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A Temple of Hope . . .
A Beacon of Liberty
by Robert Ingraham

Let it not be grievous to you that you have been instru- found the courage to carry forward a great project.
ments to break the ice for others who come after with Today, we are confronted anew with a terrible crisis. The
less difficulty; the honor shall be yours to the world’s synarchist controllers of Dick Cheney, together with the likes
end. of Samuel Alito’s and Anton Scalia’s Federalist Society, are
—Rev. John Robinson, writing, at Leyden, in a attempting to terrify the American people into accepting fas-
letter to the colonists at Plymouth, Dec. 23, 1623 cist dictatorial rule. It is no exaggeration to assert that our
American constitutional republic is facing the gravest chal-
On Dec. 18, 1620, the ship Mayflower arrived at Plymouth lenge in its history at the present moment. In the political war,
harbor. On the next day, her passengers began to go ashore. which we have joined, a key weapon in our arsenal is the
Within five months, 51 of those original 102 colonists would realization that the capabilities to win this war already exist
be dead, including the colony’s first governor, John Carver, within our culture; that from its earliest inception, the Ameri-
together with his wife and children. During most of the next can nation was grounded in philosophical and political princi-
ten years, the colony suffered through periods of famine, dis- ples, which have become a living heritage within our institu-
ease, near starvation, and repeated attempts by King James I’s tions and citizenry. In presenting the following lesson on the
Privy Council, and the leadership of the Church of England, true history and purpose of the creation of the United States
to destroy the colony. But they persisted, and their example of America, on the mission of the Pilgrims, as well as their
inspired others. And the friendship and help which they pro- Puritan friends, it is intended that some among us will more
vided to the Puritans, first at Salem in 1628, and later to John clearly recognize those inherent strengths, so as to be able to
Winthrop, helped secure the creation of a new commonwealth more effectively win our current political objectives.
on the shores of America.
Today, some few Americans might vaguely recognize the
names of John Carver, William Bradford, or Miles Standish, 1. The Origins
but the names of John Robinson, William Brewster, Robert
Cushman, Isaac Allerton, and Edward Winslow are forgotten. Our story encompasses the half-century roughly from
These men, and those who joined their mission, are the found- 1580 to 1630. These were years in which things in Europe
ers of what became the United States of America. This is their were going very badly. The fight for the establishment of
story. In telling this story, it is worth reflecting that neither nation-state commonwealths, which had developed out of the
the Pilgrims, the primary subjects of this writing, nor the New 15th-Century Renaissance, was faltering. Religious wars and
England Puritans, were mythical or folklore figures, but flesh- fanaticism, fanned by the oligarchical reactionaries in Haps-
and-blood human beings. Yet, at a time of great crisis, they burg Spain and the Vatican, were driving the population mad.

56 History EIR October 27, 2006

on the Venetian model. The passengers on the Mayflower were not the only colo. even though they God’s image. were all commercial trading companies. Library of Congress And in Venice. as the idea of emigration to America. and the individual who defined its purpose and these companies looted raw materials. Arrest warrants were slave trade. its leader during the 12 years degree or another. that the Privy true founders of our American Republic. religious “non-conformists. until his death in 1644. and Virginia Compa. At their worst. of maritime financial oligarchy in England and the Nether. In England Brewster was no stranger to high-level political affairs. Robinson’s influence was consid- however. and prote´ ge´ to William Davison. mission. and the ruling Elder of the well as England’s East India. but for the efforts of two men. the one which founded the principle of the Common Good. The colonists of New England. William Brewster is at the center. for the purpose of ans. separatists. John Robinson nies. for the sake of avoiding confu- could fulfill their natures as rational human beings made in sion. William Brew- parison to the overall maritime activity. Queen Elizabeth’s junior EIR October 27. prey of an extensive royally ordered manhunt in the Nether- Dutch financial oligarchy. Brewster was the organizer of the was unique. a project was under way to create new centers The colonizers of New England were largely drawn from. and others. concerns one continuing the mission of establishing societies based on the particular non-conformist group. slaughtered indige. Bermuda. in which men and women Plymouth Colony in 1620. flower voyage. There would have been no Pilgrim church. Portugal’s Estado da first Pilgrim religious congregation. with the Bible. were the forefathers. From 1606 to 1625. from 1582 to 1589. church at Plymouth. Council itself intervened to prevent his emigration to America. had a different mission. he served as assistant actually called “Pilgrims. so to speak. in Holland. lands from 1618 to 1620.” That was a term invented later. Our story. however. and he was the Dutch. in fact their numbers were tiny in com. what were then called. we will refer to them as the Pilgrims. Baptists. of today’s Anglo. Pilgrims signing the Mayflower Compact. including Puritans. Presbyteri- resolved to relocate to the New World. The Pilgrims dedicated themselves to creating a society based on the principle of the Common Good. to set matters straight. First. and later the Dutch East and West India Companies. to one was the pastor of the church. small groups of individuals variety of groups.” In late lands. But their mission ster and John Robinson. below the deck of the Mayflower. that broad term encompassed a wide became impossible. the prime mover behind India. particularly the English and issued against Brewster in 1606 and 1607. and. 2006 History 57 . The possibility of defeating this resurgent oligarchism 16th-Century England. and created a never-before-existing global both targets of the Stuart monarchy. never used that term. and it is they who were the ered so dangerous by the oligarchs in London. These companies. based. there was no group of people As a young man. nor a May- nizers of that period. At that point. Brewster and Robinson were nous populations. Spain’s Consejo De Indias.

and returned to his family home in the Nottingham town cis Johnson. 2006 . recruited. rubbed shoulders with many of England’s elite. Fran- life. when some of Johnson’s followers (Lord Burlegh. and later. to. including Henry ground. the power vacuum left by the deaths of Walsingham. and Robert men. “Many came unto 1. since Davison had been Yorkshire. 2. The Pilgrims found many friends in the Ancient Church. northeast of London. The other was the “The Brethren to serve him during his two-year imprisonment. which had fled Eng- was thrown into the Tower of London. He accompanied Davison on two diplo. After Davison’s release. where they heard was freedom of Religion for all cluding Robert Dudley. under Rev. which had been founded in London in 1592. Eng. “Seeing themselves As things went from bad to worse in both England and the Netherlands. In 1604. about 120 the scapegoat for the execution of the Catholic Mary Queen managed to get over to the Netherlands in 1608. so as they grew to a great 1590. In 1609. and that there was no hope of continuance matic missions to the Netherlands. with of England. The post went to Robert emigrated to Jamestown. including the ministers John glish exiles. In them from divers parts of England. Both Robinson and Brewster be- the Mayflower came.Secretary of State. Bradford says. (those who failed to attend a required minimum number of The Pilgrims’ stay in Amsterdam lasted less than one year. From Amsterdam to Leyden land was being torn apart by religious and political strife. William Bradford would later write: The move to Leyden was almost blocked through the di- “They could not long continue in any peaceable condition. Brewster continued land about one year earlier. and during their years to. in attempts to protect them. Brewster retired from London political the famous Church of the Ancient Brethren. Countries. Scrooby at that time. where they Scrooby congregation that the majority of the passengers on would remain for 11 years. charges of corruption. as well as from London. The Burgomasters denied the English request. they joined with two other exiled English ously in the hands of her Privy Council to carry out. and during later In 1607. and other of Elizabeth’s Old Guard. Anglican church services) was unleashed. but the new king proved himself to be of religious toleration and the promise of republicanism a pawn of the Venice-allied Cecil family.1 During these later years of Queen Elizabeth’s reign. In Amsterdam. the English but were hunted and persecuted on every side. of Scrooby. and son Robert. wrote. thus molested. Kent. at which Dutch East India Company in 1602 signalled a profound all of the dissident religious factions were ordered to submit change. the Privy Council ordered an even more brutal political storms. One was the Gains- who had served as messenger on behalf of the entire Council. but left ambigu. who later became the pastor. In 1587. acting on behalf of King former afflictions were but as flea-bitings in comparison of James.2 The congregations of Johnson and Smythe were Robinson and Richard Clyfton. Devereux. These recruits in- punished in the first place for his role in the execution of James’s mother. writes that after the second arrest warrant. Pilgrim leaders were highly critical of their activi- Cecil. and intervene on Davison’s behalf—not the wisest move. wrote a letter to the Leyden Burgomasters. borough congregation of John Smythe. and separatist “recusants” existence. of Scots. pitting the manipulable Essex—allied to the brothers Francis and Ainsworth. Shortly thereafter. organized an independent re. eventually totalling over 300. ties there.” The Scrooby congregation decided to flee England. and after a failed attempt in 1607. demanding these which now came upon them. in. The Amsterdam to which the Pilgrim Brethren fled in When James I became King in 1603. The establishment of the convened a religious conference at Hampton Court. congregations. Robinson and Brewster moved ster’s home in Scrooby. died. Sir Ralph Winwood. gious sectarianism.” Davison was released. so as their Ambassador. they It was in response to this persecution that Brewster. values antithetical to those of the Pilgrims. 58 History EIR October 27. even writing to King James of Scotland to Church. they had strong differ- Anthony Bacon—against the Venetian-model Cecil family of father William ences with Francis Johnson. and built their movement. was coming into sion against Catholic. Davison. was a Venetian play. The Earl of Essex lobbied strenuously for the appointment of Davison as his successor. Mary. whose death warrant she had signed. which had preceded them. the Earl of Leicester. rect intervention of the Stuart monarchy. It is from the their church to the university city of Leyden.” that they refuse to allow Robinson and his followers to settle Arrest warrants were issued twice for Brewster. A new Venetian system. mired in internal bickerings. a new wave of religious repres. Hull. Elizabeth’s senior Secretary of State.” Newcomers came from Amsterdam’s Ancient Walsingham. Boston. the Earl of Essex. there was still some small hope for his future. Speaking of the situation in sity intervened repeatedly. James which had existed in earlier days. and this was followed by the opening of the Bank of to the authority of the Crown and the hierarchy of the Church Amsterdam a few years later. came teachers at the University of Leyden. Unfortunately for Davison. Bradford there. However. the ruthless spymaster Francis congregation. their influential Dutch friends at the univer- repression of non-conformists. Robinson and Brewster taught. Puritan. the Lord Treasurer). In 1609. and Davison’s career was over. and reli- ligious congregation which began meeting regularly at Brew. In addition to the ominous political trends in the city. but when of the Separation of the First English Church in Amsterdam. were greatly disillusioned with the activities of the other En- gether with a handful of others. Elizabeth made Davison an illegal act. hopes were high for a 1608 was rapidly becoming something other than the haven national reconciliation. by a joint consent they resolved to go into the Low gether. there.

This was a battle which went to the heart of matters such as the nature of man. and government? cordantia Catholica. on which all modern civilized society is based. 11. This idea. In 1616. as in the mouth of Socrates in the New World. which set them apart from almost all other separatist between the divine spark of creativity inherent in all human and Puritan groups. agape¯ . The Mission In a speech delivered in Washington D. sectarian.” And in Book mankind according to what? According to the require. . Thomas Brewer. the fullness of peace toward eternal bliss. Their unswerving commitment to that mission was a recognition that there is an unbridgeable species distinction beacon. 2. Robert Cushman. These works influ- enced not only the exile community.. John Robinson. so that all authority—which comes virtue of the existence of that mankind! from God as does man himself—is recognized as divine when The principle of the General Welfare. EIR October 27. together with William Brewer. society based on the principle of the Common Good is coher- cal (civil) state based on the General Welfare was a conception ent with that nature. a ren. made in God’s image—i. Proceed from America. which was the person who most defined the group’s mission. and that only a Century Renaissance Europe. Holland commemorates the life of Rev. death. sometimes fanatical. in addi- tion to printing Robinson’s works. the idea of judging a government’s The Pilgrim Church. we have a very simple universal principle. established a printing press at Leyden which. they were smuggled into England and had a powerful effect on the larger Puritan community there. and the nature of all the lower beasts. on Jan.e. “There is in the people a divine ment of the development of the character and quality seed by virtue of their common equal birth and the equal of mankind. arose out of 15th. Edward Winslow. Lyndon LaRouche. supporting the struggling New England colony in any way he could. It’s to provide for the welfare. He Now. not on a lasting harmony by which a commonwealth is guided in from the so-called positive law. of future generations of all law by nature is rooted in the reason of man. The principle of the General Welfare: That Nicholas of Cusa. had the following to say: A plaque in Leyden. 2006 History 59 . discussing the historical mission of clipart. is the fundamental law. turned out a steady stream of books and pamphlets critical of the Stuart monarchy and the leadership of the Church of England. . and remained in exile in the Netherlands until his Plato’s Republic. Robinson’s writings established him as a prominent figure in the ranks of English non-conformists. of the rational nature of man. and almost always intolerant. 2006. From Leyden. and John Carver. the principle of the General Welfare. based on that government’s commitment to the and the Common Good General Welfare or the Common Good. the combined efforts of Robinson and Brewster were directed straight at the essence of the evil they saw engulfing England. as expressed it arises from the common consent of all the subjects. Reverend starts all modern civilized society: That principle is Robinson was prevented by the English monarchy from going to called in Greek agape¯ . wrote in 1433. in Book II of his Con- the intention of the existence of man. III of the same work. the pastor and leader of the Pilgrims in Holland. “Since Natural Law is based on reason. who married Robinson’s sister.. is that divinely ordained marital state of spiritual union based tion. Agape¯. both in England and the Netherlands. . This in summation in the Preamble of the Federal Constitu. as in I Corinthians 13.cluded Isaac Allerton. It’s called the General Welfare. Underlying this idea of a politi. for what purpose? What’s tiating the Renaissance. And the improvement of the universe by natural rights of all men. he says. Many of the Protestant churches were beings.” In the modern era. defines the mission of the Pilgrim Breth- of man as a rational creature. Brewster. legitimacy. the individual most responsible for ini- man and government exists. and the purpose of the nation-state.C. again.

by love.” • Of Faith. For whereas God and nature hath furnished other crea- board—ed. and pleasingly he left them. . . King James of England. He also put follow after him. . not by us in mind of our church covenant. and Ad. . . to teach them that which God taught land. In his Farewell Ad. or our neighbors . Acts. Thirdly. after a sort.” The following brief quotes give who were come to a period in religion. needed no other law to rule us. as shall be thought most meet and convenient we ought. . of other churches and time of Robinson’s death in 1625. . . Robinson also warned against the dogmatic essays. from time us to bestow our worldly goods. as not being promise all due submission and obedience. & 36 others supply his wants. of Eng. man is left naked. John Carver. destitute of all these. whose names God whom he sees not? . to love as we ought. We must do good to all. . lished under the title. Hope. ‘being made partakers of the divine nature’. when. Sixthly. Secondly. some with hoofs. we e&. . and Differences and Disputations There- 60 History EIR October 27. and love. and to have the mind. in obedience unto God. covenant weapons both defensive and offensive. in which persons are to unite themselves for their mutual fifty-fourth.” and bly to bewail the state and condition of the reformed churches. and one with • Of Created Goodness—“First. Constitutions and Offices. “Of Society and Friendship. . wherein we resemble God. This for the General good of the Colony. a misery much to be lamented. and ally in the Presence of God and one of another. how can he love IN THE NAME OF GOD. . . Observations Divine and Moral. of the term “Virginia” covered the whole Atlantic sea. And by Virtue hereof to govern them all. it was tolerant. nor any so furnished but that he stands in need of others to Isaac Allerton. 1620. they stick where cords of God’s goodness. . 2006 . . and not to a profit from them. and for men’s good. was pub- fundamentalism of the other churches. The Mayflower Compact to love God is to become godly. . . We must have respect to men’s present wants. constitute. . and Fur. whereby he is able to therance of the Ends aforesaid. to the extreme. and and combine ourselves together into a civil Body Poli. We But these differences pale in importance to the quality must do good readily.” our names at Cape Cod the eleventh of November. . France and Ireland. Fifthly. a voyage to plant the first colony essay. . King. and. .” In the same our King and Country.]. and constrained. at least that part of it necessity. sentative titles include “Of God’s Love. which binds more strongly. . . and providence. ness. and would go no further a very accurate picture of the essence of the motivating beliefs than the instruments of their reformation. a collection of 62 of his religious views. do by these presents. we readily. • Of Liberality and Its Contraries—“Liberality teacheth Ordinances. . .” “Of Created Good- ness Edward Winslow. . Anno Domini. upon whom. is vancement of the Christian Faith. to receive whatever light or truth shall be made obedience to God’s commandments. He that loves not his brother whom he sees. . Robinson writes. sociable creature. solemnly and mutu. for our better Ordering and Preservation.The remarkable thing about the church of John Robinson and with which Robinson’s ministry is most identified: an unwa- William Brewster was that it was none of those things. such just and equal Laws. . as being debtors. and the Honour of a very happy thing. . as reported by eyewit. King James. by the Grace of God. and Love. a mercenary virtue.” enact. and hath not only ordained several socie- France and Ireland. them so many ways. “Reason is that wherein man goes in the northern parts of Virginia [the original meaning before all other earthly creatures and comes after God only.” do it at all times. unto which we is to be done without hope of requital from them. endowment of reason. but. welfare.” • Of Religion. . Reason and Sense—“Thus. and as to time. William Bradford. and not only consider what we can spare but withal what they stand most need of. Defender of the Faith. . AMEN. If we were perfect in this love. as we have opportunity. . either in the duties towards Having undertaken for the Glory of God. . That we known to us. According to our ability. . . God. the eighteenth. We must do [good] in another. And so natural to Christians is are underwritten. which had been written over many years. William Brewster. the Loyal Subjects of our dread Sover. but wherein a man looks to his duty to In Witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed others.” “Of Equability and Perseverance in Well-doing. and frame. indeed. and of Scotland the ties. others with other instruments. As for example of Robinson and his Brethren: the Lutherans—they could not be drawn to go beyond what Of God’s Love—“But being once drawn sweetly by the Luther saw. this brotherly love as that the apostle makes account he need eign Lord. Fourthly. tures. . Edward Winslow. At the practice. Robinson “took occasion also misera. .” whereby we promise and covenant with God. but withal so dispensed his blessings as that no man [Signed] is so barren but hath something wherewith to profit others. . not write to the churches. but may comfort himself in that one tick. In vering commitment to agape¯ and the Common Good. deified. in the • Of Society and Friendship—“God hath made man a Reign of our Sovereign Lord. . . Repre- dress to the Pilgrim emigrants in 1620. We. And so also the Calvinists.

To his brothers who sailed for America. Another thing there is to be motion the project to create new Venetian clones in the north- ern parts of Europe. . specially meaner men. and the benefit of and sisters. its leaders were being erly forbearance. . . . which person (as so many rebels against the common good) all private respects of men’s selves not sorting with the brought Paolo Sarpi’s Giovani party to power. avoiding as a deadly plague all retiredness of mind for one’s own personal advantage.” clones in northern Europe—notably Robinson’s Parting Instructions England and the When the Pilgrims left Holland. particularly after her excommuni- choosing such persons as do entirely love and will pro. who.about—“There are also religious hypocrites not a few. A comparison of this letter with the later Mayflower Compact (see box). and set into motion the project which is not accompanied in the house and streets. which more immediately revolution in concern their honors and profits. to be chosen by you into office of government. though they be far from that innocency towards men. such as the powerful Cecil family. . The Peril .3 all due honor and obedience in their lawful administra- tions. 2006 History 61 . Robinson wrote: future generations. . Pastor John Robinson Netherlands. After this heavenly peace with God and our own consciences. But God is not partial as men are. Your intended course of civil community will min- By 1617. be Paolo Sarpi’s far from honest or good. . Ve- furnished with any persons of special eminence above the rest. Giovani party to nor regards that church and chamber religion towards him. which yourselves shall make VII. . Henry VII was largely a memory by the end of Elizabeth’s ing among yourselves civil government. and Europe was plunging headlong into the bloody Thirty Years’ War. whereas you are become a body politic. you join common affections truly bent upon the general hunted. especially with our associates. The Commonwealth heritage of Queen Elizabeth’s grandfather upon the general good. we are carefully to provide for peace with all men what in us lieth. Let every throughout Europe threatened to obliterate all opposition to oligarchical rule. and set into general conveniency. and the whole body. us. wrote a farewell letter to the departing brethren. . And this duty you both may the more willingly and ought the more conscionably to perform. . . the ascendent Venetian faction in London. Compounding this crisis were the continu- man repress in himself. . is a dramatic warning against choice of for that work. The greatest source of insight into the events of these years is found in the works of William Shakespeare. which the Lord hath inseparably joined with a true religious disposition. 3. because of a certain zeal which they have for and in the duties of the first table. Following the royally ordered mote the common good. which preceded the Commonwealth of Henry your ordinary governors. . Elizabeth’s England sank continually deeper into crisis. These words were Robinson’s final instructions to those fully the voyagers heeded his instructions. specially from that goodness and love indeed. . and will be as fuel was desperate. repute themselves highly in God’s favor. except you diligently quench it with broth- termined to eradicate the church. power. as religious strife and Venetian subversion brought England almost to the point of ungovernability. carefully provided for. Lastly. His “History” plays detail the murderous era you are at least for the present to have only them for of the Plantagenet monarchs. who. the situation facing the Leyden congregation ister continual occasion of offence. but also in yielding unto them execution of Mary Stuart in 1587. the Mayflower voyagers kept Robinson’s trust. shows how care. . . do highly esteem of them. . with loving to create Venetian kindness and mercy and all goodness towards men. The 1582 and zealous for them in the things. cation by Pope Pius V in 1570. because 3. not only in and manipulated Elizabeth. Such per- sons vainly imagine God to be like unto the most great men. . and Henry V in 1599 and Julius EIR October 27. disoriented let your wisdom and godliness appear. to be read by them on route to the New World. That with common employments. netian agents. . in each ing reverberations of the 1582 revolution in Venice. Venice brought though their dealings with others. produced in 1596. . that with your common employments you join common affections truly bent This crisis had been building for several decades. and are not long reign. The English and Dutch governments were de- for that fire. to wit. Political and military developments good. if their followers be obsequious to them in their persons. The Merchant of Venice. To their credit.

the separatist Ancient Brethren in 1572. tion of the jus gentium (law of nations). Law. year 1581 witnessed the creation of the first of the new joint. ated a series of lectures at the Spanish University of Sala- cus Gentilis (Alberico Gentile). emerged was a modern. therefore. and economics. and the Hampton Court Conference of 1604. with his beast or any other cattle. the Turkey Company. but not dominium proprietatis (the right of ownership). Caesar in 1600 should have dissuaded Essex and Southampton from their Among the Spanish and Portuguese epigones of Vito- suicidal coup attempt. [and] all that should come of him. Company. the state exists primarily to Law” against the absolutism of the Stuart monarchy. These were also the years in which Venetian-style finan. had paid his visit in earlier years. William of Orange (William the Silent) had raised Church in London was shut down. the situation became even worse. Robert Cecil. the first modern theories of free trade and property rights. including Cavendish and others. fies slavery. In 4. radically empiricist. and Thomas Hobbes. Under this theory. The state has a political allies of Coke. both at the Dom- vided that epistemological basis. and beginning from the contains a strong defense of the practice of enslaving native axioms of Roman Law. Earlier. a new school of international circle which included John Donne and Henry Wotton. In rapid succession. After the ascension of James I. dismisses the idea of a society based on the Com. In his major work. and a legal system grounded cial and trading institutions began to appear in London. from natural law—i. religious persecution be.. or to kill. Under his tutelage. the Aristotelian scholar Alberi. Greenwood. later. to justify their anti-human practices. and he to do with him. But the protect the institution of private property. at the Jesuit-run Coimbra Iuri Belli Libri Tres (Three Books on the Laws of War). all non-conformists. pro. Vitoria and his followers created populations. the Levant remain bound to his taker forever. The Netherlands chical state. Many leading English The Commonwealth figures now travelled to Venice and consulted with Paolo Sarpi. All tolerance was abandoned. as Throughout this entire period.e. Queen Elizabeth issued Royal Statute 35. were executed. In 1592.” into England. The New Paradigm in London Property Rights vs. Gentilis’s major work. and the first public auction of slaves in Virginia pression of all dissidents. or to sell. was the idea that individual private-property rights derive This idea. required that a new “philosophical” endish. trade. William Cav. The 1603 coronation of James I brought the Venetian party more fully into power in London. co-founded establishment of slavery in the new Virginia colony. by saying. pires. Coke defends the 1618 stock trading companies. 2006 . and then. to give. notion of The creation of a new Venice in London also required “Private Property Rights.”4 came more and more acute. this was fol. his will and pleasure. and. Barrow. the “father of English Common of the jus civile (man-made civil law). pany as early as 1618. Deeply Aristotelian. At Oxford. that private property is an institu- erty rights. De inican-run Salamanca and. it is not a creature temporary Edward Coke. mon Good. The in “private property rights. and justi- by Cecil and Walsingham. and began a relentless campaign against Brethren—events were also taking a very bad turn. 62 History EIR October 27. as the Church of England began to assume its role as a key institutional pillar of the new oligar. and the East India Company. were limited power of dominium jurisdictiones (the power to precisely the group intent on importing the Venetian system punish crime). also figured heavily in the work of Gentilis’s con. Institutes of the Laws of England. occurred in 1638. and religious non-conformity was brutally suppressed.” in direct opposition to the Re- new theories of international law. and instead argues for a theory of international One of the central propositions of the Salamancans law based on the primacy of private property rights (see box). What would later become major players in the Virginia Company. of the subjugation of the state to private prop. John Whitgift became the head of the In the Low Countries—the hoped-for haven of the Pilgrim Church of England. and Penry. justify the anti-Commonwealth practices of a new maritime/ In 1526 the Dominican friar Francisco de Vitoria initi- financial empire. ordering sup. who remained Secretary of State when The creation of the Portuguese and Spanish maritime em- James took the throne. law and monetary theory was developed. which University. In 1583. Both Hobbes and Cavendish rationale. more emphatically. the leader of a pro-Venetian manca. “An individual taken in battle should lowed by the founding of the Venice Company. to naissance ideal of the Commonwealth. trading companies. the Dutch and English Others in Sarpi’s orbit included Francis Bacon. and three of its principal leaders. Black African slaves were brought into Jamestown by the Virginia Com- 1593.” History books often portray Coke as the champion of private property precedes the existence of the (man-made) the “rights of Parliament” and the supremacy of the “Common nation-state. of a maritime/financial empire.

. Leonard de Leys (Lessius). was closely allied with Henry Wotton. began crossing reasons. strained as light. cannot in that In the second book of Locke’s Two Treatises on Gov. track. are by the Right of Nature subjugated to the created free and equal. 2006 History 63 . seek- ship. and his wants forced him to labour. Menchaca. previously a second-tier city.e. And hence subduing or cultivat- was written to justify global looting by the Dutch East ing the Earth. ‘the Law man was under. This rabid moneta- John Locke rism is earlier found in Navarrus and several other of the Locke’s collected works read like a hymn to Private Salamancans. albeit gradually at first.5 By sentiments freely. imbued with almost magical powers. was rather for appropriat- the Protestant north.” In 1581. So that God. Two years earlier. he bluntly states. state be considered as any part of civil society. is the preservation of their of slavery and the global slave trade. Reason. Gentilis Lowering of Interest and Raising the Value of Money. and the Dutch situation immediately went off the long as he has done nothing that works injury to another per. teaches us that truth can be as little re- that Union. that human freedom is liar Name. itself. forfeited their Lives. during the exact commanding to subdue. of Men’s uniting into Commonwealths. Man—as the beasts—has the right Absolute Dominion and Arbitrary Power of their Masters. it was a war for national salvation. were possessions. The writ.” i. not capable of any property. priate . His warped idea of human freedom derives from Slavery is. of Venice.the banner of revolt against the horrific religious persecution son. gave Authority so far to appro- period of the birth of the joint-stock trading companies. Property Rights: the holy trinity of the Anglo-Dutch mari- ation of the state. Slavery. which by a pecu- in a perfect “state of nature. as well as Venetian-allied emigre´ s from Antwerp. William the Silent was murdered by a Jesuit have no right to interfere with the conscience of anyone. By the 1580s. including Grotius. and the contrary has always been consid- 1579.’ ” intended to provide the legal and philosophical justifica. next page). At Oxford. and John Locke. Puffendorf. such as De Juri Belli Libri Ires. and the role of the state is to protect time paradigm. In Some Considerations of the Consequences of the tion for the new liberal imperial model. William had issued an order to over into the Netherlands. Free trade. issued a declara- Spanish Hapsburgs. The one gave Title to the other. end whereof is the preservation of property. the Magistrates of Middleburg. William insisted on the inclusion of a clause (Arti. as I say. Althusias. Albericus Gentilis. “Liberty has always consisted in uttering our Protestant rebellion. ria were Diego de Covarruvias. we see are joined India Company. Amsterdam. we call slaves. was built up as the new financial center. In the treaty which formalized sary of all tyrants. who being Captives taken in a indistinguishable from wild beasts: in nature all beasts are Just War. God Commanded. to defend his life. by Professor of Civil Law from 1580 to 1608. hundreds of English men and women.” fore. issue of money. According to These Men having. Domingo de Soto. and economic looting inflicted on the Netherlands by the which had been founded by William in 1575. History of Revolt of the Netherlands. The Dutch revolt was not a religious or tion which said. so assassin. this antagonistic state of nature still exists between it their Liberties. stating. and being in the individuals and between nations. Locke goes beyond simple property rights and raises the sador to Venice and confidant of Paolo Sarpi. Locke’s argument entails a bizarre interpretation of the and Martin de Azpilcueta Navarro (Navarrus). Book of Genesis: “At the beginning of mankind’s exis- ings of these authors had a pervasive influence on many in tence. property. and putting Grotius and Gentilis also are explicit in their defense themselves under Government. . the northern provinces had been liberated and the Union ered the characteristic of tyranny. as a “special” kind of property. and prohibiting the persecution of anyone for religious ing to escape persecution in their own land. the chief ernment. for Locke. ing.—Robert Ingraham EIR October 27. . [which] necessarily introduces private and his writings. “We declare that you But in 1584. Property. Fernando Vasquez de this property. That was his property which could not be taken from him Grotius’s Mare Liberum (The Freedom of the Seas) where-ever he had fixed it. the Netherlands was being transformed into the Venice of the north (see box.” cle 13) guaranteeing liberty of conscience in religious wor. liberty. and lost their Estates. which is the adver- of Utrecht was proclaimed. Albericus Gentilis was the Oxford Regius together. the English ambas. merely the epitome of property the Roman Law concept that humanity originally existed rights: “There is another sort of Servants. By 1600. state of slavery. with the direct financial backing 5. See Friedrich Schiller.” Private property rights existed before the cre. and with Locke. “The great and chief end there. and having Dominion. the Magistrates of the University of Leyden. and possessions.

Robinson flatly denies the validity of a “national” church. and enlist naval and don and Plymouth). it was in the final followed in 1608 by the opening of the Amsterdam Bourse years of Elizabeth’s reign. Other companies Although the Dutch East India Company (VOC) was included the Muscovy Company. in cooperation the Dutch East India Company (the Verenigde Oostindische with the Dutch government. He The Crisis: 1618-1620 emphasizes that a church is “a company . for the express purpose of challenging the “Venice Company” in 1583. Venice became the first drawn into the war. In 1601 England. and the two Virginia Companies (Lon- conclude treaties. Even more dangerous was the threat from London. —Robert Ingraham 64 History EIR October 27. Events in England were similar.5 million tons of Asian goods. and the London was founded. The English throne.” Leyden to the New World in America. of Directors of the East India Company. including the Banco Rialto. John Robinson and William Brewster made the the name of Christ by a covenant made to walk in all the ways momentous decision to remove their congregation from of God known unto them. This ments is starkly clear in a 1644 Proclamation of the Board would serve as the paradigm for the new financial institu.such as the families of Jan de Wael and Jacob Poppin. Island) Company. that the full Venetian financial system was put the Dutch East India Company was founded. gathered into In 1617. as the Dutch fleet patrolled the Adriatic the most dangerous critics of the Stuart regime in London. These developments included the founding of Amsterdam (Wisselbank).” In early 1618. the Vene. the 12 years of truce were now out: and there was nothing but rate. In Sea to protect Venice from a Spanish attack. and carried Five years after the 1582 political revolution which only 500. which de facto ruled the Netherlands. In 1606. 2006 . the British East India Company sent 2. guaranteeing that the Dutch would be of the Doge and Paolo Sarpi. as the controller of the Hapsburg monarchies and conquests. was targetting the Pilgrim church Compagnie. These companies went Spanish for control of the African slave trade. and carried more than 2. the VOC sent 4. this work. finally resulting in the creation of century the Dutch were the world’s largest slave-traders. build fortresses. In 1609. brought Paolo Sarpi’s Giovani party to power. and in 1609 by the founding of the Bank process began. thus putting into place the private financial triumvi. wished. All employees pledged an oath of alle. “The tions to be created in England and the Netherlands. In and Oldenbarnevelt’s son was sent to Venice as the first Dutch 1610. and then under James I. . . Netherlands was hopeless. John Robinson became one of facto military allies. the Dutch government offered military aid to the Dutch government signed a formal military alliance with Venice during the Interdict crisis. and the Netherlands. By mid. with the publication of his A Justification of Separation Ambassador.000 tons of goods. even if it was the King of Spain. the new stock market Europe. It After the assassination of William the Silent in 1585. during the same period. who the Vatican. if less advanced. In 1621 the Dutch West India Company London “Turkey Company” in 1581. Their situation in the In 1616. the Bermuda (Somers a “private company. As William Brad- opened. This was into place in England. “For next year. through several mergers. In comparison. In 1602. together with the rest of Oldenbarneveldt and Grotius. modeled directly on the of several joint-stock trading companies. which said. or VOC) was founded under the leadership of for destruction. and the Bank of Amsterdam began operations the ford. that the (stock exchange). would not be until the “Glorious Revolution” of 1688. By 1610. In 1608. Nevertheless. the beating of drums and preparing for war. was speeding headlong into war. but as the property of private merchants. Venice and the Netherlands were de from the Church of England. . the British East India Company in 1600. both founded in 1606.650 ships. later the Governor of the Plymouth Colony.785 A New Venice in the North ships to Asia. Venetian assets in the Netherlands gradually took control which brought the Dutch House of Orange to the throne of of the economic and political developments there. after the excommunication the Venetian Senate. The anti-Commonwealth nature of these develop- tian government founded the Banco Rialto in 1587. government to recognize Dutch independence from Spain. It dominated Asia trade for almost two centuries. William Brewster and Thomas Brewer estab- giance to the company. From 1602 to 1795. aiming to clone the Venetian oligarchical sys. The places and strongholds which they [the VOC] have cap- Giovani party also abandoned Venice’s traditional foreign tured in the East Indies should not be regarded as national policy. and the idea of royal supremacy over the church. wrote.” tem to England and the Netherlands. military personnel.” it was empowered to wage wars. and shifted into an alliance with England and were entitled to sell these places to whomsoever they the Dutch.

4. together with Robert Cushman. Sir Dudley Carleton. and right in voting. Robinson submit to the authority of the Crown and the hierarchy of the then made arrangements. in the Spring of 1620.” Shortly after this letter. That same year. 1620. 1619. Maurice personally intervened and ordered the merchants to break off negotiations. Brewster was a hunted man. in- volved in secret negotiations to effect the emigration of the Church to America. and Brewer was arrested. clipart. Devil rise their souls and bodies all in collops and cast them who had been in hiding for over one year. Carlton reports. John Robinson. incognito. the printing presses were located and seized. I persuade of the Pilgrim Press. On Oct. one of of Orange to secure the arrest of Brewster and the shutdown the participants. . in matters truly public and ecclesiastical.” On Jan. In response. The Genesis of America erated fully with the English manhunt against Brewster and Brewer. . but Prince would later provide most of the passengers on the Mayflower. published a steady flow of books and pamphlets attacking Robert Cushman and John Carver were forced to agree to James I and the leadership of the Church of England. Robinson published A Just and Necessary Apology. EIR October 27. adopted at the insistence of King James’ Privy Council. John Robinson was never allowed to leave the Nether- to Venice and a friend of Paolo Sarpi. 2006 History 65 . This was followed by several more letters from James and his Secretary of State.” Then he sent over to Holland. it is “by the people whose liberty. formerly the English Ambassador son. specifically outlawed the printing of all religious pamphlets and books by resident foreigners in the Nether- lands. including the States General. and stand for. . King James wrote a letter to Carleton. than 100 members of the Leyden Church sailed from the and for two years. the Privy Council blocked all efforts of the King James I in 1604 ordered all dissident religious factions to Pilgrims to emigrate. the States General banned all The Pilgrim exodus began on July 22. 23. wrote. Finding no outlet in England. little more than vassals. but he is not yet to be lighted upon. But the cost was high. we thus avow. in which he challenged the oligarchical system be- ing established in England. with Dutch mer- Church of England. At that onerous financial conditions. 1619. with the plan to join them later in the James stating that he has spoken personally with the Prince New World. to Amsterdam. with orders to shut lands. The majority of the congre- its location. with a royal arrest warrant over his head. which would make the colonists point. the Dutch States General banned the printing of any “slanderous” pamphlets in the Netherlands. as his new Ambassa. as well as the Stadtholder Maurice (the Prince of Orange). In describing the scene at Delft that day. Carleton sent a letter to King gation was left behind. Brewster slipped through the net and es- caped. On Sept. saying. The Dutch government. Edward Winslow. the “Mer- lished the Choir Alley Press. “Brewster keeps mostly myself. English and Dutch authorities searched for Dutch port of Delft (Delfshaven). In December 1618. He was not found in the Netherlands because he was already secretly back in England. At the same time.” The location of the press was secret. the Crown moved directly against the Leyden Church. and for the next 21⁄2 years they chant Adventurers. I shall lay wait for him there and in other places. agree- ment was reached with a group of English investors. This ban. ordering him to pursue and arrest Brewster. never people on earth lived more lovingly together. 13. coop. and others organized the independent congregation that chants to transport the congregation to America. when more “unlicensed In London. Finally. 1620. William Brewster.” to transport them. under the name of Master William- dor. the Merchants were King James issued orders to seize the printers and have “the adamant that Robinson would not be allowed to go. managed to board into hell. Robert Naunton. “Never. Through the remainder of 1619 and into 1620. Brewster. down the press and arrest the publishers. in April 1620. and efforts to find Brewster continued through November and December. 12. the Mayflower.

one half of the com.” The and reduce the Pilgrims to tenant farmers. and in 1627. attempted to take direct control of all New England coloniza. and in 1630. Gorges’s son sailed. and by the end of the decade. but henceforth largely independent diction of the Council for New England. Council of New England. had a whom the colonists still owed £1. Brewster. the passengers in these first four ships were known over from Leyden. year to continue the negotiations.800. Roger White. During that same period. almost seven weeks. which reached near and real starvation by the Winter of 1622. 2006 . In 1623. the Church of Leyden. Bradford. was renegotiated to £1. By the Autumn of 1623. 1620. the colony was under the thumb of both its survive unless they freed themselves from London’s interfer- financial controllers. issued a royal proclamation. Governor Bradford was able to obtain a new legal patent for tion by establishing a “proprietary” system of hereditary es. The separate towns. to be chosen by you into office of government. reiterat- there were about 180 people living in the colony. During the first two years of 1621 and land colonies. Gorges colony failed during the first Winter. but monopoly on English settlement in New England. there was an furnished with any persons of special eminence above the unsuccessful attempt by a group of the Merchant Adventurers rest. the colony finally with two Anglican clergy. arrived at Plymouth very ill. Allerton. including most definitely. A Commonwealth Seedling During 1623 and 1624. the colony. was very close to the Stuart mon. and tions to reach a deal to buy out the Merchant Adventurers. realm. Bradford. several attempts by John Robin. and the other Plymouth son to leave the Netherlands and emigrate to the Plymouth leaders never wavered from the parting instructions given to Colony were blocked by the Merchant Adventurers. and are not Church of England. in later that they would block all attempts to bring John Robinson years. which In November 1622. left them deeply in debt. with instruc- patent (legal right to emigrate). 1 and May 1. and the first house built became Charles I. because of the minister from the Church of England. the Merchant Adventurers. announcing that there a hospital. would be “one uniform government” throughout his entire pany died. which held their venturers. 21.and parted more sweetly than we. In 1625. sent a letter to William Bradford. with aspirations to a personal feudal empire in signed. the Plymouth Colony to have business dealings with anyone. This attempt was emigre´ s sailed first to England. Ferdinando Gorges. rian discipline. unless he would submit to the authority of throughout New England as the “old comers. 6. In the Summer of 1623. where they were delayed for defeated by the Pilgrims’ agents and allies in London. and its a second group.400. King James issued a royal proclama. and all its survi- vors returned to England. it included eight chusetts. and to “take control” of all of New England. was sent over the next leader. not only in choosing such per- 66 History EIR October 27. In the same year. out the Merchant Adventurers and assume their debt. as well as ence. undoubt. the Pilgrims existed in a condition of semi-famine. 1. Gorges tional brethren from Leyden into the colony. to establish a new colony in Massa. Passengers on the informed Brewster. This was a demand to accept total subservi- The Mayflower arrived at Plymouth on Dec.” and. particularly the oppressive control of the Merchant Ad- the royally chartered Plymouth Company. They were forced to change their port 1624. the new English King. ships. The first Winter was incredibly hard. to its later reincarnation the Council for New England. when the Merchant Adventurers sent over a Puritan of departure from London to Southampton. to be paid over nine years. This attempt failed. the Ann and the Little James. Most of the voyagers On May 13 of the same year. Two more ships arrived in 1628 and 1629. The Plymouth leadership knew that the colony would not From the start. began to thrive. the deacon of the (still 1622. them by John Robinson in 1620: “You are become a body edly acting on instructions from the Privy Council and the politic. In the 1630s. bringing addi- except those approved by Gorges. led by Isaac Allerton. A ence to the Episcopal Church. using among yourselves civil government. arrived 11 months later. warning of the deadly threat that this proclamation posed to 23. existing) Leyden Church. let your to take legal “property right” control of the Plymouth Colony wisdom and godliness appear. with land grants to the nobility. On Dec. the Fortune. new colonists arrived on two more refused to back down and expelled Lyford from the colony. making it illegal for from outside interference. They of whom were from the Leyden Church. This tion prohibiting unauthorized trade in the area under the juris. Mayflower became known as the “old stock.” the Anglican Church. The Plymouth Company. certainty that Brewster and others would have been arrested with written instructions that the Pilgrims adopt the Presbyte- in London. Master John Lyford. almost all ing their demand for a role in the Plymouth government. bringing ciated with the Church and the monarchy. and the other colony leaders. which gave them legal independence from the tates. The Pilgrim leaders 32 more colonists. Between Dec. the Virginia and New Eng- ing consumption”). Miles Standish was sent to London. and the political machine asso- second ship. the Merchants sent a letter to the colony. and they did not finally depart for The most serious attempt to force subjugation came in America until Sept. many from acute pulmonary tuberculosis (“gallop. a deal was archy. whereby eight of the Pilgrim leaders agreed to buy America. completely destroyed by drought. a promising crop was almost the Plymouth Colony.

2006 History 67 . he sent a letter to Plymouth reprimanding Standish and of the other Puritan and separatist churches. and his welfare my welfare. the colonists the church. of religious and civil government. and is the only maker and observer arrived in the colony. and keep them steadfast to their adopted mission. . . . . and to us to take knowledge of. wealth. . Reverence them. . come after with less difficulty. the colonists oped a model. Please them. in their treatment of the Indians. There was an absolute separation common good. It was hard to judge whether he delighted more The Plymouth Colony was not a theocracy. stating that.sons as do entirely love and will promote the common good. Robinson devel. and his care jority vote. let this self-seeking be left off. and retired from the the colony’s civil affairs. with its and their Indian friends jointly celebrated the first Thanksgiv- emphasis on agape¯ . The deaths of so Brethren. Unlike the Presbyterian system of almost all tion. hath given you the victory. since if it could be mended with lamenting. . . among the passen- absence of Robinson. sickness. yet I see not but the be bewailed.” Cushman’s sermon was based on first five years of the Plymouth Colony’s existence. comfort- In the Summer of 1623. his sorrows my sorrows. . Men are forced that you have been instruments to break the ice for others who to ask sometimes rather than starve. if not too many or too great. another letter from Robinson able. . This was codified with the adoption of a constitu. and to fully participate in close and cleaving to themselves. 21. the concept of Pilgrim Brethren. and turn 1621. . On Dec. .” And such a sweet sympathy were excellent. Robinson Yea such was the mutual love and reciprocal respect required that all Elders to be able to teach and lead the con. I hope. And none did more offend him than those who were ony. the ing—which occurred in fact. and in October of that year. which. . could not sufficiently now the world is so full of people. who had been recruited to Robin- the congregation. and what were called “Ruling Elders. for I am as he is. a treaty of peace was signed with the the participation of all members in the day-to-day affairs of local Indian tribes. . several persecuted he was also very able to give directions in civil affairs. When he was informed that organized its civil affairs is found in the nature of the Leyden Miles Standish had killed several Indians during a confronta- Church itself. said: After the news of the colony’s first catastrophic year reached Robinson. namely. him. Every man must seek the good of another. which explains why William Robert Cushman’s Sermon Brewster never served in the Plymouth government. . as the elected Elder of gers was Robert Cushman. in having such a preacher. the larger Charity ought to be. the phrase “Let no man seek his own but every man another’s from Leyden. Cushman preached a sermon to the Robinson’s Guidance 100 or so combined colonists at Plymouth. or they in having such a ginning. heavenly. it was Brewster. his sickness my though with the loss of divers. Titled “The Sin John Robinson died at Leyden in 1625. yea. he immediately dispatched a letter in June I charge you. son’s church in Holland from the Ancient Brethren congrega- tion. to sustain the colonists through their worst cri. . so that his wants must be should die. 1621. who led the Plymouth Church. but we must go unto them. How- it been to you to bear. In the When the Fortune arrived at Plymouth. . His love was great towards them. William Bradford would later write in On “Teaching Elders. and is not folklore. must exhibit “that tenderness of the life of man. God.” In 1621. From the be. . groups.” from I Corinthians 10:24. . oh! how grievous hath . saw in each one of its Brethren.” which were bureaucratic positions of authority.” In describing John Robinson. that this worthy man had to his flock and his flock to gregation. made after ism. . some may think this too large a practice.” Other Protestant churches had a hierar. . many. but indeed in all EIR October 27. . and they shall not more people there is. return unto us. the Leyden Church emphasized God’s image. Democratic in spirit. our dear friends and brethren. all major government officials were elected by ma. seek the good of your It said in part. Honor them. which was read to all the colonists at a public meeting. my wants. In this sermon. of religious toleration. potential for a human being to walk “in imitation of Christ. such as Quakers and Anabaptists. and church officials were banned from elective office. . They were all allowed to vote. pastor. the Pilgrim church. the stream another way. settled in the col. for besides his singular abilities in divine things. .” their lawful administrations. . . the honor shall be yours to the but also in yielding unto them all due honor and obedience in world’s end. Plymouth Plantation: chy of a minister. which would later be called Congregational. . “Much beloved Brethren. More to the point. as the years passed. In a battle it is not looked for but that divers We are bound each to other. it is thought well for a side if it get the victory. soever.” Robinson also intervened in the problem of the colony’s The paradigm for the way in which the Plymouth Colony relations with the native Indians. . Because of the Pilgrims’ policy body. but in those crucial and Danger of Self Love. saying. and his leadership of the Robinson also initiated a unique innovation. Cushman ses. . “Let it not be grievous to you of Churches and commonwealths. was always bent for their best good. he fought. both for soul and tion for the colony in 1636.

” gers. He instituted programs of public education. let the show be what it will. a new wave of immigrants arrived in New Eng. affable. threat. than for men to live as one. fervently. on the eve of their departure from Eng. If there is any doubt about the unique orientation of the Plymouth Colony. urging the advantages of set- tling in the New World. What is man if he be not sociable. which. yet except they understood the Puritans’ mission as the creation of a new nation. being of one heart. or hoping for Office. . the substance is naught. • The colonists will be “as a City upon a Hill. he published a pam. . led by John Winthrop. an independent currency. which swept away so John Winthrop. Men come out of discontentment in re- gard to their estates in England. . Place. John Winthrop and the Boston of his creator and the Common good. founder of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. . Europe. kind. the latter from the In 1626. • Justice—“Everyman to love his neighbor as himself. Winthrop’s notable comments include: so that we delight in each other. 2006 . .” nists.” This pamphlet • God made men different so that “every man might have was widely read during the 1620s. if it be not looked to. • “We ought to account ourselves knit together by this tan expedition consisting of ten ships and over 800 passen. or fleshy Liberty. labor and 68 History EIR October 27. . whilest they lived in England. he is a beast in the shape of a man. phlet. and edge to all goodness. Dignity. of all people are upon us. many of our loving friends and brethren. Nothing in this world doth more resemble heavenly happiness. law of grace.” Additional reenforcements came over during the next three • Mercy—“Each man to help others. “A man must not respect only to live and do good to himself. and that bird of self love which was hatched at home.” In March 1630. John Winthrop delivered an address to the Puritan colo. . mourn together. The eyes land.” land with the establishment of the Puritan Colony in Salem. . and are become mere worldlings.” • Society must be based on “two rules whereby we are to Colony walk one towards another: Justice and Mercy. but for the glory 5.” “No man is made more honorable than another . Emigration to America. and have now lost even the sap of grace. bond of love. . . affecting it to be Gentlemen. and aiming at great matters here. Virginia colony: It is reported that there are many men gone to that other Plantation (Jamestown) in Virginia. In can afford. manufacturing. out of any particular and singular respect to himself. societies it should be offered to them. beyond what he years. and leading to the rapid settlement • “The care of the public must oversway all private in- of Boston. zealous. and conscionable. nearly together in the band of brotherly affection. and that cruel mortality. liberal. and live in the exercise of it. will eat out the life of all grace and goodness: and though men have escaped the danger of the Sea. . but he should see where he can live to do most good to others. purge out this self-love. witnessed the arrival of the large Puri. prob. of Christian Charity. Landed men. in the very same sermon Cushman warns the Plymouth colonists about the developments occurring at the Jamestown. and other measures which the English monarchy came to view (correctly) as a mortal When Cushman returned to London. a worse mischief is prepared for not based on the feudal-oligarchical principles which governed them. the banner year. In it he wrote. .” 1630. seemed very religious. The former derived from the Natural Law of Creation. This speech was later published under the title A Model • “We must love one another with a pure heart. terests. need of other. and influenced many. . including the Puritan leader John Endicott in 1628. and from hence they might all be knit more ably including the circles around John Winthrop. . free-hearted.

it was producing a ton of setts government enacted a law. livestock. “Zeal is but a wild fire without knowledge. We must bear one another’s burdens. Winthrop denounced “the common rule The Pilgrims and Winthrop’s Puritans were bound to- that most men walked by in all their commerce. .” provided it produced finished bar iron. 20-year monopoly on iron production. He battled all attempts of the London merchants and speculators to loot the colony with policies of The Pilgrims and the New England Puritans free trade and usury. even before the Pilgrims left Leyden. .” a lengthy description of the Puritan colonization. . Massachu. nine men to set prices on incoming items.” more vicious of his Puritan critics. and on the condition Public Education: it could export only that portion that was not needed in New In 1635. In friendship.e. with not a single European set- Winthrop fought for an economic policy based explicitly tlement. Graham Lowry’s How brother or neighbor. Winthrop wrote. Another bill provided that the Commonwealth • “Men should labor to love one another. The second book published Faced with the widespread bankruptcy among farmers. and in a 1639 ser. the Massachusetts government ratified a “Body eral Court promised the company free land. “No increase to be taken of a poor political source for that story is in H. for anything lent unto him. the ironworks was relocated to a more suitable College and University) opened. This developed into a deep as another would give for it if he had occasion to use it. and in In 1642. left paid with grain.” the Nation Was Won.” in England). This step short-circuited highlights follow: the attempts by London creditors to impose a financial stran- Liberty and Republican Government: glehold on the colony. ther with the creation of its own mint. and to sell as dear. New England Cambridge College (later Harvard In 1647. and within one year. in 1648. such a price as is usual in the time and place. warehouses. to buy as gether by more than just their joint commitment to the Com- cheap as they could. and honest. can liberty. The connection between the two groups began One initiative was the idea of a “just price. or pos- are set.. the first free grammar school opened in Boston. tain of Life. . If he hath present means of repaying thee. as well. We have not long to live in this On the question of usury. But a brief description of the dirigist In 1652. In 1640. setts debtors could not be brought to court by their creditors The political connection. “A man may not sell above the current John Robinson began a correspondence with the English Puri- price. An inventory showed 113 tons of iron on hand. Winthrop set forth his notion of republi. look at him.” but also the higher Civil the founding of “The Company of Undertakers for the Iron (or Federal) liberty. just. “Thou must life yet we shall here remain as long as our appointed times observe whether thy brother hath present or probable. and their friendship the General Court (the Massachusetts government) appointed deepened after the Winthrop fleet arrived in 1630. of debt must be tried where the plaintiff lives (i.” mon Good. him. a of Liberties. . John Cotton said. governor. and the issuance of its strate how aggressively the Puritans pursued that goal. and harbor the assume the debts of those unable to pay. and the government enacted debt relief. and allowed debts to be Henry James. by the Brewster-Brewer press was a work by Ames. to be worse than brute beasts..” As John Cotton said in Christ the Foun. economic development. not as an act of mercy. . a trimming mill. who would years later be described by case private men cannot agree on a common estimate. with a “Declara. the Massachu. and Ames. 100 families or more shall provide free common and grammar a refinery.” sible means of repaying thee. the ironworks included a blast furnace.” first ironworks opened in Braintree. and in 1647. which “makes men grow more evil. The best John Cotton said. thou The coherence of these views with those of John Robinson must give him according to his necessity. Massachusetts. private wharf. storage barns. site in Saugus. and other privileges. England. if there be none of these. .” In 1635. a Puritan minister and close ally of Ames. saying that there is the natural liberty of beasts to Manufacturing: do what one likes. the Pine Tree shilling.e. Jr.” and this was followed. originated during the EIR October 27. with one or more of the council will be able to make became a staunch defender of Robinson.” All this was accomplished in an area which only 20 years Economic and Monetary Policy: earlier had been a wilderness. rather then lend and the Pilgrim Brethren is obvious. This article is not the place for wherein thou art to walk by the rule of Justice. 2006 History 69 . and provided the needed capital for In a 1645 speech. the Massachusetts government went a step fur- measures undertaken by the Winthrop leadership will demon. John Winthrop. i. . modelled on Robinson’s Leyden congregation. organized time. The religious connection goes back to at least 1611. best thoughts one of another. the New World’s good. . but by way of commerce.suffer together. which “is liberty to that only which is Works in New England. . and a school instruction. tion of Laws and Liberties. They also ruled that legal cases the Netherlands in order to establish a new church in London. on the Common Good. wealth in the New World. etc. thou art to The mission of John Winthrop was to create a Common. . against some of the the matter clear.” Two years later. when mon. requiring that “every town of iron per day! By 1650. the Cotton Mather as the “greatest” of the Puritan theologians. . Some own currency. and tan theologian William Ames.. The Gen- In 1641. Winthrop’s son. tax exemption.

Massachusetts in 1642. In May 1619. and the survival of the Salem ing that the colony’s leaders return the royal charter to the venture would not have been possible without aid from Ply. England did depart from the Presbyterian Government. These developments provoked strong opposition in England. the Cambridge (Massachusetts) quests from Pilgrim representatives in London who were pre. In the Summer of 1630. extensive discussions were held in Boston between John Win- throp and the Pilgrim Samuel Fuller. after the triumph of the Puritans in the English Civil enlisted the support of the Earl of Lincoln. the Massachusetts project was mouth.” On July 25. a second Puritan But the Massachusetts project survived. In 1629. and others. 2006 . on the Plymouth “congregational way. Winthrop with Winthrop on the voyage to Boston. sultation on pressing matters. the Salem Colony adopted the Plymouth under constant attack from the Venetian faction in London. Winthrop wrote a letter to the Salem church. The Pilgrim leaders Fuller. Church Synod formally endorsed the New England Congre- pared to pay for it. . moved to Plymouth and became the pastor of years later hosted the meeting at his home where the Massa. Brewster and Cushman then. and again in 1638. William Brewster On the eve of the 1630 Winthrop expedition. In his work Way of the Con- gregational Churches. Cotton speaks of Robinson with nothing but praise. originally built in Braintree. and the company did approve the patent Cotton of Boston and Winslow of Plymouth both sent to settle within their territories. Although persecution should agree upon Church Government before some within the Virginia Company had held out the prospect they depart from hence. “The Brethren in New apply for an emigration patent for a colony in northern Vir.” Later. at Charlestown. ginia [“Virginia” covered a much larger area then. 1630. industrial enterprise.” of financial support. the support of the Plymouth leadership. Two years later. greatly aided by church. Throughout the 1630s. . and would die in the encountered violent opposition against his emigration plans new Massachusetts Colony. and in 1648. His guests included Charles 70 History EIR October 27. followed the Salem model. Congregational Church system. Cotton would abandon the Presbyterian practices of the English Puritans and adopt the principles of church organization laid down by John Robinson. from the same Ferdinando Gorges who had earlier tried to When John Endicott arrived at Salem in 1628 to establish destroy the Plymouth Colony. The gational Church system. Bradford. Lincoln’s sister Arabella would later sail not only religious in character. from both Leyden years. and Allerton were all present in Salem when the letter was received. and they played a major role in framing the reply. than it does This mischief had been prevented if my counsel had been today. John Cotton. defending the New England church the company leadership denied transport despite repeated re. Later. advised the Puritan emigrants to “take the advice of them at Plymouth. . The patent was therefore never used. no aid was forthcoming. the War. and England for the voyage to America. in Boston. for con- who would become the pastor of the Boston Puritan church. the Pilgrim church. chusetts Bay Company was created and where Winthrop was The attacks from London on the Boston Colony were elected as Governor. as well as from leading Puritans. was regularly visited at Plymouth by Boston leaders. In their 1617-19 efforts to obtain support in the Anglican hierarchy.]. where it became a booming mouth for meetings with Brewster. which was that brethren driven thither by Episcopal southern part of what is now New York State—ed. in 1669. Crown. and in 1630. he was immediately befriended Privy Council of King Charles sent letters to Boston demand- by the Plymouth leadership. Winthrop travelled to Ply- The (reconstructed) Saugus Iron Works in Massachusetts. Cotton’s son. was relocated to Saugus in 1647. In 1634. One London Earl sent his chaplain John Wincob to King James’ Court to Puritan leader charged the Bostonians. Northern Virginia probably referred to roughly the taken. asking for advice on establishing a Boston church. and replies back to London. practices. also obtainer of that patent was the same Lord Lincoln who ten named John. Winslow. from the new Puritan rulers in England. As early as 1629. the a permanent Puritan colony.

1970). William Bradford.. & historical memorial of the books printed at Leyden by the Pilgrim Marjorie Grice-Hutchinson. Jacobean Gentleman: Sir Edwin Sandys. 1952). available at http://mem- and Netherlands about 14. Mather and Benjamin Franklin. By then the tree tion. a bibliographical Monetary Theory..S. Oldenbarnevelt (Cambridge. and it lasted for 50 1920) the New England Confederation. Tudor England through Venetian Eyes (London: Williams of the Pilgrims (Boston: Houghton. 2002). Albert Eekhof. the last surviving pas. John Robinson Brewster’s eldest son. Three unknown documents concerning the Pilgrim fathers in Salamanca Holland (The Hague: M. of Cotton sity of California Press. helped found the new The Collected Works of John Robinson. Edward Winslow. became a Deputy to the Colony Court (legislature). Chief of the Pilgrims: or. Ltd. The Anthological Society. New York: Harcourt. he moved to New London and Doctrinal Tract and Book Society.larouchepub. (Princeton: Princeton University Press. In 1643. including De Jure Praedae Commentaris be joined politically as well as philosophically. Rabb.html. These William Sterry-Cooper. the total population of New England was about 43. Knopf. Aspects of Hobbes (Oxford: Clarendon Press. Venice and the Defense of Republican Liberty (Univer- is “to do good. 1901). educated in the idea of a society Venice/Sarpi based on the Common Good. the second president of New England Cambridge Edward Winslow. The Dutch Seaborn Empire (New York: Alfred A. The Pilgrim Press.larouchepac. 1930). The Pilgrims Noel Malcolm. a separate political entity. where the purpose of one’s life William J. The Pilgrim fathers at Leyden. 1544-1605 (Oxford: Clarendon Press. the first attempt to establish Ozora S. ster (Freeport. Kossmann. Albericus Yale School of Management.C.html. England: Reliance are too numerous to list here. Other Holland (Leyden: Published on the initiative of the Municipal Corpora. Edward Winslow and William Bradford. 1920). serving Words of John Robinson [microform] (Boston: Directors of the Old South together Mary Allerton Cushman. School. The School of Salamanca: Readings in Spanish Rendel Harris and Stephen K. generation was emerging. The Confedera.. Bouwsma. History of Plymouth Plantation: from the original manu. Ltd. England: University Press. Bromley. 1899). senger of the Mayflower. Verburgt. 7. EIR October 27. Venture Shares in the Dutch East India Company (New Haven: In Printing Works. and a new Jan den Tex. translation by John Rolfe (Oxford. Henceforth. How the Nation Was Won: America’s Untold Story at http://members. The Life and Time of William Brew- Francisco de Vitoria. 2003). Britain and the Netherlands in Europe and Asia (New York: Macmillan.W. Nijhoff. Burgess. De Indis et de Ivre Belli Reflectiones (1532). and www. (Washington. ex-archivist of Leyden. 1920). tion had its own legislature.000 in Connecticut. www. 1955). Hartford Seminary Press. 1933). 1973).htm.: Executive Intelligence Review. available at http:// Richard D. but can be found at www. died. 2006 History 71 . The Sovereignty of Venice in the Adriatic (1615) commitment. (Australia: Allen & Unwin Pty.. De Iuri Belli Libri Tres (Three Books on the Laws of Bibliography War). Early Economic Thought in Spain 1177-1740 fathers (Cambridge. John Robinson. pastor of the Pilgrim fathers: a study of his life and times (London: Williams and Norgate. available at http:// Various original documents.Y. available from The Avalon Project at Yale Law members. and allied to. and they would eventually succeed in establish- ing the first independent republican Commonwealth in the England long history of the human species. voted to become part of Massachusetts and ceased to exist as 1965).com/calebj/mourt. College. Theodore K. 1922). Good Newes from New England (1624). their destinies would Hugo Grotius’s major writings. Mourt’s Relation (1622). articles by Lyndon H. 1561-1629 script (Boston: Wright & Potter. the Plymouth Colony Charles 1905). 1998). J. state printers. Graham Lowry. LaRouche. John Norton. who later succeeded John Cotton as the pastor of his church in Boston. Marjorie Grice-Hutchinson. available H. In 1691. The Early History of Banking in England (London: members. In 1648.” The next New England generations. Jones. Dr. J.000 in Plymouth.H. Gurney Salter. Robert with one half in Massachusetts John Robinson (1575?-1625) (London: Hodder and 1675. By Rev. John Winthrop. Mifflin.html. and Helga Zepp-LaRouche. 1897).J. John Robinson. Powicke. The England and Holland E. bringing to an end the temporal Friedrich Schiller. Jonathan. Edward Winslow (Halesowen. 1929). would remain true to that Paolo Sarpi. 1968). Henry Martyn Dexter and his son Morton Dexter. January 1978).Chauncy. (Commentary on the Law of Prize and Booty). E. Work. and also Rev. Books for Libraries Press.. of republicanism and agape¯ had taken firm root. pastor of the Pilgrim fathers (Hartford: regional self-government in the New World. History of the Revolt of the Netherlands (English transla- mission of the original Plymouth settlers.yale. 1953). England: W. Jr. Connecticut colonies of New Haven and Hartford to create Brace & Heffer & Sons Ltd. 1968). The Sin and Danger of Self Love (1621). Ashbel Steele. Jr. 1988). Conclusion Larry Neal. F. N. Davis. 1903?). Plymouth and Massachusetts joined with the Walter H. Richards. & Norgate Ltd. Hypocricie Unmasked (1646). On Nicholas of Cusa and the Commonwealth principle in history. 1851).000 Stoughton. pastor of the Pilgrim fathers (Boston: Connecticut colony. and Mare Liberum (The Freedom of the Seas or the Right Which Belongs to the Dutch To Take Part in the East Indian Trade). see various tion of Leyden.