Attention

Zechariah 4:1–3
Deciphering the shiviti

SC RI P TUR AL QUOTATIONS

SC RI P TUR AL QUOTATIONS

SC RI P TUR AL QUOTATIONS
SH IVIT I [ YU D - H E-VAV- H E ] LE- N EGD I TAM I D
( I PL ACE [ GOD’S NAME ] BEFORE ME ALWAYS )
PSALM 16 : 8

YU D - H E-VAV- H E
( TE TR AG R AMMATON )

PR AYER • AMULE TIC TE X T • IMAGERY

TE X T OF PSALM 121 TE X T OF ANA BE- KOAC H
IN M ENO R AH FORM M IZ R AC H IN M ENO R AH FORM
( E AST )

PR AYER TE X T OF PSALM 67 PR AYER

SC RI P TUR AL QUOTATIONS
SC RI P TUR AL QUOTATIONS

IN M ENO R AH FORM
AMULE TIC TE X T AMULE TIC TE X T

IMAGERY IMAGERY

PR AYER • AMULE TIC TE X T • IMAGERY

SC RI P TUR AL QUOTATIONS
Whoever recites Psalm 67 in the form of the menorah, no evil shall befall him, and he shall
I have set yud-he-vav-he [four-letter Name of God] before me always.
succeed in his endeavors.
Psalm 16:8
Bet ‘oved. Prayer Book . . . according to the Sephardic Rite, Livorno 1948

Whoever gazes at the menorah each day with intention, the Holy Script considers it as if he has
lit it [the menorah] himself, and he is assured a portion in the world to come. Psalm 67
From Shiviti plaque, Alexandria, Egypt, 1914–1915, The Magnes Collection, 67.17
For the Leader; with string-music. A Psalm, a Song.
God be gracious unto us, and bless us; may He cause His face to shine toward us; selah.
That Thy way may be known upon earth, Thy salvation among all nations.
Let the peoples give thanks unto Thee, O God; let the peoples give thanks unto Thee, all of them.
According to [Rabbi Joseph ben Avraham] Gikatilla [(Spain, 1248–1305)], there are two O let the nations be glad and sing for joy; for Thou wilt judge the peoples with equity, lead the nations upon earth. Selah.
sets of parallels between the menorah and the material world: the first is between the seven Let the peoples give thanks unto Thee, O God; let the peoples give thanks unto Thee, all of them.
lamps and the planets, and the second is between the materials mentioned (gold, silver, and The earth hath yielded her increase; may God, our own God, bless us.
copper) and the three worlds—the supernal, the intermediate, and the lower world, in that May God bless us; and let all the ends of the earth fear Him.
order. These analogies express a perception of the menorah as a microcosm of the entire world
(the macrocosm). However, the other interpretation, which sees the menorah and the details of
its construction as a symbol of the divine powers known as sefirot, enjoyed far greater influence.
Moshe Idel, “Binah: The Eighth Sefirah, The Menorah in Kabbalah” in The Symbol of the Menorah: Story of a Symbol, 1999

The earliest letter-drawn menorahs known today appear in a group of 14th- and 15th-century
handwritten manuscripts of the Rome Mahzor [Prayer Book]. The earliest texts referring to And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work shall the
the combination of Psalm 67 and the menorah are found in works of mystical commentary candlestick be made, even its base, and its shaft; its cups, its knops, and its
on liturgical texts, assigning utmost importance to the number of words in the liturgical flowers, shall be of one piece with it; And there shall be six branches going out
text dealing with magical numerical relationships in the context of prayer. [. . .] The menorah of the sides thereof: three branches of the candlestick out of the one side thereof,
composed of the letters of Psalm 67 adds a further, mystical-magical dimension to the menorah and three branches of the candlestick out of the other side thereof.
as a symbol. It places the worshiper or the person gazing at the menorah at a juncture where the Exodus 25:31–32
past Temple [of Jerusalem], the future one, and the worshiper himself may meet.
Esther Juhasz, “The Amuletic Menorah: The Menorah and Psalm 67” in The Symbol of the Menorah: Story of a Symbol, 1999

And this was the work of the candlestick, beaten work of gold; unto the base
thereof, and unto the flowers thereof, it was beaten work; according unto the
pattern which the LORD had shown Moses, so he made the candlestick.
Numbers 8:4

Power
The boundaries between prayer directed toward the Tetragrammaton and magic underscored by And the angel that spoke with me returned, and waked me, as a man that is
the mention of other names of God and angels are more porous among material Jewish objects wakened out of his sleep. And he said unto me: “What seest thou?” And I said:
than among Jewish theologies. The appeal to heavenly powers is ultimately inseparable from “I have seen, and behold a candlestick all of gold, with a bowl upon the top of it,
the appeal of the shiviti to presence and prayerfulness: it is because the shiviti is a devotional and its seven lamps thereon; there are seven pipes, yea, seven, to the lamps,
object saturated with divine presence that it becomes an object capable of providing defense which are upon the top thereof; and two olive-trees by it, one upon the right side
from unseeable and harmful forces. It is this linkage between meditation, prayer, and magic of the bowl, and the other upon the left side thereof.”
that makes a shiviti a unique and resilient Jewish object.
Zechariah 4:1–3
Yosef Rosen, Doctoral Candidate in Jewish Studies and Magnes Graduate Fellow (2015–2016)
THE POWER OF ATTENTION:
Magic and Meditation in Hebrew shiviti Manuscript Art

This project explores the power of textual and visual motifs in a selection
of documents, manuscripts, prints, textiles, and ritual objects that are part
of The Magnes Collection of Jewish Art and Life and that were collected
in South and Central Asia, North Africa, and Europe. By leveraging a
multidisciplinary approach to the artifacts of Jewish culture, the exhibition
integrates the collective research efforts of a team of curators, graduate
and undergraduate students, and the contributions of colleagues from
Jewish Studies, Art Practice, the Berkeley Center for New Media, and
Digital Humanities at Berkeley.

E XHIB IT ION TE AM

Francesco Spagnolo, Curator
Zoe Lewin, Curatorial Assistant
Yosef Rosen, Magnes Graduate Fellow 2015–2016
Greg Niemeyer, Department of Art Practice, GIF Collider animation
Julie Franklin, Registrar
Ernest Jolly, Head Preparator
Gordon Chun Design: Casey Knudsen and Andrew Stacklin

Major support for The Magnes comes from the Helzel Family Foundation,
the Magnes Museum Foundation, the Koret Foundation, the Walter & Elise
Haas Fund, The Magnes Leadership Circle, and The Office of the Chancellor
at the University of California, Berkeley.
Research for The Power of Attention was made possible in part by funds
and resources provided by the Undergraduate Research Apprentice
Program (URAP). Digital documentation and research for this project
was supported in part by Digital Humanities at Berkeley. Support for the
installation of this exhibition was underwritten by an anonymous donor.
V I DEO A RT WO RK : The shape of the menorah is anchored in the night vision of the Prophet Zechariah. In
the text, Zechariah does not understand what he sees, and asks an inter­preting angel
Greg Niemeyer (Switzerland and United States, about the meaning of the vision (Zechariah 4:1–14). This question about meaning also
b. 1967) arises for us, when we are engaging in the com­plexities of our current lives. Night
GifCollider, Chapter 11: Night Vision Vision’s computer-generated image traces the shape of the menorah in a sea of GIF
animations from the Internet Archive, layering, moving, and blurring them to suggest
Created on January 11, 2017 stratas of digital memory. Above these layers, the program draws and redraws the
Custom processing software developed by Greg Niemeyer basic shape of the menorah, the pipes and the two olive trees from Zechariah’s vision.
and Olya Dubatova, GIFs from GifCities, The GeoCities
Animated GIF Search Engine (Internet Archive) The colors change from cycle to cycle and from day to day. The animations interweave
the noise of contemporary life with the pure spiritual form of the menorah, and invite
us to answer the same question that Zechariah was asked: “What seest thou?”
1
Shiviti amulet dedicated to Rachel and
Mosheh Avraham Sassoon
[Kolkata, West Bengal], India, 19th century
India ink, pigment and gold enamel paint on heavy laid paper
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Bernard Kimmel collection,
74.0.01

Manuscript dedicated to Rachel and Mosheh Sassoon
on the occasion of their wedding. Features the
Tetragrammaton prominently at top, and includes
eight unique seven-branched word-drawn candelabra,
each using the words of a different Psalm or mystical
prayer. The two candelabra at the top are drawn
from Psalms 93 and 100 and set horizontally, while
the remaining six below are from Psalms 23, 128, 67,
121, 54, and from the kabbalistic liturgical poem,
ana be-koach. The middle section of the manuscript
includes a double dedicatory panel at the center,
and depictions of the Temple of Jerusalem on each
side. The bottom section includes an array of mystical
symbols: a “map” with four cardinal directions at
its outer corners, and names of the four rivers that
flow out of Eden (after Genesis 2:10–14) at its inner
corners; the text of Psalm 123, with added angelic
names intersecting each word of the Psalm, written
in spiral shape; and the mention of yam oqyanos
(a likely reference to the Mediterranean) at its center.
Two hands, inlaid with magical and kabbalistic
writings including the fourteen-letter name of God,
are depicted on each side of the “map.”

1
2
Ya‘aqov Meir bar Aba Shalom Khashiyof
Shiviti plaque for the synagogue
Alexandria, Egypt, 1914–1915
India ink, graphite, and pigment on paper with applied paper
decal transfers
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Bernard Kimmel collection,
67.17

Manuscript featuring the Tetragrammaton in large
square script at top, and other texts throughout:
Psalm 67 at center in menorah form; a quotation from
Genesis (49:18) followed by Psalm 121 on the right;
the Aramaic translation (from Targum Onkelos) of
Genesis 49:18, followed by the kabbalistic liturgical
poem, ana be-koach also drawn, on the left side of
the sheet, in menorah form.

The texts on this shiviti illustrate a web of diasporic
networks between Asia and North Africa. The dedi­
catory inscription below the central seven-branched
depiction of the candelabrum, written in 1914–15 by
an Iranian Jewish scribe, Ya‘aqov Meir bar Aba Shalom
Khashiyof, records that the manuscript was donated
to the “Azuz synagogue in Alexandria [rebuilt in 1853]
by Shlomoh Pinhasof, known as Babadjan.” Pinchasof
(1843–1927), known as “Ha-Rav Babadjan Kaabuli,”
immigrated from Uzbekistan to Jerusalem in 1895,
and led one of the first Bukharan Jewish communities
there. Directly above the dedicatory inscription is
written: “Whoever gazes at the menorah each day
with intention, the Holy Script considers it as if he
has lit it [the menorah] himself, and he is assured a
portion in the world to come.”

2
3
Shiviti plaque with personal blessing
Jerusalem, Palestine, ca. 1900
Lithograph, goldtone ink on paper
LIB 73.29 D

Printed shiviti featuring the Hebrew letters of the
Tetragrammaton interpolated by those of one of
God's names, adonay, along with depictions of Moses
holding the Tablets of the Law, Aaron the High
Priest, the text of Psalm 67 in menorah form, images
of Temple vessels, and the forty-two-letter name of
God. The bottom left of the print includes a Hebrew
blessing for a specific individual (whose handwritten
name is illegible), followed by the text: “Whoever
gazes at the menorah each day with intention, the
Holy Script considers it as if he has lit it [the menorah]
himself, and he is assured a portion in the world to
come, and whoever recites Psalm 67 in the form of
the menorah, no evil shall befall him, and he shall
succeed in his endeavors.” The print is framed by
two biblical quotations: at the top, “If I forget thee,
O Jerusalem” (Psalm 137:5), and at the bottom,
“[Nevertheless for David’s sake] did the Lord give
him a lamp in Jerusalem” (1 King 15:4).

3
4
Shim‘on Tzarum [1908–1973]
Shiviti memorial plaque
Jerusalem, Palestine, 2 Adar [5]691 (February 19, 1931)
India ink and graphite on paper
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Bernard Kimmel collection,
67.18

Calligraphic manuscript featuring texts written in
menorah and pointed arch forms. Texts include the
interpolation of the Tetragrammaton and one of
God's names, adonay; quotations adapted from the
Mishnah and Talmud (”Know before whom you
stand, before the king of kings the holy blessed be
he,“ after Babylonian Talmud, Berachot 28b; and
”Know from whence you came and to where you are
going, and by whom you will be judged,“ Mishnah,
Avot 3:2); Psalm 67, Psalm 121, and the kabbalistic
liturgical poem, ana be-koach; the names of Adam,
Eve, and the biblical foremothers and fathers, along
with a variety of additional biblical quotations and
magical texts and formulae.

Created in 1931 by Shim‘on Tzarum, then eighteen
years old, who signed his name at the bottom of
the manuscript—“Writing by my hand, the youth,
Shim‘on Tzarum, on Thursday, the 2nd day of
[the month of] Adar [5]691, [in] Jerusalem” (the
date corresponds to February 19, 1931). Dedicated
in memory of the maker’s father. Members of
the Tzarum family were among the early Jewish
immigrants from Yemen to settle in 19th-century
Palestine.

4
5
Shiviti plaque for the synagogue,
featuring texts recited on Purim
Iranian Kurdistan, ca. 1920
Ink, graphite, and gouache on paper
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Ms. Ella Steffens, 2000.40.2

Painted manuscript featuring floral motifs and oil
jugs. It includes traditional shiviti texts—a quotation
from Psalm 16:8, the Tetragrammaton, and the text
of Psalm 67 in menorah form—along with quotations
from the Book of Esther (2:5, 6:1, and 8:15), Hebrew
blessings, and the liturgical poem (Heb. piyyut ) Tenu
shirah ve-zimrah ‘am segulah (“Offer a poem and
song, oh chosen people”) by Yefet Ben Y[ehud]ah,
traditionally sung by Iranian Kurdish Jews before
reading the Esther Scroll in the synagogue.

5
6
Shiviti plaque for the synagogue
[Mumbai, Maharashtra], India, ca. 1900
Ink on paper
Gift of Rabbi Bernard Kimmel, 2006.0.16

Calligraphic manuscript featuring shiviti texts, includ­
ing the graphic interpolation of God's name, adonay,
within the Tetragrammaton, Psalms 67 and 121,
and the kabbalistic liturgical poem, ana be-koach
written in menorah form. Additional texts include
an admonition (“prayer without proper intention is
like a body without a soul”); the quotation of Psalm
36:10 (“For with Thee is the fountain of life; in Thy
light do we see light”); and the kabbalistic prayer
berikh shemeh (Aramaic, “Blessed is His name”),
based on the Zohar and recited for the opening of
the Torah Ark during synagogue services. The outer
frame includes quotations from the Talmud (Berachot
28b), the Psalms (5:8), as well as the description of the
menorah from the book of Numbers (8:4).

6
8
Shiviti amulet for household protection
[Kochi, Kerala], India, ca. 1900
Ink, graphite and watercolor (faded) on paper
Museum Purchase, Bernard Kimmel collection, 2007.0.73

Calligraphic manuscript featuring shiviti and amu­letic
texts. Shiviti texts include a quotation adapted from
the Talmud (Berachot 28b), and the interpolation
of one of God’s names, adonay, within the
Tetragrammaton. Psalms 67 and 121, as well as the
kabbalistic liturgical poem, ana be-koach, are each
written in menorah form. At the bottom of the sheet,
a reference to the biblical figure of Joseph from the
Talmud (“I am from the seed of the righteous Joseph”
Berachot 55b), meant to ward off the evil eye, is
inscribed between the stems of the candelabra. The
names of five angels—Uriel, Raphael, Michael, Nuriel,
and Gavriel—are listed along with their collective
Hebrew acronym, argaman, at the bottom of the
document. The outer frame features the forty-two-
letter name of God written in nine semi-arches that
also contain quotations from Jacob’s blessing to
Joseph (Genesis 49:25).

7
9
Shiviti plaque for the synagogue
India, ca. 1940
Ink, graphite and tempera paint (black) on paper attached to
cardboard
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Kimmel Collection,
2007.0.74

Calligraphic manuscript featuring nine candelabra in
text form. Includes shiviti and amuletic texts, as well
as the Ten Commandments in abbreviated form and
the Priestly Blessing, each written within the outline
shapes of the Tablets of the Law. At the top of the
sheet, one of God’s names, adonay, is interpolated
within a large-lettered Tetragrammaton. Underneath
the Tetragrammaton is one of the four numerological
permutations of each of its letters (Hebrew charac­
ters with the numeric values of 72, 63, 45, and 52
respectively). Directly below the Tetragrammaton,
in smaller letters, is a quotation from Deuteronomy
4:44 (“And this is the law which Moses set before
the children of Israel”). Six small candelabra are
composed of texts from Psalms (from left to right,
Psalm 122, 120, 127, 129, 131, and 133). Three larger
candelabra are composed of texts from Psalms 67 and
23, and from the kabbalistic liturgical poem, ana be-
koach. Apotropaic abbreviations appear between and
underneath the lower candelabra. The outer frame
includes a quotation from Psalm 118:20 (“This is the
gate of the Lord; the righteous shall enter into it”),
as well as the description of the menorah from the
book of Numbers (8:4).

8
10
L. Glade
Shiviti amulet for household protection
Königsberg, Germany, Bils, 1844
Copperplate lithograph on paper
2006.0.15

Print featuring shiviti texts and six vignettes depicting
biblical scenes. At the top is the quotation from Psalm
16:8, ”I have set [the four-letter Name of God] always
before me.“ At center, the text of Psalm 67 printed in
menorah form is surmounted by the interpolations of
the Tetragrammaton and God‘s name, adonay, and
surrounded by amuletic formulae and abbreviations.
The bottom text is a protective text from Psalm 121:8:
“The Lord shall guard thy going out and thy coming
in.” The six vignettes illustrate six biblical scenes from
top right to left: Adam, Eve, and Snake, and the Tree
of Life in the Garden of Eden; Moses holding the
Tablets of the Law; Cain and Abel; the Binding of
Isaac; Aaron the High Priest; and Jacob’s Ladder.

9
11
“Alef” birth amulet with shiviti texts
Ioannina, Greece, 10 Shevat [5]648 (January 23, 1888)
Watercolor, graphite, and ink on paper
2007.0.49

“Alef amulets” are birth amulets created for newborn
boys in the Romaniote communities, which originate
from the Byzantine Empire (Greece and Asia Minor).
They include mystical and magical formulae, and
angelic invocations to ward off the demonic Lilith,
who, following Babylonian literature, is identified as
Adam’s first wife and is believed to seduce men and
kill male infants. “Alef amulets” often include shiviti
texts (notably, Psalm 16:8).

The texts on the outer borders of the manuscript
include protective biblical quotations along with
biographical information about the newborn. On
the right and lower borders: “ ‘The angel of the Lord
encamps around those that fear Him, and delivers
them’ (Psalms 34:8); this child born to his honorable
parents, Elliah Joseph Elliah on 10 Shevat 5648
(January 23, 1888), ‘so shall the sons of Aaron bless’
(Numbers 6:23), and may his name be called Moshe,
may his parents rejoice in him, and may his days and
years be numerous.” On the top border: the Priestly
Blessing (Numbers 6:24–27). On the left border: verses
from Song of Songs (3:7–8) associated with protection
during sleep.

The graphical structure of the manuscript includes an
architectural design that contains a series of visual and
textual motifs. Among these are: the Tablets of the
Law with abbreviated text of the Ten Commandments,
flanked by hands in Priestly Blessing position inlaid
with the text of the Priestly Blessing and the magical
twenty-two-letter name of God written into the
five fingers; the text of the prayer shema‘ yisrael
(Deuteronomy 6:4–9); a biblical prayer for the angelic
protection of children (Genesis 48:16); and the text of
Psalm 67 in menorah form, flanked by the names of
biblical matriarchs and patriarchs. A focus on angelic
protection runs throughout: at the top corners, the
three amuletic angels—sanui, sansanui, semangalof—
appear; and the Hebrew acronym argaman is written
on both sides, underneath the crescent moons,
standing for the five angels: Uriel, Raphael, Gavriel,
Michael, and Nuriel.

10
12
Eliezer Einhorn
Painted mizrach with shiviti text
Nowy-Sącz, Poland, 6 Av [5]684 (August 6, 1924)
Tempera, ink, and gold metallic paint on paper
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Zaleznik collection 78.4.33

A mizrach, named after the Hebrew word for “east,”
is a devotional plaque that designates the direction
to be faced during prayer. The Hebrew word also
contains the acronym mi-tzad zeh ruach chayim
(“from this side [comes] the spirit of life”). Placed on
the walls of homes and synagogues, the plaques are
often inscribed with scriptural passages, amuletic and
kabbalistic texts, and visual motifs.

This painted manuscript was created in Nowy-Sącz
(Yiddish, Tsanz), Western Galicia, the seat of a Hasidic
dynasty established in the mid-19th century. It features
the Tetragrammaton interpolated by the letters of
one of God's names, adonay, and the quotation
from Psalm 16:8, typically used in shiviti documents.
These texts are combined with the abbreviated Ten
Commandments surmounted by the depictions of a
crown, the menorah, rampants lions and griffins, the
twelve signs of the Zodiac (in the inner roundels),
along with magical and apotropaic formulae, texts
from the Bible (Deuteronomy 10:12–13), and the
illustrated text from the Mishnah (Avot 5:20): “Be
brazen like the leopard, light like the eagle, swift like
the deer, and mighty like the lion, to do the will of
your father who is in Heaven” (in the outer roundels).
The signature of the maker appears in a roundel at
the bottom left of the manuscript.

11
L E F T TO R I G H T, TO P TO B OT TO M

13.1
Miniature shiviti amulet featuring
biblical texts for the protection of
newborn children
India, 20th century
Ink, graphite and gouache on parchment
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Bernard Kimmel collection,
2009.0.72

Featuring texts from Genesis 48:16, evoking the
angelic protection of children, and from Numbers 8:4,
containing divine instructions on how to construct
the menorah.

13.2
Micrographic shiviti amulet featuring
magical texts for household protection
India, 20th century
Ink on parchment
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Bernard Kimmel collection,
2009.0.32

Featuring scriptural verses invoking divine protection
(Proverbs 3:2; Genesis 27:28–29; Numbers 17:13),
as well as two textual roundels inlaid with texts in
six-pointed star form, including names of biblical
characters and magical formulae.

13.3
Yom Tov ben Rafael Polokhron
be-sod sefer derash tov
Ottoman Palestine, 1802
Ink on parchment, bound in leather covered board embossed
with gold ink
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Siegfried S. Strauss
collection, 67.1.7.4

Shiviti for personal prayer, included at the beginning
of a manuscript collection of texts about liturgy
inspired by Lurianic Kabbalah.

12
13.4
Zechariah ben Shimon Ka”tz (Scribe)
Shiviti pendant amulet for personal
protection, inscribed for a child born
under the sign of pisces
Iran (or Iranian Kurdistan), Adar [5]676 (February–March, 1916)
Silver
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 76.230

Wearable amulet, including shiviti and amuletic
texts on the front and, on the backside, the mystical
twenty-two-letter name of God, fish and bird motifs,
as well as date and signature of the maker.

13.5
Moshe ben Barukh Yizthak
Miniature shiviti leaf created and
signed by a mohel (ritual circumciser)
for professional use
India, 19th century
Ink and graphite on laid paper
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Bernard Kimmel collection,
2009.0.46

Includes a short personal prayer: “May it be your will,
my Lord, and the Lord of my fathers, that blessing
and success be present in all the endeavors of
my hand.”

13.6
Miniature shiviti amulet for personal
protection created for a young man
named Yosef Chayim, son of rabbi
Reuven Yosef
20th century
Ink on parchment
Gift of Mrs. Bernard Kimmel, 2008.26.2

13
Torah Ark Curtain with shiviti text
[Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, 20th century]
Silk front and muslin backing, with gold and silver metallic embroidery floss
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Bernard Kimmel collection, 75.183.20

Featuring the words, shiviti [yud-he-vav-he] le-negdi tamid, a verse from Psalm 16
meaning “I have set yud-he-vav-he [the four-letter Name of God] before me always.”

Seven-branched candelabra for synagogue use
Damascus, Syria, 1924–1925
Brass inlaid with copper and silver, wooden base
Gift of Mrs. Bonnie I. Henning, 2000.5.1 and 2000.5.2

Seven-branched candelabra for synagogue use, designed after
the menorah depicted on the Arch of Titus (Rome)
n.d.
Brass, with gold washed brass base
67.105 and 67.106