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Period IV (1948 - 1970) Public Administration As

Management:

artly because of their second-class citizenship status in a
number of Political Science Department of universities, some
public administrationists began searching for an alternative.

· the management option —which sometimes is called
"administrative science" or "generic management“— was a
viable alternative for a significant number of scholars in public
administration.

· Management is a field that covers organization theory and
behavior, planning, decision making, various techniques of
"management science" such as path analysis and queuing
theory, human resources management, leadership, motivation,
communication, management information systems, budgeting,
auditing, productivity, and marketing.

· Management thinking many stemming from the business
schools fostered the alternative paradigm of management.

· Scientific management and principles gave way to
administrative management science.

· Foremost among these voices was that of Catheryn Seckler-
Hudson (basic concepts in the study of public management,
1955).

· She recognized the policy and political implications within the
setting of public administration but gave primary weight to the
problems of Public Management.

· She argued that management is the Effective utilization of
human resources and material to reach the known goal.

· Such other works as James G. March and Herbert Simon’s
organization (1858), Richard Cyert and March’s a behavioral
theory of the firm (1963), March’s handbook of organization
(1965), andJames d. Thompson’s organization in action (1967)
gave solid theoretical reasons for choosing management, with

Continuing :Public administration as publicAdministration: 1971-? 1970. Additionally.an emphasis on organization theory as the paradigm of Public administration. organization development was seen by many younger public Administrationists as offering a very compatible area of research with-in the framework of management. and the "self-actualization" of individual members of organizations. has been made in this direction. . · Organization development as a field is grounded in social psychology and values the "democratization" of bureaucracies. Organizational development · In the early 1960s organization development began its rapid rise as a specialty of management. considerable progress has been made in refining the applied techniques And methodologies of public administration. Because of these values. organization development represented a particularly tempting alternative to political science for many public Administrationists. but a rise of selfconfidence As well. As a focus. whether public or private. · Democratic values could be considered. the national association of schools Of public affairs and administration (NASPAA)\ Was founded. particularly in the area of Organization theory and information\ Science. · Progress. and intellectual rigor and scientific methodologies could be employed. normative concerns could be broached. Period V(1971 . · The formation of NASPAA represented not Only an act of secession by public Administrationists from political science or Management science.

titled toward a new public Administration: the Minnowbrook Perspective. the development of the individual Member in the organization. philosophy. Conversely. · The overriding tone of the new public Administration was a moral tone. · And it developed with strong geographic Communities –tightly knit neighborhoods and Towns. that give . Effectiveness." in 1968. Dwight Waldo. The focus was disinclined to examine such Traditional phenomena as efficiency. technology. · today’s environment demands institutions that Are extremely flexible and adaptable · it demands institutions that deliver high Quality goods and services. that lead by Persuasion and incentives rather than Commands. · It demands institutions that are responsive to Their customers. Ethics. and the broad Problems of urbanism. ever called the new politics of Bureaucracy) and management (since Man-agement always had been emphatically Technical rather than normative in Approach). the new public Administration was very much aware of normative theory. and Violence. the relation of the Client with the bureaucracy. and activism. offering choices of Non standardized services. · The questions it raised dealt with values. after All. sponsored a conference of Young public administrationists on the New public administration. and administrative Techniques. · The proceedings were published as a book In 1971. · the new public administration can be Viewed as a call for independence from Both political science (it was not.The New Public Administration · An important development was that of the "new public administration. budgeting.

3. Anticipatory government: Prevention rather than cure. Mission-driven government: Transforming rule-driven organization. not the bureaucracy. Community owned government: Empowering rather than serving. 10. 4. 2. with customers who Want quality and choice. 8. Customer-driven government: Meeting the needs of the customer. Competitive government: Injecting competition into service delivery. 6. Results-oriented government: Funding outcomes. The New Public Management (NPM) . even ownership. rapidly changing Environments. no inputs. 1. 9. Decentralized government: From hierarchy to participation and Teamwork. in competitive. 7. Enterprising government: Eraning rather than spending. · Most government institutions Perform increasingly complex tasks. Catalytic government: Steering rather than rowing. · David Osborne and Ted Gabler in reinventing government (1992) introduced the concept ofEntrepreneurial government. · It demands institutions that empower citizens them Rather than simply serving them. 5. Market-oriented government: Leveraging change through the market.their employees a sense of Meaning and control.

Decentralization decision making Power. have dominated the Mainstream. using market Mechanisms to solve problems. a new managerial Approach to public administration began to Take hold. · In the U. making service Organizations compete. the NPM is becoming the Dominant managerial approach. · Today. efficient and responsive government.are now the standard Language of public administration. Empowering employees to get results. streamlining the budget Process.S. Terms such as "results oriented". decentralization personnel Policy. Its 1993 Report.· in the early 1990's. and "outsourcing". "entrepreneurship". · It called for among others: putting Customers first. and streamlining procurement. problem solving. NPM approach was adopted by Vice president al gore's national Performance review (NPR). Its key concept-somewhat evolutionary A decade ago. "customers focused". and enterprising as Opposed to rule-bound. process oriented. public administrative Culture is changing to be more flexible. innovative. bureaucratically organized public Administration is "broke" and "broken“. creating Market dynamics. Like the traditional managerial Approach at its inception. Overall. "employee empowerment". Entrepreneurial. the new approach Is reform-oriented and seeks to improve Public sector performance · It starts from the premise that traditional. a new guarantee of effective. explicitly sought a New customer service contract with The people. and focused on inputs Rather than results . and Consequently the public has lost faith in Government. from red tape to results: Creating a government that worksBetter & costs less.