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**Study on Load-bearing Characteristics of Different Types of Pile
**

Group Foundations for an Offshore Wind Turbine

Ruiqing Lang, Run Liu*, Jijian Lian, and Hongyan Ding

**State Key Laboratory of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety
**

Tianjin University www.cerf-jcr.org

Tianjin 300072, China

ABSTRACT

Lang, R.; Liu, R.; Lian, J., and Ding, H., 2015. Study on load-bearing characteristics of different types of pile group

foundations for an offshore wind turbine. In: Mi, W.; Lee, L.H.; Hirasawa, K., and Li, W. (eds.), Recent

Development on Port and Ocean Engineering. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue, No. 73, pp. 533-541.

Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.

www.JCRonline.org Elevated pile-cap foundation is one of the most popular foundation types for offshore wind turbines. Form selection

and design are the keys in the construction of offshore wind farms. Because offshore wind turbines are high-rise

structures, a reasonable and applicable foundation can ensure the normal operation of wind turbines. Meanwhile, it can

decrease the size of foundation and reduce the cost of construction effectively. Four types of pile group foundations

named BPG-type, SPG-type, VPG-type, and CPG-type are developed. Combined with laboratory model experiments, a

numerical simulation method is established and verified in this paper. The vertical bearing capacity, horizontal bearing

capacity and bending bearing capacity are studied comparatively with the numerical simulation method. Combined

with practical engineering, the applicability of the foundations is evaluated. The results indicate that BPG-type and

SPG-type have the stronger vertical bearing capacity, horizontal bearing capacity and bending bearing capacity than

VPG-type and CPG-type in the same amount of steel. In addition, batter piles can effectively increase the bearing

capacity of pile foundations. The VPG-type needs to increase the size of foundation to meet the requirements of wind

turbine operation. In practical engineering, the combination of vertical piles and batter piles can increase the bearing

capacity of pile group foundations and decrease the cost of construction.

**ADDITIONAL INDEX WORDS: Elevated cap, pile group foundation, vertical bearing capacity, horizontal bearing
**

capacity, bending bearing capacity.

________________________________________________________________________________

**INTRODUCTION studied the axial and horizontal operating performance of
**

Wind power has been favored by several countries in recent different types of foundations. Accurate approximate

years (Zhang et al., 2013). Influenced by a complex approaches to the analyses of pile groups including batter piles

combination of loads including the wind loading and wave were proposed (Hsiao, 2012). In the study on horizontal bearing

loading, the large horizontal loads and moments are transferred capacity, a full-scale lateral load test was conducted on a

to the foundations of wind turbines, which have huge shape and batter-pile group foundation to study the horizontal bearing

high tower. Therefore, the foundations which support the characteristics of inclined piles. A seventh-order polynomial

superstructure have been required at a higher standard. curve fitting method was proposed to deduce the bending

Currently, the types of foundations used for offshore wind moment and the shear force (Abu-Farsakh et al., 2011; Pathak

turbines include large-diameter single pile, pile group, tripod, et al., 2011). It was determined that the inclined pile had an

jacket, gravity base, bucket, floating, etc (Byrne and Houlsby, advantage in resisting horizontal forces through the analysis of

2006). The pile group foundations have been widely used in inclined piles (Kavazanjian, 2006; Kim and Brungraber, 1976).

offshore wind farms in China. The Donghai Bridge Offshore In the study on vertical bearing capacity of batter piles, it was

Wind Farm is the Asia's first large-scale offshore wind farm to indicated that an inclined pile had a greater horizontal resistance

use a high-rise cap pile group foundation successfully (Lin et al., compared to that of a vertical pile (Lv, Yin, and Jin, 2011;

2007). It is useful and meaningful for developments of theoretic Zhang, McVay, and Lai, 1999). Vertical bearing and settlement

study, simulation method and engineering constructions to study features were simulated for large-diameter and super-long steel

the complex load carrying mechanism of pile group foundations pipe piles in FLAC3D. The pile lateral friction resistance

in offshore (Byrne and Houlsby, 2003; Matutano et al., 2014; changed intricately with depth, which was closely related to the

Soldo, Ivandic, and Babic, 2005). soil characteristics (Zhang et al., 2011). The loading transfer

Currently, several domestic and foreign researchers have mechanism of piles was summarized that load sharing behavior

____________________

of piles and soil were comparatively studied through the

DOI: 10.2112/SI73-093.1 received 6 August 2014; accepted in revision 6 comparison of the model test results of single pile foundation,

November 2014. single pile foundation with cap and vertical pile group

*Corresponding author: liurun@tju.edu.cn foundation with different space length (Zhang et al., 2005). The

© Coastal Education & Research Foundation, Inc. 2015 vertical bearing capacity of a special pile group of platform in

and Liu. 2005). as indicated in kN. m×1. which are the cap. Vertical Bearing Capacity Wind turbines are such high-rise structures that they are Vertical loading force was applied at the top of the cap. only the wall thickness. Based on the strong vertical As indicated in Figure 4. 2014. 2013).. the strong horizontal and the displacement of the foundation is linear when the load is bearing capacity and flexural capacity of the inclined piles. 2012. The vertical. covering an area measuring three times smaller than the The inclined piles are evenly distributed along the control circle. the foundation model consisted of The foundations of wind turbines bear relatively small seamless steel pipes. which are conducted by an offshore wind density was 1. and test data was organized. a pulley foundations of wind turbines. the length of the piles and the design of a pile foundation in the offshore wind farm. which has little effect on the PROJECT OUTLINE OF DIFFERENT TYPES bearing capacity. The deformation of displacement of the top of the foundations and ensure the good the soil surface observed after the completeness of loading is operation of wind turbines become an important concern in shown in Figure 5. 2009) and collector. which is especially important for the frequency-variable three-phase asynchronous motor. a loading system and a data capture also proposed to study the pile vertical bearing capacity (Cao. The sensors include pull-press sensors. The specific gravity of the soil grain was 2. therefore how to effectively reduce the foundation model is presented in Figure 4. The regarding the application of pile group foundation in the field of vertical hydraulic loading device is divided into a three-phase offshore wind power. was not scaled down completely to 1:100. Therefore. 2015 . Shao. Yan. METHOD 2012). 2012).60 g/cm3. an small. The thickness of the soil was foundations in this area is needed a further exploring. VPG-type and CPG-type. 1. and Yan. Due to the limits associated with the processing materials. Figure 1. The real-time data is passed foundations are needed to ensure the wind turbines operate on to the computer through the dial gauge. large horizontal load and moments. Besides. 2011. Wang. the slope of the offshore wind power research team in Tianjin University has load-displacement curve increases rapidly.2 Zhao. The scaled-down parameters is evaluated. The data capture system consists of sensors and a (Kenan and Öztürk. safely. Lu. a numerical foundation named BPG-type.. VPG-type includes several based on the existing results of pile group model test (Zhuo et inclined piles and vertical piles. Zhan. Special Issue No. Journal of Coastal Research. and Liu. when the loading force is complete. The sea sand was filled into the model tank in a stratified To study and develop new types of the high-rise cap pile manner.5 m. The model of a super-large pile group was developed to study the mechanical action. was 2 m) was selected as the bending bearing capacity are studied comparatively. and particularly sensitive to horizontal displacements (Guo. The load-displacement curve of the Qiu. size of the cap.4 BPG-type. SPG-type. BPG-type effect was studied with several methods. program ABAQUS is established and verified based on model was 40 m. which are cross-evenly al. the model test apparatus consists of horizontal load (Xie et al. Wang. an offshore gas field without the consideration of pile group the center of which is located at the center of the cap. Liu.5 m. No large bulge appears on the surface. including the method consists of several inclined piles. named point appears. the distribution feature of internal Model Tests force and the deformation behavior of pile group under As indicated in Figure 2. and Liu. The results provide a basis for the optimization included the diameter of the piles. A weld was used to connect the piles and vertical load. inclination degree. As FOUNDATIONS indicated in Figure 3. Furthermore. test (Hibbitt and Sorensen. The horizontal displacement of the top of the Analysis of Test Data foundation is large and difficult to control under a large moment. which consists of several inclined simulation method with the finite element analysis software piles. As shown in Figure 1.534 Liu et al. 2002). the applicability of the foundations scaled-down ratio of 1:100. there is less study in the induction motor and a single-acting hydraulic cylinder. Numerical analysis methods involving finite element distributed along the control circle. a dial gage for geological conditions are complicated. Load demands have been changed and wire ropes jointly constitute the horizontal motor loading so the design of larger wind farm has become more important system. piles. new types of displacement and a depth sensor. was 9. With an increase in the load. method (FEM) were widely used to understand the bearing capacity behavior of piles and then numerical methods were MODEL TESTS AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION established (Ribeiro and Paiva. SPG-type consists of a large-diameter a local subsidence appears on the surface of the soil surrounding pile and several small diameter and buried length inclined piles. The net dimensions of the model tank are 1. 2012). system.67. and its group foundation. According to the developed pile group power research team in Tianjin University. Φ. the elevated pile-cap foundation (length of the piles.2 m×1. 73. and an inflection studied and developed four types pile group foundations. 2012). and Li. designing a offshore wind farm. the relationship between the load bearing capacity of the large-diameter pile. Liu. L. and the method which are connected by the cap. which are evenly distributed of linear elastic theory recommended by the Code of Pile along the control circle. The loading system includes a vertical hydraulic The above-described findings provide good references loading system and a horizontal motor loading system. other methods were three parts: a model tank. diameter of a single pile. and the applicability of different types of pile group The testing sand was sea sand. the model featured a with practical engineering. The vertical bearing capacity of BPG-type is 5. As indicated in Figure 5. total numbers piles. CPG-type includes several vertical piles Foundation in Port Engineering (JTJ254-98). load characteristics of wind turbine foundations (Tang. and diameter of pile. Combined prototype of the model. n. A bending bearing capacity. D. However. horizontal and was 8°.

BPG-type Horizontal Bearing Capacity Horizontal loading force was applied at the top of the cap. The load-displacement curve of the foundation model is presented in Figure 6. Uplift appears on the soil under the control circle of BPG-type. the soil surface observed after loading was complete is shown in Figure 7. Load-settlement curves of BPG. Figure 4. and test data was organized. The pricking destruction happens. Journal of Coastal Research. Special Issue No. Map of model test apparatus. Reaction Beam Hydraulic cylinder Dial gage Pull-press sensor Model Motor Model tank Figure 2. 73. Photo of test models. Map of different foundations. The deformation of Figure 3. 2015 . Study on Load-Bearing Characteristics for an Offshore Wind Turbine 535 Figure 1.

With an increase in the load. As indicated in Figure 6. the elasticity modulus is 24 MPa. significant traces of movements Journal of Coastal Research. is 2. μ. the appears on the soil under the control circle of BPG-type in both BPG-type experiment was simulated. Deformation on the surface of soil. As indicated in Figure 9(b). E.5m R=1. Obvious uplift Based on the actual size of the laboratory model test. 2015 . the deformation in the numerical To eliminate the side effect. The numerical analysis test and simulation.1×1011 Pa and Poisson’s ratio. Poisson's ratio is 0.850 kg/m3. (a) BPG-type Figure 7.0 kN/m3. subsidence. Loads on finite element model used in analyses. Deformation on the surface of soil. However. The density of steel. and an inflection Figure 9. Figure 9 reveals a comparison between the deformation of soil under a single vertical load and a single horizontal load in Figure 5. Under the small influence of As indicated in Figure 9(a). Special Issue No. model is provided in Figure 8. The surrounding piles. the slope of the load-displacement curve increases rapidly. The horizontal bearing capacity of the foundation groups: (a) Vertical loads. is BPG-type 0. (b) Lateral loads.536 Liu et al. Figure 6. model is 496 N. the size of simulated soil takes simulation and the test deformation are relatively similar. The unit weight is loading procedure is complete. Load-settlement curves of BPG. there is no integral settlement throughout the soil. ρ. However. 73. A significant stress concentration appears in the area of Numerical Simulation Method contact and spreads to the surrounding soil. a local depression appears in the direction of load behind the model. the Young’s modulus. a complete deformation does not sinking of the soil affects the soil nearby and forms a local appear.3. As indicated in Figure 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 16. the relationship between the load and the displacement of the foundation is linear when the load is (b) small. The Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion is applied to the soil. is 7. the deformation in the numerical the depression. When the actual size of the laboratory model test. the numerical simulation with the test deformation.2m Figure 8.3. V M H RP H=1. The foundation is assumed to be a perfectly elastic constitutive model made of steel. deformation appears on the surface of the soil simulation and test deformation are relatively similar. Comparison between FEM results and test deformation of pile point appears. the internal friction angle is 32° and the cohesion is 2 kPa.

SPG-type has a stronger group foundations. 54. the effective range of deformation is limited. and an inflection point appears. the relationship between the load and the displacement of the foundations is linear when the Table 1.0 inflection point of SPG-type appears at the last and Vu is relatively great. As indicated in Figure 11(a). vertical bearing capacity and VPG-type has a weaker capacity. is relatively small. Inflection points appear Under a vertical load. Results of pile group foundations: (a) Load-settlement curves of foundations. V and a complete deformation does not appear.9%.3 30. The development foundations in a single soil layer is analyzed comparatively of the tangent of pile body is more severe. In conclusion. With VPG-type as a benchmark. Study on Load-Bearing Characteristics for an Offshore Wind Turbine 537 of the piles appear. RP. in this report is applicable to the simulation of high-rise cap pile 11. whereas that of under a single force. V. Special Issue No. respectively. TYPES OF FOUNDATION As indicated in Figure 11(b). which causes the soil near the piles to 1.0 0. presented in Figure 11.4 kN. Load-settlement curves of new types of pile group: (a) Vertical loads. The parameters of soil are shown in Table normal direction is slower. (b) Lateral loads. which is located at the top of the caps. 2015 . With an increase in load. The 7. and M Figure 10 compares the test and simulated load-displacement indicates a bending moment load. In this simulation. The inflection Unit Weight Elastic Modulus Cohesion ratio Friction angle point of VPG-type appears earlier and the corresponding γ/(kN/m3) E/(MPa) c/(kPa) μ φ/(°) ultimate vertical bearing capacity. whereas that of the test system is 496 N. curves of BPG-type. load is small. 73. Vu. Vu of In conclusion. Parameters of soils in FEM simulation.0 0 10. under the vertical loading. N. When the vertical piles and inclined Journal of Coastal Research. As indicated in Figure 10. H or M are applied at point deform. In this figure. and changes between the pile groups are similar. The bearing capacity of different region appears near the end of the pile body. However. the numerical simulation method established BPG-type. (a) (a) (b) (b) Figure 11. The numerical simulation method established in this report is PEEQ develops along the pile body and a complete plastic used to complete the analysis.7%. When the model is complete. the load-displacement curves of in both of these curves. The vertical bearing capacity of the test different foundations and the plastic region of soil (PEEQ) are system is 5.5 kN. The combination of a large-diameter pile and several inclined ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY OF DIFFERENT piles strengthen the vertical bearing capacity of foundations. Figure 10. H indicates a horizontal load. indicates a vertical load. the displacement of the pile group Poisson's Internal increases rapidly. the simulation curves and the Comparison of Vertical Bearing Capacity measured curves are relatively similar. whereas that of the simulated system is 5. (b) Distributions of PEEQ. SPG-type and CPG-type increases by 33. u indicates a vertical The horizontal bearing capacity of the simulated system is 500 displacement.7%.

θ indicates an angle displacement. and changes between the pile groups are similar. In conclusion. 23. under ultimate horizontal bearing capacity. PEEQ develops along the pile body and concentrates on the front of General Engineering Information the compressed piles and the area around the end of pile tip. PEEQ develops along the pile body inflection point of SPG-type appears at the last and Hu is and concentrates on the front of the compressed piles and the relatively great. 33. the geotechnical that of normal direction is slower. the load-displacement curves of increases rapidly. The specific Under a bending moment. In this figure. is relatively small. Comparison of Bending Bearing Capacity Several of these layers are soft soil or hard soil. respectively. the seabed can be divided into 11 layers within the surveying depth. Results of pile group foundations: (a) Load-settlement curves of foundations. different foundations and the plastic region of soil (PEEQ) are The load cases for 3-MW wind turbines are shown in Table 4. In this figure. With VPG-type as a benchmark. SPG-type has the stronger slower. As indicated in Figure 12(a). SPG-type and CPG-type increases by 27.9%. of foundations. load and the displacement of the foundations is linear when the load is small. whereas that of normal direction is 30. the displacement of the pile group increases rapidly. (b) Distributions of PEEQ.538 Liu et al. In conclusion. as horizontal distribution. Comparison of Horizontal Bearing Capacity With an increase in load. and changes between the pile groups are similar. In conclusion. 2015 . under horizontal loading. EXAMPLE PROJECT As indicated in Figure 12(b). the relationship between the larger. respectively. Results of pile group foundations: (a) Load-settlement curves load is small. The development of the tangent BPG-type. From top to bottom. the region of PEEQ near the inclined piles is As indicated in Figure 13(a). The inclined piles strengthen the horizontal bearing capacity of pile group foundation. 73. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ piles co-exist. and an inflection point appears.8%. the load-displacement curves of soil parameters are provided in Table 2. (a) (a) (b) Figure 12. development of the tangent of pile body is more severe.3%.3%. With an increase in load. spatial distribution is complex. horizontal bearing capacity. The inflection different foundations and the plastic region of soil (PEEQ) are point of VPG-type appears earlier and the corresponding presented in Figure 12. the displacement of the pile group Under a horizontal load. 44. whereas that of vertical piles is smaller. The a bending moment loading. Journal of Coastal Research. presented in Figure 13. With VPG-type as a benchmark. h indicates a horizontal ultimate flexural bearing capacity. Mu of BPG- type. the inclined piles strengthen the flexural bearing capacity of pile group foundation.0%. the relationship between the (b) load and the displacement of the foundations is linear when the Figure 13. Hu. and an inflection point appears. Mu. Special Issue No. BPG-type has a stronger flexural bearing capacity. inflection point of BPG-type appears at the last and Mu is relatively great. is relatively small. The displacement. Hu of area around the end of pile tip. whereas According to a geological survey of the seabed. The inflection point of VPG-type appears earlier and the corresponding As indicated in Figure 13(b). (b) Distributions of PEEQ. of pile body is more severe. The An offshore wind power farm is proposed to be constructed. SPG-type and CPG-type increases by 38.4%.

the proposed numerical simulation method was selected. Special Issue No.5 7 Silt 1. C.0 / Foundation D 45.8 10 Silty Clay 2 20. Results of pile group foundations: (a) Horizontal displacement foundation which includes inclined piles is smaller.5 14 10. (b) Vertical displacement of caps.1 16.5 m and 50 m.0 25. D.0 4688. (a) To verify the feasibility and safety of this foundation. 2.41 cm.4 16.0 25.5 6.7 20 18 0 37 6 Silty Clay 6. B. 2. The horizontal displacement of Figure 14.0 2. respectively. Design and Analysis In the design of the foundation structure.3 B 5153. C and D are 5.90cm.5 3.56.7 18.8 9 Silt 4. The maximum vertical displacements of Foundation A.8 10.1-0. Foundation A.93 and 5.4 11. Load Case FV (kN) FH (kN) M (kN﹒m) T (kN﹒m) A 4147.60. were designed.5 20. The remaining parameters are shown in Table 4.49.6 20.5 14 10. The calculated differential settlement ratio are 2.03 33.2‰ and 2.0 14 10.3 14.3 7.1 5 Silty Sand 6. 2. which had one-to-one relationship with BPG-type.04.0/62. The diameter of the central pile is 3 m.4 8 1. Foundation B consists of one central pile and six side piles. the maximum horizontal displacements of Foundation A.3 11 Silty Sand 10 20 21 0 38 Table 3.2 91524.18 24. Foundation L´/L (m) D of cap (m) D of control circle (m) n D of piles (m) Rake ratio Foundation A 45. 2.8 1:6 Foundation C 45. respectively.2‰. displacement of foundation which includes vertical piles and Journal of Coastal Research. 5. Study on Load-Bearing Characteristics for an Offshore Wind Turbine 539 Table 2.76 30. Load Case B is used to verify the anti-overturning stability and the anti-sliding stability of the foundation.2‰.2 20 15 0 33 4 Silty Clay 2.26 3280.24 8 2.4 19.4 6 1.5 1:6 Foundation B 42.1 5598.2 20.2 Description h (m) γ (kN/m3) Cohesion c(kPa) Internal Friction angle φ (°) (MPa) 1 Sludge 8. 73. VPG-type and CPG-type. respectively. and its total length and buried depth are 67.8 19.90 17.90 17.4 3 Silty Sand 5. Soil parameters. The vertical of different foundations.49 11.3 2 Clay 2.25 23.3 6. 2015 .5 5.6‰.0 10.4 8 1. SPG-type. As is shown in Figure 14.5 17. different load effect combinations were selected to calculate different design content.0/62. C and D are 2.3 19. B.76 4428.3 7.0 5.4 Table 4.5 126249. B.75 (b) and 2. Thus the conclusions are in accordance foundation. Parameters of pile group foundations.22 25. The horizontal displacement of the foundation and the vertical displacement of the cap are presented in Figure 14. Load case.5/50. 5. Compression Consolidated-quickly Shear Test Soil Thickness Wet Weight Stratum Modulus Es0.3 18.0/62.8 8 Silt 10.8 1:6 Load Case A is used to verify the bearing capacity of the inclined piles is smaller.

6 Calculated value 2.5 3. deformation Kavazanjian. K.8 Maximum compression stress(kN) Designed value 9980. Foundations for offshore CONCLSIONS wind turbines. 2012. foundation under lateral loading.3 No tension 4542. The vertical. the parameters of caps. safety factor of anti-sliding and differential settlement ratio are shown in Table 5. B.. Inc. Zhao. and Jin. 236p.4 4127. Discovery (Chongqing. H. Field testing and analyses of a batter pile group simulation results. 1-10. Results of different pile group foundations. 2966-2970. 2212(1).. A driven-pile advantage: Batter piles.3 1. horizontal bearing capacity and the flexural bearing capacity are Lv. Alshibli. and Zhang.T. F. 2002..which consists of a large-diameter pile and several Sciences. Journal of Coastal Research. J. J. Pawtucket. proposed theoretical analysis' conclusion and numerical Z.Y. BPG-type and SPG-type are suitable for an The comparison between simulation and the results of the offshore wind farm. bearing capacity.0 10757. and Liu. are weak. and Sorensen. 2006. Pile driver. the floating offshore wind turbines. M. laboratory experiments. RI. 2006. B. Byrne. Inc.. This study was supported by the Innovative Research The displacements and piles stress of Foundation A and B with Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China inclined piles. foundations are designed. Proceedings of 9th BPG-type. 2011.6 Differential settlement ratio(‰) Designed value 3 3 3 3 with the proposed theoretical analysis' conclusion and numerical and other important parameters under different load cases are simulation results. Research on pitch control of (2) By the rule of the steel amount which is kept the same. safety wind turbines. X. have been developed.. whereas that of VPG-type and CPG-type batter piles. on laboratory experiments.540 Liu et al.3. Yin.. A numerical simulation method is established and then Electric Technology and Civil Engineering (Lushan.. 73.. G. Transportation Research To sum up. Pathak.2 2. The inclined piles in foundations can strengthen the 12(1)...3 1. Guo. and Houlsby. 4.1 11753. and Houlsby. A Cao. Furthermore.3 1. 361(1813).T.Q. X.R. The VPG-type needs to increase the Code for Pile Foundation in Harbor Engineering of the parameters of the foundation to meet the requirements of the maximum tension stress. 2011.. Y. SPG-type. 2909-2930. However. Proceedinggs of International Conference on tests. Advanced Materials Research.. small diameter and buried length inclined piles. The vertical bearing capacity. B. pp.3 6181 Calculated value 4.K. selected to simulate the model tests.H. The following conclusions can be drawn as follows: load-displacement of batter pile under vertical load by model (1)The bearing capacity of BPG is studied through model experiments.6 1..M.. it can be seen that: BPG-type and SPG-type are Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. maximum compression stress. four different types manual. S.5 12352.96 6. 5669-5673. investigated. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Based on the characteristics of offshore wind loads. 2012. Special Issue No.6 1. the 243.79 3. UK). Jiujiang.7 Maximum tension stress(kN) Designed value 5090.66 4.3 Calculated value 4 3. China(973) (2014CB046800).W. which have the strong horizontal bearing capacity (51021004) and the National Key Basic Research Program of and the flexural bearing capacity. Reliability Analysis of numerical simulation method is established and verified based Pile Vertical Bearing Capacity. J.96 Safety factor of anti-sliding Designed value 1. 2015 . _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table 5. 42-55. The bearing capacity.2 2. Assessing novel foundation which consists of several inclined piles.27 6.5 Calculated value 2537. Lu. and VPG-type — which options for offshore wind turbines. K.. L and D are LITERATURE CITED relatively large. VPG-type and CPG-type are studied International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge through the numerical simulation method. the results of Foundation C and D without inclined piles are larger.6 1. 3506-3509. Hibbitt. Foundation A Foundation B Foundation C Foundation D Calculated value 9415. version 6..W. E. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS All of the results obtained meet the specified requirements. D.49 Safety factor of anti-overturning Designed value 1. The results are verified by China).9 11932. 2003. pp. Electronic Journal of Structural Engineering. ABAQUS/standard user’s (3) In view of a practical project. suitable for an offshore wind farm. BPG-type — Byrne.2 2. and Qiu.0 9604. China). inclined piles and vertical piles. 21-25. Statical analysis of pile groups containing SPG-type are strong. Study on studied. of London Series A: Mathematical. horizontal and flexural bearing capacity of BPG-type and Hsiao.8 5493. Yu. T. Physical and Engineering SPG-type .1 14003. are relatively small. Thus the conclusions are in accordance with the Abu-Farsakh. pp. 2011. factor of anti-overturning...W. G. Proceedings of World contains several vertical piles and CPG including several Maritime Technology Conference (London. 74-81.

S.Y. 3D FEM analysis on Kenan..H. South Africa). Finite element Zhang... Rock and Soil Matutano. 2014.D. J.. H. Applied Mechanics and Materials. Study on Load-Bearing Characteristics for an Offshore Wind Turbine 541 _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Kim..Y.G. A new BE formulation Zhan. 9. 70. 1999.. 292-300. Lopez-Gutierrez. Structure Xie. A. R. and Paiva.W. 5(5). Shao.. Soil plug effect prediction Zhang. H. S... 1582-1587. R. 2011. Zhang.. Wu. Li.L. W. H.. and Zhao. 45(1)..Z... pp. S. Z.. and Hernandez. Applied Mechanics and Materials. J. K. and Song. Soldo.. T. 2005. and Yan. 2014. Modeling vertical coupled to the FEM for simulating vertical pile groups... C. Yu. 23(1). Interpretation of lateral load test of batter pile group using high Canadian Geotechnical Journal. B. Journal of Coastal Research.. V. and Lai. 19(2).X. C. L. 2233-2242.. Y. Li. J.. and Cooper. 236-245. 73. P. 17. Proceedings of Geo-Frontiers Zhang. Analysis on Nonlinear Behavior of Piles Foundation. in Engineering Software. Advances offshore wind turbines. In: Green. M. Yuan. R.. Liu. Proceedings of 13th International Coastal Symposium offshore platform. Mechanics and Engineering.Z. Issue No. Esteban. 1074-1084.. Special Issue No. K... Shen. Wang. M. and Liu. 2013..Y. 053117. super-long steel pipe pile based on FLAC3D.. Mechanics. Liu. Full-scale lateral load tests and Design Analysis of Piles in Clay.N.. Peng.. Electronic Journal of of pile groups. Q.. 2012. M. (Durban. and Jiang. 152-161. 188.. 2012. X. 170.Y.C. 2012.... group under horizontal load. W. Ribeiro. order polynomials curve fitting.. Wang. 10B. Ivandic. 153-157. R. X. and Alshibli.). 1-9. University. bearing capacity of pile foundation by using ABAQUS.L.. Investigation of different bearing capacity behaviors of the multi-piles foundation for load changes in wind farm by using FACTS devices. Chinese Journal of Rock Shanghai Electric Power. McVay. and Liu. Yan. Lin. 2011. Texas. 12-17. pp... Journal of Coastal Research.. D. 2005. Division.H. Motion analysis on thermal upheaval buckling of submarine burial analysis on integrated transportation technique for offshore pipelines with initial imperfection. 87-105. M. F. A..M. and Song.S.W. J. 2005.F. China Ocean Engineering.W. Negro. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy. B. 102(1). Tang. T.N...J. Model characteristics and design technique keys of wind turbine testing study on deformation behavior of super-large pile foundation in Shanghai Donghai-bridge offshore wind farm. and Brungraber.A. 2007.H. and He. and pile driveability analysis for large-diameter steel piles in Simulation of vertical bearing features for large-diameter and ocean engineering. 2015 .. Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements. 2012.. 2856-2860. Z. and Li. Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. 24(9). and Öztürk. modelling of laterally loaded single battered piles in sands.W. J. Liu.C. 1976. D. S.. P. 36(6).. 87-92. Ma. 41.. Geotechnical Engineering Technique. X.B. 2013. 2.. M. W. X. C. and Babic. Journal of Central South wind turbines. L. J. and Huang.N.G. A. of vertical bearing capacity of single-row pile group of an (eds. Ding. Experimental Study 1855-1865. Model Testing 2011: Advances in Geotechnical Engineering (Dallas. B. Y. 20. Special 54-59. 16-20. United States). Tang. Y.. Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Geotechnical Engineering.T. H. R. Analysis offshore wind farms.B. H.. Abu-Farsakh.Z.Y. 2009. Centrifuge Pathak. D.B. 107-118. The effect of scour protections in Zhuo. Le.G.

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