Keysight UXM

Degraded Headphone/mic jack


Reference Keysight IMS-SIP server & client
source source

U8903B Audio Analyser VoLTE UE


Ethernet
U8903B Audio Analyser
RF
Keysight UXM

Headphone/mic jack

Reference Degraded Keysight


Technologies 2016 Page 38
source source
Voice Quality Testing
DL voice Quality Testing

Keysight UXM
Keysight IMS-SIP server & client

Ethernet

USB
RF
USB sound card

Audio Line
Reference in/out
source (DL)
Headphone/mic jack
VoLTE UE

Degraded
U8903B Audio Analyser Source (DL)

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 39
Voice Quality Testing
UL voice Quality Testing

Keysight UXM
Keysight IMS-SIP server & client

Ethernet

USB
RF
USB sound card

Reference
Audio Line
Degraded source (UL)
in/out
source (UL)
VoLTE UE
Headphone/mic jack

U8903B Audio Analyser

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 40
Audio Test Scenario
Human Jury Testing and/or PESQ with IP Impairments

Delay/Jitter/Loss insertion

Keysight IMS-SIP server

Ethernet

Keysight UXM VoLTE UE


VoLTE UE

RF RF
U8903B Audio Analyzer

Audio in/out headphone jack Audio in/out headphone jack

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 41
Agenda Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 42

Intro: a very brief history of IMS, Legacy (CS) vs. LTE (PS) domain
considerations

Architecture of IMS, components

IMS call, SIP call-flow

Access Network features for VoLTE

What happens when out-of-coverage: flavors of fallback

IMS and Voice test, Keysight VoLTE solutions

What is next WLAN Calling, EVS


WLAN Calling (VoWLAN)
Secure IP calls on un-trusted connections
IMS IPsec
Termination

HSS AAA PCRF P-CSCF

LTE MME IMS


eNodeB Server

S-GW P-GW
WiFi RAN
Untrusted WLAN IPsec
Termination
S2b
ePDG

ePDG
Evolved Packet Data Gateway

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 43
WLAN Calling (VoWLAN)

Other VoWLAN considerations

Handovers Large LTE cells, Small WLAN coverage decisions on when/if to


HO or cell (re)select. Network operator and UE operation vary dramatically.
Interoperability will be key
QoS UEs fighting with other users for priority, how do we test MOS?
MOS will likely vary more with signal quality and cell congestion rather than
the radio format
Security IPSec, or is provider specific login required
Why use your call time (minutes) allowance on WLAN calling rather than free
skype or facetime?
P-CSCF addressing could be through ePDG signalling

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 44
Enhanced Voice Services (EVS) codec
Designed to rate match with existing AMR codecs (AMR-WB interoperability mode)
Vastly increase bit rate to 128 kbps allowing music and mixed content
Source controlled rate, switchable per frame
Voice activity detection (VAD), sound activity detector, comfort noise generator (CNG)
Jitter buffer management, error concealment mechanism to nullify lost packets and
minor transmission errors, Channel Aware Mode
http://www.3gpp.org/DynaReport/26-series.htm lists the EVS standards

Characteristic GSM FR AMR WB-AMR G.722.2 EVS


Bandwidth 200 to 3400Hz 200 to 3400Hz 50 to 7000Hz 50 to 24000Hz
Frame Size 20ms 20ms 20ms 20ms
Bit Rates (kbps) 13 4.75 to 12.2 6.6 to 23.85 5.9 to 128
Technology RPE-LPT ACELP ACELP ACELP and Transform Coding
Adopted 1987 1999 2002 2014
Designed for PSTN Voice PSTN Voice VoIP (not LTE) LTE / VoIP / Mixed content

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 45
Transmit
EVS Encoder
Encoded audio frame
(50 frame/s rate dependent
ACELP based BWE encoder on codec mode)
encoder (b/w extension)

Core and DTX


16 bit PCM MDCT based encoder
switching
8, 16, 32, 48 kHz

CHANNEL
RTP
payload
formatting
A to D
DTX, CNG encoder
conversion

AMR WB-IO encoder

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 46
Receive
EVS Decoder
16 bit PCM
Impaired received audio 8, 16, 32, 48 kHz
frame BWE
ACELP
(50 frame/s rate dependent decoder
based
on codec mode) (b/w
decoder
extension)

Core and
DTX MDCT based decoder
switching A to D
CHANNEL

RTP Jitter
payload Buffer conversion
de- Mgt
coding (JBM)
DTX, CNG decoder

AMR WB-IO decoder

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 47
Channel Aware Encoding
EVS is designed for Packet Switched Networks
2 1
Primary Frame Encoding 6 5 3
4
(Low freq: ACELP based)
(High freq: TBE based)

Primary + 4 3
2 1
Pre- Frame Criticality Redundant 2 1
6 5 3
Processing Configuration Frame Bit 4
Packer

Redundant Frame Coding


6 5 4 3 1
2

Primary frame encoding minimizes data based on VAD etc.


Redundant frame coding creates a redundant version for the critical parameters
The redundant frames are used to fill gaps for the overall payload data
The redundancy then provides some robustness in a system with packet loss

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 48
Enhanced Voice Services (EVS)
Designed for LTE - Summary
Supports HD voice and entertainment quality audio
Designed for packet switched networks (VoLTE)
Inter-operable with AMR-WB
Wide range of bit rates and bandwidths for excellent flexibility
Feature rich CODEC
Source controllable rate (SCR)
Comfort noise generator (CNG) EVS primary
mode
Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) AMR-WB IO
compatibility
Variable bit rate (VBR) mode
Jitter buffer management (JBM)
Channel aware mode (designed for systems with packet loss)

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 49
Summary Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 50

Intro: a very brief history of IMS, Legacy (CS) vs. LTE (PS) domain
considerations

Architecture of IMS, components P-CSCF

IMS call, SIP call-flow RTP, RTCP

Access Network features for VoLTE SPS and TTI Bundling

What happens when out-of-coverage: flavors of fallback CSFB, SRVCC

IMS and Voice test, Keysight VoLTE solutions

What is next WiFi Calling, EVS


Useful References
ITU-T P.862. Perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ)

ITU-T P.863. Perceptual Objecting Listing Quality Assessment (POLQA)

UXM Website. www.keysight.com/find/UXM

Keysight IMS/SIP www.keysight.com/find/E6966B

GSMA IR.92 IMS Profile for Voice and SMS

3GPP TS 34.229 IP Multimedia call control protocol based on SIP and SDP, UE conformance
specification

3GPP TS 33.178 Security Aspects of early IP Multimedia Subsystems (IMS)

3GPP TS 26.114 IP Multimedia Subsystems (IMS) Multimedia telephone: Media handling and
interaction

3GPP TS 26.132 Speech and video telephony terminal acoustic test specification

3GPP TS 22.173 IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem Multimedia Telephony Service and
supplementary services

3GPP TS 23.228 IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) Stage 2

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 51
Thank You !!!
Questions and Answers

Keysight
Technologies 2016 Page 52

Keysight Technologies 2015