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Index

Material Properties
Material Properties
General properties page 1 - 5
Specific properties page 6 - 8
Pressure curves and component operating pressures page 9 - 19
Creep modulus curves page 20 - 23
Permissible buckling pressures page 24 - 25

Installation Guidelines
Behaviour at abrasive fluids page 26
Chemical resistancy page 27 - 29

Installation Guidelines
Transport, Handling, Storage page 30
General installation guidelines page 31
Machining page 32

Calculation Guidelines
Calculation Guidelines
System of units page 33
SDR, Component operating pressure page 34
Operating pressure for water dangerous media page 35
Wall thickness, External pressure, necessary stiffening for page 36 -38
pipes with buckling strain
Pipe cross section, Determination of the hydraulic pressure page 39 -42
loss
Dog bone load page 43
Support distances, Support distance at fixed piping page 44 - 50
systems, Change in length, Minimum straight length

Connection Systems
Buried piping systems page 51 - 52
Flow nomogramm page 53

Connection Systems
General standard, Application limits page 54 - 55
Heating element butt welding page 56 - 61
Non-contact butt welding page 62
Heating element socket welding page 63 - 66
Applications and References

Electrofusion welding page 67 - 72
Hot gas welding page 73 - 76
Extrusion welding page 77 - 79
Detachable joints page 80

Applications and References
Double containment piping system page 82 - 89
Applications page 90
Reference list page 91
Reference projects page 92
Approvals and Standards

Approvals and Standards
3rd party control and standards page 93 - 94

Material Properties

Properties
Material Properties
Material
General properties of PE Advantages of PE

As result of continuous development of PE molding z UV-resistance
materials, the efficiency of PE pipes and fittings z flexibility
have been improved considerably. This fact has z low specific weight of 0,95g/cm3
been taken into account by the introduction of new z favourable transportation (e. g. coils)
international standards (ISO 9080, EN1555, z very good chemical resistance
EN12201), which lead to higher permissible z weathering resistance

Installation Guidelines
operating pressures. z radiation resistance
z good weldability
Polyethylene (PE) is no longer classified by its z very good abrasion resistance
density (for example PE-LD, PE-MD, PE-HD) as it is z no deposits and no overgrowth possible
now divided into MRS-strength classes. due to less frictional resistance less pressure
z losses in comparison with e. g. metals
In comparison to other thermoplastics PE shows z freeze resistance
an excellent diffusion resistance and has therefore z resistant to rodents
been applied for the safe transport of gases for z resistant to all kinds of microbic corrosion
many years.
Polyethylene type PE 100
Other essential advantages of this material are the
UV-stability (if its black coloured), and the flexibility These materials can also be described as

Calculation Guidelines
of the molding material ("flexible piping system"). polyethylene types of the third generation (PE-3)
resp. also as MRS 10 materials. .
Physiological non-toxic This is a further development of the PE materials
which shows by a modified polymerisation process
With respect to its composition polyethylene an amended mol mass distribution. Therefore PE
complies with the relevant food stuff regulations 100 types have a higher density and by this
(according to ÖNORM B 5014, Part 1, BGA, KTW improved mechanical properties comes a raised
guidelines). stiffness and hardness. Also the creep pressure
PE pipes and fittings are verified and registered and the resistance against rapid crack propagation
regarding potable water suitability according are also increased.
DVGW guideline W270. Consequently, this material is suitable for the
production of pressure pipes with larger diameters.
Behaviour at radiation strain In comparison to usual pressure pipes out of PE

Connection Systems
with less wall thicknesses the corresponding
Pipes out of polyethylene may be applied across pressure rating will be achieved.
the range of high energy radiation. Pipes out of PE
are well established for drainage of radioactive Modified polyethylene PE 80-el
sewage water from laboratories and as cooling water (Polyethylene, electro-conductable)
piping systems for the nuclear energy industry.
The usual radioactive sewage waters contain beta Due to the electro-conductibility, PE80-el is often
and gamma rays. PE piping systems do not become used for the transport of easy combustible media
radioactive, even after many years of use. or for the conveying of dust as for these piping
Also in environment of higher radio activity, pipes systems, a connection to earth can be performed.
out of PE are not damaged if they are not exposed
during their complete operation time to a larger,
Applications and References

regularly spread radiation dose of < 10 4 Gray.
H H
C C
H H n

Chemical structure of polyethylene
Approvals and Standards

1

polypropylene complies with the relevant food stuff regulations Against radiation of high energy. reducing factor which has to be determined Both types have been stabilized against high experimentally. g. Due to the accelerated thermal oxidation. metals molding process) and higher impact strength of the non-conductive. 2 . temperatures and are the best suited materials for At an absorbed dose of < 10 4 Gray polypropylene the production of pressure piping systems.therefore in In direct contact with copper and PP-R deteriorates. therefore the structure is not products in comparison to PP-H. damage of the surface by a corresponding wall thickness addition as the damage only occurs on the surface. increases with rising temperatures. The impact strength depends on temperature. H CH3 n As an alternative a high-temperature-resistant. But at nucleoid PP-H (Beta (β)-PP) since the middle of the durable radiation strain. As polypropylene is not equipped with light-stable C C colour pigments normally. At effect of high energy rays on poly-propylene. PP is generally (according OENORM B 5014 Part 1. sheets and round bars are made of to cross-linking of the molecular structure. In comparison to other thermoplastics such as PE- HD and PVC. guidelines). As effective PP shows good impact strength in comparison to protection against direct solar radiation. which z no deposits and no growth over possible result in an improved processability (e. g. decreases with It is furthermore possible to compensate the arising falling temperatures. different types of z low specific weight of 0. it comes to a rupture of the Connection Systems seventies. z affected by tracking currents z very good thermoplastic processable PP-R and copper z (e. z most cases. no thermal insulation is required Calculation Guidelines especially at higher temperatures. The wall thickness addition may not H H be less than 2 mm. The application conditions should be clarified with the technical Approvals and Standards Chemical structure of PP engineering department. three. layer (AGRU-Coating) or an insulation is possible. Material Properties Material Properties Material Properties General properties of PP Advantages of Polypropylene According to DIN 8078. therefore properties are achieved as in PP types 2 and 3. molecular chains and therefore by the damage of Fittings are also produced out of PP-R (poly.91g/cm3 polypropylene are recognised: (PVC 1. the material to a serious resistance decrease. KTW not durable resistant.g. PP shows a thermal stability up to Behaviour at UV-radiation 100°C (short-time up to 120°C for pressureless systems). by deep drawing) z PP is a bad conductor of heat . it may come to a change of colour (fading) by long-time weathering. black PE-HD material can be used. the physical z for hot water piping systems properties of PP-R. lower due to less frictional resistance less pressure danger of shrinkage cavitation at the injection z losses in comparison with e. This propylene-random-copolymere) since the end of behaviour has to be taken into account by a the seventies. FDA. Grey polypropylene pipe lines are not UV-stable Applications and References so they must be adequately protected. piping systems can be applied without essential resistance decrease. heat ageing is faster. General properties of Polypropylene (Standard types) Physiological non-toxicity Behaviour at radiation strain With respect to its composition. it may come to a temporary resistance increase due AGRU pipes.40g/cm3) Type 1: PP-H z high creep resistance (homopolymere) z excellent chemical resistance Type 2: PP-B z TiO2 pigmentation (block-copolymere) z high resistance to ageing by thermal Installation Guidelines Type 3: PP-R stabilizing (random-polymere) z good weldability z excellent abrasion resistance By copolymerisating with ethylene special z smooth inside surface of the pipes. a protection PVC. BGA.

thermal and also chemical However this material is not UV resistant. (Polypropylen-homopolymere. Material Properties Properties Material Properties Material General properties of PP Differences to standard types of PP General properties of modified PP PP-R. it is properties are achieved. natural: enable a connection to earth can be performed. conductable PP) correspond in their composition due to the supplement of additives n o t to the PP-el: relevant food stuff regulations and may therefore not be used for potable water pipes and in contact (Polypropylene-copolymere. these modified As PP-R natural contains no colour additives. flame-retardant) Due to the higher stiffness of PP-s. PP-R-s-el: (Polypropylene-random-copolymere. black: On account of the most specific requirements (Polypropylene-random-copolymere. (Polypropylene-random-copolymere. it is well suited Physiological properties for ventilation and degassing pipes as well as for flue lining systems. It may not be used for outdoors Modified PP types (flame-retardant resp. Approvals and Standards 3 . PP-s: It is therefore necessary to clarify all projects with Calculation Guidelines our technical engineering department. It is therefore due to safety reasons mostly applied for the transport of easy ignitable media and replaces often expensive stainless steel ductings. But there result alterations applied mainly for high purity water piping systems. For example static charging due to the flow of fluids However there is an insignificant decrease of the or dust can arise at the operation of thermoplastic impact strength. Electro-conductable polypropylene types have therefore been developed in order to PP-R. properties in comparison to the standard type. flame retardant. natural) By supplement of additives. electro-conductive) This material reconciles the positive properties of the flame retardant and electro-conductable PP types. Applications and References There is however a reduced impact strength of PP-s-el as well as a slightly amended chemical resistance (see page 16). applications due to the missing UV stabilization. but shows a reduced impact strength and Connection Systems creep strength. black arising in the construction of piping systems for coloured) the chemical indu-stry and in apparatus engineering The essential advantage of this black coloured flame retardant and electro-conductive special material type is the UV resistance which is not Installation Guidelines types have been developed. Due to the high carbon black content. piping systems. of the mechanical. PP-R-el is UV resistant. electro. electro-conductable) This material is used if the application requires the connection to earth of the piping system. available with grey PP.

reaction against most media is nearly impossible. they are in the position to maintain z flame retarding the specific resistance of deionizationed ultra-pure z physiologically non-toxic water over 18 MW. acetone and ethylacetat and is soluble PVDF is distinguished in comparison with PTFE in polar solvents. Due to its chemical inertness.and γ-radiations ultra-pure water constructions and for the transport z therefore high ageing resistance Installation Guidelines of clear chemical liquids in the semi-conductor z excellent abrasion resistance (low friction coefficient) industry. in connection with a very easy During combustion of PVDF only a slight amount Calculation Guidelines processing and an advantageous price-performance of smoke development arises. Connection Systems H F C C H F n Chemical structure of PVDF Applications and References Approvals and Standards 4 . z good and easy processing PVDF is a halogen and also offers an excellent fire PVDF offers with its properties an ideal protection without flame-retardant additives. and has the following typical properties: .g. e.g.easy processing Solubility . even in UV-.good heat formability The PVDF-homopolymere swells in high polar solvents e. But like every other ratio. compromise. strength and the very good chemical resistance.cm. lubricants or z connection with high temperatures flame-retardant additives. dimethylformamide and (Polytetrafluorethylene) by its high mechanical dimethylacetamide. z very good anti-friction properties z good mechanical properties Pipes and components out of suitable standard z excellent insulaing characteristics in connection with very good electrical values types fulfil the high demands of the semi-conductor industry. even in connection with high temperatures. g. Its particular suitable for z good resistance against UV. Thermostabilizers.good weldability . organic substance also PVDF is inflammable and in adequate ambientnt temperature PVDF is Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is a thermoplastic inflammable. Material Properties Material Properties Material Properties General properties of PVDF Advantages of PVDF (Polyvinylidene fluoride) z wide temperature range. high heat deflection temperature PVDF is an extremly pure polymer and contains in comparison with a lot of other plastics no stabilizers z very good chemical resistance. e. softener.

especially the high impact strength.as with glass. Material Properties Properties Material Properties Material General properties of ECTFE Advantages of ECTFE (Ethylenechlorotrifluorethylene) z wide temperature application range (thermal resistance up to short-term 150°C). alkalies and solvents as well as in contact with chlorine. z flame retardent (UL 94-V0-material) - z oxygen index 60 Installation Guidelines Physiological properties z excellent abrasion resistance z extreme good chemical resistance against ECTFE is suitable for the safe application of products z most technical acids.Ometer" with xenon-light the important properties Connection Systems are hardly influenced. For a long time it is resistant against examination which has been executed within the temperatures upto 150°C and it is one of the best framework of a test of the HP-suitability of ECTFE. plastics with a good resistance against radiation. Even after 1000 hours in a "Weather H H Cl F n . Approvals and Standards 5 . Besides the good impact strength ECTFE has a good breaking strain and a good abrasion behaviour. This conclusion is the result of an and weathering. intensive radiation Calculation Guidelines . Mechanical properties ECTFE is a solid. which results due to its chemical structure . which hardly changes its properties over a wide range of Applications and References temperatures. It has even good values after irridation with 200 megarad cobalt 60. z very good surface slip characteristics Reproduction of microorganisms on ECTFE Thermal properties The surface of a product out of ECTFE is ECTFE has a remarkable resistance against unfavourable to the proliferation of microorganisms decomposition trought heat.a z good resistance against UV. ECTFE is applied in the food and drug industry and for ultra-pure water Resistance against the weathering ranges. For avoiding every influence z excellent insulating properties in connection with very good electrical values of smell and taste it is recommended to clean the food with water which has direct contact with z physiological non-toxic ECTFE parts.and γ-radiation. Due to these properties. very impact resistant plastic. To emphasize is also the good behaviour by low temperatures. ECTFE shows only a slight change of the properties or apperance weathering in the sunlight. C C C C which is a goot indicator for the polymer- decomposition. ECTFE has a unique combination of properties. in continuous contact with food stuff accoringg to "BGA Deutschland". ethylene and chlorotrifluorethylene. Reaped weathering tests showed a remarkable stability of H H F F the polymers particularly the elongation at break. Chemical structure of ECTFE Radiation resistance ECTFE shows an excellent resistance against different radiations. copolymere with a changing constitution of z therefore favourable ageing resistance.

5% flexural stress) ISO 178 MPa 18 24 Calculation Guidelines Modulus of elasticity ISO 527 MPa 750 1100 1150 Vicat-Softening point VST/B/50 ISO 306 °C 63 77 83 Heat deflection temperature HDT/B ISO 75 °C 60 75 Properties Thermal Linear coefficient of thermal expansion DIN 53752 K-1 x 10-4 1.3 2.94 0.43 UL94 94-HB 94-HB Flammability -- DIN 4102 B2 B2 B2 Specific 16 16 VDE 0303 OHM cm >10 >10 8 volume resistance ≤10 Properties Electrical 13 13 6 Specific surface resistance VDE 0303 OHM >10 >10 ≤10 relative dielectric constant DIN 53483 -. Yes Yes Nein FDA -. Applications and References Approvals and Standards 6 .8 1. Rockwell ISO 2039-1 MPa 36 46 Flexural strength (3.9 0.5 6 3. 2.95 0. -. Yes Yes Nein UV stabilized -. -.3 MFR 190/2. carbon black carbon black carbon black Colour -.8 1. -. Material Properties Material Properties Material Properties Specific material properties PE Property Standard Unit PE80 PE100 HDPE-el 3 Specific density at 23°C ISO 1183 g/cm 0.4 0.0 2 Impact strength notched at 0°C ISO 179 kJ/m Impact strength notched at -30°C 4.0 Ball indentation hardness acc.16 <0.1 Installation Guidelines MFR 230/5 MFI range ISO1872/1873 T012 T003 T001 Tensile stress at yield ISO 527 MPa 20 25 26 Elongation at yield ISO 527 % 10 9 7 Elongation at break ISO 527 % >600 >600 Impact strength unnotched at +23°C no break no break Mechanical 2 ISO 179 Properties kJ/m Impact strength unnotched at -30°C no break no break Impact strength notched at +23°C 12 16 5.8 Thermal conductivity at 20 °C DIN 52612 W/(mxK) 0.3 at 1 MHz Connection Systems Dielectric strength VDE 0303 kV/mm 70 70 Physiologically non-toxic EEC 90/128 -. black black black Note: The mentioned values are recommended values for the particular material.4 0.99 Melt flow index ISO 1133 g/10min MFR 190/5 0.

Rockwell ISO 2039-1 MPa 60 45 50 72 Flexural strength (3. -. Applications and References Approvals and Standards 7 .2 2.6 1.25 1.9 Elongation at yield ISO 527 % 10 12 10 10 Elongation at break ISO 527 % >300 >300 >50 >50 43 Impact strength unnotched at +23°C 2 no break no break no break no break Mechanical ISO 179 Properties kJ/m Impact strength unnotched at -30°C 80 28 2 Impact strength notched at +23°C ISO 179 kJ/m 8 22 40 9 9.91 0.13 Melt flow index ISO 1133 g/10min 0.6 1.24 0.91 0.25 1.3 Ball indentation hardness acc.8 4 8 2. -.22 0.3 MFI range ISO1872/1873 M003 Tensile stress at yield ISO 527 MPa 30 25 26 30 29. E(d2) DIN 4102 B2 B2 B2 B1 Specific VDE 0303 OHM cm 16 16 15 15 8 volume resistance >10 >10 >10 >10 ≤10 Properties Electrical 13 13 15 15 6 Specific surface resistance VDE 0303 OHM >10 >10 >10 >10 ≤10 relative dielectric constant DIN 53483 -- at 1 MHz 2.3 Dielectric strength VDE 0303 kV/mm 75 70 30 bis 40 30 bis 45 Connection Systems Physiologically non-toxic EEC 90/128 -.6 Thermal conductivity at 20 °C DIN 52612 W/(mxK) 0. Yes Yes No No No UV stabilized -. Yes Yes Yes Yes No FDA -.91 0.5% flexural stress) ISO 178 MPa 28 20 20 37 Modulus of elasticity ISO 527 MPa 1300 900 1100 1300 Calculation Guidelines Vicat-Softening point VST/B/50 ISO 306 °C 91 65 68 85 133 Heat deflection temperature HDT/B ISO 75 °C 96 70 75 85 47 Properties Linear coefficient of thermal expansion DIN 53752 K-1 x 10 -4 Thermal 1.5 0.16 2. Material Properties Properties Material Properties Material Specific material properties PP Property Standard Unit PP-H PP-R PP-B PP-H-s PP-R-s-el 3 Specific density at 23°C ISO 1183 g/cm 0.93 1. -.0 0.5 3.2 UL94 94-HB 94-HB 94-HB V-2 V-0 Flammability EN 13501 -.2 0.2 2.8 MFR 190/5 0.5 MFR 190/2.5 Impact strength notched at 0°C 2.6 1. No No Yes No Yes Ral 7032 RAL 7032 RAL 7037 Colour -.8 - Impact strength notched at -30°C 2.2 2.3 2.6 Installation Guidelines MFR 230/5 1. grey grey dark grey black Note: The mentioned values are recommended values for the particular material.

6 0. -. B -- FM 4910 yes -- Specific VDE 0303 OHM cm >1013 ≥10^14 >1016 Connection Systems volume resistance Properties Electrical Specific surface resistance VDE 0303 OHM >1012 ≥10^14 >1014 relative dielectric constant DIN 53483 -.2 1. Yes Yes Colour -. Calculation Guidelines ISO 2039-1 MPa Rockwell 80 .natural natural natural Applications and References Note: The mentioned values are recommended values for the particular material. Yes in preperation UV stabilized -.20 0. -.68 Melt flow index ISO 1133 g/10min MFR 190/5 0.25 2.16 Installation Guidelines MFR 230/5 6 6 MFI range Tensile stress at yield ISO 527 MPa 50 20-35 30 Elongation at yield ISO 527 % 9 10-12 5 Elongation at break ISO 527 % 80 200-600 250 Impact strength unnotched at +23°C 124 . -.8 Thermal conductivity at 20 °C DIN 52612 W/(mxK) 0. Material Properties Material Properties Material Properties Specific material properties PVDF and ECTFE Property Standard Unit PVDF PVDF flex ECTFE 3 Specific density at 23°C ISO 1183 g/cm 1.78 1.2 0. Approvals and Standards 8 .78 1. 90 Properties -1 -4 Thermal Linear coefficient of thermal expansion DIN 53752 K x 10 1. no break ISO 179 kJ/m2 Mechanical Impact strength unnotched at -30°C - Properties Impact strength notched at +23°C 11 17 no break Impact strength notched at 0°C ISO 179 kJ/m2 - Impact strength notched at -30°C - Ball indentation hardness acc. Yes compliant Yes FDA -.6 Dielectric strength VDE 0303 kV/mm 22 20 30 bis 35 Physiologically non-toxic EEC 90/128 -. 90 Flexural strength ISO 178 MPa 80 .4-1.15 UL94 V-0 V-0 V-0 Flammability EN 13501 -.85 MFR 190/2. 7 at 1 MHz 7. 47 Modulus of elasticity ISO 527 MPa 2000 1000-1100 1690 Vicat-Softening point VST/B/50 ISO 306 °C 140 150 Heat deflection temperature HDT/B ISO 75 °C 145 .

0 80°C 4.8 0.0 70°C 5.9 0. Material Properties Properties Material Properties Material Pressure curve for pipes out of PE80 50.0 Calculation Guidelines 30°C 9.6 Time to fail [years] 0.0 20.0 Connection Systems 3.0 10 10 10 10 10 10 Time to fail [h] Approvals and Standards 9 .0 2.0 0.7 1 10 25 50 100 0.0 Applications and References 1.0 Installation Guidelines 30.0 50°C 7.5 2 3 4 5 6 0.1 1.0 40.0 40°C Reference stress σv [N/mm2 ] 8.0 10°C 20°C 10.0 60°C 6.

8 8.7 4.9 14.6 10 3.6 11. Material Properties Material Properties Material Properties Permissible component operating pressures pB for PE 80 depending on temperature and operation period.0 5.0 9.6 5.0 15.2 2.3 2.8 4.5 4.7 14.9 6.5 18.5 10 3.2 4.7 3.8 9.5 19.8 13.4 4.4 3.1 2.8 18.2 9.0 6. In the table stated the data apply to water.3 2.7 100 3.1 11.3 1. They were determined from the creep curve taking into account a safety coefficient of C=1.0 8.0 25 3.8 2.3 10.3 6..0 2.2 5.8 31. The operating pressure has to be reduced by the corresponding reducing coefficients (see page 35) for every application.0 100 3.3 6.8 29.5 15.4 15..6 24.8 25.5 30 5 2.6 4.8 10 2.4 13.4 1.2 21.0 20.6 11 7.4 10.2 3.3 9.4 14.6 3.6 50 2.4 Calculation Guidelines 50 3.3 5.3 5 3.0 5.1 3.0 25.9 3.2 15 1.0 3.5 3.2 2.7 3.6 5.4 3.5 6.5 10 2.9 3.8 3.5 9.3 29.5 20. 2) .5 8.6 9.9 7.7 20.25.2 26.2 7.6 16.6 12.0 5. Installation Guidelines Diameter-wall thickness relation SDR 41 33 26 17.8 8.8 3.2 40 5 2.3 4.9 13.0 11.2 19.0 25 2.4 6 Operating Pipe series S Temperature period 20 16 12.0 17..1 5.2 4.3 7.4 16.3 15.5 24.5 20 25 permissible component operating pressure pB 1) 2) [bar] 10 5 4.3 10 2.7 2.2 20 5 3.).8 5.5 50 2.3 60 5 1.9 8.7 5. Applications and References Approvals and Standards 10 .5 [°C] [years] PN 3.2 19.9 4.3 7.6 23.0 25 3.8 4.3 31.2 4.3 25.3 21.0 22.1 25 2. We recommend for the calculation of the operating Connection Systems pressure in piping systems to multiply the in the table contined operating pressure with a system reduction coefficient fs = 0.8 23.8 26.6 4.7 12.5 12. flange or also bending loads.2 50 5 2.3 4.9 8.9 21.7 22.9 16.2 4 5 7.8 2.2 18.2 6.8 4.4 9.7 5.8 (This value contains installation-technical influences such as welding joint.0 7.1 12.3 5.1 24.1 14..3 70 2 1.3 50 3.2 14.7 11.4 4.8 17.8 6.8 5.0 7.7 9.2 30.6 15.1 3.3 12.9 4.7 1) .1 1.4 6.

0 10°C 20°C 30°C 40°C 10.0 0.0 2.0 60°C 7.0 50°C Reference stress σv [N/mm2 ] 8.0 5.5 2 3 4 5 6 0.0 30.0 40.9 0.0 4.0 70°C 80°C 6.6 Time to fail [years] 0.8 0.0 10 10 10 10 10 10 Time to fail [h] Approvals and Standards 11 .0 Applications and References 1. Material Properties Properties Material Properties Material Pressure curve for pipes out of PE100 50.7 1 10 25 50 100 0.0 Installation Guidelines 20.0 Calculation Guidelines 9.0 Connection Systems 3.1 1.

8 31.5 10.7 24.4 22.9 26.5 Calculation Guidelines 50 4.3 50 5 2.2 5.3 2.0 6.1 16.5 5.7 24. SDR-serie.2 4. a smaller wall pressure in piping systems to multiply the in the thickness than for standard Pe results due to the table contained operating pressure with a system higher calculation stress.9 10 4. They can therefore be reduction coefficient fs=0.1 9.7 50 2.3 8.5 23.8 12.0 25.6 18.6 8.7 5.7 12.4 6 Operating Pipe series S Temperature period 20 16 12.9 4.8 19.0 32.2 27.5 10.3 30.6 13.9 6.2 38.4 10 4.3 15 2.3 25 2.0 6.7 29.0 16.5 28.3 25 4.6 9.3 10.4 10.9 6..3 11. 2) .8 10 3.7 5.9 3.6 4..5 70 2 1.5 11.0 6.5 5 6.4 16.9 9.4 3.9 6.4 16.3 4.2 20 25 valid for 20°C and 50 years life time Approvals and Standards 12 .3 6.1 15.8 12. S-serie and PN-pressure ratings in the opposite table.0 100 4.4 8.7 16.5 8 5 3.5 Connection Systems 1) .4 30 5 3.9 3.6 18.1 19.6 26.4 11.4 5.0 29.6 4.3 7.7 7.7 4.6 27.7 10 3.2 25.2 37.6 12.3 10 16 25 32 Permissible component operating pressure pB 1) 2) [bar] 10 5 5.0 5. Installation Guidelines Diameter-wall thickness relation SDR 41 33 26 17 11 7..1 40 5 3. We recommend for the calculation of the operating For pipes and fittings out of PE 100.8 18.6 3.0 100 3.5 40.4 4.6 10..0 4.5 [°C] [years] PN 4 5 6.4 3.3 7.6 17 8 8 10 11 5 12.4 3.3 17.8 6.6 3.3 5.3 4.8 7.9 2.).4 10 2.5 7.5 1.9 19.5 8.25. They were determined from the creep curve taking into account a safety coefficient of C =1.7 50 4.6 16.0 39.8 7.8 (This value contains applied for higher operating pressures at the same installation-technical influences such as welding wall thickness.3 24.2 31. Please find the comparison of the joint.2 6.2 5.5 9.9 3.8 15.6 5.4 13.4 19.4 32.0 3.8 4.3 25 3.5 33.1 19.2 7.5 31. These operating pressure have to be reduced by the corresponding reducing coefficients (see page 35) for eyery application.6 12.5 16 7.8 14.1 28.2 4 Applications and References 33 16 4 5 26 12.6 50 3.2 23.8 7.0 60 5 1.5 4. In the tables stated the data apply to water.0 7.2 6.9 12.6 7.0 33.0 3.2 2.8 21. PN-pressure rate SDR S PE80 PE100 41 20 3.1 5.2 9.2 11.4 20 5 4. Material Properties Material Properties Material Properties Permissible component operating pressures pB for PE 100 depending on temperature and operation period.9 7.7 38.2 20.7 12.6 20.1 22.0 24.5 14.0 5.7 25 4.0 6.7 10.3 19.0 14.9 2.8 4. flange or also bending loads.5 21.

0 4.0 40. Material Properties Properties Material Properties Material Pressure curve for pipes out of PP-H 50.0 5.0 80°C Reference stress σv [N/mm2 ] 8.0 30°C 40°C 50°C 60°C Calculation Guidelines 70°C 10.1 1.0 95°C 6.9 0.0 0.7 1 10 25 50 100 0.0 9.0 10°C 20°C 20.0 Installation Guidelines 30.6 Time to fail [years] 0.0 2.5 2 3 4 5 6 0.0 90°C 7.0 Connection Systems 3.0 Applications and References 1.0 10 10 10 10 10 10 Time to fail [h] Approvals and Standards 13 .8 0.

9 4.8 24.5 10.1 2.. Diameter-wall thickness relation SDR 41 33 26 17.8 6.8 25 3.3 4.1 9.6)4) (4. C = 1.6 22.9 6.0 5.6 14.0 6.5 14. We recommend for the calculation of the operating 3) .0 20.8 10 2. the corresponding reducing coefficients (see page 35) for eyery application.40°C.5 16.1 20 1 3. carbon black) installation-technical influences such as welding to the molding material..9 14.6 7.8 13.9 3.4 21.3 9.2 8.5 4.5 23.0 4.2 22.g.3 12.3 5.6 5.8 19.4 4.8 2.8 7.5 28.6 9.6 80 1 1. joint.5 5.2 2.6 8.1 5.8 (This value contains reduced corresponding additives (e.1 16.7 7.9 50 1.7 2.6 3.8 17.4 6.1 30.6 7.0 19. Material Properties Material Properties Material Properties Permissible component operating pressures pB In the tables stated the data apply to water.4 3.1 5 4.7 21.9 20.6 8.2 6.1 28.3 6.5 7.1 10 4.3 4.3 13. 1.2 2.0 20.6 11 7.0 3.5)4) (2.9 16.2 12.0)4) (5.8 6.7 11. flange or also bending loads.6 15.2 3.7 18.).4 50 3.5 1.4 6.6 24.0 2.9 11.1 (10)4) .3 4. These operating pressure have to be reduced by testing periods than 1 year at the 110°C test.3 10.8 4.0 4.4 5.3 10.7 21. (1.8 17. Operating pressures do not apply to pipes pressure in piping systems to multiply the in the exposed to UV radiation.8 7.1 25 2.8 2. essentially reduction coefficient fs=0.2 3.0 8.7 4.8 2.4 14.9 3.0 12.8 2.5 2..2 5 1.9 30 1 3.5 1.5 5.3 10 2.9 Calculation Guidelines 100 3.5 1.6 7.2 10.6 10.0 17.6 9.6 5 3.7 3.6 from 10 .9 2.2 9.6 26.2 24.2 2.0 13.3 95 1 1.8 3.7 4.3 50 2.6 13.4 1.6 3.1 100 3.4 23.9 18.0 25.9 50 1 2.5 16.0 50 2.9 4.8 8.0 15.9 10.3 8.2 2. .6 5 2.3 7.2 24.6 20.8 7.1 3.6 18.4 10 3.2 25 2.6 3.0 10.1 15.1 10 1.5 5.7 4.1 5.3 5 3.3 14.5 3.0 16.7 5.4 8.9 4..0 7.6 11. Approvals and Standards 14 .9 5.7 5.1 3.5 11.2 17.8 9.5 4.1 29.2 6.2 4. They for PP-H depending on temperature and operation were determined from the creep curve taking into periond.5 3.5 [°C] [years] PN 2.2 11.6 5.3 9.5 8.5 5.9 6.4 6 Installation Guidelines Operating Pipe series S Temperature period 20 16 12.7 31.3 28.4 5.3 4.6 8.9 40 1 3.7 15.1 19.2 3.4 19.4 1.0 23.8 2.1)4) Applications and References 1) .1 26.1 22.3 2.8 3.5 3.8 7.3 31.2 1.1 5 3.0 1.9 11.1 10 2.2 1.3 5.8 4.8 3.0 2.6 3.2 4.2 25 .4 15.0 6. The values in brackets are valid at proof of longer 2) .4 25 3.6 4.4 9.0 70 1 2. C = 1.2 25 2.8 14.7 13.5 8.8 4.1 5 1. account a safety coefficient of C (C = 1.2 5 .2 7.1 17.7 4.3 4.0 3.9 15.8 4.5 10.7 36.1 6.4 13.6 16.6 25.9 8.1 2.2 4 6 10 16 20 Permissible component operating pressure pB 1) 2) 3) [bar] 10 1 4.2 4.2 21..1 50 1.2 8. Within 10 years of operation.5 60 1 2.7 3.5 4.7 27.7 18.0 11. .60°C.8 3.5 12.3 10 1.2 1.4 5.8 13.8 8..6 25.2 5.7 3.5 25 2.7 8.3 10 2.5 3.1 Connection Systems 5 2.. table contained operating pressure with a system this influence may be compensated res.8 4.6 3.0 6.5 19.3 33.3 13.2 2.2 5.9 2.0 10.7 7.2 15.6 2.4 4.9 50 2.4 4. 1.25 over 60°C).2 7.3 21.2 1.9 13.9 5 2.7 25 1.9 3. 4) .1 12.3 2.4 from 40 .4 3.0 11.9 5.2 6..7 17.2 1.6 23.9 50 3.

0 10 10 10 10 10 10 Time to fail [h] Approvals and Standards 15 .0 Applications and References 1.9 0.0 0.0 95°C 4.0 80°C 6.0 Reference stress σv [N/mm2 ] 70°C 7.0 90°C 5.7 1 10 25 50 100 0.0 20.5 2 3 4 5 6 0.0 2.0 Connection Systems 3.0 10°C 20°C 30°C 40°C 50°C 10.0 Calculation Guidelines 9.1 1.0 60°C 8.8 0.0 40.6 Time to fail [years] 0. Material Properties Properties Material Properties Material Pressure curve for pipes out of PP-R 50.0 Installation Guidelines 30.

3 31.1 33.5 4.1 8.7 8.6 11 7.0 6.7 7.3 3.0 17.9 6.1 10.1 10.7 10.2 1.4 6 Operating Pipe series S Temperature period 20 16 12.5 5 2.2 80 1 1.7 29.1)4 1) 3) .0 31.1 5...3 8.4 40 1 3.0 50 1 2.7 6.6 13.6 19.3 26.7 7.5 6.1 19.4 6.0 11.3 1.0 1.7 25 3.8 9.6 9.5 3.4 9.8 18.5 3.9 4.8 4.8 7.1 20.6 2.0 2.9 26.2 4.0 8.3 6.8 6.9 100 3. (1.8 29.7 23. Approvals and Standards 16 .9 7.5 25.0 4.2 4.9 15.2 18.2 9.5 25 4.3 2.0 3.7 28. the corresponding reducing coefficients (see page 35) for eyery application.1 10.5 5.4 14.2 5.8 4.8 7.3 12.7 17.2 10.3 2.6 9.0)4 (5.7 18.8 3.1 14.0 22.7 21.4 10 2.5 8.8 10 4.9 50 1.6 3.8 4.5 22.5 9.0 5 2.5 8.1 4.7 18.5 10..0)4 (1. joint.5 5.8 2.8 2.3 13.1 11.6 9.3 14.2 15.7 3.7 12.2 28.2 1. carbon black) installation-technical influences such as welding to the molding material.9 2.3 2.8 4.8 28.9 30 1 3.7 5..Due to the different mechanical properties of the specific material PP-s-el.2 6.8 50 3..6 39.8 2. These operating pressure have to be reduced by testing periods than 1 year at the 110°C test. account a safety coefficient of C =1.3 7.4 42.0 27.3 7.2 1.3 9.6 38.5 5.1 9.9 6.6 37..0 3.4 11.8 (This value contains reduced corresponding additives (e.2 1.9 12.3 4.2 2.8 33.0 1.8 5 3.1 5.4 13.6 4.8 6.0 6.1 15.2 8.7 25 2.5 30.6 7.6 2.5 3.0 12.0 25 1.1 5.4 22.7 26.8 3.1 (10)4) .6 7.8 4.6 11.0 17.2 20. 4) .9 4.9 6.0 3. They for PP-R depending on temperature and operation were determined from the creep curve taking into period.9 2.5 [°C] [years] PN 2.2 7.6 25 1.1 5 1. .8 7.1 9.9 2.2 Applications and References 5 .2 16.9 3.7 7.0 23.1 2.6 4.5 1.7 19.1 2.1 6.7 5.0 15. 1.5 1.8 12. Operating pressures do not apply to pipes pressure in piping systems to multiply the in the exposed to UV radiation. We recommend for the calculation of the operating .6 50 2. The values in brackets are valid at proof of longer 2) .7 17.3 3.5 10 1.6 36.8 11.1 50 1.0 9.1 3.2 16.4 21.1 7.6)4 (4.3 24.7 5.2 7.5 4.9 6.2 16.3 14.8 6.4 3.0 2.2 4. essentially reduction coefficient fs=0.).9 13.3 50 4.4 5.8 3.4 4.1 50 2..4 3. Material Properties Material Properties Material Properties Permissible component operating pressures pB The in the tables stated data apply to water.4 5. flange or also bending loads.8 10 4.3 30.8 12.1 5.0 28.9 4.3 70 1 2.0 9.1 4.8 3.6 95 1 1.4 3. Within 10 years of operation.6 5 1.8 50 3.2 11.7 10 3.2 4 6 10 16 20 Permissible component operating pressure pB 1) 2) 3) [bar] 10 1 5.1 13.6 14.4 12.2 2.4 13.6 6.5 2.0 25.9 18.4 20 1 4.1 7.2 24.6 5 3. table contained operating pressure with a system this influence may be compensated res.6 25 2.5 22.4 6.8 2.6 7.9 16. the maximum operating pressure has to be reduced to 50%! Diameter-wall thickness relation SDR Installation Guidelines 41 33 26 17.0 20.0 5 5.8 Calculation Guidelines 25 4.0 5 4.3 18.3 30.2 10 3.6 15.7 4.3 5.5 5.1 32.0 5.5 Connection Systems 60 1 2.4 15.8 18.5 4.1 7.5 24.7 8..2 5.7 11.3 10 1.5 3.1 35.8 36.1 11.0 3.4 26.6 3.2 10 2.6 25 2.2 2.3 15.9 3.8 8.7 9.9 22.6 12.8 5.6 16.6 5.2 19.6 3.3 100 4.4 1.6 11.5 1.3 5 3.6 15.25.g.9 20.2 10.5)4 (2.4 6.

0 4.0 130°C Calculation Guidelines 6.5 Applications and References 0.0 1 10 25 50100 Time to fail [years] 0.0 120°C 8.0 2.1 1.0 Installation Guidelines 60°C 20.0 80°C Reference stress s v [N/mm2 ] 95°C 10.0 10 102 103 104 105 106 Time to fail [h] Approvals and Standards 17 .0 140°C 5.0 Connection Systems 1.0 3. Material Properties Properties Material Properties Material Pressure curve for pipes out of PVDF 50.0 20°C 30.0 40.

8 (This value contains installation-technical influences such as welding joint.. Material Properties Material Properties Material Properties Permissible component operating pressures pB In the tables stated the data apply to water.9 17. 2) . flange or also bending loads.0 14.2 50 7.4 25 3.2 9.1 50 10.4 25 5.9 4.1 6.3 13..0 10 2.5 4.).1 25 7.8 2.0 10 10.0 30 1 10.0 15.2 5.7 50 9.6 11.5 120 1 2.9 25 6.3 9.8 70 1 6.8 25 10.6 8.9 50 1.3 25 10.1 9.0 10 11.3 40 1 9.1 14.7 12.7 15.4 25 1.8 17.1 10 8.9 50 1 8.4 11. We recommend for the calculation of the operating pressure in piping systems to multiply the in the table contained operating pressure with a system reduction coefficient fs=0.6 2.0 15.9 60 1 7.6 10 7.0 11.2 3. These operating pressure have to be reduced by the corresponding reducing coefficients (see page 35) for eyery application.4 6.3 50 2.5 110 1 3.0 17.6.5 2.0 10 1.2 8.3 5. Approvals and Standards 18 .1 50 8.0 50 6. Diameter-wall thickness relation SDR 33 21 Installation Guidelines Operating Pipe seris S Temperature period 16 10 [°C] [years] PN 10 16 1) 2) Permissible component operating pressure pB [bar] 20 1 11.6 25 7. They for PVDF depending on temperature and operation were determined from the creep curve taking into period.3 2.0 12. account a safety coefficient of C = 1..3 25 9.3 8.5 25 1.9 10 4.8 50 6.1 11.7 80 1 5.2 14.9 Connection Systems 10 5.5 Calculation Guidelines 10 9.2 95 1 4.0 Applications and References 1) .9 10.6 10.3 50 5.4 8..2 16.8 13.3 10 6.5 18.

0 3.9 10 6. These operating pressures have to be reduced pressure in piping systems to multiply the in the by the corresponding reducing coefficients (see table contained operating pressure with a system page 35) for eyery application.7 1) . flange or also bending loads). account a safety coefficient of C = 2. reduction coefficient fs=0..0 Connection Systems Diameter-wall thickness relation SDR 21 33 Temperatur Operating Pipe series S e period 10 16 [°C] [years] PN 10 6 Permissible component operating pressure pB [bar] 1) 2) 20 1 11.8 (This value contains Approvals and Standards installation-technical influences such as welding joint.5 7.5 4. They for ECTFE depending on temperature and were detemined from the creep curve taking into operation period.7 1. Material Properties Properties Material Properties Material Pressure curve for pipes of ECTFE 50 40 30 Installation Guidelines 20 23°C Reference stress σv [N/mm2 ] 60°C 10 7 5 90°C 4 3 Calculation Guidelines 1 5 10 25 50 2 Time to fail [years] Standzeit [Jahre] 1 1 101 102 103 104 105 106 Time to fail [h] Permissible component operating pressures pB The in the tables stated data apply to water.2 Applications and References 5 10. We recommend for the calculation of the operating 2) .0 1. 19 .3 60 1 6..9 5 2..8 90 1 3..0 5 6.6 10 10.0 6.3 3.8 1.5 6.8 10 2.

part 1) 350 350 σ = 0.5 N/mm 2 1 year 10 years 300 300 1 Installation Guidelines σ = 0. Material Properties Material Properties Material Properties Creep modulus curves for PE 80 (acc. we recommend to raise the 100 from the diagrams for PE 80 determined creep modulus values by 10 %. beginning of ageing 2 Creep modulus curve for PE 100 150 3 4 As no valid creep modulus curves are availabel for 5 PE 100 at the moment.to DVS 2205.5 N/mm2 for stability calculations.5 N/mm2 250 250 2 1 Creep modulus [N/mm2 ] Creep modulus [N/mm2 ] 3 200 200 2 4 5 3 150 150 beginning of ageing 4 5 100 100 Calculation Guidelines 50 50 0 0 0 20 40 60 80 0 20 40 60 80 Operating temperature [°C] Operating temperature [°C] 350 25 years Reducing of the creep modulus 300 In the stated diagrams the calculated creep modulus still has to be reduced by a safety coefficient of ≥ 2 250 s = 0. Connection Systems Influences by chemical attack or by eccentricity and Creep modulus [N/mm2 ] 1 unroundness have to be taken into account 200 separately. 50 Applications and References 0 0 20 40 60 80 Operating temperature [°C] Approvals and Standards 20 .

part 1) 500 500 σ s== 0. to DVS 2205. Connection Systems 2 Influences by chemical attack or by eccentricity and 300 3 4 unroundness have to be taken into account beginning 5 of ageing separately.5 N/mm2 1 2 3 4 300 300 5 beginning of ageing 200 200 Calculation Guidelines 100 100 20 40 60 80 100 20 40 60 80 100 Operating temperature [°C] Operating temperature [°C] 500 25 years Reducing of the creep modulus 400 Creep modulus [N/mm2 ] σ = 0.5 0. Material Properties Properties Material Properties Material Creed modulus curves for PP-H (acc.5 N/mm 2 In the stated diagrams the calculated creep modulus still has to be reduced by a safety coefficient of ≥ 2 1 for stability calculations. 200 100 20 40 60 80 100 Operating temperature [°C] Applications and References Approvals and Standards 21 .5 N/mm N/mm22 1 year 10 years 1 2 3 Installation Guidelines 400 4 400 Creep modulus [N/mm2 ] Creep modulus [N/mm2 ] 5 σ = 0.

Material Properties Material Properties Material Properties Creep modulus curves for PP-R (acc. to DVS 2205. part 1) 400 400 1 year 10 years σ = 2 N/mm 2 Installation Guidelines 300 300 σ = 2 N/mm 2 Creep modulus [N/mm2 ] Creep modulud [N/mm2 ] 3 3 5 200 200 5 beginning beginning of ageing of ageing 100 100 Calculation Guidelines 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 20 40 60 80 100 Operating temperature [°C] Operating temperature [°C] 400 25 years 300 Reducing of the creep modulus σ = 2 N/mm 2 Creep modulus [N/mm2 ] In the stated diagrams the calculated creep modulus 3 still has to be reduced by a safety coefficient of ≥ 2 Connection Systems beginning of ageing for stability calculations. 100 0 Applications and References 20 40 60 80 100 Operating temperature [°C] Approvals and Standards 22 . 200 4 Influences by chemical attack or by eccentricity and unroundness have to be taken into account separately.

Material Properties Properties Material Properties Material Creep modulus curves for PVDF (acc. to DVS 2205. part 1) in relation to the σ=2 up to 5) temperature (σ 1000 Installation Guidelines 1 ye ar Creep modulus [N/mm2 ] 10 500 ye ar s Calculation Guidelines 25 ye ars 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Operating temperature [°C] Connection Systems Applications and References Approvals and Standards 23 .

80 25 0.040 0.035 0.045 0.70 0.90 0.070 0.65 3.39 3.025 0.35 2.030 .23 .35 50 1 0.30 1.95 Calculation Guidelines 30 1 0..035 .020 .83 0.05 10 0.115 0.075 0.65 1.47 3.065 0.85 1.57 0.85 1.37 .040 .060 0.045 0.50 2. 0.64 0.80 2.060 0.57 0. Installation Guidelines SDR-series 41 33 17.055 0.015 0.20 25 0.42 .130 0. 0.35 3.86 0.075 0.6 11 S-series Operation Temperature 20 16 8.36 .29 2.95 2.085 0.46 0.020 0.045 0.040 0.95 3.0 (minimum safety coefficient for stability calculations).120 0.095 0. 0.25 - 10 0.100 0.095 0.110 0.61 0.075 0.035 0. 1.070 0.070 0.050 0.45 1.20 10 0.71 0.125 0.045 0.83 0.65 1.78 0.010 0.035 0.040 0.090 0. These buckling Applications and References 2.110 0. 0.50 0.57 0. 0.055 .110 0.090 0.150 0. 0.050 0.020 .53 0..62 0.50 SDR 33 - Approvals and Standards 20°C 40°C 60°C 80°C 100°C 120°C Temperature [C°] 24 .49 0.045 0.065 . 0.64 0.70 10 0. 2.030 0.080 0.050 0.040 0. 2.47 4.50 In the tables stated the data apply to water.5 3.45 - 95 1 0.055 0.030 0. 1.37 3.085 0.050 0.48 0.65 40 1 0.96 0.34 .030 0.20 1.100 0. 0.44 0.61 0.70 - 25 0.040 0.035 0.035 0.015 0.025 0. 0.100 0.15 2.070 0.55 0.49 0.60 - 10 0.035 0. 0. 0.0 (minimum safety coefficient for stability calculations).035 0.55 0.31 . 0.65 2. Material Properties Material Properties Material Properties Permissible buckling pressures for PP-H.020 0.75 0.90 1.045 0.080 0.43 3.065 0. 0.020 0.11 0.40 2.64 0.025 0.29 3.65 - 80 1 0.060 0.050 0.23 2.025 0.095 0. 0.10 60 1 0.75 10 0.65 1.040 0.85 2.025 .055 0.25 2.80 10 0.15 3. They were determined taken into account a safety coefficient of 2.110 0.040 0.060 0.075 0.95 2.030 .95 - Connection Systems 70 1 0.105 0. 0. 0.045 0. 2.035 0.55 2.15 1.170 0.60 5.30 1.045 .85 2. PP-R and PE 80 In the table stated the data apply to water.30 2.05 - 1) .030 0.25 1.00 SDR 17 Buckling pressure [bar] Admissible buckling pressures for PVDF 1.20 1.41 0.50 25 0. They SDR 21 were determined taken into account a safety 1.68 0.035 0.35 0.32 3.47 0.73 0.45 3.23 2.025 . 2. 2.This buckling pressures have been calculated according to formula on page 37.73 0.025 .55 1.065 .015 .065 0.30 2.040 0.060 0. 2.055 0.27 .055 .050 .50 pressures have to be decreased by the corresponding reducing factors due to chemical influence or unroundness for any application.15 25 0.00 coefficient of 2.25 1.050 0.40 1.18 2.035 0.00 - 25 0.35 10 0.015 0.085 0. 0.030 0.090 1.15 1.070 0. 2.030 0.43 .2 6 10 1) Permissible buckling pressure [bar] PP-H PP-R PE80 PP-H PP-R PE80 PP-H PP-R PE80 PP-H PP-R PE80 20 1 0.71 0.110 0.95 1.3 5 period [°C] PN [years] 2.050 0.52 0.080 0.41 0.130 0.045 0.055 0.

0 PP-H 1200 1100 1050 1000 950 900 850 800 315 x 5.0 PP-H 1400 1250 1200 1150 1100 1050 1000 900 Calculation Guidelines 400 x 8.0 PE80 1300 1150 1100 950 900 800 700 650 630 x 10.0 PP-H 1400 1250 1200 1150 1100 1050 1000 900 225 x 3.5 PP-H 1100 1000 1000 900 900 850 800 750 280 x 4.0 PP-H 1200 1100 1050 1000 950 900 850 800 560 x 10.0 PP-H 1400 1250 1200 1150 1100 1050 1000 900 900 x 12.0 (minimum 100000 Pa = 1bar safety coefficient for stability calculations).0 PE80 1050 950 850 800 700 650 550 500 1000 x 15.0 PP-H 3400 3050 2950 2800 2700 2500 2400 2250 500 x 10.0 PE80 900 850 750 700 600 550 500 450 500 x 10.0 PP-H 1650 1500 1450 1350 1300 1250 1150 1100 Connection Systems 630 x 10.0 PP-H 2350 2150 2050 1950 1850 1750 1650 1550 450 x 8.0 PP-H 1900 1750 1700 1600 1550 1400 1350 1250 200 x 3.0 PP-H 1650 1500 1450 1350 1300 1250 1150 1100 355 x 5.0 PE80 1250 1150 1050 950 850 800 700 650 500 x 8.0 PP-H 1150 1050 1000 950 900 850 800 750 400 x 6.0 PP-H 1400 1250 1200 1150 1100 1050 1000 900 Applications and References 1200 x 18.0 PP-H 1200 1100 1050 1000 950 900 850 800 1400 x 20.0 PP-H 2400 2150 2100 1950 1900 1750 1700 1600 560 x 10. Pipe dimension Permissible buckling pressures in Pascal [Pa] Ø xs Material for different operation temperatures and periods [mm] 20°C 30°C 40°C 50°C Installation Guidelines 10years 25years 10years 25years 10years 25years 10years 25years 140 x 3.0 PE80 900 800 750 650 600 550 500 450 710 x 12.0 PE80 1850 1650 1550 1400 1250 1150 1000 900 450 x 6.0 PP-H 1400 1250 1200 1150 1100 1050 1000 900 1000 x 15.0 PP-H 950 900 850 800 750 700 700 650 450 x 8. Approvals and Standards 25 .0 PE80 750 700 600 550 500 450 400 350 1200 x 18.0 PE80 1100 1000 900 800 750 650 600 550 800 x 12.0 PE80 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 This buckling pressures were calculated with the formula from page 37.0 PP-H 3400 3050 2950 2800 2700 2500 2400 2250 400 x 8.0 PP-H 1900 1750 1700 1600 1550 1400 1350 1250 900 x 15. These operating pressure have to be reduced by the corresponding reducing coefficients through chemical influences or unroundness .5 PP-H 1550 1400 1350 1300 1250 1150 1100 1050 250 x 3. Material Properties Properties Material Properties Material Permissible buckling pressures for ventilation Contained in the tables the maximum permissible pipes out of PP-H and PE.0 PE80 750 700 600 550 500 450 400 350 900 x 15.0 PE80 750 700 600 550 500 450 400 350 1400 x 20.0 PP-H 1700 1550 1500 1400 1350 1250 1200 1000 500 x 8.0 PP-H 4200 3800 3650 3450 3350 3100 3000 2800 160 x 3.0 PP-H 2000 1850 1750 1650 1600 1500 1450 1350 710 x 12. buckling pressures in Pascal were determined taken into account a safety coefficient of 2.0 PE80 1850 1650 1550 1400 1250 1150 1000 900 560 x 8.0 PP-H 2750 2500 2400 2300 2200 2050 1950 1850 180 x 3.

pipe transportation of solids in open channels can clearly with MC-DUR coated concrete pipe be seen from the test result. 26 . As it can been seen possible static load. 1. 1. The local deduction of the wall thickness after a certain loading time is regarded as measure for the abrasion. system.15 kg/l Water temperature 30 .pipe Calculation Guidelines 0. PP-R-s-el.35°C Flow velocity approx.and Steel elbows of different bending radii in dependance on solid portion straight pipe Steel pipe Ø63x6mm PEHD pipe Ø63x6mm 30xda Connection Systems 20xda 15xda bend radius r 10xda 14% 7% 14% 7% Fluid medium water with 7 resp. thermoplastic pipes (in The use for each single application has to be this special case.5 The advantage of thermoplastic pipes for the GFK . Approvals and Standards from the opposite diagram.- for the conveying of fluid-solid-mixtures than e.pipe number of alternations of lads 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 x 1000 Abrasion time of HDPE.07 bzw. a 1 m long half-pipe is tilted with a frequency of 0.5 PVC .18 Hz. whereby with PP pipes the same or slightly better results will be achieved) have an essential advan- tage compared with steel pipes.0 stoneware pipe 0.0 Installation Guidelines developed method. concrete pipe 1. thermoplastic pipes are better suited Medium: silica sand-gravel-water-mixture 46 Vol. g. medium abrasion am in mm At the of the Technische Hochschule Darmstadt 2. PE pipes have been applied clarified with our technical engineering department. A possibility to check the abra-sion There should only be used electro-conductable behaviour of such a system is to determine the mate-rials (PE-el. 7 m/s Applications and References 6xda 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 Abrasion time in hours until the arising of a hole In a more practical tests the medium is pumped For conveying of dry abrasive acting fluids through pipe samples which are built-in in a piping polypropylene can only be applied conditionally.25 PP or PEHD . 14% sand density 1. Material Properties Material Properties Material Properties Behaviour at abrasive fluids Abrasion behavior according to method Darmstadt In principle. grain size up to 30 mm concrete pipes or also steel pipes. We have already resulted positive experiences of different applications. % silica sand/gravel. PP-R-el) be-cause of a time until the arising of a hole.

it's mostly physical processes at higher temperature and with higher concentrations plastics which reduce the utility value. cracking corrosion due to ampholytiocs (chromic Only at temperatures > 60°C is PE conditonally acid. our application engineering department will be at your disposal at any time. PP and PE is also at higher concentrations and at raised temperatures resistant. but causes secondary damages on the surrounding steel Applications and References constructions.at 27 . But a destruction commences PE however can be used for the conveying up to only rarely. acids and alkalis if these are not strong active chlorine. even at of the material. Calculation Guidelines raised temperatures.g. There have to be taken Bleaching lye reducing factors into consideration at the design of As these lyes contain active chlorine. Installation Guidelines can be changed in this way that the mechanical properties are affected. such as alcohols. Double containment piping systems have proven for such applications. only a facilities and parts of those in such cases. especially at already at ambient temperature (swelling > 3 %). hydrofluoric acid Against concentrated hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. Good resistance is also given for pressureless piping systems and tanks. PP and PE are chemically resistant. Actual lists of chemical properties are available on www. The mechanical strength properties are reduced at higher concentrations. But there appears a diffusion of HCl (concentrations > 20 %) and of HF (concentrations > 40 %) at PP. PP and PE are rather only suitable oxidizing agents. esters and ketones. against many solvents. which does not damage the material. conditional resistance is given at room temperature. caustic lye). For more detailed information regarding the Approvals and Standards chemical resistance of our products. g. Concentrations higher than 80 % cause already at Connection Systems room temperature oxidation. unlike to PVDF or other processes at which the composition of the plastics fluoroplastics. Hydrochloric acid. Material Properties Properties Material Properties Material General chemical properties of PE & PP Lyes In comparison to metals where an attack of Alkalis chemicals leads to an irreversible chemical change Diluted alkali solutions (e. Phosphoric acid Against this medium. Hydrocarbons At contact with solvents. resistant as the swelling is > 3 %. swelling and solution applied without problems. you have hydrocarbons (benzine as well as other fuels) to reckon upon a strong swelling.agru. this oxidation can even go to a carbonization of the surface of the PP semi-finished products. Such do not react with PP and PE and can therefore be physical changes are e. as aliphatic and aromatic PP is only conditionally resistant against compound. PE und PP are resistant against diluted solutions of At higher temperatures and concentrations of the salts. temperatures of 40°C and for the storage of these The resistance can be strongly reduced by stress media up to temperatures of 60°C. At higher temperatures. chlorinated hydroxycarbon. Acids Sulphuric Acid Concentrations up to approximately 70% change the properties of PP and PE only slightly. concentrated sulphuric acid). Nitric acid Higher concentrated nitric acid has an oxidizing effect on the materials.

agru. Please note that there is the possibility of tension crack development (stress cracking). PVDF is exposed to the attack of concentrated sulfuric acid. This can Concentration happen when PVDF is situated in a milleu with a pH-factor > 12 or in the presence of free radicals Temperature (for example elemental chlorine) and it is exposed to a mechanical use in the same time. oxidising media. which come in contact with the fitting out of PVDF.melted alkaline metals or amalgam.. PVDF is also resistant to halogens (chlorine. which can produce free radicals under The following essential paramenters should be certain circumstances considered in every cases: . Actual lists of chemical properties are Connection Systems available on www. Time Maximum permissible H 2 SO 4 -concentration Possible diffusion or solubility depending on temperature based on the bursting strength of the PVDF pipes. free SO 3 even by strong diluted sulvuric acid Installation Guidelines solution can lead to tension crack development. iodine). Properties of the finished piece out of PVDF dimethyl-formamide. Through free SO3 in the sulfuric acid It has an outstanding resistance to most anorganic tension chrack development (stress cracking) can and organic acids. because they can lead to decomposition: PVDF by different pressures and temperatures in the DECHEMA-bracket. . basic media with a index of pH > 12 . alcohols and halogenated Among high temperatures the concentration of solvents.concentration 100 Applications and References 90 Concentration[%] 80 70 60 50 Approvals and Standards 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 Temperature [°C] 28 . bromine.amine.joints.high polar solvents (acetone. joint(s).. . aliphatic and happen if it is also exposed to a mechanical use.smoking sulfuric acid . Material Properties Material Properties Material Properties Chemical resistance PVDF Example: sulfuric acid PVDF is resistant to a wide range of chemicals. but not fluorine. Chemical structure and physical state of the .). dimethylsulphoxide.at Maximum permissible H2SO4 . ethyl acetate. aromatic hydrocarbons. To determine the permissible pressure in presence of sulfuric acid and depending on the temperature Generally PVDF is unsuitable for the following we have analysed the behaviour of pipes out of media. Calculation Guidelines here PVDF can solve or swell.

1 U U 60 0. by lower concentration of the listed media is expected Actual lists of chemical properties are a smaller effect as shown in the table. If the solvent is taken away and the surface is dry.0 A U Classical plastic solvents Dimethyl formamide 73 2. this effect has normally no influences on the Installation Guidelines except hot amines (z.1 U U 111 0. It by sodium and potassium.4 A U Isooctane 23 < 0.agru. chemical attack depends on the concentration.3 A U Aromates Benzene 23 0.1 U U 116 3.1 U U 121 0. alkaline. products.at Chemical Temperature Weight gain Influence on Influence on [°C] [%] tensile modulus elongation at break Mineral acid Sulfuric acid 78% 23 < 0.1 U U 118 2. available on www.4 A U Butanol 23 < 0.1 U U Hexane 54 1. usability.1 U U Oxidizing acid Nitric acid 70% 23 < 0. Material Properties Properties Material Properties Material Chemical resistance ECTFE ECTFE has an outstandingly good chemical Like other fluorine plastics ECTFE will be attacked resistance and a remarkable barrier-property. aniline. A take place. metal-etching. dimethylamine). the mechanical properties come back to their The constancy datas for solvents in the following origin values. with special halogenated solvents.1 U U 75-105 0.g. e.1 U U Hydrochloric acid 60% 23 < 0. liquid oxygen and all organic solvents.1 U U Calculation Guidelines Hydrochloric acid 37% 23 < 0. ECTFE industrial used corrordible chemicals. strong and other fluorinepolymeres can swam in contact mineral and oxidized acids.8 A C Chromic acid 50% 23 < 0.1 U U 250 3.5 U U Connection Systems Solvents Aliphates 23 0.5 C U Alcoholes Methanol 23 0.1 U U 121 < 0.B. which shows that no chemical attack table were tested with undiluted solvents.6 U U Applications and References 110 8. The attack depends on practicaly won´t be attacked from most of the the induction period and the temperature.0 U U Approvals and Standards U-Insignificant A-Reduction by 25-50% B-Reduction by 50-75% C-Reduction by > 75% 29 .1 U U 75-105 0.5 C U Dimethyl sulphoxide 73 0.0 A U 250 7.1 U U Chlorosulfonic acid 60% 23 0.4 U U Aqua regia 23 0.6 U U 74 7 C U Toluene 23 0.

Attention! As the special types PP-R-s-el and PE-el suffer the danger of absorption of humidity at a storage period Approvals and Standards 30 . if possible in a wooden frame.). Impact. use of dry ware- houses). . Calculation Guidelines Storage At the storage of pipes and fittings. Pipes have to be stored flat and without bending stress. the following guidelines have to be observed in order to avoid damages: Pipes out of PP-H.and bending stresses at temperatures < Installation 0°C have to be avoided. Damages of the surface (scratches. have to be avoided. Yellow PE pipes may be stored up to 9 months outdoors. storage heights of 1 m may not be exceeded. Applications and References Pipes and fittings out of PP-R-s-el and PE-el have to be protected at storage against humidity and UV radiation (no outdoor exposure. maximum Connection Systems two rows may be stored on top of one another. marks. Natural and grey coloured products have to be protected against UV radiation at a storage outdoors. the below stated regulations have to be observed in order to avoid a quality decrease: The storage area has to be even and free from waste.. as they occur at dragging of pipes.. Pipes > OD 1000mm have to be stored loosely. etc. PE-el) and prefabricated components (for Guidelines InstallationGuidelines example segmented bends) may only be loaded resp. At pipes > OD 630mm. wooden wedges have to be situated at the outside pipes. special materials (PP-R-s-el. Installation Guidelines Material Properties Transport and handling At the transport and handling of pipes and fittings. such as stones. transported with special care at pipe wall temperatures below 0°C. PP- H-s. In order to avoid a rolling away of the pipes. screws. nails. At piling of pipes.

the enclosing angle bleeder resistors in any case. Valves (in certain cases also tees) should basically be installed on a piping system as fixed points. electro-conductable flanges or steel Installation by reasonable arrangement of fixed points. control of changes in length At flange joints. has to be chosen > 90°). Fixing by means of pipe clips Connection Systems Attachments made of steel or of thermoplastics are available for plastics pipes. Installation Guidelines Material Properties General Installation guidelines Installation guidelines for electro-conductable materials Due to the lower stiffness and rigidity as well as the potential length expansions (caused by changes The general installation guidelines are valid in temperature) of thermoplastics in comparison fundamentally. Attachments have to be calculated so as to avoid The end-installed and connected to earth piping pin-point stresses. Installation temperature A minimum installation temperatur of >0°C is to Approvals and Standards observe.that means. Valve constructions with the attachment devices being integrated within the valve body are most advantegous. g. It is recommended for smaller pipe diameters (< da 63mm). position of compensation facilities. as sliding bearing at horizontal installed piping systems in order to take Applications and References up vertical stresses. the requirements for the At the installation of earthing clips it has to be taken fixing of piping elements should be met. It is therefore absolutely necessary to remove the Guidelines InstallationGuidelines On laying of pipes above ground expansion and eventually present oxide film in order to be able to contractions of pipes in both radial and axial guarantee the necessary surface resistance of directions must not be hindered . Therefore they serve e. to use steel half-round pipes as support of the piping system in order to enlarge the support distances. flanges have to be applied. care that the pipe surface below the clip is abraded. that means the bearing areas system has to be subjected to a final evaluation by have to be as wide as possible and adapted to the competent pro-fessional employees regarding the outside diameter (if possible. These may be commonly applied and have especially been adjusted to the tolerances of the plastics pipes. Steel clips have at any rate to be lined with tapes made of PE or elastomers. AGRU plastics pipe clips as well as pipe holders are very good suitable for installation. installation with radial clearance. < 106 Ohm. A further application range of the AGRU pipe clip is the function as guiding bearing which should hinder a lateral buckling of the piping system as it can also absorb transversal stresses. Calculation Guidelines The surface qualities of the attachments should help to avoid mechanical damage to the pipe surface. 31 . with metallic materials. as otherwise the surface of the plastics pipe may be damaged.

turning.5mm. blocks.2 ÷ 0. High surface quality is obtained Tool angle λ [°] 45 ÷ 60 by means of a cutting tool with a wide Cutting speed [m/min] 200 ÷ 500 finishing blade.] 0.] 0. Cutting depth a [mm] upto 8 Milling Clearance angle α [°] 5 ÷ 15 High surface quality is obtained by Rake angle γ [°] upto 10 means of a milling machine with fewer Cutting speed [m/min] upto 1000 blade . Pitch t [mm] 3÷5 HM saws have a considerably Cutting speed [m/min] upto 3000 longer working life Turning Clearance angle α [°] 5 ÷ 15 The peak radius ( r ) should be at least Calculation Guidelines Rake angle γ [°] 0 ÷ 15 0. 100 should be used. discolouration of the processed surface).this increases cutting capacity. 32 . milling and drilling) Cutting Clearance angle α [°] 30 ÷ 40 Band saws are appropriate for the cutting Rake angle γ [°] 0÷5 of pipes. Installation Guidelines Material Properties Machining of PP and PE (valid for cutting.3 Machining of PVDF and ECTFE Applications and References The machining of PVDF and ECTFE fittings and pipes can be carried out without any particular problems if the following guidelines are observed: If necessary.5 Cut-off: Sharpen turning tool like a knife. use a normal SS-twist drill. Feed [mm/Umdreh. For holes with Rake angle γ [°] 3÷5 diameters of 40 . blocks and sheets. conveying and cutting geometry should be designed in a way that any subsequent heat can mainly be removed through the shavings (too much pre-heating can lead to melding resp.1 ÷ 0.15°. hollow drills Centre angle ϕ [°] approx. for holes < 40mm Cutting speed [m/min] 50 ÷ 100 diameter. remove remaining stresses of larger surfaces by annealing before processing. The cutting speed. All usual metal and wood processing machines may Approvals and Standards be applied.1 ÷ 0. Feed [mm/Umdreh.] 0.150mm. thick sheets Guidelines InstallationGuidelines Pitch t [mm] 3÷5 and for round bars Cutting speed [m/min] upto 3000 Cutting Installation Clearance angle α [°] 10 ÷ 15 Circular saws can be used for the Rake angle γ [°] 0 ÷ 15 cutting of pipes.5 Connection Systems Drilling Clearance angle α [°] 12 ÷ 16 Spiral angles 12 . Feed [mm/Umdreh.

765m³ = 1yd³ 1yd³ = 27ft³ Guidelines Force kp N CalculationGuidelines 1N = 0.unit of units (MKS-system) Legal unit Length m m ft Installation Guidelines 1m = 10dm = 100cm = 1000mm 1.102kp/cm² 1bar = 105Pa = 0.4mm = 1 inch Area m² m² yd² 1m² = 100dm² = 10000cm² 0m836m² = 1yd 1yd² = 9ft² Volume m³ m³ yd³ 1m³ = 10 dm³ = 106cm³ 3 0.5psi 6 0.3080 cu yd 1cm³ = 0. Calculation Guidelines Material Properties System of units Size Technical system SI .99atm Mechanical kp/mm² N/mm² psi stress 1N/mm² = 0.) = 1Meile 0.102kp/mm² 1N/mm² = 145.2808ft/sec.04lb/sq in Connection Systems Velocity m/s m/s ft/sec. 1m/s = 3.852km (naut.9144m = 1yd = 3ft 25.102kp 1N = 1kgm/s² = 105 dyn lb 1kp = 9.unit ASTM .447N = 32poundals Pressure kp/m² bar psi Calculation 1N/cm² = 0.1bar = 1mWS 10 Pa = 1MPa = 1N/mm² = 14.1N/mm² 1bar = 14.81N 1lbf = 4.5lb/sq in 1bar = 750Torr 1bar = 750 mmHg 1bar = 0.3147 cu ft = 1.22x10-3psi Volume m³ m³ cu ft 1m³ = 35.04psi = 145.15]°K °F = 1. Density g/cm³ g/cm³ psi 1g/cm³ = 14.061 cu in Temperature °C °C °F Applications and References 1°C = 1[°C+273.8 x °C + 32 Approvals and Standards 33 .609km(statute) = 1000m = 1km 1Meile = 1.

25 PVDF 1.4 1.25 PE 100 1. 20°C.series SDR11 Calculation SDR − 1 SDR − 1 11 − 1 S= S= = =5 2 2 2 SDR .wall thickness relation da . outside diameter [mm] s ..wall thickness relation Connection Systems Example: PE 100. 50 years.25 PP-R 1.. wall thickness Guidelines CalculationGuidelines Example: S .Diameter .25 Approvals and Standards PP-H 1. Component operating pressure [bar] σv ... Minimum safety factor (see following table) Material Temperatur 10 bis 40°C 40 bis 60°C über 60°C PE 80 1..25 pB Applications and References .. water (d.... Standard Dimension Ratio Cmin .6 1.. Reference strength [N/mm²] (see the pressure curve for each material) SDR . Calculation Guidelines Material Properties SDR ..Standard Dimension Ratio s da Installation Guidelines Example: da = 110 mm s = 10 mm da da 110 SDR = SDR = = = 11 s s 10 SDR . Diameter . σv=10) SDR11 Component operating pressure Cmin=1....25 20 ⋅ σ v 20 ⋅ σ v 20 ⋅ 10 pB = pB = = = 16 ( SDR − 1) ⋅ Cmin ( SDR − 1) ⋅ Cmin (11 − 1) ⋅ 1.6 ECTFE 2.h...0 34 .

Concentration system operating pressures (valid for water).4 PP-H 1.25 2.25 pB 16 pa = = =5 pB f AP ⋅ f CR ⋅ AZ 1.6 2. Not applicable Application factors fAP for water-dangerous media Application Total safety factor C .25 2.. 20°C..1 to DIN (see following table). part 1) Installation Guidelines Then.25 1..0 f AP . ( SDR − 1) ⋅ Cmin (11 − 1) ⋅ 1.0 PP-R 1.Operating pressure of the relevant CalculationGuidelines application [bar] Material Reducing factor -10°C +20°C pB . σv=10) water-dangerous fluids.4 1.6 1. ISO 12162) factor by20° 20°C fAP factor (fAP xby C) C PE 80 1.4 Connection Systems to DVS AZ ..6 2.6 ⋅ 2.25 3. fCR = 2...0 at a minimum by multiplication with the C-factors according PP-R 1.Chemical resistance factor according PP-R-s-el *) 1.application factor PE-el 1. this operating pressure has to be reduced by the relevant reducing coefficients. at PP-s and PP-R-s-el 3.0 PVDF 1.The total safety coefficient is thereby in all cases 2.4 1.0 at a minimum.0 2. PP-s *) 1.25 3..4 is an additional reducing factor which results PP-H 1. Calculation Guidelines Material Properties Operating pressure for water-dangerous media In order to calculate the respective permissible Example: highest operating pressure at the conveying of PE 100.Reducing factor for the specific tenacity *) . water (d.7 PVDF 1. 53%.4.25 2. 20 ⋅ σ v 20 ⋅ 10 at impact sensitive modified materials higher (at pB = = = 16 PE 80-el 2.0 ECTFE 1..0).8 1.factor Material factor Total by 20°Csecurity safety (acc. DVS 2205.Component operating pressure.6 1..6 1.7 f CR .25 parameter in the relevant table for permissible Chemicals: H2SO4 (sulfuric acid).0 PE-el 1.2 1..6 1..0 Approvals and Standards 35 ....0 ⋅ 1 pa = f AP ⋅ f CR ⋅ AZ Reducing factor AZ for the specific tenacity by low temperatures Guidelines pa .5 1.0 water [bar] (see page 10 to 19) Calculation PE 100 1.25 2.0 2.9 1. valid for PE 80 1.3 a total safety coefficient of 2.25 1.2 1.6 1. the operating pressure as SDR11 initial value can be looked up for the corresponding Cmin=1.0 (acc. 50 years.h.0 Applications and References PE 100 1.0 PP-R-s-el 2.0 PP-R-el 2.

.g.. sv=10) transport abrasive media).. Additional wall thickness have to be considered (e.protection or PE 100. Calculation Guidelines Material Properties Calculation of the permissible wall thickness smin In general strength calculations of thermoplastic piping systems are based on long term values. 20°C.Pipe outside diameter [mm] σ zul .e...Operating pressure [bar] Calculation da ...25 σv p ⋅ da 16 ⋅110 σ zul = smin = = = 10 Cmin 20 ⋅ σ zul + p 20 ⋅ 8 + 16 Guidelines CalculationGuidelines smin ..Reference stress [N/mm2] σv . After calculation of the theoretical wall thickness the construction wall thickness has to be Installation Guidelines determined under consideration of the nominal pressure resp. The strength values depanding on temperature are given in the pressure curves (see page 9 to 19). SDR-class.25 = 10 20 ⋅ σ zul ⋅ smin Applications and References p= da − smin Approvals and Standards 36 ... the operating pressure p can also be calculted from this formula. Operating pressure 16bar Outside diameter da=110mm p ⋅ da smin = 20 ⋅ σ zul + p σv 10 σ zul = = =8 Cmin 1...Minimum safety factor (see page 34) Connection Systems If necessary. p ⋅ (da − smin ) σ zul = p ⋅ (da − smin ) 16 ⋅ (110 − 10) 20 ⋅ smin σ zul = = =8 20 ⋅ smin 20 ⋅10 σ v = σ zul ⋅ cmin = 8 ⋅1.Minimum wall thickness[mm] p ... water (i. Reference stress [N/mm2] Cmin . 50 years. the reference stress σv and... application of PP piping Example: systems outdoor without UV .

Calculation Guidelines

Material Properties
Load by external pressure (buckling pressure)

In certain cases, piping systems are exposed to
external pressure:
-Installation in water or buried below groundwater
table Example
-Systems for vacuum. e.g. suction pipes PP-R pipe SDR33
40°C, 25 years

Installation Guidelines
EC=220N/mm² (creep modulus curve - page 22)
3
10 ⋅ Ec ⎛ s⎞ outside diameter da=110
pk = ⋅ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
(
4 ⋅ 1− μ 2 ) ⎝ rm ⎠
Wall thickness =3,4mm
Additional safety factor 2,0 (Minimum security factor
for stability calculation).

3
pk ....Critical buckling pressure [bar]
10 ⋅ Ec ⎛ s ⎞
pk = ⎜ ⎟ =
Ec ....Creep modulus (see tables page 20 - 23) 4 ⋅ (1 − μ 2 ) ⎜⎝ rm ⎟⎠
[N/mm2] for t=25a 3
μ 10 ⋅ 220 ⎛ 3,4 ⎞
....Transversal contraction factor = ⎜ ⎟ = 0,17
4 ⋅ (1 − 0,4 2 ) ⎝ 53,3 ⎠

Guidelines
(for thermoplastics generally 0,4)

CalculationGuidelines
s ....Wall thickness [mm]
0,17
pk = = 0,085
rm ....Medium pipe radius [mm] 2,0

Calculation
The buckling tension can then be calculated
directly:

rm rm 53,3
σ k = pk ⋅ σ k = pk ⋅ = 0,085 ⋅ = 1,33
s s 3,4

Connection Systems
AGRUCAD–CADENAS PARTdataManager

This tool can be requested as CD-ROM or
Applications and References

downloaded from our homepage www.agru.at
and from www.PARTserver.de.

The AGRUCAD CD-ROM offers a library of all
AGRU products which can be used for many CAD-
systems available on the market. 2D- and 3D-
models are available in this edition.

This CD-ROM supports the neutral formats DXF 2D
and STEP 3D (depending from the manufacturer).
Furthermore 66 different CAD-formats can be
downloaded from our online version.
Approvals and Standards

37

Calculation Guidelines
Material Properties

Calculation of the necessary stiffening for pipes
with buckling strain

At higher buckling strains, there is very often
l
applied a stiffening by means of welded-on ribs
due to economic reasons in order to enable

s
essentially thinner pipe wall thicknesses.
Installation Guidelines

Basis for this is in slightly amended form the

rm
formulae for the buckling pressure calculation of
smooth pipes.

It is necessary to know the present critical buckling
pressure at this calculation and to choose the
desired pipe wall thickness. Consequently, the
maximum distance of the stiffening ribs can be
calculated by help of the formula.

By means of the stiffening rib distance, the required
10 ⋅ Ec ⎛ s ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ rm ⎞ ⎤
3 2
moment of inertia of the welded-on ribs can be
pk = ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ ⎢1 + 50 ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥
( )
Guidelines

4 ⋅ 1 − μ 2 ⎜⎝ rm ⎟⎠ ⎢⎣
determined.
CalculationGuidelines

⎝ L ⎠ ⎦⎥
Afterwards the height or width of the stiffening
ribs can be calculated (one of these two parameter
has to be chosen).
Calculation

pk ...Critical buckling pressure [bar]
Ec ....Creep modulus (see tables page 20 - 23)
b
[N/mm2] for t=25a
μ ....Transversal contraction factor
(for thermoplastics generally 0,4)
s ....Wall thickness [mm]
h
Connection Systems

rm ....Medium pipe radius [mm]

L ....Distance of stiffening ribs [mm]

rm ⋅ s 3
2
J = 3,35 ⋅
L
Applications and References

b ⋅ h3
J=
12

J ....Moment of inertia [mm4]

rm ....Medium pipe radius [mm]
s ....Wall thickness [mm]
h ....Height of stiffening rib [mm]

b ....Width of stiffening rib [mm]
Approvals and Standards

There is naturally the possibility to fix the desired
stiffening ribs in their measurements at first and
then to calculate the maximum permissible critical
buckling pressure for the desired pipe wall
thickness and dimension.

38

Calculation Guidelines

Material Properties
Determination of the pipe cross section

Flowing processes are calculated by means of the
continuity equation. For fluids with constant volume
flow, the equation is:


V = 0,0036 ⋅ A ⋅ v

Installation Guidelines

V ....Volume flow [m3/h]
A ...Free pipe cross section [mm2]
v ....Flow velocity [m/s]
For gases and vapours, the material flow remains
constant. There, the following equation results:

Guidelines
m = 0,0036 ⋅ A ⋅ v ⋅ ρ

CalculationGuidelines

....Material flow [kg/h]

Calculation
m
ρ ....Density of the medium depending on
pressure and temperature [kg/m3]

If in these equations the constant values are
summarized, the formulas used in practice for the
calculation of the required pipe cross section result

Connection Systems
there of:

Q′
d i = 18,8 ⋅
v

Q′′
d i = 35,7 ⋅
v
Applications and References

di ....Inside diameter of pipe [mm]

Q′ ....Conveyed quantity [m3/h]

Q′′ ....Conveyed quantity [l/s]
v ....Flow velocity [m/s]

Reference values for the calculation of flow
velocities for fluids:

v ~ 0,5 ÷ 1,0 m/s (suction side)
v ~ 1,0 ÷ 3,0 m/s (pressure side)
Approvals and Standards

Reference values for the calculation of flow
velocities may be for gases
v ~ 10 ÷ 30 m/s

39

Medium density [kg/m3] socket welding as well as flanges..1 for each joints in a di . with PEHD inliner (up to OD 3000mm) for The for the calculation necessary resistance unpressurized applications.... such as butt and ρ .Viscosity and density of the flowing medium ΔpRA = ζ ⋅ ⋅ v2 2 ⋅105 Calculation of the several pressure losses ζ .Flow velocity [m/s] The pressure loss in an straight pipe length is reversed proportional to the pipe cross section.Pipe frictional index It is impossible to give exact information.. table tabular compilation for the hydraulic design of 9 (extract see page 41) or special technical literature. table 10 CalculationGuidelines (extract see page 42) or special technical literature.Length of the piping system Installation Guidelines .. (OD 110 . also the AGRU coefficients can been seen in the DVS 2210......Geometry of fittings.02 is sufficient) flange joints) vary.Inside diameter of pipe [mm] thermoplastic piping system.Flow velocity[m/s] Approvals and Standards 40 .Resistance coefficient for fittings [-] ρ . Δp ges = ΔpR + ΔpRF + ΔpRA + ΔpRV Important factors for the extent of the losses: . because types and qualities of joints (welding joints.... The for the calculation necessary resistance Guidelines coefficients can be seen in DVS 2210. (in most cases 0.Pipe cross section .Density of medium [kg/m3] v . PE-HD piping systems can be looked up. Calculation Guidelines Material Properties Determination of the hydraulic pressure losses The whole pressure loss Δp ges results from the Flowing media in pipes cause pressure losses and sum of the following individual losses: consequently energy losses within the conveying system. Connection Systems v ..Flow velocity [m/s] Pressure loss in fittings ΔpRF REMARK For the design of piping systems out of PE-HD There appear considerable losses regarding friction. mountings and finished joints or couplings ρ .. Applications and References ρ ΔpRF = ζ ⋅ ⋅ v2 2 ⋅10 5 ζ . L ρ ΔpR = λ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ v2 d i 2 ⋅10 2 ΔpRV Calculation Pressure loss of finished joints or couplings λ .Density of medium [kg/m3] v ...Roughness of the pipe surface Pressure loss in mountings Δp RA ..Resistance coefficient for mountings [-] Pressure loss in straight pipes Δp R ρ .. L .Lenght of piping system[m] It is recommended to calculate a resistance coefficient ζ RV = 0.. unions..1200 mm) or concrete channel pipes reversion and detachment.

table 9) Kind of Parameter Resistance coefficient ζ Drawing Fitting =Flow direction bend α=90° Installation Guidelines R = 1.076 0.20 0.97 0.20 1.50 1.031 0.4 0.010 α/2 (pipe throat) 1.20 α = 4. DVS 2210.30 0.8 0.0 x da 0.6 0.50 0.20 0.50 0.20 Vd Vs Connection Systems 1.0 1.2 0.6 0.0 1.0 x da 0.27 = 2.4 0.034 0.0 0.41 = 2..04 Guidelines ζz ζs CalculationGuidelines tee 90° Vz (flow collection) VZ/VS=0.5 x da 0.6 0.8 1.05 α 10° 0.80 1.041 0.14 20° 0.23 α bend α=45° R = 1.20 0.90 -0.5 x da 0.067 0.30 0.0 x da 0.10 0.042 0.2 0.40 Calculation 0.50 1.60 tee 90° ζa ζd Va (flow separation) VA/VS=0.90 3.30 0.8 0.046 0.10 5.90 -0.34 = 1. Calculation Guidelines Material Properties Determination of the hydraulic pressure losses Hydraulic resistance coefficients of fittings (acc.2 -0.10 0.033 0.0 x da 0.06 0.30 reducers Angle α 4° 8° 20° concentric d2/d1=1. 8° 16° 24° concentric d2/d1=1.97 0.4 0.00 2.10 0.10 0.34 = 4.4 0.0 -1.015 Applications and References 1.51 = 1.30 30° 0.10 0.10 0.90 0.4 0.8 1.016 2.0 x da 0.35 reducers Angle α 4 .50 Vs Va 1 0.0 0..0 x da 0.017 positive ζ-values: pressure drop negative ζ-values: pressure increase Va: outgoing volume flow Vd: continuous volume flow Vs: total volume flow Vz: additional volume flow Approvals and Standards 41 .6 0.15 ellbow α=45° 0.023 0.013 1.80 3.05 0.15 0.20 α/2 (pipe extension) 1.038 0.2 0.70 0.05 15° 0.

2 125 4.0 2.6 2.2 3.3 0.9 200 3.5 50 4.4 1.0 2.0 1. CalculationGuidelines Criteria for choice of gate valves (acc. DVS 2210.7 1.15 0.5 2. 0..6 80 4..8 2.8 2.9 2.6 40 4.4 2.6 1. For material- related calculations use the values of the particular Guidelines manufacturer.4 2.3 100 4.0 1.6 1.3 1.2 2.0 2.1 .9 Installation Guidelines 32 4.0 1.7 2.0 150 4.1 3.3 1..3 2. row K low low low Row F=Flange construction Legend for tables above: DIN 3202-1 MV diaphragm valve SSV angle seat valve Row K=Connection flange construction GSV straight valve DIN 3202-3 S gate valve KH ball valve no criteria K butterfly valve RV check valve Applications and References RK swing type check valve Approvals and Standards 42 . table 11) Calculation Selection criteria MV/GSV/SSV S KH K RV RK Assessment Flow resistance big low low moderate big moderate Aperture. 0. DVS 2210..and Closing time medium long short short short Operation moment low low big moderate Wear moderate low low moderate moderate Flow regulation suitable less suitable Connection Systems Face-to-face length acc.0 2.1 2.1 .0 1.0 2..8 Annotation: The hydraulic resistance coefficients mentioned are reference values and are suitable for rough calculation of pressure loss. 0.3 3.. table 10) Nominal width MV GSV SSV S KH K RV RK Ø Resistance coefficient (ζ) 25 4.5 0.4 2.5 2.8 2.5 2.4 2.1 2.4 0.4 65 4.0 0.3 2. Calculation Guidelines Material Properties Determination of the hydraulic pressure losses Hydraulic resistance coefficients of mountings (acc.9 2. row F medium big big big mittel big Face-to-face length acc.3 .5 1.

about 10m of pipe for each bend r = Installation Guidelines d and about 5m of pipe length for each bend r = 1. At an average flow velocity up to 20m of pipe length are added for each tee. reducer and 90° elbow.5 x d. pressure loss and conveying quantity serves the following flow nomogram. Calculation Guidelines Material Properties Flow nomogramm For rough determination of flow velocity. Pressure loss per meter pipe length Pipe inside Conveyed Flow D p/L [mbar/m] diameter quantity velocity di [mm] (Flow volume) v [m/s] Q [l/s] Guidelines CalculationGuidelines Calculation Connection Systems Applications and References Approvals and Standards 43 .

. ε = α ⋅ ΔT Calculation α ..Creep modulus [N/mm2] for t=100min Dog bones which have not been determined ε . Under consideration of the possible loads..Operating pressure [bar] the dimensioning as special application.Max.Linear heat expansion coefficient [1/°K] ΔT . The rigid or fixed piping length has no compensati- on elements and has to be considered concering p .Dog bone force [N] Specific weight of the flow medium Operating pressure AR ..Pipe inside diameter [mm] sideration of the critical buckling length -Appearing tensile and pressure stresses Load by swelling ε = 0.. a fixed system is developed. It is in general kind: furthermore for compensation of the reaction forces of compensators such as sliding sockets and push- fit fittings.Transversal contraction coefficient [-] The following system sizes have to be determined Applications and References therefore by calculation: Ec ......025.Prevented length expansion by heat should be chosen in a way so as to make use of expansion. ε has to As dog bones. 44 ..040 A fixed system is not recommended for this load in Approvals and Standards general as due to the swelling.Pipe wall ring area [mm2] Inherent resistance of the compensators Ec . edges of fittings sockets or special be determined as follows: Guidelines dog bone fittings are suitable. They serve fixed piping.....Creep modulus [N/mm2] for t=100min -Dog bone load da ..1 ⋅ p ⋅ (1 − 2 μ ) ε= Rigid system ⎛ da 2 ⎞ Ec ⋅ ⎜⎜ 2 − 1⎟⎟ If the length alteration of a piping system is ⎝ di ⎠ hindered. μ . Calculation Guidelines Material Properties Dog bone load Dog bone load at fixed systems Dog bones should prevent a sliding or moving of The largest dog bone load appears at the straight.. di ..0..Pipe outside diameter [mm] -Permissible guiding element distance under con.. CalculationGuidelines Swinging clips are not appropriate to be used as Load by heat expansion dog bones or the clamping of the pipes. internal pressure or swelling [-] direction alterations in the course of the piping system for the absorption of the length alterations. temperature difference [°K] Load by internal pressure Connection Systems 0. The dog bone has to be dimensioned FFP = AR ⋅ EC ⋅ ε Installation Guidelines for all appearing forces: Force by hindered thermal length expansion Weight of vertical piping systems FFP . the piping system in each direction.. also a weakening of the material occurs (use of compensation elbows!)...

.Creep modulus for t=25a [N/mm²] 280 2750 2650 2550 2400 2200 315 2900 2800 2700 2550 2350 JR . 75 1350 1300 1200 1100 1000 90 1500 1450 1350 1250 1150 Ec ⋅ J R 110 1650 1600 1500 1450 1300 LA = f LA ⋅ 3 125 1750 1700 1600 1550 1400 q 140 1900 1850 1750 1650 1500 160 2050 1950 1850 1750 1600 180 2150 2050 1950 1850 1750 LA ..Factor for the deflection (0.Permissible support distance [mm] 200 2300 2200 2100 2000 1900 225 2450 2350 2250 2150 2050 f LA .and additional Calculation 450 3550 3400 3300 3100 2900 weight [N/mm] 500 3800 3650 3500 3350 3100 560 4100 3950 3800 3600 3350 Remark: The factor fLA is determined depending 630 4450 4250 4100 3900 3650 on the pipe outside diameter. Tab.14) Connection Systems 0..13) The support distances from the thermoplastic da Support distance LA in [mm] at piping systems should be determined under [mm] 20°C 30°C 40°C 50°C 60°C consideration of the licensed bending stress and 16 500 450 450 400 350 the limited deflection of the pipe line.80 da Support distance LA in [mm] at [mm] 20°C 30°C 40°C 50°C 60°C 70°C 80°C Usual Support distances can be taken from the 16 650 625 600 575 550 525 500 following tables. 0. DVS 2210.. Tab. On 20 575 550 500 450 400 calculating of the support distances. DVS 2210.Pipe inactivity moment [mm4] 355 3100 3000 2900 2750 2550 400 3300 3150 3050 2900 2700 q ...92 ← f LA → 0. 20 700 675 650 625 600 575 550 25 800 775 750 725 700 675 650 32 950 925 900 875 850 800 750 40 1100 1075 1050 1000 950 925 875 50 1250 1225 1200 1150 1100 1050 1000 63 1450 1425 1400 1350 1300 1250 1200 75 1550 1500 1450 1400 1350 1300 1250 90 1650 1600 1550 1500 1450 1400 1350 Applications and References 110 1850 1800 1750 1700 1600 1500 1400 125 2000 1950 1900 1800 1700 1600 1500 140 2100 2050 2000 1900 1800 1700 1600 160 2250 2200 2100 2000 1900 1800 1700 180 2350 2300 2200 2100 2000 1900 1800 200 2500 2400 2300 2200 2100 2000 1900 225 2650 2550 2450 2350 2250 2150 2000 250 2800 2700 2600 2500 2400 2300 2150 280 2950 2850 2750 2650 2550 2450 2300 315 3150 3050 2950 2850 2700 2600 2450 355 3350 3250 3150 3000 2850 2750 2600 400 3550 3450 3350 3200 3050 2900 2750 450 3800 3700 3600 3450 3300 3100 2950 500 4100 4000 3850 3700 3500 3350 3150 Approvals and Standards 560 4400 4300 4150 4000 3800 3600 3400 630 4800 4650 4500 4300 4100 3900 3700 45 . a maximum 25 650 600 550 550 500 deflection of LA/500 to LA/750 has been taken as Installation Guidelines 32 750 750 650 650 550 basis.. Line load out of Pipe-. Calculation Guidelines Material Properties Calculation of support distances for pipes PE80. filling.. SDR11 (acc.92) [-] Guidelines 250 2600 2500 2400 2300 2100 CalculationGuidelines Ec ...80 . SDR11 (acc.. Under consideration of the previous 40 900 850 750 750 650 deflection of a pipe line between the centers of 50 1050 1000 900 850 750 tire impact results a permissible support distance 63 1200 1150 1050 1000 900 of the pipe system.. There is the following relation valid: min ← da → max PP-H.

9 580 560 540 520 500 470 450 420 380 32 2.17) Connection Systems da Support distance L A in [mm] at [mm] S 20°C 30°C 40°C 50°C 60°C 70°C 80°C 100°C 120°C 20 1.3 1380 1330 1290 1240 1180 1120 1080 990 890 110 3. DVS 2210. Ø 63-400 SDR33 (acc.8 1060 1020 990 950 910 860 830 760 690 110 5. Tab.0 1330 1290 1240 1190 1140 1080 1040 960 860 Approvals and Standards 46 .0 950 910 880 850 810 770 740 680 610 90 4. Tab.0 870 840 810 780 740 710 680 620 560 63 3.3 1200 1160 1120 1080 1030 980 940 870 780 Applications and References 90 2. Calculation Guidelines Material Properties Calculation of Support distances for pipes PVDF Ø 16-50 SDR21.4 680 660 640 610 580 560 530 490 440 50 3.0 1170 1120 1090 1040 1000 950 910 840 750 160 3.9 530 510 490 470 450 430 410 380 340 25 1.17) da Support distance LA in [mm] at [mm] 20°C 30°C 40°C 50°C 60°C 70°C 80°C 100°C 120°C 16 725 700 650 600 575 550 500 450 400 Installation Guidelines 20 850 800 750 750 700 650 600 500 450 25 950 900 850 800 750 700 675 600 500 32 1100 1050 1000 950 900 850 800 700 600 40 1200 1150 1100 1050 1000 950 900 750 650 50 1400 1350 1300 1200 1150 1100 1000 900 750 63 1400 1350 1300 1250 1200 1150 1100 950 800 75 1500 1450 1400 1350 1300 1250 1200 1050 850 90 1600 1550 1500 1450 1400 1350 1300 1100 950 110 1800 1750 1700 1650 1550 1500 1450 1250 1100 125 1900 1850 1800 1700 1650 1600 1500 1350 1200 140 2000 1950 1900 1800 1750 1700 1600 1450 1250 Guidelines 160 2150 2100 2050 1950 1850 1800 1700 1550 1350 CalculationGuidelines 180 2300 2200 2150 2050 1950 1900 1800 1600 1400 200 2400 2350 2250 2150 2100 2000 1900 1700 1500 225 2550 2500 2400 2300 2200 2100 2000 1800 1600 Calculation 250 2650 2600 2500 2400 2300 2200 2100 1900 1700 280 2850 2750 2650 2550 2450 2350 2250 2000 1800 315 3000 2950 2850 2750 2600 2500 2400 2150 1900 355 3200 3100 3000 2850 2750 2650 2500 2250 2000 400 3400 3300 3200 3050 2950 2800 2650 2400 2100 ECTFE Ø 20-160 (acc. DVS 2210.

00 1. raise the values in the table for PE 80 contained (new support distance L = LA x f1 x f2) support distances after eventually necessary conversion (f1.07 1.80 1.4 1.91 1.00 1. materials and fluids.07 1.0 0.08 1.65 Guidelines CalculationGuidelines 17.91 1.00 1.21 PP-H 33 0. we recommend you to table stated conversion factors can be brought in.21 PP-R 33 0.75 1.92 11 1.47 1.47 1. the in the for PE 100 at the moment.25 1.92 11 1.6/17 0. table 18) As there are no valid creep modulus curves available For other SDR-rows.48 1.47 1.4 1.0 0.30 7.0 0.65 Calculation 17.96 0. DVS 2210.96 0.70 1.0 0.01 1.96 0.30 7.92 11 0.00 1.6/17 0.6/17 0.92 21 1. Installation Guidelines Material SDR-series Wall thickness Fluid Gases Water others Density [g/cm³] < 0.65 17.21 Connection Systems PVDF 33 1.75 1.75 1.30 7.36 Applications and References Approvals and Standards 47 .96 0.50 Conversion factor f2 f1 PE-80 33 0.and f2-factor) by 10%.55 1. Calculation Guidelines Material Properties Conversion factors for support distances Support distances for PE 100 (acc.4 0.

0: If piping systems are installed this way. the calculated support destance LA ε ..Pipe wall ring area [mm2] If fixed piping systems are operating at raised temperatures. [47] has to be reduced by 20 %..17 ⋅ ≥ LA length has been noticed for the security.. Material PE PP PVDF Temperature >45°C >60°C >100°C Guidelines CalculationGuidelines da Required support distance LF [mm] depending on the hindered length expansion [ε] [mm] 0..015 0.Prevented heat expansion S.. An simplified determining of the support distances is possible by the help of the following table. JR .0 minimum.001 0.. that an axial movement is not possible.02 16 505 355 250 205 175 160 145 130 110 Calculation 20 645 455 320 260 225 200 185 165 140 25 805 570 400 330 285 255 230 205 180 32 1030 730 515 420 365 325 295 265 230 40 1290 910 645 525 455 405 370 330 285 50 1615 1140 805 660 570 510 465 415 360 63 2035 1440 1015 830 720 640 585 525 455 75 2425 1715 1210 990 855 765 700 625 540 90 2910 2060 1455 1185 1030 920 840 750 650 Connection Systems 110 3560 2515 1780 1450 1255 1125 1025 915 795 125 4045 2860 2020 1650 1430 1275 1165 1040 900 140 4530 3200 2265 1845 1600 1430 1305 1165 1010 160 5175 3660 2585 2110 1830 1635 1495 1335 1155 180 5825 4120 2910 2375 2060 1840 1680 1500 1300 200 6475 4575 3235 2640 2285 2045 1865 1670 1445 225 7280 5150 3640 2970 2575 2300 2100 1880 1625 250 8090 5720 4045 3300 2860 2555 2335 2085 1805 280 9065 6405 4530 3700 3200 2865 2615 2340 2025 315 10195 7210 5095 4160 3605 3220 2940 2630 2280 355 11495 8125 5745 4690 4060 3635 3315 2965 2570 Applications and References 400 12950 9155 6475 5285 4575 4095 3735 3340 2895 Approvals and Standards 48 .006 0. then LA must be reduced to LF. The ε ⋅ AR calculated distance must provide a safety factor of 2..002 0.01 0.008 0. Calculation Guidelines Material Properties Calculation of the Support distance at fixed piping LF is calculated as follows for a minimum safety systems of 2.012 0. The raised operating temperatuers are summarized in the table below..Moment of inertia [mm4] AR .004 0. Installation Guidelines Is the necessary support distance LF smaller than LF . the critical buckling JR erfLF = 3. Required support distance [mm] the calculated support distance LA.

. g.. 0... Swelling factor [-] Remark: For practically orientated calculations of piping systems conveying solvents out of thermo- Approvals and Standards plastic plastics the fCh-factro has to be determined by specific tests.16 1. Operating pressure [bar] For the calculation of the change in length use the μ ... At the same time.... Linear expansion coefficient thermoplastic piping system as well as also to an [mm/m. Pipe outside diameter [mm] CalculationGuidelines ΔLT = α ⋅ L ⋅ ΔT di ...1 ⋅ p ⋅ (1 − 2 μ ) . 49 ....13 1.... Pipe inside diameter [mm] Calculation ΔLT ... Creep modulus [N/mm2] Guidelines da . A pipe .. it comes to a reduction of the mechanical strength ΔT .Change in length by chemical influence ⎛ da 2 ⎞ Ec ⋅ ⎜⎜ 2 − 1⎟⎟ Installation Guidelines Change in length by temperature change ⎝ di ⎠ If the piping system is exposed to different tempe- ratures (operating temperature or ambient tempe.Change in length by temperature change ..8x10 -4 PP 0.040 [mm/mm] α-average value mm/(m. Change in length due to temperature Change in length by chemical influence change [mm] It may come to a change in length (swelling) of α ... Length of piping system [mm] line is the distance between two dog bones... PE 0.. fCh = 0.18 1... ΔLP . solvents)..8x10 Applications and References ΔLCh = f Ch ⋅ L ΔLCh .°K] increase of the pipe diameter under influence of L ...... Length of piping system [mm] f Ch . of a closed and frictionless layed piping system is: There are the following differences: 0.. it is recommended to take a swelling factor by installation. Calculation Guidelines Material Properties Calculation of the change in length Change in length by internal pressure load Changes in length of a plastic piping systems are The by internal pressure caused length expansion caused by changes in the operating or test process. Difference in temperature [°K] properties....K) 1/K into consideration at the design of the piping -4 system. Pipe length [m] certain fluids (e.. To ensure a undisturbed operation of Connection Systems piping systems out of thermoplastics conveying The lowest and hightest pipe wall temperature TR solvents... Change in length by internal pressure rature) the situation will change corresponding to load [mm] the moving possibilities of each pipe line. Transversal contraction coefficient [-] following formula: Ec ..3x10 follows: -4 ECTFE 0.Change in length by internal pressure load ΔLP = ⋅L .025 .08 0. Change in length by swelling [mm] L .6x10 The expected change in length of a pipe line under -4 the influence of solvents can be calculated as PVDF 0. L p ..... operation or standstill of the system of is basis at the determination of ΔT.

. In most cases.Dog bone LP The minimum straight length is expressed by: LP . PVDF 20 F F (exact values see table) Ls If this cannot be realised.Minimum straight length [mm] L L Guidelines CalculationGuidelines ΔL . Between two dog bones. On installation L of piping systems above ground.Loose point (zB pipe clips) Ls = k ⋅ ΔL ⋅ da Principle drawing U-compensation elbow Ls . The k-values can be reduced by 30% for pressureless pipes (e... compenstion loops have to be applied......Change in length [mm] L L da .. ventilation). changes in direction in the run of Installation Guidelines the piping may be used for the absorption of the s F L changes in length with the help of the minimum straight lengths. Otherwise. Calculation Guidelines Material Properties Calculation of the minimum straight length Principle drawing L-compensation elbow Changes in length are caused by changes in operating or ambient temperatures.. F .. lateral or angular compensators..g. the impact strength of the material has to be taken into account..Take care of appropriate guiding of Principle drawing Z-compensation elbow the piping at loose points whereby the resulting reaction forces should be taken into account..Pipe outside diameter [mm] k . At low temperatures...Sliding bearing F construction. a compensator has to Connection Systems be installed. they may be applied as axial..Dog bone GL . L Material specific proportionality factors k L 0°C 10°C 30°C 40°C 60°C at change in temperature Ls PE 16 17 23 28 .Dog bone possibly low internal resistance.. use compensators of F .. Depending on the GL . PE 26... attention must L L be paid to the fact that the axial movements are sufficiently compensated.. Approvals and Standards 50 .. F PP 23 25 29 31 40 Applications and References GL one-time change in temperature PE 12 12 16 17 - PP 18 18 20 20 24 F ..Sliding bearing F Note: An installation temperature of 20°C is basis at the calculation of the k-values.Material specific proportionality factor Calculation Average values: PP 30.

the in the table contained minimum straight lengths can be reduced by 13 %. Applications and References The minimum straight length for PE is therefore calculated as follows: Ls ( PEHD) = 0. Calculation Guidelines Material Properties Calculation of straight lengths Straight lengths in [mm] for pipes out of polypropylene and polyethylene 1) depending on the change in length ΔL: da Change in length ΔL [mm] [mm] 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 500 Installation Guidelines 16 849 1200 1470 1697 1897 2078 2245 2400 2683 20 949 1342 1643 1897 2121 2324 2510 2683 3000 25 1061 1500 1837 2121 2372 2598 2806 3000 3354 32 1200 1697 2078 2400 2683 2939 3175 3394 3795 40 1342 1897 2324 2683 3000 3286 3550 3795 4243 50 1500 2121 2598 3000 3354 3674 3969 4243 4743 63 1684 2381 2916 3367 3765 4124 4455 4762 5324 75 1837 2598 3182 3674 4108 4500 4861 5196 5809 90 2012 2846 3486 4025 4500 4930 5324 5692 6364 110 2225 3146 3854 4450 4975 5450 5886 6293 7036 125 2372 3354 4108 4743 5303 5809 6275 6708 7500 Guidelines CalculationGuidelines 140 2510 3550 4347 5020 5612 6148 6641 7099 7937 160 2683 3795 4648 5367 6000 6573 7099 7589 8485 180 2846 4025 4930 5692 6364 6971 7530 8050 9000 200 3000 4243 5196 6000 6708 7348 7937 8485 9487 Calculation 225 3182 4500 5511 6364 7115 7794 8419 9000 10062 250 3354 4743 5809 6708 7500 8216 8874 9487 10607 280 3550 5020 6148 7099 7937 8695 9391 10040 11225 315 3765 5324 6521 7530 8419 9222 9961 10649 11906 355 3997 5652 6923 7994 8937 9790 10575 11305 12639 400 4243 6000 7348 8485 9487 10392 11225 12000 13416 450 4500 6364 7794 9000 10062 11023 11906 12728 14230 Connection Systems 500 4743 6708 8216 9487 10607 11619 12550 13416 15000 560 5020 7099 8695 10040 11225 12296 13282 14199 15875 630 5324 7530 9222 10649 11906 13042 14087 15060 16837 1)Minimum straight lengths in [mm] for pipes out of polyethylene Due to the low material specific proportional action factor k of PE-HD (k = 26) in comparison to PP (k = 30).87 ⋅ Ls ( PP ) Approvals and Standards 51 .

g. has to be furnished for furnish the demanded proof. Operating conditions of the Unpressurized discharge piping system Pressurized piping system pipe Operating temperature T= [°C] Operating temperature T= [°C] Entry cross section Approvals and Standards at drainage systems AE = [%] Operating pressure p= [bar] 52 .3. We will promptly prepare projects. clay. sand. drainage channels). buried piping systems (e. Calculation Guidelines Material Properties Calculation of buried piping systems There is a software program for the surcharge calculation according to ATV 127 at disposal in our A stress and deformation proof according to ATV. Surcharge Soil F Waste F Traffic load without F Applications and References Surcharge height h= [m] LKW12 F Specific gravity γB = [kN/m³] SLW30 F Weight on surface F= [kN/m²] SLW60 F 6.4) Kind of soil (gravel. Soil Calculation Zone 1 2 3 4 Group G (1. such Please fill in the following questionnaire as as OEVGW (guideline G 52) or results of research completely as possible. loam) Specific gravity [kN/m³] Connection Systems Proctor density [%] E-Modulus of the soil EB [N/mm²] 4. But there can also serve other basis for calculation. a corresponding statics after receipt of the Installation Guidelines questionnaire. 1.2xda) h= [m] Gradient of slope β= [°] 5. Installation Dam F Trench F Gravel surcharge above Width of trench b= [m] pipe summit (min. Details for pipe Pipe material: Pipe inside diameter: [mm] Guidelines CalculationGuidelines Pipe outside diameter: [mm] Wall thickness: [mm] Nominal width: [mm] 3.2. Generally Project: Site: Principal: 2. technical engineering department in order to instruction sheet A 127.

.0 6 9 16 23 40 G2 20 30 1.2 3 4 8 11 20 G3 20 25 0.. Surcharge above pipe summit E2 . Soil below the pipe (site soil) E E E E 3 2 2 3 5. Details for pipe: The most important statement is the determining of the pipe material (polyethylene or polypropylene). Surcharge:The surcharge height is at the trench embedding condition the installation depth of the pipe (referring to the pipe summit) and at the dam embedding condition the waste surcharge. Conduit zone at the side of the pipe E 1 E3 . E 4 Applications and References 6. 3..... as normally the pipe dimensions are given.5 2 4 6 10 The at the calculation applied deformation modulus Dam embedding condition of the soil has to be distinguished by the following Connection Systems zones: E1 . Operating conditions of the pipe: You only have to fill in the corresponding operating parameter for E 1 each application.. Adjoining soil beside the conduit zone E4 . Calculation Guidelines Material Properties Calculation of buried piping systems Comments to some points of the questionnaire 1.6 1. Soil / 4... E E E E 3 2 2 3 E 4 Approvals and Standards 53 . Installation Guidelines 2.. Installation: There are four different groups of soil Group Specific Angle Deformation modulus EB in gravity of internal [N/mm²] at friction degree of compaction DPr in % γB ϕ′ Guidelines DPr CalculationGuidelines [kN/m³] 85 90 92 95 97 100 G1 20 35 2..8 2 3 5 8 13 Calculation G4 20 20 0.. Generally: These general statements are only necessary to enable an easy assignment of the different projects.

use of dollies). welding operations may be performed at any outside temperatures.3 .3 . Each welder must be qualified and must have a On applying any of these methods. PE 100 MFR (190/5) = 0. g. It is recommanded to document the joining areas have to be cleaned and must be the method datas in welding protocols or on data free from e. preheating.g. the weldability has to be proved by performing sample welding seams under the given conditions. tent- covering. heating) secure that the required pipe wall temperature will be maintained. PP-R-s-el with PP-H and PP-R Connection Systems wind. keep the valid proof of qualification. shavings. medium. For the welding of plastics in the workshop the welding tests. If necessary.0 [g/10min] The welding area has to be protected from Special types PE 80-el with PE 80 PP-R-el with PP-H and PP-R unfavourable weather conditions (e. standards of the instructions from the DVS 1905 part 1 and part 2 are valid. The intended field of welding area clear of flexural stresses (e. intensive UV-radiation. If the semi finished product should be Applications and References disproportionately warmed up as a consequence of intensive UV-radiation. that it does not interfere with the welder's manual skill. it is necessary to take care for the equalization of temperature by covering the welding area in good time.1. provided. not be damaged or contaminated. the suitability of the the rolling action oval. destructive methods. Before welding the pipe ends machines and appliances as well as the compliance have to be adjusted for example by heating with a of the welding guidelines. oil. careful application can be determined for a type of storage. proof of qualification.7 [g/10min] Measures before the welding operation Polypropylene PP-H. With AGRU semi-finished products. g. the MFR value. Connection Systems Material Properties General standard The quality of the welded joints depends on the PE and PP pipes from coils are immediately after qualification of the welder. temperatures < 0°C). from the parties. g. For the heating element butt welding from sheets as well as for the industrial piping The AGRU welding instructions apply to the system construction DVS 2212 part 1 valids. Installation Guidelines The joining areas of the parts to be welded must The welding process should be supervised. Connection Systems If appropriate measures (e. For welding of semi-finished products. The used machines and appliances must of which does not fall into the here stated values. pipes and fittings Calculation Guidelines pipes >225mm outside diameter is an additional out of the in the table contained thermoplastics. Material designation Weldability Polyethylene PE 80. A cooling during the welding process throught draft should be avoided. The welding joint can hot-air blower and usage of a suitable cut pressure be checked through non destructive and / or or round pressure installation. dirt. moisture. it correspond to the standards of the DVS 2208 part is necessary to test the weldability by performing 1. Approvals and Standards 54 . PP-R PP-H mit PP-R MFR (190/5) = 0. In addition the pipe ends should be closed during the welding process. Method and size of the supervision must be agreed Immediately before starting the welding process.1. qualification.

.. Special types (PE80-el.. ..... Kind of joint Ø 20 .. The in the table contained axial conclusive joints Installation Guidelines are permissible. . Stresses which may arise from differences in temperature between laying and operating conditions must be kept as low as possible by taking appropriate measures.. .......... ...... . all joints have to executed so as to avoid any kind of stresses.. 110 Ø 110 . Non-contact butt welding (Infrared .. PP-H100. . .. 1400 < PN6 >= PN6 < PN6 >= PN6 < PN6 >= PN6 < PN6 >= PN6 Heating element 5) butt welding (HS) ... PP-R80 . PVDF .... PE ..... .. .. Union ... PP-R-s-el) . 225 Ø 225 . Connection Systems Material Properties Application limits for different kinds of joints If possible..IR) Beadless 1) 1) butt welding (IS) Heating element socket welding Calculation Guidelines Electric socket welding 2) 2) (hot wedge welding) Hot gas welding .... ECTFE 1) up to Ø 160 Systems ConnectionSystems 2) <PN6 up to Ø 600 3) <PN6 up to Ø 400 4) up to Ø 25 Connection 5) up to Ø 160 6) up to Ø 315 Applications and References Approvals and Standards 55 ... PP-H-s. Extrusion welding 5) 6) 6) Flange joint .... . . 63 Ø 63 . .

. The non-stick coating of the heating element must be undamaged in the working area. The nominal wall thickness of the parts to be PRE-HEATING welded must correspond to the joining area. All welding must be practised with machines and devices which correspond to the guidelines of the Pipe outside diameter die gap width Applications and References DVS 2208 part 1. after reaching the rated temperature. parallel in this clamped position.5 >1000 2. Connection Systems Material Properties Heating element butt welding Preparations before welding (following to DVS 2207. FINISHED JOINT The areas to be welded should be cleaned immediately before the welding process with a Principle of the heating element butt welding clean. < 1000 1.. They can refer to e. Permissible gap width under adapting pressure see following table. The Connection Systems ligh longitudinal movement of the parts to be Connection Systems welded is to ensure for exsample through adjustable dollies or swinging hangings.g.0 Together with the control of the gap width also the disalignment should be checked.. fat-free planing tool.. construction information. Before clamping the Pipes and fittings in the welding machine they must be axial aligned. Not worked welding areas shouldn´t be dirty or touched by hands otherwise a renewed treatment is necessary. so that they are plane illustrated by a pipe.1 x wall thickness on the pipe outside or on the table Approvals and Standards respectively. For optimal welding clean the heating element with clean. Then.. The disalignment of the joining areas to one another should not overstep the permissiple degree of 0.. < 800 1. The control measurement must happen within the area of the heating element The welding faces of the parts to be joined are which corresponds to the semi finished product. Shavings which are fallen in the pipe should be removed.3 800 . [mm] [mm] < 355 0. part 1 for PE-HD and part Control the necessary heating element 11 for PP) temperature before each welding process.5 400 .0 630 . fluffless paper before starting of each welding process. heating) and joined under pressure after the heating element has been removed (joining). That happens e. with a high speed thermometer for Welding method discription surface measurements. < 630 1. the parts are heated up to the element should be used not before 10 minutes welding temperature under reduced pressure (pre. calculated or Calculation Guidelines Pipe PREPARATION Pipe measured values. Installation Guidelines aligned under pressure onto the heating element That a thermal balance can be reached the heating (alignment). 56 . For the used machines the particular joining pressure or joining power must be given. In addition during the pipe welding process by slow movement of the workpieces ocurs a movement pressure or movement power which can be seen on the indicator of the welding machine and should be added to the first determined joining power or joining pressure.g.

Connection Systems Material Properties Heating element butt welding Performing of the welding process On heating element butt welding the areas to be joined get warm up to the requested welding temperature with heating elements and after the removal of the heating element they join togehter under pressure. The heating Installation Guidelines element temperatures are listed in the following table. Joining pressure Systems ConnectionSystems Connection Pre-heating pressure Alignment time Pre-heating time Ad. Cooling time justing pressure- time build-up time tAg tAw tU tF tAk Applications and References Total joining time Welding time Approvals and Standards 57 .Generally the aim is to use higher temperatures for smaller wall thicknesses and the lower temperatures for larger wall thicknesses PE PP PVDF ECTFE Heating element temperature 200 up to 220 200 up to 220 232 up to 248 275 up to 285 [°C] The gradually sequences of the welding process Calculation Guidelines Temperature Pressure Welding- temperature Alignment resp. Joining.

...7 190 .. 485 11 ....0 . 14....9 .. 6 6 ...0 0. 6 6 ..... may APipe = (da 2 ) − di 2 ⋅ π be taken from the tables on the welding machines..085 N/mm² ECTFE 1.....5 .0 ....0 45 .5 . 26.0 2... 0........ 260 10 ..10 N/mm² ....0 . 8 10 .. Calculation of the welding force: Approvals and Standards F = pspec ⋅ APipe 58 ....... 40 4 5 5 .0 .....0 1. 10 Calculation of the welding area: Applications and References Specific heating pressure In most cases..... 7. 19. 20. 4 For checking purposes or if the table with pressure data are missing... 7 8....0 4. 16 14 .0 .....0 3.. 45 37..15 N/mm² P≤0. 20 19 .0 245 . 7 5.. Installation Guidelines Type of material Wall thickness Bead height Pre-heating time tAW Adjusting time tU Joining pressure Cooling time tAk [mm] [mm] [sec] [sec] build-up time tF [sec] [min] P=0.5 75 .... 11 12 ......... 7 6 .3 140 .. 5.5 70 .. 40 26. 32 40 .7 1. 16 PE100 PE80 PE-el 12...5 PVDF 5..0 .. 5. 135 5 6 6 PP-H-s. 35 60 . 245 6 ..3 ...0 95 . 500 16 .. 5 3... 6.5 485 . 140 4 5 .. 95 3 4 ..01 N/mm² P=0.0 ...02 N/mm² P=0...0 2...5 .. Connection Systems Material Properties Heating element butt welding Welding parameters Reference values for heating element butt welding of PP.0 P=0........0 .... 24 19.5 0...5 ...5 0. 45 5 5 6 4.0 ..........0 260 ....0 2........0 .5 370 .0 .. 370 12 ...... 80 P=0. 32 26........ 25. 11 17 .0 . 7 7 . 10 8 . 15. 5 6..0 120 .. 4 5..0 Connection Systems Connection Systems 20.. 330 7 . 19.....0 1. 25 45 .0 240 . the heating pressure [bar] or the heating force [N].0 .. 55 37....5 59 .0 1.15 N/mm² Calculation Guidelines ...... 7. PVDF and ECTFE pipes and fittings at outside temperatures of about 20°C and low air- speed rates....5 . 175 5 ... 12 11 ..0 1.0 500 . 37.. 25... 13 25. 6 5 ....... 1.....0 10. 19.... 70 P=0.0 40 . PE.7 ..0 0. 50...10 N/mm² P=0... 26... PP-H.0 ....10 N/mm² P=0. the required heating pressure has or to be calculated according to the following formula: When using hydraulic equipment....... 70 5 ..10 N/mm² 1.5 135 .0 ......... the calculated welding force [N] has to be converted into the ≈ d m ⋅π ⋅ s necessary adjustable hydraulic pressure.....5 . 9 11 .3 .. 560 14 ... 22 30 ..0 175 .0 . 60 50..... 20 12. 19 32 . 17 32 ...0 3. 8 6 . 37....... 8..0 .. 10. PP-R-el.01 N/mm² P=0.5 .085 N/mm² P=0......0 ... 17 20 . 11 16 . 32... 50. 7. 9 14.5 .5 190 ...5 .. 190 4 7 .. 120 6 . 11 19.. 0...... 400 9 ...... 25 25 .. 43 55 .... 2....... 14 22 .. 25 4 5 3 ........5 330 ...... 14 24 . which have to be adjusted...0 3... 50 4 5 7 .. 190 8 ...0 15..01 N/mm² P=0. PP-R 4. 12 PP-R-s-el 7...0 1..... 700 20 ..... 4... 290 5 11 ....0 0..0 2.0 1..0 . 4...9 . 30 19.. 1..0 . 3.0 .5 12 .5 .. 1........0 400 . 12.... 12.. 10 7.5 25 .3 0. 70...0 1. 3. 240 5 9 . 75 3 3 ....0 1...

circumference must have been created.see object pre-test main-test short-test 1. K must be bigger than 0. PN + 3 bar max. PN + 5 bar max. Adjustment Systems ConnectionSystems After the pre-heating the adjusting surfaces should be removed from the heating elements. A higher mechanical use is only after Installation Guidelines alignment is finished when the bead height has prolongation of the cooling permissible.5 h each 1 h without control during test procedure restore of test. Before removal and storage.8 bar/h up to 0. K At which the pressure will fall nearly to zero (<0.5 x PN 1. DVS 2210 Part 1 . a double bead surrounding the whole alignment process. The heating element should be taken away from the Connection adjusting surfaces without damage and pollution. among each other.5 x PN table pressure test). The maintained. test pressure max. During the pre-heating process the areas must about onto the heating element with low pressure.15 0. Applications and References Performing of pressure test Before the pressure testing.01 N/mm²). even when this can lead to unsymetrical welding beads. special case note for the respective test standard (agreement with client required) 59 . The pressure test Pressure test acc. Specific 0. The required joining Here adjusting surfaces to be joined are pressed pressure will rise linear if possible.09 joined materials. test period compl. 1 hour after the last welding process). The use the cooling times can be remain under bead height indicates that the joining areas especially by parts with a thick wall during the clamp completely locate on the heating element. without restore restore of test- Approvals and Standards pressure of test-pressure pressure material specific pressure drop up to 0. After that the adjusting surfaces must join together very quickly until immediately prior to contact. L < 100m piping systems without branches minimum 6 h minimum 6 h minimum 3 h compl.8 bar/h up to 0. (>630mm) the sufficient bead development also inside the pipe must be controlled with a test seam. L > 100m each 1 h with each 1. This During cooling the joining pressure must be is seen by the development of beads. The bead development gives an orientation about the PE PP PVDF ECTFE regularity of the weldings.10 0. Under reached the requested values on the whole pipe factory circumstances and insignificant mechanical circumference or on the whole sheet surface. On pre-heating the warmth infiltrate in the parts to be welded and heat upto the welding temperature. on the heating element until the whole area is situated plane parallel on the heating element. The adjusting time should be kept as short as possible. otherwise the plasticised areas will cool down and the welding seam quality would be influenced in a negative way.8 bar/h (average value) . Assembly or mechanical the welding process of pipes with a larger diameter treatment is allowed after the whole cooling. PN + 5 bar piping systems The piping system has to be protected against without branches minimum 3 h minimum 3 h minimum 1 h changes of the ambient temperature (UV-radiation). DVS® 2210 Teil 1 has to be performed according to the relevant standard regulations (e. Connection Systems Material Properties Heating element butt welding Joining Alignment The areas to be welded should coincide by contact with a velocity of nearly zero. all welding joints have to be completely cooled down (as a rule. g. The alignment pressure works during the whole After joining.3 x PN 1.10 up to may be justified by different flow behaviour of the [N/mm²] 0. From experience with the commercial semi finished products in the indicated MFR-field can be assumptioned from the welding Pre-Heating tendency.08 Possible differences in the formation of the beads Calculation Guidelines heating pressure 0.

g. edge length deviation possible to the welding plane. part 1) Permissible deviations from plane-parallelity (measured at room temperature after heating the Clamping device elements to maximum operating temperature at least once): Installation Guidelines In order to avoid high local stresses in the pipe and deformations. Connection Systems Material Properties Heating element butt welding Heating elements Requirements on the welding device used for The heating element has to be plane-parallel with heating element butt welding its effective area. eventually to be supported and exactly adjusted by means of easy-running dollies so that the working If the size and nature of the heating elements pressures and conditions required for welding can requires its machine-driven removal from the joining be maintained.8 mm elements. Likewise. deformations of the workpiece have to be used. Applications and References Approvals and Standards 60 . adequate devices have to be provided for The pipe clamped at the mobile machine side has Calculation Guidelines its insertion (e. By their high stability. by means of hard chrome plating. respective working area of the machine at max. special clamping devices which prevent is in general permanently mounted to the device. it must be provided that the geometric circular form ÷ 250 mm ≤ 0. In case of a not permanently attached heating element. hocks. even under the highest working forces. such as stub flanges and welding neck For processing in a workshop. surfaces. e. links). It is recommendable to use clamp elements adjustable in height to allow a better centering of The power supply has to be protected against the workpieces. (following to DVS 2208.4 mm change their position in relation to the guide > 500 mm ≤ 0. the clamping devices should Pipe outside Ø admissible surround at least the pipe casing as parallel as resp. adequate equipment has to be provided too. thermal damage within the range of the heating Guide elements elements.2 mm of the pipes will be maintained. elements have to ensure that the following Protecting devices are to be used for keeping the Connection Systems maximum values for gap width (measured on cold Connection Systems joining surfaces) are not surpassed due to bending heating element during the intervals between the or beaming at the least favourable point in the welding processes. handles. For fittings. operating pressure and with wide pipe diameters (see table on page 56). They must not ÷ 500 mm ≤ 0. Guide elements have to be protected against corrosion at the sliding surfaces. the heating element flanges. The gap width is measured by inserting a spacer at the point opposite to the guide while the plane- worked pipes are clamped. the effective surface of the heating element has to be protected against Together with the clamping devices. the guide damage. g.

Control devices for pressure. machines used for site work should be of lightweight construction. The characteristic performance and Connection tolerance values have to be ensured. which is necessary for the maximum welding diameter and for surmounting the frictional forces. g. an undercarriage with locking device (stable. Systems ConnectionSystems In order to ensure reproducibility. a heating element with electronic temperature control is to be preferred. adjustable in height. da [mm] [mm] < 400 ≤ 0. Pipe outside Ø deviation built-in level) is recommended. Machine design and safety in use In addition to meet the above requirements. Especially if voltages above 42 V are applied. links). Pressure and temperature have to be adjustable and reproducible.5 ≥ 400 ≤ 1. Connection Systems Material Properties Heating element butt welding Machines used in workshops have to meet the following requirements: Requirements on the welding device used for heating element butt welding z Stable construction (following to DVS 2208. Maximum z Possibility to fix working diagrams in the permissible deviations from plane-parallelity at the operating area joining surfaces are: z In case of big machines. planes. Approvals and Standards 61 . time and temperature The pressure range of the machine has to allow for a pressure reserve of 20 % of the pressure. Applications and References Adequate devices for transportation and introduction into the trench have be available (e.0 The surfaces may be worked with devices which Calculation Guidelines are mounted on or which can be introduced easily (e. handles. milling cutters). g. Time is manually controlled as a rule. saws. part 1) z Universal basic construction (swivelling or retractable auxiliary tools and clamps) Devices for welding seam preparation z Quick-clamping device z Maximum degree of mechanization Installation Guidelines An adequate cutting tool has to be prepared with z Indication of pressure transmission (hydraulic/ which the joining surfaces of the clamped pipe can welding pressure) on the rating plate be machined in a plane-parallel way. the relevant safety regulations of VDE and UVV have to be observed in the construction and use of the machines.

PVDF. Connection Systems Material Properties IR . Installation Guidelines The heating of pipe ends is performed by radiant heat. PVDF and Schematic sketch of the welding process ECTFE (IR-welding) Welding method The method is in accordance with approved standard butt fusion. Welding parameters Reference values of welding parameters for the non-contact butt welding of PP pipes and fittings need not to be stated separately as this data is PRE-HEATING stored in the machine for the relevant material and Calculation Guidelines of the dimensions to be welded.Non-contact butt welding for PP. PFA). where the components are not in contact with the heat source. There are the following sizes of welding equipment Connection Systems available: Connection Systems SP 110 S SP 315 S Applications and References Approvals and Standards 62 . New generation of welding machines for IR- welding SP-welding equipment This new developed welding equipment operates JOINING AND fully automatic and can be used for different COOLING materials (PP. ECTFE. The advantage of the non contact method is the minimal bead sizes and the elimination of PREPARATION OF THE possible contamination from the heating element WELDING (further detailed information can be taken from our technical brochure "SP Series").

the use of a welding device because of increasing joining forces is recommended.9 6 4 6 2 25 1. 7.4 12 4 12 4 50 3. heating element and fitting socket are coordinated so that a joining pressure builds up on joining (see schematic sketch). 5 4 6 2 1) 25 7 4 10 2 1) 32 8 6 10 4 PEHD. pipe and WELDING fittings are lap-welded. 5 4 6 2 20 250 ÷ 270 .0 30 6 24 8 1) not recommended because of too low wall thickness 63 . 10 (PP) 24 8 30 6 Applications and References 75 250 ÷ 270 15 30 8 30 6 90 22 40 8 40 6 110 250 ÷ 270 30 50 10 50 8 125 250 ÷ 270 35 60 10 60 8 Pipe wall thickness Pre-heating time [mm] [sec] 16 1. PP-R 250 ÷ 270 °C speed rates PE-HD 250 ÷ 270 °C PVDF 250 ÷ 270 °C Systems ConnectionSystems Material Pipe outside Welding temperature Pre-heating time tAw Adjusting time tU Cooling time tAk type diameter [°C] [sec] fixed overall da [mm] SDR 17.0 18 4 12 4 63 3.4. ALIGNMENT AND PRE- HEATING Heating element socket weldings may be manually performed up to pipe outside diameters of 40 mm. they are joined.6.9 8 4 6 2 PVDF 32 2. 6 [sec] [sec] [min] Connection 16 . 17 SDR 11.0 22 6 18 6 Approvals and Standards 90 3.0 25 6 18 6 110 250 ÷ 270 3. PP 40 250 ÷ 270 1) 12 6 20 4 1) 50 18 6 20 4 1) 63 (PEHD).5 4 4 6 2 20 250 ÷ 270 1. The guidelines of the DVS are to be adhered to during the whole welding process! JOINING AND Welding parameters COOLING Reference values for the heating element socket Welding temperature (T) welding of PP and PE-HD pipes and fittings at an outside temperature of about 20°C and low air- PP-H.4 10 4 12 4 40 250 ÷ 270 2. part 11 for PP and part 15 for PVDF) Welding method Installation Guidelines PREPARATION OF THE On heating element socket welding.0 20 6 18 6 75 250 ÷ 270 3. Calculation Guidelines Above that. The pipe end and fitting socket are heated up to welding temperature by means of a socket-like and spigot-like heating element and afterwards. The dimensions of pipe end. Connection Systems Material Properties Heating elemet socket welding Schematic sketch of the welding process Heating element socket welding (following to DVS 2207. part 1 for PE-HD.

PP PVDF ca. At any rate. PP PVDF PEHD. part 1 and the opposite table. If peeling is not necessary. 64 . the joint may be stressed by further laying processes. (see table: page 54:fixed Preparation of welding place cooling time) Assemble welding equipment (prepare tools and machinery). control welding devices Installation Guidelines Preparation of welding seam (at any rate immediately before starting the welding process) Cut off pipe faces at right angles and remove flashes on the inside with a knife. Only after the cooling time. be careful that possibly clogging melt residues are removed. work the pipe surface with a scraper knife and mark the depth (t) on pipe. Connection Systems Material Properties Processing guidelines On manual welding: Heating element socket welding Adjust the parts and hold them fast under pressure for at least one minute. pull fitting and pipe off the heating element with one heave and immediately fit them into each other without Approvals and Standards twisting them until both welding beads meet. Pipe diameter Pipe chamfer for Insert length for b PEHD. Thoroughly clean welding area of pipe and fittings with fluffless paper and cleansing agents (acetone Calculation Guidelines or similar). Performing of welding process Quickly push fitting and pipe in axial direction onto the heating spigot or into the heating socket until the end stop (or marking). Let the joint cool down. The pipe-ends should be chamfered following to DVS 2207. Applications and References Thoroughly clean heating spigot and heating socket immediately before each welding process (with fluffless paper). then remove clamps. Let pass by pre-heating time according to table values. Work the pipe faces with a scraper until the blades of the scraper flush with the pipe face.15° d [mm] b [mm] b [mm] l [mm] l [mm] 16 2 2 13 13 d 20 2 2 14 14 25 2 2 15 16 l 32 2 2 17 18 40 2 2 18 20 Connection Systems 50 2 2 20 22 Connection Systems 63 3 3 26 26 75 3 3 29 31 90 3 3 32 35 110 3 3 35 41 Preparations before welding Check temperature of heating element (on heating spigot and on heating socket). After the pre-heating time.

the following points should be considered for the machine design: -Stable construction -Universal basic construction (swivelling or retractable auxiliary tools and clamps) -Quick clamping device -Maximum degree of mechanization (reproducable welding process) Approvals and Standards 65 . Connection Systems Material Properties Processing guidelines Pressure test acc. g. an adjusting mechanism has to be provided.8 bar/h up to 0. Requirements on the welding device used for heating element socket welding (following to DVS Calculation Guidelines 2208. PN + 5 bar max. the guide elements have to ensure that the joining parts are guided centrically to the heating element and to each other. It must be visible test period piping systems along the whole circumference of the pipes. part 1) Devices for heating element socket welding are used in workshops as well as at building sites.5 x PN 1. without restore restore of test- Performing of pressure test pressure of test-pressure pressure material specific pressure drop up to 0. The pressure test client required) has to be performed according to the relevant standard regulations (e. L > 100m each 1 h with each 1.see table pressure test). As single purpose machines. 1 hour special case note for the respective test standard (agreement with after the last welding process). PN + 3 bar max.5 x PN test pressure max. PN + 5 bar Visual welding seam control piping systems without branches minimum 3 h minimum 3 h minimum 1 h compl.5 h each 1 h without Installation Guidelines control during test procedure restore of test. they should allow for a maximum degree of mechanization of the welding process. Machine design and safety in use Applications and References In addition to meeting the above requirements in construction and design. DVS® 2210 part 1 Heating element socket welding object pre-test main-test short-test 1. ConnectionSystems Guide elements Connection Together with clamping devices and heating element.3 x PN 1. If necessary.8 bar/h Before the pressure testing.8 bar/h up to 0. The piping system has to be protected against changes of the ambient temperature (UV-radiation). Clamping devices Marks on workpiece surfaces caused by special clamping devices for pipe components must not affect the mechanical properties of the finished Systems connection. without branches minimum 6 h minimum 6 h minimum 3 h compl. all welding joints have (average value) to be completely cooled down (as a rule. L < 100m Check out bead of welding seam. DVS 2210 Part 1 .

8 39.06 mm Tools for welding seam preparation At heating element socket welding with mechanical pipe working (method type B).85 ± 0.58 39.04 mm Connection Systems > 50 mm ± 0.49 123.46 61.75 ± 0.75 89.85 19.20 44 66 .5 Calculation Guidelines 20 19.24 24.2 29 6 27 4.5 5 23 3. This has to correspond to the heating element and to the fitting socket.27 108.8 ± 0. a scraper is required for calibrating and chamferring the joining surfaces of the pipe.7 19.93 62.85 31.15 31 90 89.1 37 6 35 4.45 15 4 14 2.59 109 43 6 41 4. document Heating spigot ØD1 ØD2 ØD4 ØD3 172 E) apply to the dimensions of the heating tools.17 31.8 49.9 ± 0.5 5 18 3.0 50 49.15 35 110 109.5 14 4 13 2.05 16 32 31. Dimensions of heating elements for heating element socket welding fittings Heating socket Heating spigot Type B (with mechanical pipe working) Pipe diameter ØD1 ØD2 ØD3 ØD4 L1 L2 L3 R [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] 16 15.5 32 31. Connection Systems Material Properties Heating element socket welding Requirements on the welding device used for heating element socket welding (following to DVS 2208.9 15.85 ± 0. The scraper is adjusted with a plug gauge. Applications and References Calibration diameter and length for the machining of pipe ends with method.55 49.20 41 125 124.75 89.84 74.07 49.0 1)Dimensions are valid at 260 ÷ 270°C Connection Systems Dimensional tolerances:÷ 40 mm ± 0.3 24.75 ± 0.75 62.05 18 40 39.35 19.8 ± 0.15 33 6 31 4.85 24.95 48 6 46 4.9 ± 0.8 ± 0.76 15.10 20 50 49.15 27 Approvals and Standards (dimensions see table) 75 74.7 109.65 31.42 73.1 39.0 90 89.37 15.7 124.0 63 62.5 5 20 3.0 110 109.5 25 24. part 1) L1 L2 L3 Heating elements Installation Guidelines Contained in the table the values (correspond to R R the draft of ISO TC 138 GAH 2/4draft.0 125 124.22 123.75 74.9 ± 0. type B Pipe outside Calibration Calibration diameter diameter dx length l [mm] [mm] [mm] 20 19.31 19.0 40 39.05 14 25 24.10 23 For the socket welding prepared pipe end 63 62.38 88.68 24.0 75 74.4 17 4 16 2.3 21.

8 mm Pipes with thinner walls must be welded with support sleeves 67 . snow. Welding parameters Welding systems The welding parameters are specified by the bar Calculation Guidelines code. For AGRU electro fusion fittings is valid: This welding device is a machine with bar code identification. Installation Guidelines by means of resistance wires which are located within the electo-fusion socket.7 On electric welding. g.6 17 13. The MFR-value of the E-fittings out of PE is in the range of 0.3 mm up to 3. Connection Systems Material Properties Electrofusion welding General welding suitability (following to DVS® 2207. it supervise all functions full SDR SDR SDR SDR SDR SDR SDR SDR automaticly during the welding process and stores 33 26 17. The method distinguishes itself by an extra-low safety voltage as well as by high automatization. Polymatic plus + top** 180 no yes yes yes yes yes yes yes . necessary welding pressure which guarantee an intensive UV-radiation or wind) The permissible optimal welding. temperature range for PE is from -10°C up to +50°C.3 . The extansion of the plastified melt and the during The welding area has to be protected against the cooling developed shrinking stress produce the unfavourable weather conditions (e.5 mm Approvals and Standards ** weldable with wall thickness from 2.5 mm up to 3. A transformer for The weldable SDR-serie and the maximum ovality welding purposes supplies electric power. 20 no no no no no yes* yes* yes* 25 no no no no no yes** yes** yes** After feeding of the code for universal welding 32 no no no no no yes yes yes machines with magnetic code characteristic. print+** 200 yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes 225 yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes **with fitting traceability acc. Huerner junior+. They Welding method can be joined with pipes and fittings out of PE 80 and PE 100 with a MFR-value between 0. part 1 for PE-HD) Only parts made of the same material may be joined with one another. are listed in the following table.3 g/10min.3 and 1. 50 no no yes yes yes yes yes yes 63 no no yes yes yes yes yes yes Systems ConnectionSystems 75 no no yes yes yes yes yes yes Suitable welding machines 90 no no yes yes yes yes yes yes 110 no no yes yes yes yes yes yes For the welding of electric weldable AGRU-fittings 125 no no yes yes yes yes yes yes Connection SDR 11 the following universal welding devices with bar 140 no no yes yes yes yes yes yes code identification are suitable: 160 no no yes yes yes yes yes yes .4 them. The national guidelines must also be considered. ISO 12176-4 250 yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes Applications and References 280 yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes 315 yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes 355 yes yes yes yes yes yes no no 400 yes yes yes yes yes yes no no 450 no no yes yes yes yes no no 500 no no yes yes yes yes no no 450 yes yes yes yes no no no no SDR 17 500 yes yes yes yes no no no no 560 yes yes yes yes no no no no 630 yes yes yes yes no no no no 710 yes yes yes yes no no no no * weldable with wall thickness from 2. the 40 no no yes yes yes yes yes yes code is deleted which means that the card can only be used once. For the welding of AGRU-E-fittings a universal welding machine should be used.6 11 9 7. pipes and fittings are welded g/10min. which is directly affixed on the fitting.1. rain.

If a fitting is welded instead of the pipe. If a pollution cannot be excepted. Slide the socket into the prepared end of pipe right to its center stop until it reaches the marking. absorbent paper.fitting immediately before welding. Install welding tent or similar device. remove Approvals and Standards residues of clean-sing agents or condensation water with fluffless. Depending on the environmental conditions and Installation Guidelines the envirnmental temperature (see page 54) Preparation of the welding seam ( immediately before starting the welding process) Cut off pipe at right angles by means of a proper Calculation Guidelines cutting tool and mark the insert length. At any rate. Never touch the inside of the socket and the scrapped pipe end.or PE-cleaner (or similar) and with fluffless paper. Applications and References Preparations before welding Unpack the E. The faces to be welded have to be dry before the socket is put over the pipe.2mm). control welding devices. 68 . Connection Systems Material Properties Electrofusion welding Processing guidelines Preparation of welding place Assemble welding equipment (prepare tools and machinery). Insert length= socket length/2 Connection Systems Clean pipe of dirt with a dry cloth at insert length Connection Systems and carefull machine pipe by means of a peeling tool or scraper knife in axial direction (cuting depth min. clean the welding areas with PP. Remove flashes inside and outside of pipe ends. the welding area of the fitting has to be cleaned and scrapped as the pipe. 0.

The working instructions must correspond to DVS® 2207 part 1 and to the AGRU welding requirements. Position welding cable so as to prevent its weight from twisting the welding socket. the pipe has not been inserted right up to the center stop. whether the pipe has been worked. These values now have to be acknowledged. Then. Keep in mind that the installation situation must be stress free. dimension and outside temperature are shown on the display. for control purposes. Systems After the welding equipment has been properly ConnectionSystems connected. The clamping device has to be loosened and the pipe ends must be inserted until the markings are directly visible on the socket ends. so that no forces can raise between welding area and the pipe (fitting) and that the socket can be turned Installation Guidelines smoothly. After the welding parameters have been fed in. this is shown on the display. 69 . The welding parameters are fed in by means of a Connection reading pencil or a scanner. Only the most significant steps of the welding procedure are described as follows. Applications and References Welding without clamping device: It is possible to weld AGRU electro fusion fittings without using a clamping device. Check: If a marking does not flush with a socket end. the trademark. Connection Systems Material Properties Electrofusion welding Processing guidelines The second part which has to be welded with the Preparations before welding socket (pipe or fitting) should be prepared too. you will be asked. Approvals and Standards Is a stress free situation not possible a clamping device must be used. Insert the second pipe end (or fitting) into the socket and clamp both pipes into the holding device. Both plug-type socket connections should be turned upwards (however the axial position of the socket must not be changed) and connected with the welding cable. An audio signal will acknowledge the data input. Calculation Guidelines Performing the welding process Observe the operating instructions for the welding device.

The using of the traceabilitycode is not forcing. Connection Systems Connection Systems Visual control and documentation Visual weld control is performed by the welding indicator on the socket. Installation Guidelines The welding process is started by pressing the green start key. So you can use your standard welding machine. 125 mm 10 min da 140 mm 15 min da 160 mm . 500 mm 60 min. The end of the welding process is indicated by an audio signal.g. So it is easy to read the code into the welding machine. 63 mm 6 min da 75 mm . 400 mm 45 min da 450 mm . This time on the display also the desired welding time and the actual welding time are given as well as the welding voltage. all welding parameters are stored internally by the device and can be printed to receive a welding protocol. the clamping device may be removed. 280 mm 30 min da 315 mm . minimum Cooling time: da 20 mm . After expiration of the cooling time. Moreover. in case of a power failure). Connection Systems Material Properties Electrofusion welding Processing guidelines Performing the welding process Optional a traceability barcode is marked directly on the fitting. The recommended cooling Calculation Guidelines time must be observed! If a welding process is interrupted (e. During the whole welding process (including cooling time) the clamping device shall remain installed. it is possible to reweld the socket after cooling down to ambient temperature (<35°C). if you don´t need the code nothing changes at your working process. Applications and References Approvals and Standards 70 . That means. 180 mm 20 min da 200 mm .

Connection Applications and References Approvals and Standards 71 . After the insertation of the pipes you have to consider following points. Installation Guidelines mounting of the tension belts After the insertation of the pipes both from AGRU delivered tension belts (50mm wide) must be inserted in the grooves and mounted. Calculation Guidelines Performing the welding process After the correct installation of the tension belts the welding process according to page 70 can be performed. Connection Systems Material Properties Electrofusion welding . 630 mm 90 min. An additional tool is not allowed. Systems minimum cooling time: ConnectionSystems da 560 mm .Big Couplers Processing guidelines welding of E-Couplers >500mm For the preparation of the electro fusion couplers >500mm apply the same installations steps as descriped on page 68 and 69. Installation guidelines for the tension belts see page 72. The belts must be mounted in the grooves and pulled tight by hand until the belts can not be displaced.

open the ratchet lever Installation Guidelines mount the loose end through the slot spindle and pull it through Calculation Guidelines clamp the tension belt Connection Systems Connection Systems Tighten the belt with the ratchet lever till the belt is tight on the coupler and can not be removed by hand Applications and References After tightening the belt bring the ratchet lever to the closure position Approvals and Standards To open the belt pull the functional slider at the ratchet lever and turn them approx. 180° to the end position 72 . Connection Systems Material Properties Both tension belts must be inserted in the grooves and mounted as following.

the edge areas and outer zones continuously practising or displaying of long-time Installation Guidelines of the welding fillers are transformed into plastic experience. good quality ECTFE welds can be Fields of application of this welding method are: obtained when a clean and dry source of air is apparatus engineering. PP-R The drawing nozzle has to correspond with the PP-R-el. Approvals and Standards 73 . as well as bands. such as oval. an additional press handle may be required with this 1) measured in hot air stream approximately 5 mm kind of nozzle. PP-H-s 10 ÷ 16 25 ÷ 35 280 ÷ 330 40 ÷ 60 respective cross section of the welding rod. In general. PE-HD. As a rule. In the following. when the welding facility lacks a clean and dry Calculation Guidelines source of air. part 3 for PP. Systems with diameters of 3 mm and 4 mm. Piping systems for gas supply and water supply must not be joined by hot gas welding! Weldability of base material and welding fillers according to guideline DVS 2201. this would mean that he is a qualified plastics worker and welder At hot gas welding. The hot gas must be guideline DVS 2208. part 1. Special slotted nozzles enable the in the nozzle. Connection Systems Material Properties Hot gas welding Qualification of welder and requirement on welding devices (following to DVS 2207. such as PP and PE-HD. PVDF and analogous for ECTFE) The plastics welder must have obtained the knowledge and skill required for the performing of Welding method welding processes. At ECTFE . There are also At breathing contact wit ECTFE-vapours. This guideline applies to hot gas welding of pipes Welding of ECTFE and sheets out of thermoplastics. the ConnectionSystems used special profiles.as a rule by means of heated air . Condition concentrations and should not be breathened and requirement of the welding fillers have to in. welding of bands. construction of vessels and used. Welding in nitrogen is recommended only piping systems. In order PP-R-s-el PVDF. to TWA for The most common welding fillers are round rods HCl is 5ppm. dust and oil. PEHD-el 10 ÷ 16 25 ÷ 35 300 ÷ 350 40 ÷ 60 PP-H. comply with the guideline DVS 2211. The following safety measures should be considered: Welding parameter z Please consider for good ventilating of the Reference values at outside temperatures of about working place (otherwise please use 20 °C (acc.and comply with the requirements according to joined under low pressure. The choice of gas is a very important factor in ECTFE finished products to be welded ranges from 1 mm welding. triangular and person should be brought out in the fresh air trefoil rods. material thickness of the semi. is taken Safety precaution for granted. part 2. free of water. the and medical aid should be summoned without term "welding rods" is applied for the different delay (danger of polymer-fever!). Connection welding fillers. to DVS 2207) breathing protections) z Please use eye protections Applications and References Material Welding force Hot air Air quantity [N] temperature 1) z Please use hand protections Rod Ø3mm Rod Ø4mm [°C] [l/min] PEHD. ECTFE welding.melt temperatures of > 300°C Another requirement for high quality welding hydrogen chloride and hydrofluorics are processes is that the welding fillers are of the same released. It is not necessary to use nitrogen in to 10 mm. for HF 3ppm. Hot gas welding machines have to condition . The recommended load limit acc. PVDFflex 12 ÷ 17 25 ÷ 35 350 ÷ 400 40 ÷ 60 to apply the required heating pressure on welding ECTFE 12 ÷ 17 25 ÷ 35 340 ÷ 350 48 ÷ 52 with welding rods of larger cross sections. They could be toxically at higher kind and same type as far as possible.

The guideline DVS 2205. by scrapping). g. when welding PP material. Furthermore. it is. Generally do so when Connection Systems the thickness is 6 mm and more. however. control welding devices. pay attention to the general principles for the formation of welding seams. Install welding tent or similar device. a must. Preparations for welding Before starting the welding process. HB-weld and K-weld. The displacement Connection Systems of sheets may be minimized by changing the sides of welding. are valid with respect to the choice of welding seam forms on containers and apparatus. parts 3 and 5. it is also recommendable to scrape the welding rods. Parts that have been damaged by influences of weather conditions or chemicals have to be machined until an undamaged area appears. Connection Systems Material Properties Processing guidelines . it is recommendable to make double-V-welds (sheet thickness of 4 mm and more). Approvals and Standards 74 . With welding areas accessible from both sides. and with rod-drawing nozzles in the opening of main nozzle. Calculation Guidelines The forms of the welding seams on plastics components generally correspond with the forms of welding seams on metal parts. Air quantity is measured by means of a flow control instrument before the air stream enters into the welding machine. The diameter of the Applications and References thermocouple must not exceed 1 mm. Installation Guidelines Preparation of welding seam (at any rate immediately before starting the welding process) The adjusting surfaces and the adjacent areas have to be prepared adequately before welding (e. inserted approximately 5 mm into the nozzle.Hot gas welding Preparation of welding place Assemble welding equipment (prepare tools and machinery). check the heated air temperature adjusted on the welding machine. The most important welding seam forms are: V-weld. double V-weld. In particular. Mea-surement is performed by means of a control thermocouple.

If necessary. Before welding with the next welding rod. the welding seam which has been formed with the preceeding welding rod. Applications and References welding rod welding device welding seam working piece Approvals and Standards hot gas 75 . As a consequence of the forward movements of the nozzle. the welding seam may be built up with welding rods of larger diameters until it will have completely been filled. has to be adequately scrapped. the welding rod has to be pushed on manually in order to avoid stretching caused by friction within the nozzle. diameter 3 mm (except for material thickness of 2 mm). Afterwards. if necessary. the welding rod is automatically being pushed on as a rule. surface conditions. Connection Systems Material Properties Processing guidelines Hot gas welding Performing of welding process The welder has to acquire the feeling for the speed and force he needs for welding by practising. The welding power may be determined by test welding Installation Guidelines on a weighing machine. thorough welding of welding root and displacement of joining parts. pay attention to the fact that the thickness of the base material must be maintained. Additional machining of welding seam Usually welding seams need no reworking Systems ConnectionSystems however. The welding rod is heated within the rod-drawing nozzle and pushed into the welding groove with its break-like extension mounted on the lower part of the nozzle. Structure of welding seam Calculation Guidelines The first layer of the welding seam is welded with filler rod. Connection Visual control of welding seam Welding seams are visually checked with a view to weld filling.

In particular. g. changes after squeezing In order to prevent heat from dissipating. the nozzle) in front of the outlet. kept as small as possible. Due to their constructional features. The noise level of the ventilator Indefinitely variable power consumption has to comply with the relevant stipulations. as otherwise not only the quality of the welding seam but also the lifetime of the welding devices decreases. Protection against overheating (e. Approvals and Standards 76 . air is normally used which is supplied by a compressed air network. Installation Guidelines The devices comprise handle. Electrical equipment has to conform with the VDE regulations. adequate oil and water separators have to be used. thermo. nozzle and electrical connecting cable. The nozzles used for the particular devices resistant. The air volume supplied to the device has to be adjustable and has to be maintained constant. a pressure gas bottle or a ventilator. heating. the surface of the nozzle has to be as smooth as Safety requirements possible. part 1). g. part 2) heating. In order to avoid strong air vortexes at the outlet Parts next to hands should not be heated to of the nozzle. Air supply Applications and References At hot gas welding. polished. even after longer straight for at least 5 x d (d = outlet diameter of use. free of water and oil. built-in ventilator. the inner surface of the of personal injuries. processe Due to their construction properties. nozzle. air they are less suitable for longer lasting welding supply hose and electrical connecting cable. the round nozzles have to be temperatures above 40°C. they can be used at sites where external air supply is not Manual welding devices (with external air supply) available. non-conducting have to be securely fastened and easily Corrosion-proof hot gas supply pipes of low exchangeable even when heated. due to lack of air) of the device has to be present. The devices have to be safe with a view of all kind For reducing friction. they are particularly suitable for longer lasting welding Requirements on design processes. Connection Systems Material Properties Hot gas welding Welding devices (with built-in ventilator) Requirements on the welding device used for hot The devices comprise handle. e. The ventilator has to supply the quantity of air Requirements on design required for welding various types of plastics to all nozzles (see DIN 16 960. handle with built-in control system Calculation Guidelines Operating elements arranged in a way Safety requirements preventing unintentional changes Material of handle: break-proof. If possible. a compressor. As light as possible The electrical circuit has to ensure that the Favourable position of the gravity center heating is only turned on when the ventilator Functionally formed handle is operating. the following slide rail of the drawing nozzles have to be requirements apply: Connection Systems polished. The air supplied has to clean. Therefore. On account of their dimensions and their weight. scaling The material must be corrosion-proof and of Light and flexible hoses without permanent low scaling. thermo-insulating. as it is a main factor influencing the temperature control of the device. The same applies to the sliding Connection Systems Areas endangering the risk of burning are to be surfaces of tacking nozzles. gas welding (following to DVS 2208.

directly fastened at the extruder. Pellets and welding rods of uncontrolled composition and unknown origin must not be processed. part 4) The plastics welder must have obtained the knowledge and skill required for the performing of Welding method welding processes. Do not use regenerated material for welding. this would mean that he is a qualified Extrusion welding is used for joining thick-walled plastics worker and welder continuously practising Installation Guidelines parts (construction of containers.5 kg/h.The welding filler is being processed in Systems ConnectionSystems form of pellets or rods.2. Connection The welding filler has to be dry and clean (prevent moisture from falling upon cold pellets). Applications and References Approvals and Standards 77 . Hotgas. Material short Masse. z The joining surfaces have been heated up to welding temperature. be used (see DVS 2209. which unit. engineering. for joining of liners (for buildings. part 4. corresponds to the welding seam form. PP-B. the maximum completely plastified. The most common device is a portable welding device consisting of a This welding technique is characterized as follows: small extruder and a device for generating hot air. several kinds of devices may special tasks. capacity of the welding fillers is about 4. 210 … 240 250 … 300 300 Semi-finished products and welding fillers have to Typ 1.3 PP-R Polyvinylidenf PVDF 280 … 350 280 … 350 300 be suitable for extrusion welding. The welding filler has to be adjusted to processing with the particular extrusion welding device and to the type of material used for semi-finished product. Hotgas- temperatur temperature quantity Polyethylen HD-PE 210 … 230 250 … 300 300 Weldability of base material and welding filler high density Polypropylen PP-H. part 1). linings for ground work sites) and for For extrusion welding. z The welding filler is homogenous and Depending on the type of device. Calculation Guidelines z Joining is performed under pressure. Connection Systems Material Properties Extrusion welding Qualification of welder and requirement on welding devices (following to DVS 2207. Assure weldability of parts to be welded according to DVS 2207. z Welding process is performed with welding The welding pressure is applied onto the teflon filler being pressed out of a compounding nozzle. apparatus or disposing of long-time experience. As a rule. piping systems). Weldability of base material and welding fillers have to be in perfect processing condition.

Parts that have been damaged by influences of weather conditions or chemicals have to be machined until an undamaged area appears. in general observe the guideline DVS 2205. If on welding of thicker semi- finished products it is not possible to make DV- welds. single-layer seams are welded on V-weld without sealing run Connection Systems extrusion welding. part 3 and 5. In particular. 0 to 2 Welding seam forms Prepared welding groove On choosing welding seam forms for containers and apparatus . This has to be considered especially on performing Welding seam forms for repair works. by scrapping). Connection Systems Material Properties Processing guidelines . control welding devices. g. extrusion welding Do not use cleansing agents affecting plastics thus by causing them to swell. Connection Systems In general. Calculation Guidelines In order to equalize higher differences in 45° temperature between the different workpieces. consider the general technical principles for welding seam formations quoted therein. the 90° workpieces have to be stored long enough at the 10 working place under the same conditions.Extrusion welding Preparation of welding place Assemble welding equipment (prepare tools and machinery). 2 Double V-butt welding Applications and References 60° 0 bis 2 > 10 - 45° T-joint with single bevel groove with fillet weld 60° 9 - 45° 2 T-joint with double bevel groove Approvals and Standards 78 . also multilayer seams can be performed. Preparation of welding seam Installation Guidelines (at any rate immediately before starting the welding process) The adjusting surfaces and the adjacent areas have to be prepared adequately before welding (e. The welding seam should laterally extend by about 3 mm beyond the prepared welding groove.

If necessary. it is necessary to provide an air gap depending on wall thickness (width of air gap should be 1 mm minimum). Approvals and Standards 79 . the adjusting surfaces of the parts to be welded are heated up to welding temperature. however. proper performance as to drawings hand welding extruder Type K1 as well as evenness are evaluated.5 mm) pressed into the welding groove. Connection Systems Material Properties Processing guidelines . be performed only after acceptance so that eventual welding faults can be discovered on visual inspection. continuously Lap joint with extrusion welding flowing out of the manually guided device. Lap joint with lap weld (for liners with a thickness of up to 3. The discharged Calculation Guidelines material pushed the device ahead thus determining the welding speed. The heating of the adjusting surfaces must be coordinated with the welding speed. Systems ConnectionSystems Connection supplying of welding filler (from extruder) welding shoe Welding shoes welding device welded seam hot gas Applications and References working piece Visual control of welding seam On visual inspection. The welding filler. On performing re-working. avoid the build-up of notches. it should. surface conditions of the welding seam.Extrusion welding Preparation of welding seam a (at any rate immediately before starting the welding Lap joint with fillet weld process) Lap joint ~20s s Installation Guidelines In order to guarantee sufficient heating and thorough welding.5 mm ) Performing of welding process >12 >12 Due to the hot gas passing out of the nozzle of the welding device. Basically the welding seams have to executed in a way to assure that no re-working will be required. is (for liners with a thickness of up to 3.

The drawing near of the means of a pipe band wrench (common pipe flange connection with the thereby occuring tensile wrenches should not be used). unions with round sealing rings should Aligning of parts be applied. It is recommend to brush over the thread. Prevent the application of unions at areas with Tightening of screws bending stresses in the piping systems. e. stress has to be avoided under any circumstances. Tip: thread seal only with Teflon. to be adhered to: the following guidelines have to be adhered to: For avoiding of unpermissible loads at the installation. do not use hemp. with molybdenum sulphide. Adhesive joints There have to be placed washers at the screw head and also at the nut. so that the thread stays also at longer operation time easy-running. g. the following regulations have If pipe joints are connected by means of flanges. the sealing faces have to be aligned planeparallel to each other The union nut should be screwed manually or by and fit tight to the sealing. Adhesive joints with polyolefines are not The connecting screws have to be screwed by applicable. Installation Guidelines Before applying of the screw initial stress. Connection Systems Connection Systems Applications and References Approvals and Standards 80 . means of a torque key (torque values see supply Calculation Guidelines program). The hereby achieved strength values range extremely below the minimum requirements made Generally to adhesive joints in practice. The length of the screws has to be chosen this way that the screw thread possibly flushes with the nut. Connection Systems Material Properties Detachable joints Unions of piping systems Flange connections of piping systems If pipe joints out of thermoplastics are connected by means of unions.

81 Connection Systems Approvals and Standards Applications and References Connection Systems ConnectionSystems Calculation Guidelines Installation Guidelines Material Properties .

or encasing pipe provides protection protective pipe against the leaking of the media Exact identification of the leak area by means of The ring gap: an electronic detection system therefore low The gap between the inside and outside pipe.therefore higher operation flexibility an indicator Calculation Guidelines Connection Systems Application range of double containment piping systems buried: Buried conveying piping systems of ground References and References water dangerous media through sensitive areas Sewage water systems in the industry Application and In the landfill construction or in clarification plants for drainage water transport Applications aboveground: Process systems for dangerous chemicals: z in industrial plants z in chemical manufacturing z in the semiconductor production Approvals and Standards 82 . sensor) and areas . Applications and References Material Properties Double containment piping system The components of double containment piping systems : Advantages of double containment piping systems Inside pipe: The media is transported through the inside media Application of highly corrosion resistant pipe materials such as PE. In repair expenses the ring gap the leak detection takes place No succesive damages Leak detection system: The leak detection system consists of a supervising Assignment of the system in some protection room (sleeve). controlling device (z.B. PP or PVDF (ECTFE) Outside pipe: Installation Guidelines Different combinations of media pipe and The outside.

PE Application and Applications PE . At the doub- le containment piping system the following possibilities can be performed: outside pipe inside pipe welding Installation Guidelines (protective pipe) (media pipe) PP PP S Standard PE PE S PE PP K PE PVDF K PP PVDF K PVDF PVDF S On demand PE ECTFE K PP ECTFE K PVDF ECTFE K PP .PVDF Approvals and Standards 83 .PP ECTFE ECTFE S Calculation Guidelines S = Simultaneous welding Standard dimensionscombinations for K = Cascade welding simultaneous welding PP/PP & PE/PE outside pipe inside pipe d1 SDR1 d2 SDR2 90 17 32 11 110 33 63 11 160 33 90 17 160 33 90 11 PE .PP/PVDF ) outside pipe inside pipe d1 SDR1 d2 SDR2 90 17 32 11 (21) 125 17 63 11 (21) 160 17 90 11 (33) 200 17 110 11 (33) References and References 280 17 160 11 (33) PE . Applications and References Material Properties Double containment piping system In practice different pipe materials have be applied due to different operation conditions.PP 200 33 110 17 200 33 110 11 280 33 160 11 315 33 200 11 355 33 250 11 Connection Systems Standard dimensionscombinations for cascade welding PE/PP & ( PE/PVDF .

Connection Systems Simultaneous joining with butt welding: Simultaneous welding of a PE .heating element (not by leak detection cables) 3.PE system References and References butt weld seam outside pipe Application and Applications inside pipe Approvals and Standards 84 .Step: Control of the offset on the inside pipe and planning of the welding surface The welding of a dual pipe can happen with diffe- rent welding methods. Installation Guidelines offset Simultaneous welding With simultaneous welding the inside and outside 2. There exists also the choice between simultaneous welding and cascade welding. The methode of the welding must be indicated in term of the order. Applications and References Material Properties Double containment piping system 1. Here the dual pipe can be installed or welded like a single pipe but with different welding parameters.Step: Welding of inside and outside pipe Disadvantages of a simultaneous welding: z no visual controll of the inside pipe welding seam is possible z Inside and outside pipe must be made of the same material. because the offset of the inside pipe is adjusted by the welding method. Advantages of simultaneous welding: z less time spent for a welding z easy and fast installation Calculation Guidelines z Use of the standard .Step: Heating of the joining areas pipe are welded at the same time.

Applications and References Material Properties Double containment piping system Cascade joining with butt welding Cascade welding butt weld seam For the butt welding of the inside pipe the outside outside pipe pipe is pulled back until the inside pipe is clamped into the clamps of the welding machine. In this situation the sleeve is welded in place by hot gas or extrusion welding . with sleeve or with 10-15cm electrofusion welding.Step: Heating of the outside pipe with a split heating element z This method can be applied for all material combinations Disadvantages of the cascade welding: z Higher time expenditure per welding z Varied installation and so higher installation References and References expenses Application and 3. Advantages of the cascade welding: z Easier installation of the leak detection cable Connection Systems z The welding seam of the inside pipe can be checked visually 2.Step: Heating and welding of the inside pipe with an outside pipe out of PEHD. The procedure can be compared with the welding of electrofusion sockets. This welding is only possible 1. this will allow room for welding the inside Calculation Guidelines pipe. After the welding of the inside pipe the loose outside pipe will be pulled on the to be welded pipe and will be welded on the circumference with electrofusion sockets. Further do not damage the inside pipe during the adjusting of the heating element. The inside pipe is welded by heating element butt welding in Installation Guidelines accordance with the DVS guideline 2207. If a split heating element is used take care that a minimum ring gap between inside pipe and heating element of 10 mm is given.Step: Welding of the outside pipe Applications Approvals and Standards 85 . By the welding of the outside pipes with an electrofusion welding socket the inside stop in the middle of the socket should be removed before placement on the out- side pipe. A further possibility for the joining of the outside pipes is the welding with a sleeve. inside pipe The outside pipe can be joined with split heating element butt welding.

These must be installed on all systems. The position of the leak can be gap. system are applied: Sensors Leak detection cables In leak detection with sensors the sensors are This special leak detection method was developed installed on the lowest point of the pipeline to detect and show the leak places . because the sensors are joined to a terminal.or over pressure. If a leak should leak the leaked medium will advanceced to the occur the operator immediately receives a message lowest point and there it can be seen. The inspection glasses should have ports to make Installation Guidelines outside pipe protects the environment until a repair analysies of the medium in case of a leak. Applications and References Material Properties Double containment piping system Visual leak detection You need a leak detection system to supervise After leaking the medium can be seen through the transport of media in double containment piping inspection glasses. In case of a between the inside and outside pipe. Through the application of fixed points the pipeline system can be split into separate safety zones. This measurement ensures a constant control of the system. This is installed in or through the ring gap lowest points of the pipeline system. A happens. A further advantage is that in case of a leak the detection system can be renewed. For the dimensions the stress of the different pressure in the ring gap should be noticed. depend on different detection methods. Through the easy installation of the leak detection system it is one of the most widespread systems in practice. which located exactly with a system map. The sensors. as a result of this an alarm is Applications triggered by a pressure manometer. which will also trigger an alarm. By the overpressure method the gas flows out of the ring Application and gap in the inside or media pipe during pressure loose in the ring gap. The cables are system. can locate Calculation Guidelines the position of the leak. constant control of the system by the visual method is not possible because the controls depends on Today the following leak detection system in piping the operator. where a sensor is situated. Approvals and Standards 86 . outside pipe Connection Systems spider clip inside pipe leak detection cablel Differential control (Comparison inside pressure to ring gap SENSOR pressure) References and References With differential pressure control the ring gap is supplied with under. If a leak develops by the under pressure or vacuum control it will lead into a pressure loss in the media pipe following a pressure increase in the ring gap. The from the permanent leak detection system. which makes supervising very easy. In the case of a leaking the leaked medium installed over the whole length in the ring gap of will be advanced to the lowest point in the ring the piping system.

The temperature changes inside and outside pipe occur. piping system are in comparison with the straight). The length expansion of the whole double containment pipe line will be picked up With the installation of the double containment through sufficient measures (compensator. In term of the planning we have to consider that the length expansion of the inside pipe takes place in the out- side pipe. A length expansion of the inside or outside pipe is not possible. One can distinguish between three different design Disadvantages: systems: z high stress in the double containment piping Unimpeded heat expansion system (flexible system) z need often much area because of the Calculation Guidelines compensation elbow The inside and outside pipe are installed such that a length expansion from both pipes and even among each other can happen.Design System with impeded heat expansion The inside and outside pipe are fixed together by Installation systems dog bones. of the inside and outside pipe can be different or even opposite through the distance between the Advantages: pipes. outside pipe and the surrounding are fixed together by dog bones on each direction change. Advantages: z applicable for higher operating temperatures z low stress of the double containment piping system because of free expansion Connection Systems Disadvantages: z higher expenses z need often much area because of the Fixed system compensation elbow Inside. Advantages: References and References z low expensens z need little area Disadvantages: Application and z high dog bone forces (note the fixing Applications demand) Approvals and Standards 87 . If it can not z low expenses picked up constructive stress will be developed z usually low fixing expenses which is an additional demand on the pipe lines. This method is only sensible when the installation of a single pipe possible changes in the inside an outside pipe are made out of the same Installation Guidelines length due to thermal expansion or contraction material and few temperatrue changes between require special attention. This can lead to considerable length expansions of the pipes to one another. Applications and References Material Properties Double containment piping systems .

calculation is necessary. pressure ratings. Calculation Guidelines Connection Systems Excerpt from our calculation program for the double containment piping system Application and Applications References and References Approvals and Standards Excerpt from our calculation program for the double containment piping system 88 . After the analysis of the questionnaire through our technical department you will receive a recommondation for the dimensions of the double containment piping system. In order to be able to perform a complete and exact calculation and design of the piping system. materials. general application parameter and the leak detection system. Applications and References Material Properties Installation of the double containment system Questionnaire I ("Application and installation conditions") contains Calculation the dimensions. (Application conditions for buried piping systems") should be filled in if the piping system shall be We have issued two questionnaires which should installed underground and therefore a static to be filled in by the customer and sent back to us. The questionnaires are available on demand. we Questionnaire II need to know the exact application and installation Installation Guidelines conditions of the respective project.

2 By buried systems please demand on our questionnaire „Application conditions for buried piping system". _______________________°C Operating temperature:outside min. plant O selective with sensors O aboveground system.agru.at A-4540 Bad Hall Telefax: +43 7258 790 430 Internet: http://www. ______________________°C Installation temperature:______________________°C Medium density: _________________kg / m³ max. __________°C outside max. Applications and References Material Properties Double containment piping system Questionnaire to calculate the double containment piping systems Please send the filled questionnaire back to the indiquated address. Approvals and Standards 89 . operating over pressure: ____________________ bar required time to fail: _________years Requested material combination: Inside pipe O PEHD O PP O PVDF O ECTFE outside pipe O PEHD O PP O PVDF O ECTFE Calculation Guidelines Requested wall thickness combination and dimensions outside pipe / inside pipe: Simultaneous welding cascade welding outside pipe inside pipe PE PP outside pipe inside pipe PE PE PP d1 SDR d2 SDR PE PP d1 SDR1 d2 SDR2 PP PVDF PVDF 90 17 32 11 † † 90 17 32 11 (21) † † † 110 33 63 11 † † 160 33 90 17 † † 125 17 63 11 (21) † † † 160 33 90 11 † † 200 33 110 17 † † 160 17 90 11 (33) † † † 200 33 110 11 † † 280 33 160 11 † † Connection Systems 200 17 110 11 (33) † † † 315 33 200 11 † † 355 33 250 11 † † 280 17 160 11 (33) † † † † others: outside pipe d1_______ SDR_______ inside pipe d2_______ SDR_______ Installation Leak detection system O aboveground system. outdoor in the shade O constant detection with leak detection cables O with direct UV radiation O visual control O buried piping system2 O other leakd detection methods References and References Address: AGRU Kunststofftechnik GmbH Application and Ing. Pesendorfer-Strasse 31 Phone : +43 7258 790 0 Applications E-Mail: anwt@agru. ___________°C inside max. Company: ____________________________ Phone:_____________________________________ Name: ____________________________ Telefax:_____________________________________ Installation Guidelines Site: _____________________________________________________________________ ___________ Project: _________________________________________________________________________________ Operating conditions Flow medium1:______________________________________________________________________________ Operating temperature:inside min.at 1 For the material choice of the piping system is the exact combination of the medium necassery to control the chemical resistance.

Applications and References Material Properties Applications The below mentioned table gives you a short survey about the different application possibilities of our molding materials. Range of applications PP-H PP-R PP-H-s PP-H-s-el PE80 PE100 PE80-el PVDF ECTFE Installation Guidelines Industrial applications Piping systems for conveying of ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ chemicals Pipes for cooling water systems ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Pipes for the transport of solids ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Piping systems in ■ explosion-proof rooms High purity water piping systems ■ ■ ■ ■ Water extraction and ■ ■ water preparation Pipes for swimming pools ■ ■ ■ ■ Calculation Guidelines Protective pipes for ■ district heating systems Protective pipes for cables ■ Apparatus engineering and vessel construction ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Ventilation and ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ degassing piping systems Lining of containers ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ and tanks Construction of facilities ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Distribution of compressed air ■ Applications for environmental protection Connection Systems Pipes for drainage systems ■ ■ ■ ■ Lining of channels. ■ ■ ■ channel relining Dual pipes ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Piping systems for sewage treatment plants ■ ■ ■ ■ and lining Degassing pipes for waste disposal facilities ■ ■ ■ Drainage pipes for ■ ■ landfill sites Discharge piping systems ■ ■ References and References Applications Anwendungen forim supply systems Versorgungsbereich Pipes for irrigation systems ■ ■ Pipes for potable water systems ■ ■ ■ ■ Gas pipes ■ ■ Application and Applications Approvals and Standards 90 .

D BASF AG Germany Mc Donnel Douglas St. NC Posco Korea Celanese Germany Posco . D BMW Germany Oda Plast Norwegen Boehler Vorarlberg. OH Syntex Bahamas General Graphics Charleston. D Flockton Great Britain SGL Germany Ford Motor Company Detroit. MI Siemens Arco Labs Camarillo. MI Sharp Osaka. TX Umicore NV Belgium Applications IBM Essex.Huels Korea Cessna Air Wichita. NY Beck´s Germany Merck KgaA Germany BioChemie Germany MVA Bielefeld. Applications and References Material Properties Reference list ABBOTT Irland Kemira AB Sweden ACERALIA Sagunto/Spanien Keramchemie Germany ADM Ireland Klinge Pharma Ireland Airbase Bitburg. D Dupont Niagara Falls.G. OH Sandoz Cork. CA Fujisawa Ireland SSAB Sweden Fujitsu Gresham. JCT. D Celanese Shelby. NJ Ciba Geigy Swizerland Prayon SA Belgium CNC Milsbeek Netherlands Ruwel-Werke Geldern. PA Leo Labs Ireland AstraZeneca AB Sweden LG Philips LCD Korea ASTURIANA DEL ZINC Spain LG Siltron Korea Aventis Germany Los Alamos Alburquerque. KS Powers Motor Morristown. VA Irish Sugar Ireland Westing house Sweden Approvals and Standards Janssen Pharma Ireland WPF Great Britain Janssen Pharmaceutica NV Belgium Yamanuchi Ireland 91 . NY Samsung Korea Connection Systems Duvel NV Belgium Samsung Korea E. NJ Tessenderlo Chemie Belgium Grillo Germany Tiene Suikerraffinaderij NV Belgium Henkel Ireland Tyrolean Airways (Werft) Linz. NM Avesta Polarit Sweden Lufthansa-dockyard Hamburg. A Olympus Ireland Calculation Guidelines Boeing Tulsa. Japan Ford Transmission Livonia. Irland EMMSA Spain Schreyer Iserlohn. D Philips Netherlands CAL Milk Producers Commerce. A Infraserv Germany VW Germany Intel Ireland Wako Chemical Richmond. A Installation Guidelines Arco Chemical Pittsburg.G. IL IBM LTD Ireland VASF Korea Korea Infineon Germany Voest Alpine Linz. OR Suedzucker Germany General Electric Evendale. MO Bayer AG Germany Merck Rahway. OK Pepsi Cola Ireland Bosch Germany Pfizer Ireland Boston Scientific Ireland Pharmacia AB Sweden Bundeswehrkaserne Muenster. D Lenzing Lowland. Miamisburg. TN Alphen&&Rohner AG Swizerland Lenzing AG Lenzing. A Hogovens Netherlands UCB NV Belgium Application and IBM Austin. CA Pitman-Moore Burgwedel.Louis. SC Takeda Bray Ireland General Instrument Ireland Tech Singapore References and References General Motors Trenton. VT University of IL Champaign.

Applications and References
Material Properties

Reference projects

Bio waste treatment plant - Decomposition plant

Bio waste treatment plant
Zell am See, Austria
Polypropylene ventilation pipes in dimensions 63-
1200mm SDR33 have been used for this project.
Installation Guidelines

Furthermore, reducers, bends, tees, etc. in injection
molded and segmented design were installed. The
butt-, socket- and extrusion welding have been used
as connection methods. Bio waste is the basis for
the extraction of compost (mixed manure) by
means of a controlled process in this plant. The
appearing temperatures are between 0-70°C with
a vacuum res. an overpressure of approx. 7000
Pascal. The resistance of Polypropylene for the
transported media, e.g. ammonia and different
bacteria is excellent. The calculated life time of
this plant is 25 years. Approximately 30.000 kg PP
have been installed in total at this project.
Calculation Guidelines

Double Containment pipe system - Corus bv

Double containment pipe system PVDF/PE
Connection Systems

Velsen Nord, The Netherlands
PVDF/PEHD double containment pipes in
dimension 90/160 SDR21/SDR17 have been used
at this project. Furthermore, bends 90°, bends 45°,
tees and dog bones with and without cut-out were
installed. As connection method the cascade butt
welding was chosen. With this method, the inside
pipe is welded by means of a standard butt welding
mirror and the outside pipe with a split heating
element. The complete system is buried and
designed as rigid system. In the pipeline,
hydrochloric acid up to a temperature of 90°C and a
References
and References

pressure of 3,5bar is transported. The resistance of
PVDF for the transport of this medium is excellent.
The calculated life time of this plant is 25 years.
Approximately 1.000m of double containment
Application and
Applications
Approvals and Standards

92

Approvals and Standards

Material Properties
Approvals 3rd party control

The high quality standard of our products is In addition to internal controls, regular tests on
documented by a series of approvals. products and of internal procedures, performed by
independently accredited test institutes, are of
The systems out of PE, PP and PVDF are approved prime importance. This external control is one
as per approval principles of DIBt and following element of product approvals in several application
registration numbers: ranges and countries, where the modalities of the

Installation Guidelines
external control are regulated in registration and
PE approval certificates.
Z-40.23.232
Z-40.23.231 Presently following institutes are commissioned
for the production:
PP
Z-40.23.234 TUV-Sued-Industrieservice
Z-40.23.233 MPA-Darmstadt
Z-40.23.305 SKZ-Wuerzburg
LKT-Wien
PVDF OKI-Wien
Z-40.23.201
Z-40.23.202

Calculation Guidelines
Z-40.23.307

The pipes and fittings out of PE, PP and PVDF are
approved according European pressure equipment
directive 97/23/EG for the production of pressure
equipment.

PPH and PVDF - fittings and valves
TUEV0206966701

Fittings PE100 and PE80
TUEV0206966701

Connection Systems
Fittings PPH and PPR
TUEV0206966701

Fittings PVDF
TUEV0206966701

Pipes PPH, PPR, PE80, PE100
TUEV0206966701

Further approvals:

PPR-pipes
Application and References

ON87272

PPH-pipes
ON83054

PE-pipes and fittings
OENORM EN 12201

PE-pipes and fittings
OENORM EN 13244
Approvalsand
Approvals Standards
andStandards

93

Approvals and Standards
Material Properties

Standards

AGRU pipes, fittings and semi finished products ISO 4065
are manufactured out of standardized moulding Thermoplastic pipes
materials and produced according relevant
international standards. ISO 10931 part 1 - part 5
Plastics piping systems for industrial applications
Hereafter a summary of the most important - Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)
Installation Guidelines

standards for PE, PP, PVDF and ECTFE.

OENORM B 3800
Behaviour of building materials and components
in fire

OENORM B 5014, part 1
Sensory and chemical requirements and testing
of materials in contact with drinking water

OENORM B 5174
Polypropylene pipes
Calculation Guidelines

OENORM EN 12201
Plastics piping systems for water supply -
Polyethylene (PE)

OENORM EN 13244
Plastics piping systems for buried and above-
ground pressure systems for water for general
purposes, drainage and sewerage - Polyethylene
(PE)

OENORM EN ISO 1872
Plastics - Polyethylene (PE) moulding and extrusion
materials
Connection Systems

OENORM EN ISO 1873
Plastics - Polypropylene (PP) moulding and
extrusion materials

OENORM EN ISO 15494
Plastics piping systems for industrial applications
- Polybutene (PB), polyethylene (PE) and poly-
propylene (PP) - Specifications for components and
the system - Metric series (ISO 15494:2003)
Application and References

DIN 4102
Fire behaviour of building materials and building
components

DIN 8074/8075
High-density polyethylene pipes

DIN 8077/8078
Polypropylene pipes

DIN 16962 part 1 - part 13
Pipe joints and their elements for pressure pipes
of polypropylene (PP)
Standards
andStandards

DIN 16963 part 1 - part 15
Pipe joints and their elements for pressure pipes
of high-density polyethylene (HDPE)
Approvalsand
Approvals

94

: 11 PPR grey 11 PPR grey 12 PPH grey 12 PPH grey 14 PPR black 14 PPR black 15 PP white 15 PPH white 16 PP natural 16 PP natural 17 PP-s grey 17 PP-s grey 19 PP-s-el black 19 PP-s-el black 20 PE 80 black 20 PE 80 black 25 PE 100 black 21 PE 80 yellow 28 PE 80-el black 25 PE 100 black 29 PE 80 natural 28 PE 80-el black 30 PVDF natural 29 PE 80 natural 35 PVDF UHP 30 PVDF natural 40 ECTFE natural 35 PVDF UHP 80 PP/PP 40 ECTFE natural 81 PP/PVDF 78 PPs white 82 PE 80/PE 80 83 PE 80/PP 84 PE 80/PVDF 85 PVDF/PVDF .0063. Notes Order Sample for AGRU fittings Order Sample for AGRU sheets AGRU .2010. xxxx .: Material-Code No. SDR 11 PVDF sheet. xx Order Sample: Order Sample: PE 80 bend 90°. xxx . xx xx .600. 2000 x 1000 mm. xxxx . dimension dimension pipe series pipe series xx .CODE AGRU .11 Code: 30. 2 mm thick Code: 20. OD 63 mm.001. xxx .02 Material-Code No.CODE material material part no. part no.