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Author(s): W. S. Massey

Source: The American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 90, No. 10 (Dec., 1983), pp. 697-701

Published by: Mathematical Association of America

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2323537

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232.125.This content downloaded from 128.jstor.org/terms .42 on Tue. 03 May 2016 01:56:04 UTC All use subject to http://about.

and lXI = (X _ X)1/2 denotes the norm or length of the vector x. The interested reader is referred to pp. (b). v)(b. Hurwitz [4] in 1898. Then n = 3 or 7. 03 May 2016 01:56:04 UTC All use subject to http://about. the complex numbers. THEOREM I. * * *. At the end of the paper we discuss some other results in this area. Note that the uniquess assertion of Hurwitz's theorem shows that conditions (a).. Hurwitz in 1898. v)l21(b. w e Rn a vector v X w e Rn such that the following three properties hold: (a) v x w is a bilinear function of v and w. 417-427]. An easy computation using properties (b) and (c) shows that the norm of the product of two elements of Rn+ I is given by the following formula: (2) 1(a..jstor. 338]).42 on Tue. REMARK. Hurwitz proved that if we have a bilinear multiplication with a unit defined on Rq such that the norm of the product of two vectors is the product of the norms (condition (2) above). elementaren Konstruktion" (see [3. v)(b.. Yn). or the octonions of Cayley and Graves. and (1. and (c) of Theorem I characterize the cross products on R3 and R' uniquely up to isomorphism. v). 408-409 of a paper by E. it depends on a deep theorem proved by J. [5. This multiplication is obviously bilinear. the quaternions. where a is a real number and v E Rn. 4. or 8. Adams in 1958. w) = (ab-v * w. 698 W. Proof. The second theorem gives a stronger result. 0) is a 2-sided unit. p. Our notation is standard: Rn denotes the real vector space consisting of n-tuples of real numbers. x *y =ExiYi is the dot product of x = (xl. (b) The vector v X w is perpendicular to both v and w. We will consider RnI 1 as an orthogonal direct sum: n+= 1 @ Rn Thus an element of Rn+ consists of an ordered pair (a. In our next theorem we show that we can significantly weaken conditions (a) and (c) of Theorem I without altering the conclusion. In 1942 B.(V W)2.125. Assume n > 3 and a cross product is defined which assigns to any two vectors v. pp. see Jacobson. and the multiplication is isomorphic to that of the real numbers.232. W)12 Now this is exactly the situation considered by A. x") and y = (Y1. aw + bv + v X w). The required product is defined by the following formula: (1) (a. S. This content downloaded from 128.e. For a lucid exposition of a modem version of this theorem of Hurwitz. and is based on a famous theorem proved by A. The multiplication given by formula (1) has evidently been known for a long time. REMARK. The proof consists in showing that a cross product defined on Rn and having the three properties listed above implies the existence of a bilinear multiplication on Rn+ I which has very special properties. Calabi [2] for a list of additional properties of the cross product in R7 and an actual multiplication table for this cross product in terms of an orthonormal basis of R7. 2.. F. MASSEY [December The purpose of this note is to give an explanation of this result which will be accessible to the average reader of this MONTHLY. w)12 = I(a. We will actually give two theorems on this subject: the first uses purely algebraic techniques. then q must be 1. (c) Iv X w12 = IV121wI2 .org/terms . Eckmann referred to it as "einer bekannten. .. i. (v X w) * v = (v X w) w = 0. Note that condition (c) is the usual condition that the length of v x w shall be equal to the area of the parallelogram spanned by v and w.

Now let Sn denote the unit n-dimensional sphere: sn = {x E Rn+IIIxI = 1).[(a.u is obviously continuous and (1. i. then .0). Proof. To prove this. W)2]1/2.232. Then A(v. w). w) w =0.42 on Tue.0) is a 2-sided unit in the sense that . v). We assert that the function f thus defined is continuous. and define a function tu: R n+1 X R n+1 R n+1 by the formula (5) . Then n = 3 or 7. Using this area function. (b. depending on the two cases in the definition of f(v. wk) = (VO WO) k. (b) The vector v X w is perpendicular to both v and w. w). Exactly as before. v). we define a function f: Rn x Rn Rn by the formula f(v. w) = A(vx w) (vXw) ifvxw+O. (v X w) * v = (v X w) * w = 0.125. Finally.0)] = (a. aw + bv + f (v. (a. v)] = u[(a. w E Rn a vector v X w such that the following three properties hold: (a) v X w is a continuous function of the ordered pair (v.e. Note that the function f thus defined satisfies the following two conditions: (3) f(v. Assume n > 3 and that a cross product is defined which assigns to any two vectors v. This raises the following question: For what values of n does the n-sphere admit a continuous multiplication with a 2-sided unit? This was a famous problem for many years in algebraic This content downloaded from 128. w)12 = IA(v.. 03 May 2016 01:56:04 UTC All use subject to http://about. W)2. we see that if x andy belong to Sn. v). (1. w) v =f(v. then v X w * 0. we may consider R+ 1 as the direct sum R' @ Rn. w E R'. 1983] NOTES 699 THEOREM II. W)12 = V12IW12 -(V . w). it suffices to prove that if (Vk. it is obviously a continuous function of the ordered pair (v.(x. w) is equal to the area of the parallelogram spanned by v and w. (c) If v and w are linearly independent.[(1.. w)) (compare with (1)). y) E Sn also. O if vxw=0.org/terms . let A(v. (4) If(v.oo then lim f(Vk. we have the analog of formula (2): (6) IAt(x. y e Rn+ 1. Then . w) = [v12W12 _-(V . Thus It defines a continuous multiplication with a 2-sided unit on the n-sphere sn. In view of formula (6). w)] = (ab-v * w.jstor. k oo There are various cases to consider. y)12 = Ix121y12 for any x. Wk) is any infinite sequence of pairs of vectors such that lim (vk. Wk) = f(vO wO). but the details are completely elementary. For any vectors v.

then n = 3. The answer...l)k times the determinant of the submatrix obtained by deleting the kth column... see Zvengrowski... v3) W = (wI. we must multiply this determinant by I~)k.jstor.. The kth component of vI X v2 X . orthogonal transformation of determinant + 1) of 3-space and vectors v and w. It is normally only treated in advanced texts in theoretical physics or geometry. Assume that n > 2 and a cross product product is defined in Rn which is bilinear and satisfies equation (7) for any rotation of Rn. in Rn we can define a cross product vI X v2 X .1 is perpendicular to Vk for k = 1.-. X vn-1 of any ordered (n .. X Vk + 0.1. X vn-1... v2. Let v and w be vectors in R3. v2. MASSEY [December topology. Vk are linearly independent. It was finally resolved by Frank Adams in 1958 (see [1]).. To be correct. We will conclude this note by considering other possible ways to generalize the definition of the cross product to higher dimensional Eucidean spaces... S.. can we define a cross product of any k-tuple of vectors vI. skew symmetric function..w3) then the kth component of v x w is the determinant of the 2 x 2 submatrix of the matrix VI Vl 2 V3 W W1 W2 W3 obtained by striking out the kth column. v2. v2.42 on Tue.... According to this formula. 03 May 2016 01:56:04 UTC All use subject to http://about. (7) r(v x w) = (rv) x (rw).1) tuple of vectors by a similar process. [7].. Another property of the cross product of vectors in 3-space is the following: For any rotation r (i. Vk in Rn having similar properties? To make the question precise. similar to those in Theorem II: (a) v1 X v2 X . Form a matrix whose successive rows are the vectors v1. The norm of the product.. This raises the following question: given integers k and n such that 2 < k < n .1)-dimensional volume (or measure) of the parallelopiped spanned by the vectors v1.e.. (b) (vI Xv2X . The proof depends on a knowledge of the real representations of the special orthogonal group SO(n). Analogously. then vI X v2 X .k.. for explicit formulas for a cross product in this case. is that such a cross product does not exist. This preservation of the cross product by rotations. and 7. vn.. is the (n . n ... (c) If the vectors v1. is less well known than the usual properties which are treated in our first theorem.. 3. X vn_ I is (. with a single exception: n = 8 and k = 3.125... expressed by equation (7). X vn. restricted to the unit sphere.1). X Vk is a continuous function of the ordered k-tuple (vl.2.. and the Cayley-Graves octonions respectively.1. Thus we see that by referring to this theorem of Adams we can complete the proof of Theorem II. The answer is that such a continuous multiplication exists on S' only in the cases n = 1. For the proof of this.. This content downloaded from 128.W2. This generalized cross product enjoys many of the familiar properties of the cross product in 3-space: It is a multilinear.. quatemions. the reader is referred to a paper by George Whitehead [6].. One can now prove the following: PROPOSITION... recall the formula for the components of v x w in terms of the components of v and w. we do not have space in this note to go into details.. let us demand the following properties....2. xvk)*vi=0fori= 1..org/terms .. (Note that this equation is not true if v is an orthogonal transformation of determinant . v 1 X v2 X . Examples of such multiplications arise from the multiplication of complex numbers.232. strangely enough.. if v = (vI. Vk). vn_ 1 The vector v1 X V2 X . 700 W..

Cambridge University Press.. General Cohomology Theory and K-theory. 6. In this paper we produce an example of a function F(z) that satisfies (1) and (2) but is not one-to-one in the upper half plane. On the nonexistence of elements of Hopf invariant one. B. Stetige Losungen linearer Gleichungssysteme. If the function F(z) defined by (1) is univalent in the upper half plane. Ges.org/terms . THEOREM. diffusion. 7. Let (f3k}7n= I be given with -1 6. Iowa State University. 03 May 2016 01:56:04 UTC All use subject to http://about.125. (see [1]. Such applications of the Schwarz-Christoffel Transform are common in problems involving two-dimensional flows. 37 (1962/63) 239-240. 72 (1960) 20-104. Math. [5])..ak (k = 1. n) and A. E. < Xn are points on the real axis. Math. Soc. Adams.. d. .Xk Im zO whenever Im zo > 0. Hurwitz. Calabi.42 on Tue. However it is rarely stressed that these conditions are not sufficient for such a mapping and there appear to be few (if any) examples to this effect. Whitehead. Trans. 1974. Ann. 8. W. Werke. Ames. A 3-fold vector product in R8. Freeman. Helv.jstor. Hilton. San Francisco. Comment. 40 (1965/66) 149-152. A. F. We start with a third condition (involving the choice of the xk's) that is necessary for F(z) to be univalent. P. A "COUNTEREXAMPLE" FOR THE SCHWARZ-CHUSTOFFEL TRANSFORM ELGIN JOHNSTON Department of Mathematics. potentials. 1898. 1983] NOTES 701 References 1. Math. J..... Construction and properties of some 6-dimensional almost complex manifolds. Comment. N. 2. n) are of the form (1) F(z) = A | 1 ( ?-Xki) id + B where x1 < X2 < . Helv.232. of Math. One such statement is [4.. Cambridge. p... 2. 4. Jacobson. etc. we have: (2) f1? I 32 ?r Jr fn = 2 with-1 < lfk < 1 (The polygons with one or more f8k = ? 1 are those with some vertices at oo and/or some interior angles of 27T).. 565-571). lk < 1 and let x1 <x2 < * <xn be real. 309-316 (Math.. Basic Algebra I. Amer. f3k = 1 . Nachr. Since the sum of the exterior angles of a polygon is 2 . [3]. G6ttingen. 178]: The functions w = F(z) that map the upper half plane conformally onto polygons with interior angles sak (k = 1. A statement of the Schwarz-Christoffel Transform can be found in most text books on elementary complex variables. then fn k < 3 (3) k= I ZO . G. Uber die Komposition der Quadratischer Formen von beliebig vielen Variablen. Eckmann. Note on cross sections in Stiefel manifolds. Comment. Wiss. The theorem is an immediate consequence of the following lemma which gives a necessary This content downloaded from 128.. II. The following theorem gives some guidelines for the choice of the real numbers xk mentioned in the statement of the Schwarz-Christoffel Transform. Bd. P. It is well known that conditions (1) and (2) are necessary for F(z) to map the upper half plane conformally onto a polygon. Math. 15 (1942/43) 318-339. 1971 (London Mathematical Society Lecture Note Series 1). 3. Helv. 87 (1958) 407-438. B are complex constants. As such the Schwarz-Christoffel Transform can be used to translate problems set in polygonal domains to more manageable problems set in the upper half plane. Zvengrowski. IA 50011 The Schwarz-Christoffel Transform is a formula for a one-to-one analytic function that maps the upper half of the complex plane onto the inside of a polygon. 2. 5.

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