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Types of writing tasks

Newspaper and magazine articles
Competition Entries
Essays
Contributions to guidebooks and brochures
Formal letters
Informal letters
Reports
Proposals
Reviews
Leaflets
AIMS OF DIFFERENT
FUNCTIONAL TEXTS
Newspaper and To narrate, persuade,
magazine articles argument, reflect on,
Competition Entries describe etc.
Essays

Contributions to Inform and persuade
guidebooks and
brochures
Formal letters Apply for, inquire
about, apologize for
etc
Reports Inform and suggest
Proposals Inform and persuade
Reviews Inform and suggest
Leaflets Inform and persuade
Memos Inform
Notices Inform
Announcements Inform
Personal notes and inform
messages
WHAT IS ASSESSED?
Task achievement- equal coverage of all
task points
Layout and structure
Register and vocabulary
Effect on the target reader

Accuracy- is checked and marked
separately
Task achievement

Do not leave out any of the task points required
Do not treat one more extensively than the other
Make a plan of action prior to writing your answer

Layout and structure

Mind the rules of functional texts in terms of
paragraphing, subtitles, tabs, length, introductory and
ending formulae, titles and text organizers (linkers)

Register and vocabulary

Formal, semi-formal or informal, depending on the type
of text and on the target-reader
Avoid repetitions and use a wide variety of words

Effect on the reader

What is the purpose of the text? Is it to inform, to
persuade, to criticize, to apologize? Did you manage to
achieve it?
Accuracy
Refers to:

- spelling
- punctuation
- word-order
- misuse of words
- grammar structures- correctness
and variety
Do’s
 Read the opening paragraphs and instructions in Part 1
very carefully to make sure you know what your role is
and who you are writing to. (register and effect)

 Plan your answer to Part 1. Remember you do not
necessarily need to use all the input information. Usually
part of the task is to select the appropriate information.
(task achievement)

 Try to use your own words when using information from
the input in Part 1. (vocabulary and effect)

 Select your Part 2 question carefully. Consider the
vocabulary, grammatical structures and register required
by the task. (vocabulary, register, layout etc)
Read the task carefully and plan an answer which addresses all
the content points of the task. Try to develop each point fully. (task
achievement)

Remember that, in order to get a good mark at CAE level, you
not only need to write accurately but also to demonstrate a
good range of vocabulary and structures. Vocabulary range
and structure)
Consider who the 'target reader' is and the genre (e.g.
newspaper article, formal letter) for each question and try to
write in an appropriate style and tone. (layout, content, effect,
register)
Think carefully about whether the task requires you to
persuade or justify your opinion and make sure you do this in
your answer. (effect)
Allow time to check through what you have written.
(accuracy)
Don’t’s
Don't write answers that are much longer than
the 250 word limit as this means you may have
included a lot of irrelevant material. Plan your
answer carefully to avoid this.

Don't attempt the work-related question
(Question 5) unless you have the appropriate
experience of a work situation.

Don't use a pencil.
Recognize
the
layout
REPORTS
TO:
FROM:
SUBJECT:
HEADING1
PARAGRAPH 1

HEADING2
PARAGRAPH 2

HEADING 3
PARAGRAPH 3

HEADING 4
PARAGRAPH 4

HEADING 5
PARAGRAPH 5
Sample Introduction
The present report is aimed at highlighting
certain aspects related to advertising in
Romania. It begins by showing the
advantages and drawbacks of two forms
of advertising. Subsequently, it mentions
their effectiveness, ending with some
suggestions as to how and what to change
in this field in order to outweigh the
disadvantages. (52 words)
TV ads and commercials
The most popular way of advertising is on
television, because this form of mass
media enjoys the highest rate of viewers,
thus for businesses it is the easiest way to
get their message across. A vast number
of people consider it annoying, however,
saying that it interrupts movies, shows and
other favorite programs in the most
unpleasant way.
Flyers
More than 34 % of small businesses
advertise their products by hiring
youngsters to give away flyers in the
street. This form of advertising is effective
for the moment, as the target customer
reads it and usually keeps the message in
mind; it also provides those youngsters
with a job. Still, environmentalists claim
that the amount of paper used and thrown
away immediately is outrageously large.
Sample Paragraph
In light of the feedback received from
those asked, the aforementioned
advertising types prove effective, in that
they attract the attention of the passer-by,
they seem to be enjoyed as original and to
be boosting sales. They are, in fact,
becoming more popular with the average
citizen, fact indicated by an average
increase of 6.5 in the sales of products
advertised in these ways. (64 words)
WRITE A REPORT ON PUBLIC
TRANSPORT IN YOUR CITY. YOU
SHOULD INCLUDE INFORMATION
REGARDING TIMETABLES, CONDITIONS,
FACILITIES, STAFF, SAFETY ISSUES
AND SOME RECOMMENDATION TO
SOLVE EXISTING PROBLEMS.
TO:
FROM:
SUBJECT: PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN THE CITY OF CLUJ

INTRODUCTION

THE AIM OF THE PRESENT REPORT IS TO DISCUSS THE CURRENT SITUATION OF THE PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN THE CITY OF CLUJ
AND WAYS OF IMPROVING IT. IT BEGINS BY PRESENTING THE ASPECT OF TIMETABLING,AND SUBSEQUENTLY IT DEALS WITH
CONDITIONS AND FACILITIES ON THE VEHICLES. NEXT, IT DISCUSSES THE QUALITY OF STAFF AND IT ENDS WITH THE ISSUE OF SAFETY
OF THE PASSENGERS.

TIMETABLES

THERE ARE ON AVERAGE FOUR BUSES PER ROUTE, WHICH SHOULD MEAN THAT ONE BUS ARRIVES EVERY SIX MINUTES. IN REALITY,
DUE TO THE HEAVY TRAFFIC, THE BAD STATE OF VEHICLES AND THE UNRELIABILITY OF SOME OF THE CONDUCTORS, THE SERVICES
RUN LATE AND THE STATIONS ARE FILLED WITH DISSATISFIED CUSTOMERS. IT HAS BEEN SUGGESTED THAT MORE BUSES SHOULD BE
INTRODUCED, THAT THERE BE SPECIAL ROUTES AND THAT NEW LAWS AND REGULATIONS BE ENFORCED TO ENSURE THE FLUENCY
AND PUNCTUALITY OF SERVICES.

CONDITIONS AND FACILITIES

MOST VEHICLES ARE OLD AND BATTERED, THUS THE ONLY SOLUTION WOULD BE REPLACING THEM, AS REFURBISHING THEM WOULD
AMOUNT TO TOO MUCH. ALSO, WHILE THERE ARE DISCOUNTS FOR THE ELDERLY, THERE ARE NO FACILITIES FOR THE DISABLED
WHATSOEVER. AS MEMBER OF THE EUROPEAN UNION, ROMANIA SHOULD RETHINK THE ENTIRE PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION WITH THIS
IN MIND.

PERSONNEL QUALITY

ACCORDING TO A RECENT SURVEY, AN INCREASING NUMBER OF PEOPLE DECLARE THEMSELVES DISSATISFIED BY THE ATTINTUDE OF
THE CONDUCTORS AND CONTROLLERS ABOARD. THIS CLEARLY SUGGESTS THE NEED FOR PR TRAINING COURSES FOR THE
PERSONNEL, AS WELL AS INCREASING WAGES AS A WAY TO MOTIVATE THEM, AS IT IS WELL-KNOWN THAT THE SALARIES ARE VERY
LOW IN THE PROFESSION.

SAFETY

IT HAS BEEN REPORTED THAT THE NUMBER OF ATTACKS AND MUGGINGS ON PUBLIC TRASPORT HAS INCREASED. IN ADDITION, THE
CARELESSNESS OF DRIVERS HAS AMOUNTED TO A GREAT NUMBER OF INJURIES, DUE TO ABRUPT BRAKING OR STARTING, OR TO
LEAVING THE STATION WITHOUT CLOSING THE DOORS OF THE VEHICLE. IT HAS BEEN SUGGESTED THAT A POLICE OFFICER SHOULD
BE ALLOCATED FOR EACH BUS AND THAT HARSHER LAWS SHOULD BE IMPOSED ON RECKLESS DRIVERS TO PREVENT ACCIDENTS
FROM HAPPENING.
Report about means of
entertainment in your city
Refer to:

- Sports centers and other sporting facilities
- Entertainment by day
- Evening and night-time
P1: -aim of the report; what each
paragraph contains; how it ends
P2: -sports centers and other facilities:
where/ what they are, conditions, how
popular they are; expensive/ cheap,
equipment, facilities etc
P3: -entertainment by day: cinema,
theatre, cafes, circus, internet cafes etc
P4: -entertainment by night: bars, pubs,
restaurants, clubs and concerts
P5:- conclusions and prospects for the
future
Introduction
The aim of the present report is to present what the city
of Cluj offers the citizens in terms of entertainment. It
covers several aspects, such as sports centers, daytime
entertainment and night life. The report ends with
conclusions and prospects for the future.
OR
The present report is aimed at presenting ways of
entertainment in the city of Cluj. It begins by showing
the various sports centers and similar facilities.
Subsequently, it highlights entertainment possibilities by
day and it continues with presenting the choices the
citizens have by night. It ends with conclusions and
future prospects.
USEFUL LANGUAGE
It presents
It highlights
It covers the aspects of…
It shows
It focuses on
It describes
It explains
etc
Conclusion
To sum up all the aforementioned, it clearly results that
the city of Cluj offers a wide range of opportunities for
both residents and tourists and that it basically caters for
all needs. In addition, the City Hall is currently
encouraging investment projects for a new mall, a sports
center, a new cultural center that will house a theatre
and an German opera and several new restaurants
offering international cuisine, to make the city more
comfortable for its residents and more attractive to
visitors.
LEAFLETS
Name Of Club + attractive logo

Introduction

Heading 1

Answer Paragraph 1

Heading 2

Answer Paragraph 2

Heading 3

Answer Paragraph 3

Conclusion, attractive ending
Sample titles
Undubbed-the Exclusively English Film
Club
Helping Hands- A Fair Share of Sharing
Tips and Tricks- Teaching is Suddenly
Fun!!!
Therapeutica- With Us, You Can Finally
Meet John Doe!!
Sample Introduction
Have you always liked sharing experience
and exchanging opinions? Do you have a
special “thing” for the English language?
Has it always been your pleasure to spend
time socializing and getting to know
different people? Well, then Wellings is
definitely the right place for you!
Heading and paragraph
What can I do there?

Well, for a start, a selection of interesting
activities is awaiting you. From round-table
discussions, film viewings and subsequent
debates to drama and simple group therapy
sessions, there is something here to cater for
every need. All activities are monitored by our
friendly and professional staff.
Sample conclusion
So, what are you waiting for? If team work
and professionalism, as well as a good
chance to speak English is what you are
looking for, join us! You won’t regret it!
Your spare time will never be dull again!
Alternate: The ultimate language
booster club

Are you loking for an alternative to
spend your free time?
Have you grown tired of the same
boring things, day in, day
out? Do you want to meet new people,
do new things that will
challenge your skills, speak to natives
and
relax in a joyful and welcoming spot?
Well, if this is
what you want, search no more. We are
the answer for you.
Where can I find you?

We have found the perfect place to host
you while you are
endulging in the various things we offer.
Our club is located
downtown, next door to the famous
Jazz Club. Just go down the
stairs and you will see our logo shining
right above the
entrance. The first room hosts the
drama and debate club, then
you enter the world of movies and
discussion and last there is
the entertainment area
What can I do there?

Oh! This is a tough question, as we
don't know where to begin,
since there are so many things on out
schedule. Twice a week
we work on plays and learn how to act
and direct under the
supervision of pros. Three afternoons
you can watch oscar
movies with our natives and discuss all
there is to them.
Debates are held on a daily basis and
the entertainment area
is open as long as the club is. You can
find the exact days on
our website
How can I become a member?

All you need to do is be at least 14,
provide proof of your
age, bring a passport-sized photo and
10 Ron- yes, you have
heard us right, that is all you need to
pay for a month! And
if you prove to be a regular atender, we
will have occasional
discounts and surprises for you. No
smart clothes required,
but a smart and responsible attitude.
So, are you still hesitating? We have
everything, from
language boosters to socializing tools
in our fun factory.
Oh, and one more thing: the first 50
members will get three
months free of charge. Bring your
friends along for the
perfect alternative!
Alternate: The ultimate language booster club

Are you looking for an alternative to spend your free time? Have you grown tired of the same boring things, day in,
day out? Do you want to meet new people, do new things that will challenge your skills, speak to natives and
relax in a joyful and welcoming spot? Well, if this is what you want, search no more. We are the answer for you.

Where can I find you?

We have found the perfect place to host you while you are ìndulging in the various things we offer. Our club is
located downtown, next door to the famous Jazz Club. Just go down the stairs and you will see our logo
shining right above the entrance. The first room hosts the drama and debate club, then you enter the world of
movies and discussion and last there is the entertainment area.

What can I do there?

Oh! This is a tough question, as we don't know where to begin, since there are so many things on out schedule.
Twice a week we work on plays and learn how to act and direct under the supervision of pros. Three afternoons you
can watch Oscar movies with our natives and discuss all there is to them. Debates are held on a daily basis and the
entertainment area is open as long as the club is. You can find the exact days on our website

How can I become a member?

All you need to do is be at least 14, provide proof of your age, bring a passport-sized photo and 10 Ron- yes,
you have heard us right, that is all you need to pay for a month! And if you prove to be a regular atender, we
will have occasional discounts and surprises for you. No smart clothes required, but a smart and responsible
attitude.

So, are you still hesitating? We have everything, from language boosters to socializing tools in our fun factory.
Oh, and one more thing: the first 50 members will get three months free of charge. Bring your friends along for
the perfect alternative!
FORMAL LETTERS
Addr. Of recipient

Addr. Of sender
Date

Dear Sir/Madam,

BODY

BODY

BODY

I hope you will give my letter thorough consideration,

I look forward to hearing from you soon,

Yours faithfully,

SIGNATURE
John Smith
Number of paragraphs and
purpose of each paragraph
Paragraph 1: INTRODUCTION (aim of the letter,
situation, introducing yourself, linking sentence)
Paragraph 2: TASK POINT1 (linker to introduce the first
idea)
Paragraph 3: TASK POINT 2 (linker to introduce the
second idea)
Paragraph 4: TASK POINT 3 (linker to introduce the third
idea)
Paragraph 5: CONCLUSION (sum up the main ideas,
express hope to have achieved the purpose/ willingness
to meet/ openness to suggestions etc depending on the
situation)
Letter of complaint
I am writing to you to complain about a holiday
which I booked with your company and which
proved to be utterly dissatisfying. I signed a
contract with your firm on July 15th 2008
regarding a seaside holiday in Crete, which I
found advertised in you brochure earlier this
year. I am Jane Evans, mother of three, and I
work as editor-in-chief for The Guardian. In the
following paragraphs, I will bring to your
attention the aspects which caused my
disappointment with your services.
In your brochure, you promised a great
number of facilities that proved to be non-
existing. To begin with, it was stated that
tourists would be accomodated in a four-
star hotel with room-service and childcare
facilities. Furthermore, we were promised
a clean beach with fine sand about 100
meters form the hotel. Unfortunately,
most of these claims were false.
In reality, upon arriving at the location, we
were shocked to find out that the hotel was
in fact a three-star hotel lacking the
promised childcare facilities. There was
room-service, but of an extremely poor
quality. Apparently, the personnel of the
hotel found it annoying when the guests
had the exaggerated pretention of being
attended in their rooms in the morning.
In addition, being directed towards the
beach pertaining to the hotel, imagine out
surprise when the pristine sandy beach
proved to be a littered pebbled beach with
refuse floating in the waters of the bay.
We could not allow our children to get into
the water there, so we had to pay for
entrance to a neighboring beach, which
was, indeed, clean and sandy, but, and let
me say this again, we had to pay for it,
which was by no means part of our
agreement.
As you must admit, we cannot possibly
declare ourselves satisfied with the
treatment we received, which is why we
must ask your company for a full refund on
our holiday, as well as cover for the
additional expenses we were forced to
make. We regret to inform you that,
unless you comply with our demands in a
month’ time, we will see ourselves forced
to take legal action. I will also see to the
fact that the newspaper I work for publish
an article describing the reality regarding
the services of your company.
LETTER OF APOLOGY
Dear Sir,
I am writing to you with reference to your
letter of complaint regarding the Crete
family holiday which you booked with our
company on June 15, 2008. My name is
Verne Gyula and I am the PR officer of the
tourist company which caused you dismal.
On behalf of the company, I would like to
express my sincere regrets for the
inconveniences which occurred during
your stay in Crete.
To begin with, I would like to specifically
insist on the fact that we deeply regret this,
as it is not our practice to make vain
promises. There is, however, one detail
which I need to bring to your attention so
as to make you understand what
happened in reality. In the summer, our
company underwent dramatic changes in
personnel and the board of directors also
changed completely. This is why we
experienced a period of imbalance and,
naturally, quality had to suffer.
With reference to the problems mentioned
in your letter, we feel you are right to be
disappointed. We would like to explain
what happened, however. Firstly, the four-
star hotel advertised in our brochure was
subject to arson, thus all tourists were
relocated to the neighboring hotel, where
unfortunately there were no childcare
facilities, but similar conditions. With
regard to the impoliteness of the
personnel, we apologize on behalf of the
hotel management, and we assure you
that we will see to it momentarily.
As for the beach you paid for, this was a
misunderstanding, as that particular stripe
of beach was part of the agreement
between the hotel and the local authorities
and you should not have paid for it.
Sample paragraph for
letter of application
I am writing to you to apply for the position
of sales manager which I saw advertised
in The Guardian on June 5th, this year. My
name is John Doe and I am a 23 year-old
university graduate from Cluj- Napoca,
Romania. I firmly believe that I am
suitable for the job which is offered by your
company.
To begin with, I have always considered
that a good education is the key to a
successful life. With this in mind, I
obtained my Master’s Degree in
Management in July 2008. Previously, I
was a student at the Faculty for Economic
Sciences in Cluj- Napoca, where from I
graduated with top results, thus becoming
a Bachelor of Science in 2007. I also
enrolled in a number of courses which
helped me boost my knowledge and skills.
Furthermore, with reference to my work
experience, I have constantly sought to
train and expose myself to the real world
of work; thus, when I had the chance in my
freshman’s year to volunteer for a local
organization that helped new investors
with management techniques, I did not
hesitate to take on the challenge. I
worked in that field for four years and,
immediately upon graduation, I applied for
a job in a small company, where I still
work. However, I now feel it is time for me
to move on.
I firmly believe I have benefited from every
course attended and from every single day
of work so far. My personal and
professional qualities have surfaced and
greatly improved and presently I believe
myself to be aware of the new trends,
flexible, willing to improve, hard- working
and a team player. I have also become
more aware of the necessity to be
punctual, polite and serious in every
endeavor. I believe in sharing and helping
people, as well as in constant personal
and professional development.
Due to all the aforementioned, I honestly
believe that I possess the necessary skills
and abilities that are needed by your
company and I also believe that working
for you would offer me the chance of a
lifetime, as I am ready to commit and
contribute to the development of your
enterprise. I enclose with my letter copies
of my diplomas and certificates, a
European CV and letters of reference from
my former employers and professors. I
would be more than happy to be called for
an interview at any time convenient to you.
I am writing to you to apply for the position of sales manager which I saw advertised in The Guardian on June 5 th, this year.
My name is John Doe and I am a 23 year-old university graduate from Cluj- Napoca, Romania. I firmly believe that I am
suitable for the job which is offered by your company.

To begin with, I have always considered that a good education is the key to a successful life. With this in mind, I obtained my
Master’s Degree in Management in July 2008. Previously, I was a student at the Faculty for Economic Sciences in Cluj-
Napoca, where from I graduated with top results, thus becoming a Bachelor of Science in 2007. I also enrolled in a number of
courses which helped me boost my knowledge and skills.

Furthermore, with reference to my work experience, I have constantly sought to train and expose myself to the real world of
work; thus, when I had the chance in my freshman’s year to volunteer for a local organization that helped new investors with
management techniques, I did not hesitate to take on the challenge. I worked in that field for four years and, immediately
upon graduation, I applied for a job in a small company, where I still work. However, I now feel it is time for me to move on.

I firmly believe I have benefited from every course attended and from every single day of work so far. My personal and
professional qualities have surfaced and greatly improved and presently I believe myself to be aware of the new trends,
flexible, willing to improve, hard- working and a team player. I have also become more aware of the necessity to be
punctual, polite and serious in every endeavor. I believe in sharing and helping people, as well as in constant personal and
professional development.

Due to all the aforementioned, I honestly believe that I possess the necessary skills and abilities that are needed by your
company and I also believe that working for you would offer me the chance of a lifetime, as I am ready to commit and
contribute to the development of your enterprise. I enclose with my letter copies of my diplomas and certificates, a
European CV and letters of reference from my former employers and professors. I would be more than happy to be called
for an interview at any time convenient to you.
Sample paragraph for
letter of reference
I have known Mr. Hassan for 8 years now
as his form master and teacher of French.
During all these years, I have been
strongly impressed by his keen desire to
improve his knowledge and skills, by his
popularity among students, as well as by
his strong interest in team work and in
helping and assisting his peers.
LETTER OF INQUIRY
I am writing to you to inquire about an apartment
for let which I saw advertised in “The Jet”, dated
June 4, this year. My name is Norbert Norbert
and I am a nineteen-year old student at the
Faculty for Computer Science in London. I
have just been admitted to university and I am
looking for a flat, and yours seems to fit my
needs. However, if you were so kind as to
clarify certain aspects which I would like to know
more about, as they were not specifically
detailed by the newspaper notice.
First of all, in your notice you stated that
the location of the apartment was ideal. I
would appreciate it if you were more
specific about this matter, as I would be in
need of renting an apartment which is
located not very far from the faculty. Also,
I would like to know whether it is close to
any subway station, and if so, to which
specifically, as I do not own a car and I will
need to use public transport to travel
locally.
Moreover, you also stated that the flat was
partly furnished. It is important for me to
know what kind of furniture there is, as I
will be in need of bringing a computer and
several other items of equipment, as well
as some pieces of furniture from my old
apartment. Thus, space and utility would
be an issue worth taking into account.
Last, but not least, another issue that
draws my attention is the fact that you
stated in your notice that the rental price
was good. I would like to know what you
mean by that, since I will be supporting
myself through university and I need to
plan my expenses carefully.
To sum up, I would appreciate it if your
answer letter contained details regarding
my questions. I would like to underline the
fact that I am seriously interested in
renting the flat for a long period and I am
also a serious person, so if you decide to
consider me as your tenant, you will be
safe in this respect.
To whom it may concern,

Letter of reference for Mr. Hassan Abdullah.

I have known Mr. Hassan for 10 years now, out of which the first 8 years as his form master and teacher of
French. During all these years, I have been strongly impressed by his keen desire to improve his knowledge
and skills, by his popularity among students, as well as by his strong interest in team work and in helping and
assisting his peers.

With reference to his educational background, the candidate has been a student at the Faculty for
Automation for the past two years. Previously, he graduated from Kingston High with flying colors and during
all the years he was a student at our high school he proved to be inquisitive, diligent, hard-working and
always willing to prove himself, fact supported by the great number of diplomas and certificates obtained at
national and international contests.

As far as work is concerned, the applicant understood the importance of active involvement in the life of the
community and, thus, volunteered in a number of social programs concerned with environment and with less
fortunate social categories. He also offered to volunteer at a local IT company while a student, where he
assisted and helped executives in their work. His record is provable in this respect. His former colleagues
recommend him as a great help, a good team worker and a very observant and original mind.

On a personal level, those who are well-acquainted with him describe him as reliable, truthful, trustworthy,
punctual, cheerful and always open for a new challenge. I believe that these, as well as the aforementioned,
are the qualities that any successful candidate should display. With this in mind, and taking into account his
educational and professional achievements so far, I certainly recommend Mr. Hassan for admission to your
institution, and I would be more than happy to provide you with further information if required.

Sincerely yours,

Mrs. X

Teacher of French
Dear Sir/ Madam,

I am writing to you to apply for the position of sales manager which I saw advertised in The Guardian on
June 5th, this year. My name is John Doe and I am a 23 year-old university graduate from Cluj- Napoca,
Romania. I firmly believe that I am suitable for the job which is offered by your company.

To begin with, I have always considered that a good education is the key to a successful life. With this in
mind, I obtained my Master’s Degree in Management in July 2008. Previously, I was a student at the Faculty
for Economic Sciences in Cluj- Napoca, where from I graduated with top results, thus becoming a Bachelor of
Science in 2007. I also enrolled in a number of courses which helped me boost my knowledge and skills.

Furthermore, with reference to my work experience, I have constantly sought to train and expose myself to
the real world of work; thus, when I had the chance in my freshman’s year to volunteer for a local organization
that helped new investors with management techniques, I did not hesitate to take on the challenge. I worked
in that field for four years and, immediately upon graduation, I applied for a job in a small company, where I
still work. However, I now feel it is time for me to move on.

I firmly believe I have benefited from every course attended and from every single day of work so far. My
personal and professional qualities have surfaced and greatly improved and presently I believe myself to
be aware of the new trends, flexible, willing to improve, hard- working and a team player. I have also become
more aware of the necessity to be punctual, polite and serious in every endeavor. I believe in sharing and
helping people, as well as in constant personal and professional development.

Due to all the aforementioned, I honestly believe that I possess the necessary skills and abilities that are
needed by your company and I also believe that working for you would offer me the chance of a lifetime, as I
am ready to commit and contribute to the development of your enterprise. I enclose with my letter copies of
my diplomas and certificates, a European CV and letters of reference from my former employers and
professors. I would be more than happy to be called for an interview at any time convenient to you.

Sincerely yours,

John Doe
Dear Sir/ Madam,

I am writing to you to complain about a holiday which I booked with your company and which proved to be
utterly dissatisfying. I signed a contract with your firm on July 15th 2008 regarding a seaside holiday in Crete,
which I found advertised in you brochure earlier this year. I am Jane Evans, mother of three, and I work as
editor-in-chief for The Guardian. In the following paragraphs, I will bring to your attention the aspects which
caused my disappointment with your services.

In your brochure, you promised a great number of facilities that proved to be non-existing. To begin with, it
was stated that tourists would be accommodated in a four-star hotel with room-service and childcare facilities.
Furthermore, we were promised a clean beach with fine sand about 100 meters form the hotel.
Unfortunately, most of these claims were false.

In reality, upon arriving at the location, we were shocked to find out that the hotel was in fact a three-star hotel
lacking the promised childcare facilities. There was room-service, but of an extremely poor quality.
Apparently, the personnel of the hotel found it annoying when the guests had the exaggerated pretention of
being attended in their rooms in the morning.

In addition, being directed towards the beach pertaining to the hotel, imagine out surprise when the pristine
sandy beach proved to be a littered pebbled beach with refuse floating in the waters of the bay. We could not
allow our children to get into the water there, so we had to pay for entrance to a neighboring beach, which
was, indeed, clean and sandy, but, and let me say this again, we had to pay for it, which was by no means
part of our agreement.

As you must admit, we cannot possibly declare ourselves satisfied with the treatment we received, which is
why we must ask your company for a full refund on our holiday, as well as cover for the additional expenses
we were forced to make. We regret to inform you that, unless you comply with our demands in a month’ time,
we will see ourselves forced to take legal action. I will also see to the fact that the newspaper I work for
publish an article describing the reality regarding the services of your company.

Sincerely yours,

Jane Evans
Dear Sir,

I am writing to you with reference to your letter of complaint regarding the Crete family holiday which you
booked with our company on June 15, 2008. My name is Verne Gyula and I am the PR officer of the tourist
company which caused you dismal. On behalf of the company, I would like to express my sincere regrets for
the inconveniences which occurred during your stay in Crete.

To begin with, I would like to specifically insist on the fact that we deeply regret this, as it is not our practice to
make vain promises. There is, however, one detail which I need to bring to your attention so as to make you
understand what happened in reality. In the summer, our company underwent dramatic changes in personnel
and the board of directors also changed completely. This is why we experienced a period of imbalance and,
naturally, quality had to suffer.

Furthermore, with reference to the problems mentioned in your letter, we feel you are right to be disappointed.
We would like to explain what happened, however. Firstly, the four-star hotel advertised in our brochure was
subject to arson, thus all tourists were relocated to the neighboring hotel, where unfortunately there were no
childcare facilities, but similar conditions. With regard to the impoliteness of the personnel, we apologize on
behalf of the hotel management, and we assure you that we will see to it momentarily.

As for the beach you paid for, this was a misunderstanding, as that particular stripe of beach was part of the
agreement between the hotel and the local authorities and you should not have paid for it. We will contact the
hotel management and settle the matter as soon as possible.

Taking into account all the aforementioned, we believe that you are right to claim a holiday which would be in
accordance with what was initially promised to you, therefore, upon discussing the matter with the board, we
concluded that we will be expecting you at the headquarters of the company where we invite you to sign a
new contract for a holiday/. As well as this, we will solve the rest of your requirements when you arrive. We
apologize again for the inconvenience we caused.

Faithfully yours,

Verne Gyula
Dear Sir/ Madam,

I am writing to you to inquire about an apartment for let which I saw advertised in “The Jet”, dated June 4, this
year. My name is Norbert Norbert and I am a nineteen-year old student at the Faculty for Computer Science
in London. I have just been admitted to university and I am looking for a flat, and yours seems to fit my
needs. However, if you were so kind as to clarify certain aspects which I would like to know more about, as
they were not specifically detailed by the newspaper notice.

First of all, in your notice you stated that the location of the apartment was ideal. I would appreciate it if you
were more specific about this matter, as I would be in need of renting an apartment which is located not very
far from the faculty. Also, I would like to know whether it is close to any subway station, and if so, to which
specifically, as I do not own a car and I will need to use public transport to travel locally.

Moreover, you also stated that the flat was partly furnished. It is important for me to know what kind of
furniture there is, as I will be in need of bringing a computer and several other items of equipment, as well as
some pieces of furniture from my old apartment. Thus, space and utility would be an issue worth taking into
account.

Last, but not least, another issue that draws my attention is the fact that you stated in your notice that the
rental price was good. I would like to know what you mean by that, since I will be supporting myself through
university and I need to plan my expenses carefully.

To sum up, I would appreciate it if your answer letter contained details regarding my questions. I would like to
underline the fact that I am seriously interested in renting the flat for a long period and I am also a serious
person, so if you decide to consider me as your tenant, you will be safe in this respect.

Yours sincerely,

Norbert Norbert
REVIEWS
Review for………………

Introductory paragraph
-Rhetoric questions aimed at highlighting the strong points/ the
theme and genre of the book/ film/ festival etc
-Information regarding the author, type, theme, any other general
data
Middle paragraph
- short plot
- atmosphere
-characters
- special effects
- style of writing
Pay attention: you should just give the reader of your review an
idea about the book/ film/ place/ event, so as to stir their curiosity
about it.

Closing paragraph
-strong and weak points
-cover the weak points
-recommendation for a certain type of reader/ viewer, reasons for
recommendation
Review for
Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s
Stone
Have you ever wondered what
lies beyond our mere reality?
What if a different realm lies
hidden behind our mortal
world? Are you craving for
mythical beasts and heroes
that display powers beyond
the imaginable? Does the
eternal battle between good
and evil fascinate you? If
these are the milestones of
what you would call a good
read, then Harry Potter and
the Philosopher’s Stone is a
must for you!
Written by British novelist
J.K. Rowling, this fabulous
adventure and fantasy book is
the first of what the author
promised to be a series of
seven novels following the
fortune of a young orphan in
a world of magic, where
sorcerers match their powers
against the greatest evil that
ever roamed the face of the
earth.
THE STORY IS SET IN ONE OF THE MOST
BREATHTAKING PLACES ON EARTH, AN ANCIENT
CASTLE BURIED IN THE MISTS OF THE MOUNTAINS,
AT THE VERY HEART OF THE SCOTTISH HIGHLANDS,
WHERE THREE CHILDREN SLOWLY DISCOVER THE
TRUE VALUES AND BENEFITS OF FRIENDSHIP. At
First oblivious to the terrible secret that marked his
infancy and threw him on the threshold of his terrible
muggle family, young Harry gradually understands his
past, as we witness his transformation and growth into
a courageous, but mostly humane adolescent, under
the wing of his headmaster and guardian angel,
Dumbledore, in the peaceful, calm and warm Hogwarts
castle which slowly becomes more than a home to him.
But not all is bliss, peace and harmony, but also panic,
fear, pain and death, as we watch him confront the
terrible Lord of Darkness, Voldemort, in a final,
terrifying battle for the invaluable Philosopher’s Stone,
source of immortality and supreme power.
Although at times a little
oversentimental, maybe verging on the
absurd, the book never fails to compel
and enchant you, however, and, while
offering children a fabulous time, it
offers adults an equally gripping
journey peppered with biblical and
mythical references, where they can
uncover bits of reality and indulge in
the little magic we all need in our life.
ARTICLES, COMPETITION
ENTRIES AND ESSAYS
Articles, competition entries and
essays:

•Narratives (accounts)
•Descriptions
•Argumentatives of opinion
•Argumentatives giving advantages and
disadvantages or presenting pros and
cons
•Reflectives
NARRATIVE ARTICLES
TITLE
PARAGRAPHS, no tab, free lines
SEMI-FORMAL LANGUAGE
PAST TENSES USED (Past Simple and
Continuous for the story line, Past Perfect
for anteriority and Future in the Past for
posteriority)
Narratives
You can be asked to narrate/ account the
plot of a book/ film/ play/ an experience
you lived as part of a group, and which
taught you important things such as loyalty
or honesty/ a frightening experience, etc
Structure:
Intro: reflect on the topic
Body:
 Setting the scene
 Initiating action
 Rising action
 Climax
 resolution
Conclusion
Setting the scene: present time, place,
characters, status quo
Initiating action: something which happens
suddenly and triggers a change in the
state of facts
Rising action: the unfolding of the story
from this moment to the moment of
highest intensity, the:
Climax: -the moment of crisis, when a
solution must be found or a decision made
Resolution: the solution to the crisis (you
can leave it open)
Example: narrate an experience
you lived as part of a group, and
which taught you important things
such as loyalty or honesty
Intro; reflect on the importance of
experience and being part of a group
Set the scene: it all began on a beautiful
summer morning when we decided to….
Suddenly, there was a loud bang behind
us.. (initiating action)
Rising action: unfold the story
Climax: What crisis did you land
yourselves in?
Resolution: how did you solve the conflict?

Conclusion:
What did you learn?
How did it change you?
What would you do differently if you could
turn back time?
Example of tense usage:
As I entered the room I could see all those
people who were talking about how they
would go out there and (would) hunt down
those elephants and (would) take their
ivory…and as I was listening, I
remembered the sight from some years
before, when I had stood at the edge of a
field and (had) seen hundreds of these
animals lying dead, killed by humans.
How is a narrative constructed?
1. Getting the atmosphere right (through rhetoric
questions)
2. Setting the scene (time, place, atmosphere,
characters)
3. Initiating action (something that disturbs the
balance, the initial state of things)
4. Rising action (the story itself- the longest part of
the essay)
5. The climax (the moment of highest intensity, a
moment of crisis)
6. The resolution (where the crisis is solved- in a
positive, negative or open way)
TOPIC AND TITLE
The most frightening experience I have
ever had

Fate-struck
GETTING STARTED
When was the last time you felt that you
were powerless against the pranks life
plays on you when you feel you are
happiest? Have you ever experienced a
normal day turn into the most terrible
nightmare? I have, and I would certainly
not want to live it again!
SETTING THE SCENE
It was a normal morning, one of those warm September
Saturdays when you have no care in the world. I had
just woken up to the smell of freshly brewed coffee and
the sound of the morning news, and I was getting ready
for a shower. Just as I was slipping into my towel, I
heard some newsflash about a series of avalanches that
had struck in different parts of the world, and a slight
feeling of uneasiness seized me. “Oh, well”, I said,
shrugged and opened the door to the bathroom. Just
then, the doorbell rang. And the very instant I looked
through the peep hole and saw Andy’s face, I knew that
something had gone terribly wrong. I let him in, my
hands shaking, my mind gone blank. It was about
Travis, I just knew it…
INITIATING ACTION
“Sit down”, he said, and I obeyed blindly. I
felt numb, my heart sunken. “They’ve lost
contact with them an hour ago. There’s
been an avalanche there. We don’t have
a clue as to whether they’re alive or not..”
RISING ACTION
(FLASHBACK)
Travis, my husband, an accomplished
mountain climber and a keen extreme
sportsman, had finally managed to get a
sponsorship to climb one of the most
dangerous spots in the world, the
Hungaga Rocks. 8 years he had yearned
to go there, a yearning that had literally
turned into a deep obsession and
eventually had had a chance to come true.
RISING ACTION + CLIMAX
I don’t really remember how I pulled myself together and how
I got on my way to the place of the disaster..All I know is that,
as I got out of the car that had brought us there, I felt utter
shock at the view.. Tens of paramedics and rescue teams,
cars, ambulances, choppers, wounded people, even covered
corpses. And any of them could have been him! Just then,
Andy came towards me and said: “Annie, I think we will need
to have a look at a body. It matches the description of
Travis.”
What I felt then? I don’t know, I just know that my knees
wouldn’t listen, that my head started spinning, that an unheard
prayer stuck on my lips and mind as the paramedic started
unzipping the bag where the body lay covered…
RESOLUTION
POSITIVE SOLUTION
And just a split second before the body lay uncovered
before my eyes, I heard Travis’ voice behind
me…feeble, almost whispering, but it was the most
beautiful sound I’d ever heard. I turned slowly around..

NEGATIVE SOLUTION
And before I even looked at it, I heard Andy grasp for air,
and I knew that, there and then, my life had turned a
corner in the most terrible way imaginable. I cast my
eyes on the body. There he was, frozen in death, and
but for the paleness of his face, he seemed to be
sleeping..
The most frightening experience I have ever had
Fate-struck
When was the last time you felt that you were powerless against the pranks life plays on you when you feel you are
happiest? Have you ever experienced a normal day turn into the most terrible nightmare? I have, and I would certainly not
want to live it again!

It was a normal morning, one of those warm September Saturdays when you have no care in the world. I had just woken up
to the smell of freshly brewed coffee and the sound of the morning news, and I was getting ready for a shower. Just as I was
slipping into my towel, I heard some newsflash about a series of avalanches that had struck in different parts of the world,
and a slight feeling of uneasiness seized me. “Oh, well”, I said, shrugged and opened the door to the bathroom. Just then,
the doorbell rang. And the very instant I looked through the peep hole and saw Andy’s face, I knew that something had gone
terribly wrong. I let him in, my hands shaking, my mind gone blank. It was about Travis, I just knew it…

“Sit down”, he said, and I obeyed blindly. I felt numb, my heart sunken. “They’ve lost contact with them an hour ago.
There’s been an avalanche there. We don’t have a clue as to whether they’re alive or not..”

Travis, my husband, an accomplished mountain climber and a keen extreme sportsman, had finally managed to get a
sponsorship to climb one of the most dangerous spots in the world, the Hungaga Rocks. 8 years he had yearned to go
there, a yearning that had literally turned into a deep obsession and eventually had had a chance to come true.

I don’t really remember how I pulled myself together and how I got on my way to the place of the disaster..All I know is that,
as I got out of the car that had brought us there, I felt utter shock at the view.. Tens of paramedics and rescue teams, cars,
ambulances, choppers, wounded people, even covered corpses. And any of them could have been him! Just then, Andy
came towards me and said: “Annie, I think we will need to have a look at a body. It matches the description of Travis.”

What I felt then? I don’t know, I just know that my knees wouldn’t listen, that my head started spinning, that an unheard
prayer stuck on my lips and mind as the paramedic started unzipping the bag where the body lay covered…
Descriptive articles/ competition
entries

General format and
content
You might be asked to describe:
PEOPLE

OBJECTS

EVENTS

PLACES
Descriptions of people:
Describe a person that has had a positive/
negative influence on you
Describe your favorite singer/ actor
Describe your favorite writer/ fictional
character
Describe your ideal teacher
Describe your favorite news presenter
Describe a historical personality that has
greatly influenced their time
Descriptions of objects
Describe an object that has been in your
family for generations

Describe an object you fancy very much

Describe the greatest gift that you have
ever made/ received
Descriptions of places
Describe your ideal home

Describe your favorite holiday spot

Describe your favorite winter landscape

Describe your ideal holiday location

Describe your neighborhood
Descriptions of events
Describe a visit to a concert

Describe a national, regional or
international festival

Describe an anniversary that you attended

Describe a visit to an art gallery/ exhibition
General content points
Introduction: a general reflection on the
topic
• Body:
• when/ where/ how you met the person/ saw
the place etc
• Physical description
• Moral portrait
• Narrative supporting your main points
• Ending: admit weaknesses, but cover
them, sum up your main points
Example: Description of your
favorite character from fiction
Intro: reflection on the importance of
literature in a person’s life, the impact of
fictional character in the formation of the
individual in terms of intellect, soul, values,
outlook on life

Body: I discovered… when I read….about
2 years ago, because I had to read it for
school/ a friend recommended it etc.
What first struck me about him/ her was…
The character is described directly/
indirectly by the author, and from the
description I gather that he / she is…
(description are made from general to
particular- size, height, build, hair color,
then the more particular characteristics)

Morally speaking,… (mention a number of
characteristics that the hero displays
morally, intellectually and emotionally
The two/ three most important
characteristics, however, are/…… I
discovered them when, for example, the
character was at one time faced with a
situation when he/ she had to…
I do admit that there are flaws to this
character, because, as any human, he is
not perfect, which makes him even more
realistic. For instance, he is at times…..,
but this is really unimportant taking into
account his many positive features.
Therefore, due to his many positive
qualities, due to the fact that I have
learned a great deal from him/ her in terms
of.. and due to the fact that my way of
thinking has changed because of him/ her,
I consider … to be the best fictional
character ever
DESCRIBE YOUR FAVORITE
WINTER LANDSCAPE

By Cristina Rusu

How often do we rush by, so engrossed in our thoughts and worries, completely oblivious to what life offers us?
Funny how we call the most grandose and immensely beautiful instances “the simple and little things in life”.
We ignore nature completely, or, in the luckier cases, we cast it a brief glance, ignoring the fact that nature has been
the ultimate inspiration for poets and artists alike and the refuge and haven for all humanity.
A moment of natural perfection, changing Man in an incredibly powerful way…THAT, I had experienced more than
once, but perhaps the most breathtaking sight was the one that lay before my eyes some three years ago, on the top of
a glacier in the Austrian Alps.
NOT that I had not expected splendor …NOT that I had not wanted to relive a winter just like the ones I used to know as a child….
After all, those were the reasons I had chosen to go there. But never had I imagined that heaven can, indeed, be found on earth….
An incredibly clear morning lay ahead of us, as we started our ascent in the ski lift towards the top of the glacier,
some 3000 meters above sea level.
No cloud in the skies, not a gust of wind to stir the motionless fir trees, no mark in the spotless wintry layer. Just a
thick blanket of blindingly white snow, the peaks, the sheer cliffs and the alpine void against the immense blue of the
sky.
I felt almost angry at the screeching sound of the ski lift, almost indignant at the thought that it was disturbing this peace
and quiet. It was as if we had no place there, no meaning, and I could not help wondering how long it would be before man would
spoil this, as well, just like he has so many things before and just like he does incessantly, like a pampered little child.
Just then, as I was contemplating the solitude and beauty around me and I was wondering about the chances of it
staying like this forever, the wind started blowing mildly, and the first clouds appeared. White and fluffy, like sugar
cotton, I could have jumped and dived in them, convinced that the jump would have landed me in the midst of a pillow
like conglomerate.
And, some instances later, finishing our ascent, as I got off the ski lift, I was startled. Below me lay the clouds, an
endless sea, only a few peaks emerging from it, like islands in the sun. Was that real? It couldn’t have been…was I
really above the clouds or were my eyes playing tricks on me?
No, there I was, flesh and blood, above the clouds, with no airplane to land me there or drag me along. And the most
vivid feeling of elation and exhilaration seized me, as, with a cry, we wildly started down the steep slope, one by one,
swallowed by the sea of clouds.
I have never since been able to get that sight out of my mind. And I am certain I have been blessed to live those
moments of pure admiration, beauty and exultation.
Life is, after all, not measured in the number of breaths that you take, but in the moments that take your breath away…
How often do we rush by, so engrossed in our
thoughts and worries, completely oblivious
to what life offers us?
Funny how we call the most grandose and
immensely beautiful instances “the simple
and little things in life”.
We ignore nature completely, or, in the luckier
cases, we cast it a brief glance, ignoring the
fact that nature has been the ultimate
inspiration for poets and artists alike and the
refuge and haven for all humanity.
A moment of natural perfection, changing
Man in an incredibly powerful way…THAT,
I had experienced more than once, but
perhaps the most breathtaking sight was
the one that lay before my eyes some
three years ago, on the top of a glacier in
the Austrian Alps.
NOT that I had not expected splendor …
NOT that I had not wanted to relive a winter
just like the ones I used to know as a
child…. After all, those were the reasons I
had chosen to go there.

But never had I imagined that heaven can,
indeed, be found on earth….
An incredibly clear morning lay ahead of us, as
we started our ascent in the ski lift towards
the top of the glacier, some 3000 meters
above sea level.

No cloud in the skies, not a gust of wind to stir
the motionless fir trees, no mark in the
spotless wintry layer. Just a thick blanket of
blindingly white snow, the peaks, the sheer
cliffs and the alpine void against the
immense blue of the sky.
I felt almost angry at the screeching sound
of the ski lift, almost indignant at the
thought that it was disturbing this peace
and quiet.

It was as if we had no place there, no
meaning, and I could not help wondering
how long it would be before man would
spoil this, as well, just like he has so many
things before and just like he does
incessantly, like a pampered little child.
Just then, as I was contemplating the
solitude and beauty around me and I was
wondering about the chances of it staying
like this forever, the wind started blowing
mildly, and the first clouds appeared.
White and fluffy, like sugar cotton, I could
have jumped and dived in them, convinced
that the jump would have landed me in the
midst of a pillow-like conglomerate.
And, some instances later, finishing our
ascent, as I got off the ski lift, I was
startled. Below me lay the clouds, an
endless sea, only a few peaks emerging
from it, like islands in the sun. Was that
real? It couldn’t have been…was I really
above the clouds or were my eyes playing
tricks on me?
No, there I was, flesh and blood, above
the clouds, with no airplane to land me
there or drag me along. And the most
vivid feeling of elation and exhilaration
seized me, as, with a cry, we wildly started
down the steep slope, one by one,
swallowed by the sea of clouds.
I have never since been able to get that
sight out of my mind. And I am certain I
have been blessed to live those moments
of pure admiration, beauty and exultation.

Life is, after all, not measured in the number
of breaths that you take, but in the
moments that take your breath away…
Contributions to brochures and
guidebooks
Informative texts aimed at providing the
reader with information related to a series
of museums, a place, entertainment in a
city, etc
The register is semi-formal and the aim is
to inform
layout
Clear paragraphs
No tab, free line between them
Title and sub-headings
What is allowed/ what you
should do:
Bullets
Semi-formal expressions
Numbers, percentages
Same content of paragraphs
Informative introduction
Conclusive ending
Sample answer
Write a contribution to a guidebook about
means of entertainment in your city. You
should include:

 Entertainment by day
 Entertainment by night
 Surroundings and sporting facilities
Planning your writing

ho - who is the target reader?
eason - why are you writing to the target reader?
nclude - what needs to be included?
ask Type - what is the task type?
dit - write the answer and finally edit it.
LETTER
Task-specific mark scheme (TSMS)
Part 1: Task-specific Mark SchemeContent (points covered)
thank the manager for the invitation to the Arts Centre
comment on the positive points of the Arts Centre
explain why the writer was disappointed
suggest a meeting
Organisation and Cohesion
Clear paragraphs. Letter layout with opening and closing formulae.

Range
Language of evaluation, explanation and
Formal to unmarked. Not aggressive.

Target Reader
Would be informed and would consider meeting to discuss issues.
Sample answer
Dear Sir
I am writing to you in order to thank you for being invited to the opening of your Arts Centre,
which I attended on behalf of the Principal of my college, where I am currently the
secretary of, the Student Committee.
I was really impressed by the outstanding array of interesting books displayed in the Arts
Library, which seemed to me to be very well-laid-out. I have appreciated the Art Gallery as
well, finding the present exhibition absolutely stunning. I would be most grateful if you could
give my compliments to the chef who is responsible for the delicious food served in the
cafe, a place which has also got a very pleasant atmosphere.
On the other hand, I was most surprised to discover that a recording studio is not included
among the facilities provided: actually, we expected it to be built, as the majority of our
students expressed their wish to have one. However, it was not clear to me whether
students will be charged for having access to the music and rehersal rooms.
No sooner had I admired the comfort of your 300-seat cinema, than I realised that the
programme, which mainly includes famous recent productions, is not very useful for
academic purposes. We would have preferred you to offer a choice of less well-known
movies to suit the needs of our cinema courses.
Finally, I would like to point out that the 5% student discount advertised on your leaflets
does not fulfill our expectations, as we were assured that our students would benefit from a
10% discount on all tickets.
I am sure you understand how all of these features are important to our college, which
strongly contributed to the building of your Arts Centre. Consequently, I trust that we will be
able to arrange a meeting to discuss some of the issues further. I should mention that I am
available at any time which may be convenient both for your and for our Principal, who,
albeit busy, is extremely keen to attend.
Yours faithfully
Examiner’s comments
Content
Task fully completed.
Organisation and Cohesion
Very well organised with good use of cohesive devices.
Accuracy
Controlled and natural use of language. Not flawless (e.g. 'I have
appreciated', 'strongly contributed').
Range
Wide range of vocabulary (e.g. 'outstanding array') and structure
(e.g. 'No sooner had I admired', 'we were assured that').
Register
Consistently appropriate.
Target Reader
Very positive effect.
Band
5
ARTICLE
Task-specific mark scheme (TSMS)
Content (points covered)
For Band 3 or above, the candidate's article must:

name an outdoor activity
describe the activity
explain why it is/was exciting/dangerous.

Organisation and Cohesion
Clearly paragraphed.

Range
Vocabulary related to the activity chosen.

Register
May mix registers if appropriate to approach taken by candidate.

Target Reader
Would be informed.
Sample Answer
Have you ever been in such a stressful situation, that you wish you would vanish into
thin air? Well, that's what occured to me on a sunny and warm summer's day.

I was out with my friends and we were heading to the beach as a member of my
company had suggested the previous day. We really had the time of our lives there.
We went swimming for over an hour and after that we played beach soccer and
chatted pleasantly. All of a sudden, a friend of mine noticed a man tied to a string
jumping from over a fifty meters hight. 'Hey! That's bunjee jumping!' he yelled with
excitement. 'It's an extreme sport' someone else added. Everyone accepted trying it
out exept from me as I was scared to death. Being shy of expressing my fear, I
agreed.

As we were waiting for our turn, I was praying that time would stop and I would
escape from it all. Fortunately, this didn't happen. I got tied with an elastic string,
moved to the edge of the stage and jumped down. I was able to do nothing but
scream with fear anticipating the worst, while watching the earth coming towards me.
After some gentle shocks I was disappointed to get my feet back to earth.

This was by far the most exciting activity of my whole life. Despite the negative
feelings that I was filled with in the beggining, I had radical change of mood and
attitude. Bunjee jumping is a perfect extreme sport that I believe everyone should
practice it and feel the adrenaline bump.
Examiner’s comments
Content
Good realisation of task with all points covered. Organisation and

Cohesion
Well organised with attempt to engage reader and with attention paid to cohesion.

Accuracy
Generally accurate with isolated lapses, sometimes where more complicated language is
attempted.

Range
Evidence of a range of vocabulary and structure.

Register
Consistently appropriate to genre.

Target Reader
Positive effect on target reader.

Band
4
REFERENCE
Task-specific mark scheme (TSMS)
Content (points covered)
For Band 3 or above the candidate's reference must:
indicate how long they have known the person
describe the person's character
explain why the person would be suitable for the job.

Organisation and Cohesion
Clear organisation with appropriate paragraphing.

Range
Language of description, explanation and reasoning. Vocabulary of personal
characteristics and of work.

Register
Consistently formal or unmarked.

Target Reader
Would be informed.
Sample Answer
Dear Sir/Madam

Miss Mary Smith is an old friend of my sister and later became a friend to all the
members of my family. We have known her over ten years.

I believe Miss Smith has the necessary experience and personal qualities for the job.
She used to work in the same position for two years before teaching in secondary
school. She enjoyed meeting people and introducing our country to visitors. We heard
a lot of interesting things and how she solved problems effectively during the time she
worked as a tour guide.

She knows very well about western culture and how to communicate with foreigners
as she gained her Master degree in England and has travelled to many English-
speaking countries. She is a good team player but can also work independently. She
is open-minded and work well under pressure, these character were shown while she
while she worked as a tour guide and teacher as well as helping our family difficulties.

I am confident that Miss Smith is well-qualified for the post and I would like to give my
full support to her application. Please don't hesitate to contact me if you require any
further information.

Yours faithfully
Examiner’s comments
Content
All points covered. Good realisation of task.

Organisation and Cohesion
Clearly and effectively organised.

Accuracy
Some non-impeding errors ('she...work well', 'these character').

Range
Good range of language appropriate to the task.

Register
Consistent. Achieves appropriate tone of a reference.

Target Reader
Would be informed. Positive effect.

Band
4
REPORT
Task-specific mark scheme (TSMS)

Content (points covered)
For Band 3 or above, candidate's report must:
describe experience at trade fair
recommend company's attendance next year

Organisation and Cohesion
Clearly organised in paragraphs. Headings may be an advantage.

Range
Language of description and persuasion. Business vocabulary.

Register
Any, as long as consistent.

Target Reader
Would be informed.
Sample Answer
To: Christopher Owen, the head of the marketing department
From:The sale manager
Subject:Food Trade Fair Birmingham 2003
Date: 11 June 2003

The aim of this report is to inform the marketing department about the character of
Food Trade Fair Birmingham, which takes place every year in May. Additionally it
says about possible advantages of having a stall there.

Every year, Food Trade Fair Birmingham is getting bigger. The event is widely known
not only in the UK, but also in the whole Western Europe. This is a big meeting of
both producers and co-operators with their clients. Usually, after finishing the fair
many agreements and contracts are signed.

This year, extremely popular were booths with organic food, which is becoming more
and more popular. I think that this is a big opportunity for our company for finding
customers in England, France and other western countries. Although our company is
a household name in Poland, we are not known abroad. We produce food of high
quality which is comparable with products from western countries. But we have one
big advantage, we are much cheaper than they are. So we should have a stall there
next year. They are not very expensive but even if we dip into our savings, this may
be worth it, because we can sign a very nice contract.
Examiner’s comments
Content
Task reasonably achieved - all points addressed but with limited expansion.

Organisation and Cohesion
Fairly clearly organised into paragraphs with an appropriate introduction. No headings.
Paragraphs not equal in length.

Accuracy
Satisfactory.

Range
Adequate.

Register
Mostly consistent.

Target Reader
Would achieve required effect on target reader.

Band
3