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Advanced Materials Research Vols 243-249 (2011) pp 6097-6100 Online: 2011-05-17

(2011) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland


Computer Method for Tower Crane Foundation Design

Houxian Zhang1, a, Jian Jin 1 , Jiadong Qian1, Sen Li1 and Yu Jiang1
Nanjing Institute of Technology, Nanjing211167, China

Keywords: Tower Crane Foundation Design; Computer Method; ANSYS; VB Reinforcement

Program; VB Optimization Program

Abstract. the reinforcement in both directions of a square tower crane foundation is obtained by
ANSYS three-dimensional analysis and VB reinforcement program and VB optimization program
to meet the requirements such as foundation bearing capacity, bending, overturning and punching
under the general combination of various loads.
The load in the crane structure is divided into four categories, namely, the basic load, additional
load, special load and other load. The basic load includes the weight load, lifting load, all kinds of
dynamic load and the centrifugal force; the special load includes wind load under working condition
and temperature load; the special load includes wind load under non-working state, test load, the
collision load under working condition; the other load includes the installation load, work platform
load by each channel, transport load. The dynamic load considers the dynamic load factor 2 of
lifting quality, the impact coefficient unloading lifting quality 3, the impact factor of lifting weight
1, the impact factor of movement quality 4, the horizontal inertia load of crane quality and the
lifting quality, the luffing and slewing inertia (tangential) load. The wind load is divided into the
wind load under working condition and the wind load under non-working state. Tower crane
foundation design uses the most adverse situation for the general combination of a variety of load
[1], as shown in Table 1. It is difficult to obtain the most unfavorable combination of various loads
and reinforce by hand.
Table 1 Load combination
load load combination
combination A combination B combination C
category Load name symbol
A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 C3

weight FG 1FG 1FG 1FG 1FG 1FG 1FG 1FG FG FG

lifting load FQ 2FQ 3FQ 4FQ 2FQ 3FQ 4FQ

F mK
basic load inertia load
operating the most disadvantaged combination of pairwise
F mt
inertia load combinations
the wind
additional load under
F w2 F w2 F w2 F w2
load working

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6098 Advances in Civil Engineering and Architecture

Continue of table 1

dynamic test
F dt 6 F dt

static test
special F ts F ts
the wind
load under
F ws F ws
Load calculation of the tower crane foundation design
Edit commands flow ( APDL) to obtain the crane model. For example, the solid model of crane
QTZ25 (technical parameters are shown in Table 2) is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 The solid model of crane QTZ25

Table 2 Technical parameters of crane QTZ25
item technical parameters
rated lifting momentKN.m 250
maximum rated capacityt 2.5
rated lifting moment at the most
effective working rangem 2.535
self-help 25
lifting heightm
normal 30
lifting speedm/min 27/13.5
amplitude velocitym/min 23
swing speedr/min 0.7
the maximum wind load under
working conditionN/m2
weight of the tower crane (t) 13.75
balance weight (t) 4.2
Advanced Materials Research Vols. 243-249 6099

The impact coefficient of the lifting load should be taken 1 = 1.0 ~ 1.10 when the weight load
increases the stress on the calculated component. The impact coefficient of the lifting load should
be taken 1 = 0.9 ~ 1.0 when the weight load reduces the stress on the calculated component. The
weight load is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2 The calculation diagram of crane weight

On the BB section, the gravity Fg3 should be multiplied by 1 = 1.0-ka, but the gravity Fg1 of m1
should be multiplied by 1 = 1.0 + ka when the mass m3 vibrates. When the mass m2 vibrates, an
inertial impact Fh along the horizontal direction imposes on the tower to increase the stress on the
BB section,1 = 1.0 + ka, Fh = m2g (1-1), which produces additional bending stress on the tower.
Only the change ( F ka) is considered In the impact calculation of lifting load when the
vibration of the balance arm or the lifting arm increases or decreases gravity force of the relevant
parts because the acceleration of gravity has been imposed in ANSYS calculations. A change in the
amount of force is imposed along the Y-axis negative direction when the gravity force increases. A
change in the amount of force is imposed along the Y-axis direction when the gravity force reduces.
The wind load is multiplied by the height H (beam 4 real constant TKY) of the windward side
bar to obtain the line load, and then put through SFBEAM commands to the unit wind load. To add
many wind loads on the poles using the VB program. The node number and node coordinates in
contact with the wind used in VB program are obtained by using menu Nodes, copied and saved to
jiedian.txt file. The unit number is obtained similarly and saved to danyuan.txt file. Wind load
command flow is obtained by running the VB program.
Set load parameters in the model and exert load by load combination table (a total of 23
combinations). Moment around the Y direction has no effect on crane foundation. A single node
(node number 500 in this case) connects with the foundation. The pairwise combinations of luffing
inertia load, centrifugal force and operating inertia load has three cases :(1) luffing inertia load and
centrifugal force combination; (2) luffing inertia load and operating inertia load combination; (3)
centrifugal force and operating inertia load combination.
MZ =- 697 kN m of combination C3 is the biggest among the moment around the Z direction,
and is larger than the moment around the X direction of the other combination as shown in Table 3.
Table 3 Reaction force when Lifting arm vibrate (maximum rated capacity)
combination node FXN FY(N) FZ(N)
(Nm) (Nm) (Nm)
A1(1) 500 2568.8 2.02E+05 129.93 39456 75.411 -63189
A1(2) 500 2568.8 2.02E+05 -367.5 27094 75.412 -63189
A1(3) 500 -5.93E-08 2.02E+05 129.93 39456 -1.81E-06 -11.783
A2(1) 500 2568.8 1.86E+05 129.93 1.91E+05 75.411 -63189
A2(2) 500 2568.8 1.99E+05 -367.5 6.21E+04 75.411 -63189
A2(3) 500 -3.65E-07 1.86E+05 129.93 1.91E+05 -1.02E-05 -11.783
6100 Advances in Civil Engineering and Architecture

Continue of table 3
A3(1) 500 2568.8 2.01E+05 129.93 51134 75.411 -63189
A3(2) 500 2568.8 2.01E+05 -367.5 38771 75.411 -63189
A3(3) 500 -8.29E-08 2.01E+05 129.93 51134 -2.45E-06 -11.783
B1(1) 500 20225 2.03E+05 129.93 2.64E+04 72740 -4.25E+05
B1(2) 500 20225 2.03E+05 -367.5 1.41E+04 72740 -4.25E+05
B1(3) 500 1.77E+04 2.03E+05 129.93 26440 72664 -3.62E+05
B2(1) 500 20225 1.87E+05 129.93 1.78E+05 72740 -4.25E+05
B2(2) 500 20225 1.99E+05 -367.5 49109 72740 -4.25E+05
B2(3) 500 1.77E+04 1.87E+05 129.93 1.78E+05 72664 -3.62E+05
B3(1) 500 20225 2.02E+05 129.93 38117 72740 -4.25E+05
B3(2) 500 20225 2.02E+05 -367.5 25755 72740 -4.25E+05
B3(3) 500 1.77E+04 2.02E+05 129.93 38117 72664 -3.62E+05
C1(1) 500 2568.8 2.06E+05 129.93 6.00E+03 75.412 -63189
C1(2) 500 2568.8 2.06E+05 -367.5 -6.36E+03 75.412 -63189
C1(3) 500 8.33E-09 2.06E+05 129.93 6.00E+03 5.03E-08 -11.783
C2 500 3.80E-08 2.03E+05 -6.93E-06 -8.08E+03 8.57E-07 -11.783
C3 500 3.84E+04 1.95E+05 6.42E-05 7.85E+04 2.87E+05 -6.97E+05

The integral foundation design

Integral base is designed to meet the foundation bearing capacity, bending, overturning, punching.
Dimensional analysis by ANSYS for the two directions of each load combination obtains the
maximum reinforcement as the reinforcement of a square tower crane foundation. Reinforcement is
obtained by VB program if the base is 2 meters high. It is found that the reinforcement and the
foundation side are almost the same under all load combinations when the base is 2 meters high.
VB program is prepared to optimize the integral foundation design. Set the minimum base height of
0.5m to check bearing capacity, bending, overturning, basic punching and the side of less than 6m.
The basis will change if the size does not meet the requirements until they meet the design
requirements. The result is: QTZ25 type of crane, foundation bearing capacity 200kN/m2,
foundation depth 1.5m, the size of integral foundation: 5m 5m 1.5m, reinforced steel bar
3450mm2 of Q235, concrete strength grade of C20; more reinforcement, bigger base side and base
height arise from combination C3 and B, that is the case of wind load in combination; more
reinforcement occur mostly in the tower vibration.

[1] Zhang Houxian, Chen Defang. High-rise building construction. Beijing University Press, 1st
edition .2006.
[2] Zhao Haifeng, Jiang Di. ANSYS8.0 analysis of engineering structures. China Railway Press, 1st
edition .2004.
[3] Xu Heshan. ANSYS analysis of structural engineering examples. Machinery Industry Press, 1st
edition .2007
Advances in Civil Engineering and Architecture

Computer Method for Tower Crane Foundation Design