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1) Obesity
What is Obesity?
Obesity is a condition in which a person has excessive body fat in relation to their
weight. There are different ways in which body fat in relation to total weight can
be detected – the most common one being BMI (body mass index).
Class BMI Range
Healthy Weight 18.5 – 24.9
Overweight 25 – 29.9
Obese 30 – 39.9
Severely Obese 40+

What are the differences in prevalence of obesity between genders?
The prevalence of obesity in the UK in men and woman is relatively similar, but
slightly higher in men (approximately 26.0% in men and 23.8% in women). In
general, men are more likely to be overweight than women with 67.1% of men
and 58.2% of women being overweight or obese. Obesity is projected to affect
60% of men and 50% of women by 2050.
What are the risks associated with obesity, are they the same for men
and women?
Being obese increases the risk of developing a range of conditions including
hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes and colonic cancer
along with several other conditions. Men who are obese are five times more
likely to develop type 2 diabetes and nearly three times more likely to develop
high blood pressure. They are also two and a half times more likely to develop
erectile dysfunction compared to men of healthy weight due to the decreased
level of testosterone associated with obesity.
In obese women, developing type 2 diabetes is thirteen times more likely and
developing hypertension is over four times more likely. Obesity increases the risk
of developing polycystic ovary syndrome which leads to menstrual irregularities,
excessive hair growth and infertility. PCOS also affects the action of insulin which
increases the risk of type 2 diabetes.

2) Coronary Heart Disease

General Facts & Incidence
 Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) – Narrowing of arteries that deliver blood and
oxygen to the heart
 Worldwide, coronary heart disease causes more than 7.4 million deaths
annually and it accounts for the largest percentage of cardiovascular
 Incidence: The incidence of a disease represents the number of new cases
that develop within a population over a specified period of time.
 In all years between 2010/11 and 2013/14

This is mainly due to dramatic drops in oestrogen production during menopause. Smoking  Every year. •Overall. Estrogen is effective in inhibiting bone resorption and increasing Bone Mineral Density by binding to estrogen receptors on the bone. from 2% at 50 years to more than 25% at 80 years in women. 1 out of 10 women and 1 out of 6 men in the UK die from coronary heart disease  Men are generally more affected by coronary heart disease than women. with a female-to-male ratio of 3:2 •The overall mortality is about 20% in the first 12 months after hip fracture due to either complications related to the broken bone itself or the surgery to repair it •By 2050. . Diabetes 5. and bone strength. bone size. Risk of getting coronary heart diseases increases at the age of 55 for women and 45 for men. Women tend to get coronary heart diseases 5-10 years later than men. a family history of Osteoporosis. and certain medicines such as steroids. 3) OSTEOPOROSIS Osteoporosis is a progressive systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitecture deterioration of bone tissue. Increasing age 2. oThere has been a small continuous decline in the number of inpatient episodes due to coronary heart disease (CHD) in both men and women o the incidence of CHD in men was close to approximately double in women Susceptibility  Risk Factors: 1. Incidence •Osteoporosis is estimated to affect 200 million women worldwide - approximately one-tenth of women aged 60. •Other risk factors include a small thin frame. •One out of three women and one in five men more than 50 years of age are at danger of an osteoporosis-related fracture in their lifetime. leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk. the worldwide incidence of hip fracture in men is projected to increase by 240% in women and 310% in men. two- fifths of women aged 80 and two-thirds of women aged 90 •In the UK. a lack of exercise. 61% of osteoporotic fractures occur in women. one-fifth of women aged 70. Susceptibility •Osteoporosis can affect people of any gender. smoking. Men than women before the menopause 3. bone geometry. •Differences in fracture risk between men and women are mainly due to differences in areal Bone Mineral Density. Family History of CHD 4. compared to rates in 1990 •The prevalence of osteoporosis increases markedly with age. it is estimated that around 3 million people suffer from Osteoporosis. excess alcohol intake. but women make up the majority of cases. a deficiency in calcium intake.

The declining levels of these 2 hormones results in either. -This correlates to 1 in 11 people having asthma in the U. Blood vessels also form and disappear as the woman's hormones fluctuate. during the last week leading up to your period.4 million people have asthma in the U. -NHS spends approximately 1 billion pound on treating and caring for individuals with asthma. Studies have demonstrated a link between asthma and the menstrual cycle. with an estimated 334 million people worldwide. 4) ASTHMA What is asthma? Common chronic condition that affects the airways resulting in the narrowing and inflammation of the bronchial tubes. Incidence in UK? -5. chronic bronchitis and emphysema may also make you more susceptible to Osteoporosis. -3 people die from asthma daily in the U. Incidence across men and women? According to the American college on asthma and allergy. which can increase or decrease the ability of the lungs to take in oxygen References . hyperthyroidism. the hormones progesterone and oestrogen are in decline. however it’s yet to be validated.•Medical conditions that include: diabetes.K. with the lowest point being on day 28. As they grow in to puberty.K.K. the ratio changes with more girls having asthma than boys. starting from about day 22. For an average woman with a menstrual cycle of 28 days. constriction of the airways of affects the cells of the immune system in some way which predisposed the individual to an asthma attack. Women aged between 20-50 are: -30% more likely to have asthma than men -40% more likely to suffer from an asthma attack and die -3x more likely to be hospitalised due to asthma despite comparable spirometer results. more boys have asthma than girls. anorexia. in children under the age of 12.

et al.Kanis JA (2007) WHO Technical J Bone Miner Res 2015.noo. Atkinson EJ. UK: 66.pdf .nhs. (1998) Bone density and fracture risk in men. Melton LJ.aspx Seeman E (1995) The dilemma of osteoporosis in epidemic-in-the-UK.nhs. University of Sheffield.nhs. O'Connor MK. Am J Med 98:76S http://www. nds http://www.