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The United States independence

Zoe Gong

Have you ever heard some of greatest thinkers of history, their ideas beyond Europe and

achievement United States independence? The Enlightenment begin 1700s in Paris.The

enlightenment against the feudal autocracy, religion and privilege, enlightenment, promoted the

freedom, democracy and equality thoughts. Some thinkers of the Enlightenment thought

influenced politics, economy and the American war for independence. Lay the foundation for the

United States constitution and independence. The Enlightenment thinkers begin the new

philosophes, to overthrow the feudal rule and religion. The oppression of Americas and more

taxes, let Americas cited the idea from John Locke declaration of independence. A new

constitution of the United States, has absorbed idea of Locke, Montesquieu and Rousseau.

The Enlightenment thinkers affected the political landscape, against religious

superstition, and guide the individual people's minds in the world. In 1700s and 1800s, on France

is an infant state, people's minds are controlled by the church, which makes people to break old

ideas, also the Renaissance to promote the scientific, some people begin against dictatorship, the

Enlightenment begin spread. As found on www.history.com “European politics, philosophy,

science and communications were radically reoriented during the ...... were directly inspired by

Enlightenment ideals and respectively marked the peak of its influence and the beginning of its

decline. The Enlightenment ultimately gave way to 19th-century Romanticism.” Also, some

famous thinkers continues to today. Like John Locke’s idea, he believe everybody were basically

reasonable and moral, they had natural rights, which belonged when human from birth. And

people are naturally cruel and selfish, social contract idea from Thomas Hobbes. Montesquieu’s

3 branches of government. Voltaire defended the idea of freedom of speech. Rousseau through
close social contract. On the Enlightenment the new thinker against the Catholic Church, for the

revolution in Europe and America made ideological and theoretical preparation.

Congress set up a Congress with George Washington in command, in 1776, they

declared impendence from British. The 13 English colonies was North America, on the colonies,

Britain applied mercantilist policies, and they increase the taxes paid by the colonists, the

relations between Britain and North America grew stained. After that, the British soldiers opened

fire, 5 colonists died, the colonists protest a tax on tea, begin the Boston Tea Party. The Declaring

Independence was follow idea of John Locke, which is the natural rights, belonged when human

from birth. And the Declaration of Independence emphasized the principle of popular

sovereignty, all government power comes from the people. As found on www.history.com “The

Congress formally adopted the Declaration of Independence–written largely by Jefferson–in

Philadelphia on July 4, a date now celebrated as the birth of American independence” and “its

most famous passage: “We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal;

that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are

life……governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of

the governed.” Finely, in 1777, Americans let French join them, so they win. The treaty of Paris

officially ended the war. The declaration of independence is of great significance to the birth of

the United Stated.

After end of the war, the North Americans build the new constitution, in 1789, the

constitution become the supreme law of the land. The new Constitution established America’s

national government and fundamental laws, it had the natural rights idea of Locke. The idea from

Montesquieu which is introducing the 3 branches of government, legislative, executive and

judicial, also it have the idea of Rousseau, the social contract. The constitution created a federal
republic, as found on www.history.com “Under America’s first governing document, the Articles

of Confederation, the national government was weak and states operated like independent

countries. At the 1787 convention, delegates devised a plan for a stronger federal government

with three branches–executive, legislative and judicial–along with a system of checks and

balances to ensure no single branch would have too much power.” And “America’s first

constitution, the Articles of Confederation, was ratified in 1781, a time when the nation was a

loose confederation of states, each operating like independent countries. The national

government was comprised of a single legislature, the Congress of the Confederation; there was

no president or judicial branch. The Articles of Confederation gave Congress the power to

govern foreign affairs, conduct war and regulate currency; however, in reality these powers were

sharply limited because Congress had no authority to enforce its requests to the states for money

or troops.” Every branch of government was protected by checks and balances, in 1789 the

constitution become the supreme law of the land. The constitution of the United States is one of

the earliest written constitution in the history of the world, it helped the development of the

United Stated in the future.

American independence cannot lack the influence of the enlightenment, and the idea of

enlightenment historians. Those thinkers influence every one, John Lock, Thomas Hobbes,

Montesquieu, Voltaire and Adan Smith. Enlightenment to promote people's minds, broke the

feudal rule, begin at Paris, flowed across Europe and beyond, and then spread to all over the

world. After American Revolution, the Paris officially ended the war and they have a new

constitution, the constitution created federal republic with power divided. If people do not have

the idea of Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau, and the new constiution today people will do not

have a good policy.