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United States
Naval Aviation
1910–2010

United States
Naval Aviation
1910–2010

Volume I
Chronology
Mark L. Evans
Roy A. Grossnick

Naval History and Heritage Command
Department of the Navy
Washington, D.C.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Evans, Mark L.
United States naval aviation 1910-2010 / Mark L. Evans, Roy A. Grossnick. -- 5th ed.
pages cm
Includes index.
ISBN 978-0-945274-75-9 (v. 1 : alk. paper) 1. United States.
Navy--Aviation. 2. United States. Navy--Aviation--Chronology. I. Grossnick, Roy A. II. Naval History &
Heritage Command (U.S.) III. Title.
VG93.E95 2015
359.9’409730904--dc23
2015002942

For sale by the U.S. Government Publishing Office
Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328
ISBN 978-0-945274-75-9

Contents
Information on Photographs vi
Preface vii
Acknowledgments ix
Glossary xi
Chapter 1 A Few Pioneers 1898–1916 1
Chapter 2 Test of Strength 1917–1919 27
Chapter 3 The Roaring Twenties 1920–1929 65
Chapter 4 The Great Depression 1930–1939 101
Chapter 5 World War II 1940–1945 135
Chapter 6 The Cold War 1946–1949 225
Chapter 7 The Korean War 1950–1953 251
Chapter 8 The New Navy 1954–1959 279
Chapter 9 On the Brink 1960–1969 317
Chapter 10 Defeat and Decline 1970–1979 379
Chapter 11 The 600-Ship Navy 1980–1989 429
Chapter 12 From the Sea 1990–1999 477
Chapter 13 The Dawn of the Twenty-first Century 2000–2010 531
Index
Aircraft by Designation 607
Aircraft by Name 623
Missiles and Rockets 639
Ships 643
U.S. Military Units 661
Individuals 681
General 701

Information on Photographs
The illustrations in this volume are official U.S. Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, or National Aeronautics and Space Administration
(NASA) photographs. Negatives for most of these photographs exist at the Still Pictures Branch of the National Archives and Records
Administration (NARA).

Photograph numbers for illustrations in the book appear at the end of the captions. The History and Archives Division of the Naval History
and Heritage Command holds photographs with an NH or NAH preceding the number and images without photograph numbers. Coast
Guard photographs—with a USCG preceding the number—exist at either the Coast Guard Historian’s Office or NARA. The NASA images
are located at NASA Headquarters, Public Affairs Office (News and Imaging Branch).

Illustrations containing numbers but not letter prefixes are U.S. Navy photographs. When ordering these images from NARA, please
add USN in front of these numbers. Prefixes of K or KN indicate that the originals are in color; these, too, are USN photographs. All
unnumbered images are official DOD photographs.

vi  |  

Preface
U nited States naval aviation celebrated more than 100 years of service in 2010. Its story
as told in this volume and its companion had its origins in the 1950s. The book was
first published as United States Naval Aviation 1910–1960 and celebrated the first 50 years
of naval aviation. Two subsequent editions added the decades of the 60s and 70s. A fourth
edition brought the chronology up to 1995. This is the fifth update and, because naval aviation
continually transforms and because of the extensive role it has played in its country’s history, the
book is published in two volumes.
This volume documents the people and events that proved crucial to naval aviation’s
history. The work expands upon the previous chronological format by providing additional
information of campaigns and technical aspects, and it provides the researcher and the Navy
a more detailed account of specific subjects pertinent to better understanding its history. This
edition, while attempting to maintain the professional standards established by the previous
editions, also corrects errors and omissions in the preceding volumes. It does not seek to be the
comprehensive source on naval aviation but offers a basic guide to educate readers on the topic.
Compiling statistical information requires the historian to search a very wide range of
sources, but over the past 15 years many of those reliable sources have ceased to exist. This loss
was the result of the Navy discontinuing publication of specialized documents, as well as the
trend toward computerized data that is not being maintained or transferred to the Naval History
and Heritage Command archives. I made an exhaustive effort to research all possible sources
and, when the records provided conflicting data, selected the most accurate information after
reviewing all of the possible sources.
Special recognition is made to the naval aviation historians preceding me who researched
and published the previous editions of this book: Roy A. Grossnick, Adrian O. Van Wyen, Lee
M. Pearson, Dr. William J. Armstrong, and Clarke Van Vleet. As primary compiler for these
chapters, I am fully responsible for any errors of fact or mistakes that may have occurred in this
volume.

Mark L. Evans
Naval Aviation Historian

  |   vii

Acknowledgments
This centennial update of United States Naval Aviation would not be possible without the
previous editions covering the periods 1910–1960, 1910–1970, 1910–1980, and 1910–1995. The
dedication and professionalism of the authors of these original editions—Adrian O. Van Wyen,
Lee M. Pearson, Clarke Van Vleet, Dr. William J. Armstrong, Roy A. Grossnick, and Major John
M. Elliott, USMC (Ret.)—laid the foundation for this new version.
In addition, the extensive revisions and updates to the previous versions’ appendices
would not have been possible without the generous support of the Naval Historical Foundation.
Updating of this primary reference work on naval aviation was facilitated by a generous donation
from former CNO Admiral James L. Holloway III, USN (Ret.). His donation to the Naval
Historical Foundation enabled an aviation historian to research, write, and update all the
chapters of volume II. The Naval Historical Foundation then gifted the completed text to the
Naval History and Heritage Command.
A project of this magnitude requires the work of many people. The authors owe a debt of
gratitude to historians Dr. Michael J. Crawford, Dr. Timothy L. Francis, Dr. Jeffrey G. Barlow,
Dr. Robert J. Schneller Jr., Dr. John D. Sherwood, and Robert J. Cressman of the Naval History
and Heritage Command who reviewed chapter manuscripts. Their subject matter expertise,
insight, and exacting verification of salient points ensured the historical accuracy and the
development of cogent themes.
Additional people outside the command generously reviewed chapter manuscripts. Vice
Adm. Robert F. Dunn, USN (Ret.) of the Naval Historical Foundation; Maj. Elliott; Dr. Sarandis
Papadopoulos, Secretariat Historian, Department of the Navy; Capt. Edmund T. Wooldridge,
USN (Ret.); and Capt. Rosario M. Rausa, USNR (Ret.) examined the voluminous material and
provided critical objectivity and analysis.
Other members of the command played a key role by researching information or by
providing their extensive background knowledge in specific areas. The then Head, Archives
Branch Curtis A. Utz and archivists Dale J. Gordon and John L. Hodges provided an incalculable
wealth of specific knowledge of naval aviation and archival sources.
Historian Dr. Regina T. Akers of the command contributed her unparalleled knowledge of
diversity issues to ensure a balanced representation of the people who comprise the rich heritage
of naval aviation. Then-Art Director Morgan I. Wilbur cheerfully disregarded the repeated
interruptions to help with the accurate and comprehensive selection of images. Librarians Glenn E.
Helm, A. Davis Elliott, J. Allen Knechtmann, and Linda J. Edwards provided crucial, enthusiastic,
and knowledgeable reference support. Former photographic curator Robert Hanshew offered
technical expertise that enabled the timely processing of the numerous photographic images.
The extent of the material involved required the assistance of additional people outside the
command. Historian and consultant Harold Andrews was an indispensable technical expert,
and his lifetime of experience and attentive character facilitated the compilation of multiple
entries. Marine Corps historian Annette D. Amerman and Coast Guard historian Scott Price
consistently offered immediate and vital assistance. William C. Booth of Aircraft Inventory
N8812A provided indispensable support. Machinist’s Mate 1st Class Ray H. Godfrey (Ret.)
and Senior Master Sergeant William L. Slupe, USAF (Ret.), of the USS Enterprise (CVN 65)
Association offered historical information.
A special acknowledgment goes to editors Wendy Sauvageot, James M. Caiella, and Caitlin
Conway of the Naval History and Heritage Command. Their keen professionalism, diligent
attention to detail, and unique combination of naval aviation knowledge and matchless editorial
skills proved invaluable, and every page bears their legacy.
Because an index is the key to making this book a successful reference document, the final
thanks go to those who helped with it: Cmdr. Austin W. O’Toole, USNR; Cmdr. Ronald B.
Mitchell, USNR (Fleet Historian, Undersea Warfare Operations Det. D); and Byron W. Hurst,
Communication and Outreach Division, NHHC.

  |   ix

Glossary
1st MAW First Marine Aircraft Wing AMO aviation medical officer
6th FLT Sixth Fleet AMRAAM advanced medium range air-to-air
7th FLT Seventh Fleet missile
A&R Assembly & Repair ANA Association of Naval Aviation
A.P. armor piercing ANG Air National Guard
AAF United States Army Air Forces AOCP aviation officer continuation pay
AAM air-to-air missile AOCS aviation officer candidate school
AARGM Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided ARAPHAHO merchant ship portable modular
Missile aviation facility
AAS United States Army Air Service ARG amphibious ready group
ABATU advanced base training unit ARM antiradiation missile
ABDA American-British-Dutch-Australian Arowa Applied Research: Operational
Command Weather Analysis
ACC Air Combat Command ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency
ACLS automatic carrier landing system ARPS automatic radar processing system
ACMR Air Combat Maneuvering Range ASM air-to-surface missile
ACNO Assistant Chief of Naval Operations ASMD antiship missile defense
ACP aviation continuation pay ASO aviation supply office
ADVCAP advanced capability ASR antisubmarine rocket
AED Aeronautical Engineering Duty ASROC Anti-Submarine Rocket
AEDO Aeronautical Engineering Duty ASTOVL advanced short takeoff/vertical
Officer landing
Aéronautique Militaire Army Air Service (France) ASV surface vessel detection
AESR active electronically scanned radar ASW antisubmarine warfare
AEW airborne early warning ATARS Advanced Tactical Airborne
Reconnaissance System
AEWWINGPAC Airborne Early Warning Wing, Pacific
ATC Air Transport Command
AFB Air Force base
ATFLIR advanced targeting forward looking
AIM aircraft intermediate maintenance infrared
AIM air-launched aerial intercept guided ATG air task group
missile
ATS Air Transport Service
AIMD Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance
Division ATU advanced training unit
AirDet/AIR DET air detachment AVG American Volunteer Group
AirLant/AIRLANT Air Force, Atlantic Fleet or AWACS airborne warning and control
Commander, Air Force, U.S. Atlantic systems
Fleet BAMS Broad Area Maritime Surveillance
AirPac/AIRPAC Air Force, Pacific Fleet or BAMS-D Broad Area Maritime Surveillance
Commander, Air Force, U.S. Pacific Demonstrator
Fleet BRAC Defense Base Closure and
ALARS air-launched acoustical Realignment
reconnaissance BTG basic training group
ALM Antilliaanse Luchtvaart Maatschappij BuAer Bureau of Aeronautics
(airline)
BuC&R Bureau of Construction and Repair
ALNAV All Navy
BuMed Bureau of Medicine
ALVRJ advanced low volume ramjet
BuNav Bureau of Navigation
AMD aeronautical maintenance duty

  |   xi

BuOrd Bureau of Ordnance COMLATWING Commander, Light Attack Wing
BuPers Bureau of Naval Personnel COMMATWING Commander, Medium Attack Wing
BuShips Bureau of Ships COMNAVAIRESFOR Commander, Naval Air Reserve
BuWeps Bureau of Naval Weapons Force
CAA Civil Aeronautics Administration COMNAVAIRLANT Commander, Naval Air Force,
U.S. Atlantic Fleet
CAA Civil Aeronautics Authority
COMNAVAIRPAC Commander, Naval Air Force,
CAEWWS Carrier Airborne Early Warning U.S. Pacific Fleet
Weapons School
COMNAVELEX Naval Electronic Systems Command
CAINS carrier aircraft inertial navigation
system COMNAVFOR Somalia Commander, Naval Forces Somalia
CalTech California Institute of Technology COMNAVSUPFOR Commander, Naval Support Force
CAP Civil Air Patrol COMOPDEVFOR Commander, Operational
Development Force, U.S. Fleet
CAP combat air patrol
COMPATWING Commander, Patrol Wing
CARDIV carrier division
COMSTRKFIGHTWING Commander, Strike Fighter Wing
CASU carrier aircraft service unit
CONUS Continental United States
CASU(F) combat aircraft service unit (forward)
CTF Combined Task Force
CC Construction Corps
DARPA Defense Advanced Research
CCR circulation control rotor Projects Agency
CEC cooperative engagement capability DASH Drone Anti-Submarine Helicopter
CG commanding general DCNO Deputy Chief of Naval Operations
CGAS Coast Guard Air Station DEW Distant Early Warning line
CHNAVRSCH Chief of Naval Research DICASS directional command active
CIA Central Intelligence Agency sonobuoy system
CIC combat information center DIFAR directional frequency analysis and
recording
CincPac/CINCPAC Commander in Chief, Pacific
DMZ demilitarized zone
CincPacFlt/CINCPACFLT Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific
Fleet DOD Department of Defense
CINCUS Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet DODGE Department of Defense Gravity
Experiment satellite
CIWS Close-In Weapons System (Phalanx)
EALS Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch
CJTF Combined Joint Task Force System
CNATRA Chief of Naval Air Training ECM electronic countermeasures
CNATT Center for Naval Aviation Technical ECMO electronic countermeasures
Training operator/officer
CNO Chief of Naval Operations ECP Enlisted Commissioning Program
CNR Chief of Naval Research EDO engineering duty officer
COD carrier on-board delivery EFM enhanced fighter maneuverability
COIN counter insurgency ELEX Naval Electronic Systems Command
ComAirLant Commander, Naval Air Force, EOD explosive ordnance disposal
U.S. Atlantic Fleet
ESG expeditionary strike group
ComAirPac Commander, Naval Air Force,
U.S. Pacific Fleet EW electronic warfare
ComFAIR/COMFAIR Commander, Fleet Air EXCAP expanded (extended) capability
COMHATWING Commander, Heavy Attack Wing FAA Federal Aviation Administration
COMHSLWINGPAC Commander, Helicopter FAA Fleet Air Arm
Antisubmarine Light Wing, FAB Fleet Air Base
U.S. Pacific Fleet
FAC Federal Aviation Commission
COMINCH Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet
FAC forward air controller
COMINCUS Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet
FAETU fleet airborne electronics training unit

xii  |  

FARP forward arming and refueling point JCM joint common missile
FASOTRAGRULANT Fleet Airborne Specialized JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff
Operational Training Group Atlantic JDAM Joint Direct Attack Munition
FAW fleet air wing JPALS Joint Precision Approach and
FAWTUPAC Fleet All Weather Training Unit, Landing System
Pacific JPATS Joint Primary Aircraft Training
FBM fleet ballistic missile System
FEMA Federal Emergency Management JRB joint reserve base
Agency JRFB joint reserve force base
FEWSG Fleet Electronic Warfare Support JSF joint strike fighter
Group
JSOW joint standoff weapon
FKR frontoviye krilatiye raketi (frontal
rocket) JSTARS Joint Surveillance Target Attack
Radar System
FLIR forward looking infrared radar
KIA killed in action
FMS foreign military sales
LAMPS Light Airborne Multipurpose System
FOB forward operating base
Lant/LANT Atlantic
FORSCOM Forces Command
LANTIRN low altitude navigation/targeting
FROG free rocket over ground infrared for night
FTEG Flight Test and Engineering Group Laser-JDAM Laser-Joint Direct Attack Munition
FY fiscal year LCAC landing craft, air cushion
G.P. general purpose LCS littoral combat ship
GBU guided bomb unit LDO limited duty officer
GCA ground-controlled approach LGB laser-guided bomb
Glomb guided glider bomb LIC low intensity conflict
GMGRU guided missile group LJDAM Laser Joint Direct Attack Munition
GMU guided missile unit Lofti Low Frequency Transionospheric
Halon fire suppression agent satellite
HARM High Speed Anti-Radiation Missile LORAN Long Range Navigation
HATWING heavy attack wing LRAACA Long-Range Air Antisubmarine
HIPEG high-performance external gun Warfare Capable Aircraft
HTA heavier-than-air LSO landing signal officer
HUD heads-up display LTA lighter-than-air
Huff-Duff high frequency direction-finder LTV Ling-Temco-Vought Corp.
HVAR High-Velocity Aircraft Rocket MAC Military Airlift Command
IBM International Business Machine MACV Military Assistance Command,
Company Vietnam
ICAP improved capability MAD magnetic airborne/anomaly detection
IFF identification friend or foe MAG Marine Aircraft Group
IGY International Geophysical Year MAGTF Marine Air-Ground Task Force
IO Indian Ocean MATS Military Air Transport Service
IOC initial operational capability MAU master augmentation unit
IR imaging infrared MAW Marine Aircraft Wing
IR infrared MAWSPAC Medium Attack Weapons School,
Pacific
ITALD Improved Tactical Air Launched
Decoy MC Medical Corps
JAGM Joint Air-to-Ground Missile MCAAS Marine Corps Auxiliary Air Station
JASSM Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile MCAF Marine Corps Air Facility
JATO jet-assisted takeoff MCAS Marine Corps Air Station

  |   xiii

MCB Marine Corps Base NAO naval aviation observer
MCM mine countermeasures NAOTS Naval Aviation Ordnance Test Station
MEB Marine Expeditionary Brigade NAP naval aviation pilot/naval air pilot
Med Mediterranean Sea NAR Naval Air Reserve
MEF Marine Expeditionary Force NARF Naval Air Rework Facility
MEU Marine Expeditionary Unit NARTS Naval Air Rocket Test Station
MIA missing in action NARTU Naval Air Reserve Training Unit
MiG Russian aircraft designed by Artem I. NARU Naval Air Reserve Unit
Mikoyan and Mikhail I. Gurevich NAS Naval Aeronautic Station
MIO maritime interception operations NAS Naval Air Station
MIRALC/SLBD mid-infrared advanced chemical NASA National Air and Space
laser/Sea Lite Beam Director Administration
MIT Massachusetts Institute of NASM National Air and Space Museum
Technology
NATB Naval Air Training Base
MLS microwave landing system
NATC Naval Air Training Center
MMA multimission maritime aircraft
NATC Naval Air Training Command
MOL Manned Orbiting Laboratory
NATEC Naval Airship Training and
MOUT military operations in urban terrain Experimental Command
MRASM medium range air-to-surface missile NATMSACT Naval Air Training Maintenance
MRBM medium range ballistic missile Support Activity
MRC major regional conflict NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
MSC Military Sealift Command NATOPS Naval Air Training and Operating
MSO maritime security operations Procedures Standardization
NAA National Aeronautic Association NATS Naval Air Transport Service
NAAF Naval Air Auxiliary Facility NATT Naval Air Technical Training
NAAS Naval Air Auxiliary Station NATTC Naval Air Technical Training Center
NAATSC Naval Air Advanced Training NAVAIR Naval Air Systems Command
Subordinate Command NAVAIRSYSCOM Naval Air Systems Command
NAB Naval Air Base NAVCAD naval aviation cadet
NACA National Advisory Committee for NAVICP Naval Inventory Control Point
Aeronautics NAVMAT Naval Material Command
NAD Naval Aviation Depot NAVPRO Naval Plant Representative Office
NADC Naval Air Development Center NAVRES Naval Reserve
NADEP Naval Aviation Depot NAVSEA Naval Sea Systems Command
NADS Naval Air Development Station Navstar navigation satellite
NAEC Naval Air Engineering Center NAWC Naval Air Warfare Center
NAESU Naval Aviation Electronic Service NAWCAD Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft
Unit Division
NAF Naval Air Facility NAWCWD Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons
NAF Naval Aircraft Factory Division
NAFC Naval Air Ferry Command NAWS Naval Air Weapons Station
NAILS Naval Aviation Integrated Logistic NB Naval Base
Support NERV Nuclear Emulsion Recovery Vehicle
NALCOLANTUNIT Naval Air Logistics Control Office, NFO naval flight officer
Atlantic Unit
NMC Naval Material Command
NAMC Naval Air Material Center
NME National Military Establishment
NAMO Naval Aviation Maintenance Office
NMF Naval Missile Facility
NAMTC Naval Air Missile Test Center

xiv  |  

NNV national naval volunteers RAAF Royal Australian Air Force
NOB Naval Operating Base radar radio detection and ranging
NORAD North American Air Defense RAF Royal Air Force
Command RAG replacement air group
NorLant Northern Atlantic Ocean RAM Rolling Airframe Missile
NorPac Northern Pacific Ocean RAST recovery assist, securing, and
NOTS Naval Aviation Ordnance Test Station traversing system
NOTS Naval Ordnance Test Station RCA Radio Corporation of America
NR Naval Reserve/Navy Reserve RDT&E research, development, test, and
NRAB Naval Reserve Aviation Base evaluation
NRFC Naval Reserve Flying Corps retrorocket ASR rearward-firing antisubmarine rocket
NRL Naval Research Laboratory REWSON reconnaissance, electronic warfare,
and special operations
NROTC Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps
RFC Royal Flying Corps
NS Naval Station
RimPac Rim of the Pacific Exercise (Joint)
NSA Naval Support Activity
RIO radar intercept officer
NSAWC Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center
RN Royal Navy
NSC National Security Council
RNAS Royal Naval Air Station
NSRB National Security Resources Board
ROK Republic of Korea
NTPS Naval Test Pilot School
RPG rocket-propelled grenade
NVG night vision goggles
RPV remotely piloted vehicle
NVN North Vietnam
RVN Republic of Vietnam
NWC Naval Weapons Center
SAM surface-to-air missile
OASU Oceanographic Air Survey
SAR search-and-rescue
OCS Officer Candidate School
SCS sea control ship concept
ODM operational development model
SDB small diameter bomb
ONR Office of Naval Research
SEAL Sea-Air-Land team
OPNAV Naval Operations
SEAPAC sea activated parachute automatic
Ops operations crew release
OSD Office of the Secretary of Defense SecDef/SECDEF Secretary of Defense
OSRD Office of Scientific Research and SecNav/SECNAV Secretary of the Navy
Development
SEVENTHFLT Seventh Fleet
P/A pilotless aircraft
SIXTHFLT Sixth Fleet
Pac/PAC Pacific
SLAM Standoff Land Attack Missile
PASU Patrol Aircraft Service Unit
SLAM-ER Standoff Land Attack Missile–
Patriot Phased Array Tracking Intercept of Expanded Response
Target missile
SLCM Sea/Surface Launched Cruise
PatSU/Patsu Patrol Aircraft Service Unit Missile
PatWing/PATWING Patrol Wing SLEP Service Life Extension Program
PIMA planned incremental maintenance SoLant/SOLANT Southern Atlantic Ocean
availability
SolRad Solar Radiation (satellite)
PLAF People’s Liberation Armed Forces
(Viet Cong) SoPac/SOPAC Southern Pacific Ocean
PLAT Pilot Landing Aid Television system SPASUR Navy Space Surveillance System
PMTC Pacific Missile Test Center SSM surface-to-surface missile
POL petroleum, oil, lubricants STAG Special Task Air Group
POW prisoner of war STM supersonic tactical missile
PPI plan position indicator STOL short takeoff and landing

  |   xv

STOVL short takeoff/vertical landing USAF United States Air Force
STRATCOM Strategic Command USCG United States Coast Guard
SWIP System Weapons Integration USMC United States Marine Corps
Program USN United States Navy
SWOD Special Weapons Ordnance Device USNR United States Naval/Navy Reserve
T&E test and evaluation USNRF United States Naval/Navy Reserve
TACAMO Take Charge and Move Out Force
TACAN tactical air navigation system USNS United States Naval Ship
TACELWING Tactical Electronic Warfare Wing V/STOL vertical and/or short takeoff and
TACGRU tactical group landing
TALD tactical air launch decoy VAST versatile avionics shop test
TARPS Tactical Aerial Reconnaissance Pod VCNO Vice Chief of Naval Operations
System VFAX advanced experimental fighter
TERCOM terrain contour matching aircraft
TF task force Viet Cong People’s Liberation Armed
Forces
TG task group
VOD vertical on-board delivery
TINS Thermal Imaging Navigation Set
VOR very-high frequency omni-range
TLAM Tomahawk land-attack missile direction finder
TOW tube-launched, optically tracked, VORTAC very-high frequency omni-range
wire-command-link direction finder tactical air navigation
TRAM Target Recognition Attack system
Multisensor VSTOL vertical/short takeoff and landing
TraWing/TRAWING Training Air Wing VT variable-time (fuze)
TRIM Trail Road Interdiction Mission VTOL vertical takeoff and landing
TU task unit VTUAV vertical takeoff and landing tactical
TWA Trans World Airlines unmanned aerial vehicle
UAS unmanned aerial systems VTXTS fixed-wing experimental training
aircraft training system
UAV unmanned aerial vehicle
VWS ventilated wet suit
UCAS unmanned combat air system
WAVES Women Accepted for Volunteer
UDT underwater demolition team Emergency Service
UN United Nations WestPac/WESTPAC Western Pacific Ocean
USA United States Army WNY Washington Navy Yard
USAAF United States Army Air Forces WWI World War I
USAAS United States Army Air Service WWII World War II
USACOM United States Atlantic Command

Note: Acronyms or abbreviations for squadron designations, air groups or air wings, aviation ship designations, and aviation ratings
may be found in the Vol. II appendices, as will other more specialized acronym meanings.

xvi  |  

Chapter 1

A Few Pioneers 1898–1916

T he United States Navy’s official interest in airplanes
emerged as early as 1898. That year the Navy
assigned officers to sit on an interservice board to
investigate the military possibilities of Samuel P. Langley’s
flying machine. In subsequent years naval observers
problems. The Navy built a wind tunnel, and the
nation established the National Advisory Committee
for Aeronautics. A board under Chambers’ leadership
conducted the first real study of what was needed in aviation
and included in its recommendations the establishment of
attended air meets in the United States and abroad, and a ground and flight training center at Pensacola, Fla., the
public demonstrations staged by Orville and Wilbur Wright expansion of research, and the assignment of an airplane to
in 1908 and 1909. These men became enthusiastic about every major combatant ship of the Navy.
the potential of airplanes as fleet scouts, and by 1909, many Naval aviation’s progress in these early years included
naval officers, including a bureau chief, urged the purchase setting an endurance record of six hours in the air; the
of aircraft. first successful catapult launch of an airplane from a ship;
The next year the Navy made a place for aviation exercises with the fleet during winter maneuvers at Naval
in its organizational structure when Capt. Washington Station Guantánamo Bay, Cuba; and combat sorties at Vera
I. Chambers was designated as the officer to whom all Cruz, Mexico. These were but some of the accomplishments
aviation matters were to be referred. Although holding no of pioneer pilots, whose activities furthered the importance
special title, he pulled together existing threads of aviation of aviation to the Navy. In 1914 Secretary of the Navy
interest within the Navy and gave official recognition to Josephus Daniels announced that the Navy had reached
the proposals of inventors and builders. Before the Navy the point “where aircraft must form a large part of our naval
had either planes or pilots, he arranged a series of tests in forces for offensive and defensive operations.”
which civilian aircraft designer and entrepreneur Glenn
H. Curtiss and Eugene B. Ely, a pilot who worked for
1898
Curtiss, dramatized the airplane’s capability for shipboard
operations and showed the world and a skeptical fleet that 25 M A RCH • Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore
aviation could go to sea. Roosevelt recommended to Secretary of the Navy John D.
Early in 1911 the first naval officer reported for flight Long that he appoint two officers “of scientific attainments
training. By mid-year the Navy appropriated the first and practical ability” who, with representatives from the War
money, purchased the first aircraft, qualified the initial Department, would examine Professor Samuel P. Langley’s
pilot, and selected the site of the first aviation camp. The flying machine and report upon its practicability and its
idea of a seagoing aviation force began to take form as plans potential for use in war.
and enthusiasms transformed into realities. By the end of
the year a humble beginning had been made. 29 A PR I L • The first joint Army-Navy board on aeronautics
Recognizing the need for more science and less rule submitted the report of its investigation of the Langley flying
of thumb, Capt. Chambers collected the writings and machine. Since the machine was a model with a 12-foot wing
scientific papers of leaders in the new field, pushed for a span, its value for military purposes was largely theoretical, but
national aerodynamics laboratory, and encouraged naval the report expressed a general sentiment in favor of supporting
constructors to work on aerodynamic and hydrodynamic Professor Samuel P. Langley in further experimentation.

A Few Pioneers   |   1

This is the first recorded prepared by Lt. Cone wrote a letter to Secretary of the for authority to advertise for the construction of “two Navy George von L. Washington I. Sweet to Secretary of the Navy reference to a provision for aviation in the Navy Department Truman H. recommended recommended that the service purchase a number of aircraft to Secretary of the Navy George von L. reported his observations at the Reims 13 OCTOBER • Secretary of the Navy George von aviation meet. Assistant Naval Constructor William McEntee. Sweet accompanied Lahm as a passenger opened at Belmont Park. The report outlined the specifications organization.” with the comment: “The improvement in the design and manipulation of airplanes Department does not consider that the development of an and the important role they would probably play” and aeroplane has progressed sufficiently at this time for use in requested authority to requisition an airplane for Chester the Navy. George C. Chief of designated as the officer to whom all correspondence the Bureau of Equipment. Washington I. Nathaniel H. and Lt.” (Cruiser No. Chambers. and that the limits of Chief Constructor that an officer from the Bureau of the field will be extended in the near future. Meyer that pointed to “the rapid heavier than air flying machines. airplanes. previously designated to serve in a similar for takeoff runs and landings. and the Navy George Dewey was president. Newberry. N. Md. 2  |  A Few Pioneers . Assistant to the Aid for Material. 1909 16 AUGUST • Acting Secretary of the Navy George von L. William S. Sweet and Assistant Naval 26 SEPTE M BER • The Secretary of the Navy informed the Constructor William McEntee served as Navy observers Aeronautical Reserve (an organization of private citizens at the first Army demonstration trials of the Wright flying formed to advance aeronautical science as a means of machine at Fort Myer. 1 SEPTE M BER • Cmdr. Meyer approved the recommendation of the a present usefulness in naval warfare. Frederick L. Cowles. fully informed of the work contemplated and the results of all experiments. discussed the 1 OCTOBER • The General Board. Hutch I.Y.” He also noted Construction and Repair and another from the Bureau two means by which aircraft were to be operated from naval of Steam Engineering were to be appointed to investigate vessels—the use of the Wright launching device (a catapult) the subject of aviation and gain technical knowledge of to launch planes from the cleared quarterdeck of battleships. Lahm. piloted the first Army Wright plane during its initial flight at College Park. Chapin opined that “the airplane would have L. in and place them “in the hands of the personnel of the Navy to recognition of “the great advances which have been made in further develop special features adapted to naval uses. 7 OCTOBER • Chief of the Bureau of Steam Engineering Meyer disapproved a request by the Bureau of Equipment Capt. supplementing the national defense) that Capt. USA. Chapin. Meyer also directed that these officers keep and the construction of a floor (flight deck) over the deck Assistant to the Aid for Material Capt. George C. Washington I. capacity in the secretary’s office. 1) and the services of an instructor to teach one or more officers to fly the machine. of which Admiral of tactical advantages of such capability for naval forces. the Naval Attaché at Paris.” the problem of providing space for airplanes or dirigibles was to be considered in all new designs for scouting vessels.1908 1908 1910 17 SEPTE M BER • Lt.” the science of aviation and the advantages which may accrue from its use in this class of vessel. of an airplane capable of operating from naval vessels on scouting and observation missions. houses of auxiliary ships to provide the clear space required Chambers. Wright. George C. 3 NOV E M BER • Lt. Va. had been 2 DECE M BER • Rear Adm. 22 OCTOBER • The International Aviation Tournament Navy Lt. Frank P. submitted a report on aviation on aviation was to be referred. Material Capt. Assistant to the Aid for and is credited as the first Navy officer to fly in an airplane. Meyer that. Chambers.

and recommended that in the absence of specific funds for their 29 NOV E M BER • Aircraft designer and entrepreneur purchase. Va. the three men recently named to investigate aviation. civilian exhibition stunt pilot Eugene B. one naval officer as a means of assisting “in developing the adaptability of the aeroplane to military purposes. aeroplanes to develop their use for naval purposes.” 14 NOV E M BER • Flying a 50 hp Curtiss plane. Curtiss wrote to Secretary of the Navy George modified so as to require contractors to supply one or more von L. but rose again and landed about 2½ miles away and Repair suggested to Secretary of the Navy George von on Willoughby Spit. A Few Pioneers   |   3 . 2) at Hampton Roads. off Old Point Comfort. rain and fog. Va. Theodore G. Ely made the first takeoff 23 DECE M BER • Lt. 14 November 1910. the pilot elected to continue with the flight. Ely flies a Curtiss pusher from Birmingham (Cruiser No. 1910 continued 42878 Eugene B. 35) be Glenn H. received orders to report to built onto the bow of Birmingham (Cruiser No. Meyer offering flight instruction without charge for aircraft as a part of their obligation. As he left the platform. Ellyson. Hampton Roads.. The aircraft sustained slight splinter L. Despite light attended as official Navy observers. Calif. the first naval from a ship. the specifications for Texas (Battleship No. San Diego. in the first takeoff from a ship. Meyer that the Navy take steps to obtain one or more damage to the propeller tips. Ely flew from an 83-foot slanted wooden platform officer to undergo flight training. 2) at anchor the Curtiss aviation camp at North Island. the plane settled slowly and touched 31 OCTOBER • The Chief of the Bureau of Construction the water.

Calif. which engaged a series of aviation provided $25. Calif. Wireless Station to cooperate with Capt. 17 FEBRUA RY • In another early demonstration of the adaptability of aircraft to naval uses. using a single main float in place of the tandem triple float used in earlier tests. The plane made a smooth landing from astern onto a specially built 130-foot long by 32-foot wide platform. Curtiss taxied in a hydroaeroplane alongside Pennsylvania (Armored Cruiser No. 26 JA N UA RY • Glenn H. Chambers could not immediately south of San Francisco. The plane was arrested by 4 M A RCH • The first funds appropriated for naval hooks attached to the plane’s landing gear. contingent on the purchase of one Eugene B. “experimental work in the development of aviation for naval purposes. approaches a platform built over the stern of Pennsylvania (Armored Cruiser No. witnessed this important step in adapting aircraft to naval needs. 1 FEBRUA RY • Glenn H. 4) at anchor off Hunters the offer without the contingency on 13 March.. At 0905 Pennsylvania hoisted the aircraft out and Curtiss taxied the 450108 plane to his hangar on North Island. Ely flew the same Curtiss pusher that he had airplane for the sum of $5. Theodore G. stretched across the temporary deck and held above it by boards laid along its length (bottom). made a formal offer to train 18 JA N UA RY • At 1048 civilian exhibition stunt pilot one pilot for the Navy. and at 1101 landed on board arrange for the order of the aircraft.” 1911 9 M A RCH • The Wright Co.000 to the Bureau of Navigation for ropes. 4) in the first shipboard landing of an aircraft. Eugene B. 10 FEBRUA RY • Acting Secretary of the Navy Beekman Winthrop directed the Point Loma. Washington I. Calif. These takeoffs demonstrated the 428455 superior efficiency of the sled profile float that the Navy would use on hydroaeroplanes up to WWI. Ely.000. At 1158 Ely took off and returned to Selfridge Field. Naval officials expressed their used during his launch from Birmingham (Cruiser No. with sandbags at each end. Glenn H. Curtiss made two successful flights from the water in a standard biplane at San Diego.. Curtiss arrived alongside the ship at 0845 and sailors manned the cruiser’s crane to hoist the machine on board. who had assisted in preparing for the test. and Assistant to the Aid for on 14 November 1910 and took off from Selfridge Field Material Capt. San Diego. Harry S. 1911 Point in San Francisco Bay. Curtiss piloted a hydroaeroplane during the first successful flight of that type of plane at North Island. Calif. 2) displeasure at the contingency. Ellyson. so the company repeated Pennsylvania (Armored Cruiser No. completing the earliest demonstration of the adaptability of aircraft to shipboard operations.. Harkness of the Aeronautical Reserve in experiments with the use of wireless from aeroplanes. Lt. flying a Curtiss pusher. 4  |  A Few Pioneers . 18 January 1911 (top). 4) at anchor in San Diego Harbor. Calif.

by Curtiss with Lt.Y. the Triad. who became Naval Aviator was in the air for 15 minutes and achieved an altitude of 300 No. with a metal-tipped propeller designed for a speed of at least 45 miles per hour. The five-minute flight reached an altitude of 25 feet. was to be equipped for arising from or alighting on land or water. Washington I. the first aircraft built for the Navy. The first Navy plane A-1 taxiing on Keuka Lake. Curtiss demonstrated A-1 (later AH-1). One.g. Ellyson as a passenger. one Capt. Chambers. 2. a special motor that Curtiss had constructed instruction in flying. 27 J U N E • Lt.000 appropriation for aviation within the Bureau of NHF1061484 Navigation budget. Theodore G. 1 J U LY • At 1850 Glenn H.Y. and the official birthday of naval aviation. a move suggested by board president Admiral of the Navy George Dewey because of a lack of space for aviation in the office of the Aid for Operations and to enable Chambers to have a stronger voice to impact policy. provisions for carrying a passenger alongside the pilot. The 424786 aircraft completed three other flights the same evening. N. for feet.—they indicated Chambers’ decision as to which airplanes the Navy should purchase. 1 A PR I L • Assistant to the Aid for Material Capt. Despite rough weather and lack of for A-1 encountered mechanical difficulties and a standard equipment. Washington I. Although these requisitions lacked the signature of the Chief of BUNAV— necessary to direct the General Storekeeper to enter into a contract with the Curtiss Co. John H. reported for duty and instruction in flying at the Curtiss School at Hammondsport. 14 A PR I L • With Congress’ allocation of a $25. making his first solo flight on 18 April. The plane took off from and alighted on Keuka Lake at Hammondsport. A Few Pioneers   |   5 . N. the Curtiss hydroaeroplane A-1 (later AH-1). 3. Chambers reported for duty with the General Board. The Navy thus considers 8 May 1911 the date upon which the service ordered its first airplane. In the longest of these flights Ellyson 17 M A RCH • Lt. Towers. the fledgling office of naval aviation transferred from the General Board and was established in BUNAV. However. Ohio. N. and two by Ellyson alone. at Dayton. he completed training at the encampment by Curtiss 50 hp motor was used in these flights. j. John Rodgers. reported to the Wright Co.Y. Washington I. Chambers of the Bureau of Navigation prepared requisitions for two Curtiss biplanes. who was to become Naval Aviator No. 1911 continued 8 M AY • Capt. and controls that either the pilot or passenger could operate. The machine described became the Navy’s first airplane.

Md.. . Theodore G. Ellyson took Capt. Pilot Glenn a successful takeoff in a Curtiss plane from an inclined wire H. Theodore G.Y. Theodore G. Annapolis. Ellyson completed the first night flight by a member of the naval service. Ellyson accomplished the second flight. temporary duty at the Naval Academy. and Capt. Lt. Chambers of the Bureau of Navigation and Glenn H. and that with the test of gasoline motors and other experimental work the machine was sensitive to their action.. lifted the plane’s wheels while rigged from the beach down to the water. Hammondsport. N. Ellyson made amphibious features of the Navy’s first aircraft. but the distance to the water’s surface appeared misleading in the darkness and the aircraft struck the water. These were the 12th and 13th flights of A-1.Y. Dayton. N. seated left. Chambers of the Bureau of Navigation in A-1 (later AH-1) from Hammondsport.Y. who commanded Pennsylvania (Armored Cruiser No.. N. N. . Chambers of the Bureau of Capt.. signal to release the machine. Point. A-2 (later AH-2). including instruction at the an aviation experimental station. “in connection happened except that I did have to use the ailerons.Y. the site for which had been aviation school. and Ellyson and Chambers taxied 22 miles with a brief stop at Keuka. I held the machine on the wire as long as possible as I wanted to be sure that I had 23 AUGUST • The officers on flight duty with the Curtiss enough headway to rise and not run the risk of the machine Co. without the aid of lights. Curtiss made the first flight of the I.1911 continued 3 J U LY • Lt. Capt. Theodore G.Y. when Lt. at Hammondsport. Washington I. Charles F. Chambers. N. Washington I.. partly rising and then falling. . were ordered to report for duty at the Engineering quickly and went off so smoothly that I hardly knew what Experiment Station at the Naval Academy. 424469 6 J U LY • Capt. Everything happened so Ohio. N. 7 SEPTE M BER • A memorable experiment in the Navy’s search for a shipboard launching device concluded at 10 J U LY • The 24th flight of the Triad demonstrated the Hammondsport. Ellyson’s report described the historic experiment. 4).” 6  |  A Few Pioneers . and landed the Triad in the water.Y. Curtiss took off from land. Md. Curtiss had developed the method to the point of the test. Pond. this became the first base for naval aviation. to Penn Yan. . in the air. Light winds kept the plane from climbing aloft. Washington 13 J U LY • Glenn H. At 2015 Ellyson lifted off to return alone. Although the aviators did not occupy the site until September.. The plane rose again and landed successfully on the water on the second attempt. Ellyson in A-1 Navigation received orders for Triad at Hammondsport. “The Each attempt lasted for several minutes and reached an engine was started and run at full speed and then I gave the altitude of 100 feet. had suggested the technique. prepares for a flight with Lt.” which was being established on Greenbury previously selected on Greenbury Point near Annapolis. Navy’s second aircraft. in connection with the establishment of in the development of aviation. Washington I. . at 2045. . and Wright Co. He stopped for oil at Keuka after dusk.

20 SEPTE M BER • The attempt to equip aircraft with navigational instruments was reflected in a Bureau of Navigation request to the Naval Observatory for temporary use of a boat compass in experimental work connected with 428450 the development of aviation. a leather coat lined with fur or wool. 16 SEPTE M BER • In a letter to the Navy Department. A Few Pioneers   |   7 . attaches the hook of the ship’s crane in preparation to being hoisted on board Pennsylvania on 17 February 1911. Ellyson described plans to purchase flight clothing in the hope of persuading the Navy to pay for them later. Curtiss. The Navy had outlined the requirements as a light helmet with detachable goggles. Theodore G. with covering for the ears. leather trousers. Lt. N.Y. standing atop the wing of his D-III tractor hydroaeroplane. or a visor. yet with holes so the pilot could hear the engine. Preparing A-1 for a launch from an inclined wire rigged from the beach down to the water at Hammondsport. and a life preserver of some description. Ellyson purchased some of this gear from Brooks Brothers clothiers using his own funds. high rubber galoshes and gauntlets. 1911 continued 1051558 Glenn H.

this turbine is the surest as we use in ammunition hoists. reported for flight instruction at the aviation camp at Greenbury Point. discussed heavy oil (or diesel) launching torpedoes. “In my opinion. Ga. to set up an aviation camp on land. Va. in a letter. reported to the office of aviation at the 20 DECE M BER • Lt. Nathan D.. Chambers of the Bureau of Navigation. Richardson. Maddox and one with Assistant 16 OCTOBER • Capt. Ely died from a broken neck when the plane struck the ground. Md. and the aeroplane manufacturer who gets in with the genesis of the Navy’s compressed air catapult.. Curtiss. D. The plane made four flights. later designated Naval Aviator No. A leaking radiator forced the aircraft down near Milford Haven. San Diego. Inc. of Ordnance concerning experimentation with a catapult Washington I. Mass. On 16 February 1933 President Herbert C. somewhat after the manner of letter to Glenn H. Washington I. Charles H. the conversion of landplane B-1 (later AH-4) 427990 into a hydroaeroplane. more gradually. John H.” These observations indicate step of all. in a for launching aeroplanes. 19 OCTOBER • Civilian exhibition pilot Eugene B. three with Ens. Holden C. Washington I. in which he stated that a model of the pontoons with Forlanini planes (hydrovanes) was nearly 26 DECE M BER • The search for a shipboard launching ready for testing. device continued when Capt. Victor D. CC. 4. Towers. Md. after covering 112 miles in 122 minutes. 10 OCTOBER • Assistant Naval Constructor Lt. Basin.. Ellyson. This flight began a ten- day struggle to make the round trip. John H. Calif.. transmission at Annapolis. Ely. and Lt. 1911 continued 25 OCTOBER • Lt. throwing the pilot from the seat. for a suitable float. to Fort Monroe. the Burgess Co.. would make jet propulsion practical. The men Bureau of Navigation described plans for a scientific test of discovered that the trailing wire antenna reeled out after hydroaeroplane floats at the Washington Navy Yard Model takeoff was too weak. John H. Herbster. Hoover presented the Distinguished Flying Cross as a posthumous award to the aviator’s son. began with a telegraphic order to Lt. Chambers noted that the bureau engines and turbine engines similar in principle to those that.C. Theodore G. and Curtis. Md. Theodore G. near Annapolis. Richardson. it first is going to do wonders. Ellyson and Lt. Col. Towers flew A-1 (later AH-1) during an experiment to test the plane’s durability on a cross-country flight from Annapolis. USA (Ret. Va.. Chambers of the Naval Constructor Lt. decided to make a trial “with a device that gathers speed some thirty years later.C. Richardson became the Navy’s (later AH-1) during experiments with airborne wireless first engineering and maintenance officer for aviation. before spectators during an exhibition at the state fair at Macon. received orders to transfer with their equipment to North Ely lost control of an aircraft and crashed while landing Island. Md. 14 NOV E M BER • The Navy’s first major aircraft modification. 8 NOV E M BER • Ens. CC.. Towers piloted A-1 Washington Navy Yard. Chambers of the Bureau of Navigation reported on interest by the Bureau 17 OCTOBER • Searching for improved powerplants. left. something like the Curtiss air cylinder such Chambers wrote.).” 29 DECE M BER • The aviators at Greenbury Point. D. and failed to obtain definite results. Holden C. Marblehead. Capt. 8  |  A Few Pioneers .

This aircraft structural materials in a letter to Capt.” Cunningham subsequently detached to the Richardson. Theodore G. Meyer following closely the efforts of others in this direction. Annapolis. Morin conducted purpose was “to assist manufacturers in maintaining the experiments with wireless communications at Mare Island highest degree of efficiency. authorized the expenditure of not more than $50 for Md. for such a construction until a practically standard design has been developed.. “From all I can gather. 31 J U LY • Lt. reared 650871 at about mid-stroke. without demanding transmissions from a dummy airplane fuselage hoisted to a anything that may not be accomplished under the limitations height of 85 feet. stating. John Rodgers continued airborne wireless Marine Corps officer assigned to flight instruction and communications tests in hydroaeroplane B-1 at Annapolis. The aircraft. reported to the Superintendent of the Naval Academy for “duty in connection 9 M A RCH • Assistant Naval Constructor Lt. corrosion and 50 percent stronger than the steel wire. showed the Monel wire to be both free of F. Mass. Annapolis. Holden C. stating. Md. E. It would be unwise to make any requisition seconds. Meyer did allow for the possibility of an expanded interest in the future.” purchases to the products of a single factory.” 20 J U LY • The men of the aviation camp at Greenbury Point. Maddox later received a letter of commendation noting his “valuable work” in the development of aviation radio equipment. CC. the earliest recorded naval tests of aircraft developing models of a helicopter design proposed by MMC structural materials. CC. in which he made which govern safety in aviation. Md. at Marblehead. of the present state of the art and without confining 20 miles distant. Ellyson piloted A-1 (later AH-1) during the Navy’s first attempt to launch an airplane by catapult. Calif. in 3 minutes 30 a metal skin.. Ens. plunged into the water. Holden C. while improving the factors Navy Yard near San Francisco. Cunningham. Md. . USMC. 5. Meyer Monel wire at Engineering Experiment Station. Secretary of the Navy George von L. Md. . conducted comparative tests of Wright steel wire and 11 M A RCH • Secretary of the Navy George von L. the first general specifications for naval aircraft. 1912 1912 afterward designated Naval Aviator No. On one flight. the first 26 J U LY • Lt. for flight instruction. “The Department recognizes the value of 25 J U LY • On the basis of the Navy’s experience with its the helicopter principle in the design of naval aircraft and is first airplanes. . Maddox sent messages to Stringham (Torpedo Boat No..” published Requirements for Hydroaeroplanes. there is little doubt that much greater 21 J U N E • Lt. Alfred A. Richardson. including his personal manufacture and installation of the first radio transmitter used by the Navy in airplane communications. The Secretary’s expressed 23 M A RCH • Chief Electrician Howard E. These. received the signals “distinctly. 19) at a distance of about 1½ miles. Nelson of West Virginia (Armored Cruiser No. I. although the pilot escaped without A Few Pioneers   |   9 . Chambers of the Bureau of Navigation. defined interest in steel and aluminum as Burgess Co. 5). Theodore G. Washington date is recognized as the birthday of Marine Corps aviation. at the dock of the Naval Academy. An operator at a station at Point Richmond. Charles H.” 22 M AY • 1st Lt.. Ellyson ascended to 900 feet confidence would be felt if pontoons were constructed with in A-1 (later AH-1) over Annapolis.. Subsequent tests over the following days included transmissions at short intervals and while the plane ran on the water. a crosswind caught it and the machine Lt. which was not secured to the catapult. with aviation.

Davis tested the gun again in early December. Standards concerned equilibrium. camp at Greenbury Point. Godfrey deC. Ellyson tested C-1 (later second Marine officer assigned to flight training and later AB-1).. USMC. 12 NOV E M BER • Lt. from a plan proposed by Capt. Smith. Md. 8 OCTOBER • The Navy first defined physical requirements for prospective naval aviators in Bureau of Medicine and Surgery Circular Letter 125221.. 1. D. serious injuries. hearing. Md. Chevalier. reported for instruction at The pilot described its performance as “Circular climb. The following month a flying boat successfully launched from this catapult. Washington Aviator No. equipment and methods to evaluate an aircraft engine. from a catapult at Annapolis. 25 OCTOBER • Ens. Md. John H. 1912 continued 3 OCTOBER • The Davis recoilless gun underwent initial tests at Naval Proving Ground. The motor underwent three brief 466256 dynamometer tests.Y. Md. 18 SEPTE M BER • 1st Lt. Md. Godfrey deC. 6 OCTOBER • Lt. j. N. one complete circle. vision.575 feet in 14 minutes 30 seconds 10  |  A Few Pioneers . Theodore G. powered by compressed air. followed by ground runs and flight tests. but with a recoil slight enough to be absorbed by the aircraft. the 30 NOV E M BER • Lt. Annapolis. Chambers of the Bureau of Navigation. This catapult. Patrick N. the results of the two series of experiments demonstrated that although the gun was recoilless. in A-3 (later AH-3) at the Washington Navy Yard. the blast from the muzzle would pose problems should they install the weapon on board aircraft. however. 7. Md.C. Ellyson accomplished 650864 the Navy’s first successful launching of an airplane by A-1 poised to launch during the Navy’s first attempt to launch a plane catapult.. Cmdr. only the aviation camp at the Naval Academy. setting a new American endurance record for planes of any type. was constructed at the Naval Gun Factory at the Washington 26 NOV E M BER • Lt. Chevalier. L. D. 6. Towers took off in A-2 (later AH-2) from the water at Greenbury Point. marking the Navy’s first recorded attempt to use laboratory Ens. Bernard L. Bellinger. and organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. reported for flight training at the aviation camp at Annapolis. later designated Naval Aviator No.g. the Navy’s first flying boat.C. Md. 8 OCTOBER • Tests of a Gyro 50 hp rotary motor were completed at the Engineering Experiment Station. at 0650 and remained in the air 6 hours 10 minutes 35 seconds. Annapolis. at Hammondsport. Cleland Davis designed the gun to fire from an aircraft a caliber shell large enough to damage submarines. Indian Head. July 1912. Theodore G. later Naval Navy Yard. 8. reported for flight instruction at the aviation I. designated Naval Aviator No.

D. William D.4 miles per hour fully loaded. 428462 8 FEBRUA RY • Lt. stating in part: “We have fully loaded.000 feet. aerial photography. Bay. Washington Navy Yard. 18 DECE M BER • Lt. simple device gotten up by one of the men. Have obtained The endurance test was not made.3 to 1. created a “Commission on Aerodynamical Laboratory” to determine the need for and a method of establishing such a laboratory. Chambers of the Bureau of Navigation and Naval Constructor David W. later Naval 26 FEBRUA RY • The Chief Constructor of the Navy Aviator No. John H. using a fairly runs over measured mile. reported for duty at the aviation camp at formally approved action to provide the service with a Greenbury Point. including bombing.. and further provided that no naval below the surface. served both to demonstrate operational capabilities of the aircraft and to stimulate interest in aviation among sailors and Marines. eight become fairly accurate at dropping missiles. and I did not like to delay 1. than-air craft. and wireless radio transmission. Towers reported on Lt.” 2 DECE M BER • Ens. The assignment. Ellyson accomplishes the Navy’s first successful catapult launch. experimental aviation work underway at NS Guantánamo 12 November 1912. Speed. Cuba. more than a hundred of whom were taken up for flights during the aviation element’s eight- week stay.C. A Few Pioneers   |   11 . he suggested that additional or major in the Marine Corps was to be detailed to duty trials be held at NS Guantánamo Bay. Billingsley. Meyer. Towers concluded allowances for officers detailed to duty as flyers of heavier- that the best altitude for observation was about 800 feet. On glide approximately 5. Towers reported completion 4 M A RCH • The Navy Appropriations Act for fiscal of a series of tests begun on 26 October to determine the year 1914 provided an increase of 35 percent in pay and ability to spot submarines from aircraft. D.” this winter. and set up an encampment on Fisherman’s Point for initial operations with the fleet. flying in A-3 at the Washington Navy Yard. John H. Noting that the waters of Chesapeake Bay officer above the rank of lieutenant commander in the Navy were too muddy for a fair test. Cuba. acting on a recommendation made by Secretary of the Navy George von L. Md. 1913 19 DECE M BER • President William H. Theodore G. Cuba. Capt. 59.C. a basic tool in aeronautical research and assignment with instruction in hydroaeroplane B-2 (later development. owing to the fact that the some good photographs from the boats at heights up to weather has not been favorable. I believe we will get some results with wireless any longer. which included scouting missions and exercises in spotting mines and submerged submarines as part of the fleet maneuvers. Taylor represented the Navy on the commission. Washington I. 1913 6 JA N UA RY • The Navy’s entire aviation element arrived at NS Guantánamo Bay. Taft. The resulting tunnel was built at the AH-5). limited to 30 the number of officers that and that aircraft could detect submarines running a few feet could be so assigned. 9. involving flying. Billingsley subsequently began his wind tunnel.

Capt. Patrick N. Lt. Smith. Ens. for 1912. in developing a practical catapult for the launching of aeroplanes from ships. the other equipment represents instrumentation Victor D. installed on naval aircraft of the period. Cuba. altimeter. and generator. of Navigation received the medal of the Aeronautical Society 12  |  A Few Pioneers . and a Competitive Test. speed 426948 indicator. Cuba. 5 M A RCH • Reporting on tests held at NS Guantánamo 10 A PR I L • The Secretary of the Navy approved Bay. Lt. radio. and was cited for “his unusual achievements in being the first to demonstrate the usefulness of the aeroplane in navies. Cunningham. in having been instrumental in the introduction into our halls of Congress of bills for a National Aerodynamic Laboratory. chart board. USMC. Towers stated performance standards for qualification as a Navy Air that aircraft had spotted submarines from the air at a variety Pilot and the issuance of a certificate to all officers meeting of depths.g. 1913 continued 652044 The base for the first aviation detachment to operate with the Fleet at Guantánamo Bay. Godfrey deC. William D. and Ens. Herbster. and through his perseverance and able efforts in advancing the progress of Aeronautics in many other channels.” and more exacting than those of the international accrediting agency.” 31 M A RCH • A list of aircraft instruments and allied equipment planned for installation in flying boat D-1 (later AB-6) included a compass. Chambers of the depths up to 45 feet. Cuba: 1st Lt. a light blue boat at a depth of 40 feet. Billingsley (standing). Alfred mechanics had not installed the radio and generator by A. Although Men of the aviation detachment at Guantánamo Bay. Chambers of the Bureau Federation Aeronautique Internationale. Bernard L. USMC. the 13 M A RCH • Capt. inclinometer. Bureau of Navigation described these requirements as being and a “dark greenish blue” boat at 30 feet. j. L. 1st Lt. Washington I. Chevalier (seated). different from those of the “land pilot. January 1913. They discerned a submarine painted slate grey at the requirements. from 3 to 5 March. Bellinger. this date. John H. Washington I. in assisting in the practical solution of the hydroaeroplane by the production in association with others of the flying boat. Ens.

” 9 M AY • President Woodrow Wilson approved the 5 OCTOBER • The Navy’s first amphibian flying boat. to every major combatant ship. John H. Navy members of the containing a three-wheel landing gear replaced the pontoon. CC. Jerome C. Manley H. Patrick N.Y.. The Institution had closed after the death of laboratory director aircraft. the need for expansion and for the integration of aviation within the fleet. Chambers­—to draw 12 J U N E • Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels approved up “a comprehensive plan for the organization of a Naval detailing Lt. j. for flight and ground training and for the study of advanced aeronautical engineering. j. Lt. L.. was Samuel P. N. tour of aeronautical research facilities in Europe. The board’s altitude record for seaplanes when he reached 6. after senior member Capt.Y. which was subsequently redesignated E-1. This was the first comprehensive program 13 J U N E • Lt. Md. Curtiss. Carlo B. Simons. under the supervision of Assistant Langley Aerodynamical Laboratory. and relieved Capt. CC. Cmdr.700 to implement the program.600 feet over the water aviation work of the bureaus.g. appointed a board—dubbed the Chambers Board. Billingsley was thrown from the plane operations at sea and to make practical tests of equipment and fell to his death. Glenn Daniels. Chief of the Bureau 30 AUGUST • In a report to Secretary of the Navy Josephus of Navigation.g. Destroyer Billingsley (DD 293) was later named in honor of 17 DECE M BER • Capt. Cunningham. Brittain. 30 AUGUST • A Sperry gyroscopic stabilizer (automatic pilot) was flight tested in flying boat C-2 (later AB-2) by Lt. Following 12 days of participated in establishing a course of aeronautical deliberation the board submitted a report emphasizing engineering in MIT’s Department of Naval Architecture. N. CC. Lt. Washington I. assigning a ship for training in near Annapolis. creating a 20 J U N E • Ens. Patrick N. Holden C. Hunsaker Alfred A. William D. approved a proposal that the Navy. 1913 continued 28 A PR I L • Rear Adm. to the Massachusetts Aeronautic Service.” After making a Constructor Lt. and experiments on the design of aeroplanes and dirigibles. and the Sperry Co. John H. Bellinger at Hammondsport. Victor Blue. wreckage into the water and received serious injuries. The mishap also unseated passenger Lt. CC. Langley and reopened on 1 May to study hydroaeroplane A-2 (later AH-2). at Pensacola. the General Board expressed its opinion that “the H. Towers. Billingsley suffered an accident central aviation office under the secretary to coordinate the while flying B-2 (later AH-5) at 1. Chambers of the Bureau of Navigation and Assistant Naval Constructor 7 OCTOBER • Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels Lt. 23 J U N E • General Order No. cooperate in testing the organization of an efficient naval air service should be gyroscopic stabilizer on a new naval aeroplane. immediately taken in hand and pushed to fulfillment. 41 fixed the cognizance of various bureaus in aviation in a manner paralleling the division of responsibility for naval vessels. Department for special duty as officer in charge of aviation. L. The board requested Towers. Bellinger set an American for an orderly development of naval aviation. in which a flying boat hull questions relating to aerodynamics. USMC. Md. Holden C.297. Richardson.200 feet in recommendations included establishing an aeronautic center A-3 (later AH-3) over Annapolis. Holden C. Fla. Washington I. completed its initial trials at departments to serve on an advisory committee for the Hammondsport. A Few Pioneers   |   13 . Samuel S. Mark L. Richardson. Richardson. Assistant Naval and to undertake research in that field. which the Smithsonian Naval Constructor Lt. Robison. Washington I. designation of representatives from governmental the Over-Water-Land type. advisory committee were Capt.” The board’s members also included Institute of Technology to develop “a course of lectures Cmdr. Hunsaker. Chambers of that duty. becoming the first fatality in naval necessary for such operations. and 1st Lt. who clung to a piece of B-2 but fell with the plane’s $1. Bristol reported to the Navy the fallen pilot. and assigning one aircraft aviation.

USMC. consisting of 9 officers. was completed and the tunnel that point where aircraft must form a large part of our naval turned over its fan for the first time. Henry C. 1914 16 FEBRUA RY • Lt. Fla. Md. and other gear. for exercises with the to the commanding officer of the aeronautic station at Advance Base Unit to experiment with aircraft operations Pensacola. The wind tunnel 20 JA N UA RY • The aviation unit from Annapolis. c. the number the order in which aircraft within class were Cmdr. Naval Aviator No. transferred from the Bureau of letter further directed that a program should be developed Navigation to the Division of Operations in the Office of the that would permit incorporation of such practice in the work Secretary of the Navy. Henry C. Puerto Rico. Smith. portable hangars. with aeronautic training ship Mississippi (Battleship No. Fla. which expressed the opinion that useful information was to be obtained by observing pilots during 7 JA N UA RY • The Office of Aeronautics. and hangar tents. D. Md. 1914. Lt. Fla.” about three months. and tent hangars at Naval Aeronautic Station Pensacola.. James M. camp at Greenbury Point. 23) the first letter denoting class. equipped with a flying boat. 11) to set up a flying school. 1914 72-CN-6422 1061482 Flying boats. arrived 27 M A RCH • General Order No. the second letter the type. received orders to were apparent in a letter from the Office of Aeronautics deploy to Culebra Island. 88 changed the at the former Navy yard at Pensacola. flight and by physical examination before and after flight. Towers. Bernard L. Four classes were set up: A for all heavier‑than- commanded the aeronautic station. and K for kites. Within the A class. 1st Lt. under Lt. 10 JA N UA RY • Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels 9 M A RCH • The construction of the wind tunnel at the announced that “the science of aerial navigation has reached Washington Navy Yard. Fla... Cmdr. commanding. Lt. aviator candidates. Calibration required force for offensive and defensive operations. on the subject of physical requirements for during fleet maneuvers. 10. and the Navy first used the tunnel in July to test a ship’s ventilator cowling. Murray. D for airships or dirigibles. air craft. of the flight training school. the types of aircraft were B for 14  |  A Few Pioneers . Bristol in charge. John H. also acquired. 23 enlisted men.. The Mark L. in command of Mississippi.. hydroaeroplanes.C. 7 aircraft. B for balloons.. died when he crashed into the water from 200 feet while 6 JA N UA RY • The Marine Corps element of the aviation on a flight in flying boat D-1 (later AB-6) at Pensacola. on board the designations of aircraft to two letters and a number. an 20 FEBRUA RY • The beginnings of aviation medicine amphibian. remained in operation throughout WWII. and and Orion (Fuel Ship No. j. Mustin. Mustin. with Capt.g. spare parts.

L. informed Secretary of the Navy 6 M AY • Orders directed the Second Section to investigate Josephus Daniels that he would make the corps’ services a company of about 100 Mexican soldiers encamped near available for use in the Mexican crisis. embarked the aeronautic training ship frail craft.. Saufley.g. whom could furnish their own aircraft. Lt. aeronautic station flying school. Louis. L. Chevalier. Patrick N. 23) and sailed for Mexico to assist in operations at Vera Cruz. became AB-1. 1914 continued Mississippi (Battleship No. Walter D. Mexico. 2). however. with Lt. USMC. pilot. Bellinger in command and student pilots Lt.000 feet for a 28-minute flight around the harbor. Smith. L. Walter D. This AH-3. an aviation detachment Mexican stragglers who opened fire with rifles.” The detachment comprised three aircraft—hydroaeroplane AH-2. the third hydroaeroplane.g. who had organized the “U. carrying spare parts including most of AX-1.200 feet. Mexico. j. and 12 enlisted men.g.g. Walter D. Patrick N. Richard C. and the For example. “worked poorly. Marines encamped near Tejar. L.g. and Ens.S. Godfrey deC. and 2 M AY • Lt. Stolz. Stolz. As the plane declined his offer. 25 A PR I L • Lt. Patrick N. 28 A PR I L • Lt. Bellinger and Ens. receiving fire from Mexican troops during the forenoon watch and requested that the aviation detachment at Vera 20 A PR I L • Albert B. Bellinger returned and flying boats. j.. C for convertibles. formerly designated crew failed to spot the mine. Lambert. L. Ens.g. j. of barely 200 feet over Vera Cruz. heavy swells but rose to a height of about 3. Melvin L. Mo. Saufley. became AH-3. Bernard L. flying boats AB-4 and AB-5—with pilot Lt. The detachment consisted of two aircraft—hydroaeroplane AH-3 and flying boat AB-3—with pilot Lt. Lambert listed the Punta Gorda. names of 44 members—not all of naval origins—20 of Patrick N. LaMont took the Navy’s first recorded aerial photographs 20 A PR I L • The First Section. Towers LaMont completed naval aviation’s first mission in direct in command. Fla. Fla. Mexico. the Navy observer. an entrepreneur from St. Patrick N. hitting the from Pensacola. but the weather forced him land planes. A-3. formerly designated C-1. LaMont. j. H for hydroaeroplanes. responded in hydroaeroplane AH-3. Fla. as the pilot searches for enemy snipers. The flight was which sailed to join the ships of the Atlantic Fleet operating cut short. Bellinger piloted flying boat AB-3 on the Second Section’s first flight at Vera Cruz. around one mile north of Vera Cruz. John H. during a preliminary search for a purported mine in the harbor. pilots 1st Lt. 22 A PR I L • The Bureau of Navigation approved formal courses of instruction for student aviators and student mechanics at the Pensacola. Cruz locate the attackers.g. and support of ground troops while flying hydroaeroplane Ens. Richard C. j. it flew low over a group of 21 A PR I L • The Second Section. Melvin L. had reported operation signified naval aviation’s first call to action. followed the coast north toward Boca del Rio Antigua at an average altitude of 3. however. L for picked up Ens. The plane nearly failed to take off through the An aircraft flies over Vera Cruz. Aviation Reserve Corps” the year before. Bellinger. when the crew reported that the engine off Tampico and Vera Cruz during a crisis in Mexican waters. Bellinger immediately pulled up and although he A Few Pioneers   |   15 . and X for combination land and water machines. and the first flying boat.. j. j. embarked Birmingham (Cruiser No. an aviation detachment from during wartime from flying boat AB-3 at an average altitude Pensacola. to go inside the breakwater to find smooth water. Bellinger and Ens. Mexico.

1914 continued On 28 April 1914. Secretary 19 M AY • As the need for scouting services diminished at of the Navy Josephus Daniels had recommended the Vera Cruz. Smith.j. They dropped Mexico. Richardson. recommended wind-wheel sooner. Bernard L. . 12) for a two-day tour of aircraft obtained as AH-7 and AH-10. Bellinger. Herbster reported on bombing 24 M AY • The First Section—the aeronautic detachment on tests that he and 1st Lt. Md. j. Lt. Patrick N. Fla. Mexico. CC. Patrick N. arrived the beginning of an important development in aeronautical in Paris. France. following a brief deployment to Tampico. Herbster reported his bombing would have been more 26 M AY • On the basis of flight tests. and Saufley escaped unhurt. from a voyage on board North Carolina design. Mexico. Walter D. Smith.000 feet against land and water targets. Holden C. Victor D. Bellinger and Ens. carried board Birmingham (Cruiser No. Henry C.g. Lt. and 1st Lt. Cmdr.” The service subsequently designated the aircraft (Armored Cruiser No. AH-3 bore the first marks of 1 J U LY • The Navy formally recognized aviation by battle on a Navy plane. which President Woodrow flight instruction at that city while awaiting orders to return Wilson approved. L. establishing the Office of Naval Aeronautics in the Division of Operations under the Secretary of the Navy. Assistant Naval accurate “if I had been able to disengage my fingers from the Constructor Lt. 28 J U LY • Lt. . to join the both dummy and live bombs over the side of the aircraft Second Section in the school routine of flight instruction. 2)—arrived at Vera Cruz. factories and aerodromes in the immediate area.g. USMC. to Pensacola. Mustin. as it appears to be only L. can be thoroughly determined . out at Indian Head Proving Grounds. USMC. This temporary assignment marked the first use of naval aviators 16  |  A Few Pioneers . LaMont take the Navy’s first documented aerial photographs during wartime from AB-3 over the fortress of San Juan de Ulua and the harbor of Vera Cruz. j. Bernard L. the Second Section resumed routine establishment on 26 March. from about 1.g.” that the Navy purchase two swept-wing Burgess-Dunne hydroaeroplanes “so that the advantages and limitations 21 AUGUST • Lt.

Fla. Victor D. 1915 391984 Lt. England. j. 1915 Pensacola. and to Paris. “for special duty in connection with the study of aviation. and established a precedent naval aviation. and some of the other men of the aviation camp at Vera Cruz. A Few Pioneers   |   17 . 1 FEBRUA RY • The Division of Naval Militia Affairs in the 23 NOV E M BER • The Navy established the title Director Bureau of Navigation directed that an aeronautic corps was of Naval Aeronautics to designate the officer in charge of to be organized in each state’s Naval Militia. gusts. Mexico. was dispatched to London.” The following month 25 NOV E M BER • Director of Naval Aeronautics Capt. Bellinger. Pensacola.. Herbster and 1st Lt. meteorological equipment to measure and record velocity and direction of winds. Smith reported to Mark L. Capt. capacity. Germany. Mark L. as observers in foreign lands. and the station was officially designated Naval Aeronautic Station. Bristol. Bristol established requirements for special Berlin. for installation at 16 NOV E M BER • An administrative reorganization at the two ends of the speed course at Pensacola.g. Lt. and squalls. far right. stand before hydroaeroplane AH-3. shifted overall command of the flying school from the station ship to headquarters ashore. John H. Fla. the Navy’s first plane struck by enemy gunfire. j. Patrick N. was ordered to report to Secretary of the Navy which began the same month when Lt. already serving in that for the assignment of aviation assistants to naval attachés.g. Towers Josephus Daniels under the new title. respectively. L.

L. Lt. Richard C. Patrick N. Clarence K. Patrick N. Mexico. had designed and fabricated the device at the Washington Navy Yard. junior grade..1915 continued 1061479 The AH-7 flies over Pensacola. L. and provided for the payment of one year’s pay to the next of kin of officers and men killed in aircraft accidents.C. Mark L. and Ens.j. The success of this and subsequent launches by Lt.g. Bellinger served at Vera Cruz.g. Holden C. Fla. CC. 22 M A RCH • The title Naval Aviator began to replace the former Navy Air Pilot designation for naval officers who had qualified as aviators. Richardson. Assistant Naval Constructor Lt. Navy members in the original organization were Director of Naval Aeronautics Capt. Bellinger successfully catapulted from a coal barge in flying boat AB-2 at Pensacola. Futhermore. Saufley. Richardson. 18  |  A Few Pioneers . increased the amount previously provided for qualified aviators. lieutenant. Cmdr. j. The same act also raised the limits on sailors assigned to aviation to a yearly average of not more than 48 officers and 96 enlisted men for the Navy. Bronson led to the Lt. Holden C. as a installation of catapults on board ships. 16 A PR I L • Lt. Fla. in 1913. the Act added enlisted men and student aviators to those eligible for increased pay and allowances while flying on duty. 3 M A RCH • A rider to the Naval Appropriations Act of 1915 created the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. and 12 officers and 24 enlisted men for the Marine Corps. Kenneth Whiting. D. CC. Bristol and Assistant Naval Constructor Lt.

the month that the U. entered WWI.000 feet in AH-10 on a flight of 1 hour 19 minutes.. Because of its poor performance the Navy Lt. The airship completed two additional flights but later received severe 1061480 damage while being towed over water. at the controls of a Wright aircraft.. Cmdr.g.. Fla.” This letter led to the establishment of the Naval type artificial horizon. Fla. 28 M AY • The Naval Militia was informed that refresher flight training at Pensacola.S. and Consulting Board. judgment. Although Stolz had not been designated a naval aviator. Patrick N.S. Fla. later designated DN-1. “Committee on Aeronautics. 1915 continued 23 A PR I L • Lt. The craft. Henry C. for testing aeronautic machinery. he had qualified for Aero Club Hydroaeroplane Certification No.g. D. up the airship. The Navy had developed its first and only floating hangar to accommodate DN-1. stating Yard. altitude record for seaplanes by ascending to 10. Cmdr. j. had become available for a limited number of its aviators. L. of New Haven.j. Frank R. Mustin. McCrary piloted the ship aloft on 20 April 1917. so DN-1 did not make its first flight until Lt. a group of civilian advisors that functioned afterward used the structure for the operation of B-class during the WWI period and included in its organization a airships during WWI. Fla. is machinery and facilities for utilizing the natural inventive genius of Americans to meet the new conditions 10 J U LY • After a test of a sextant equipped with a pendulum- of warfare. Melvin L. 19. This marked the in part: “One of the imperative needs of the Navy. Stolz died when his Curtiss hydroaeroplane crashed at Pensacola. later became instrumental in the removed DN-1 from inventory and broke formation of naval carrier aviation. 8 M AY • Student aviator Lt. in December 1916. including Aero Motors. in my beginning of the Aeronautical Engine Laboratory.” 7 J U LY • Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels attempted 10 J U LY • Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels issued to mobilize scientific achievement to the modernization the authorization to outfit a building at Washington Navy of the fleet by writing inventor Thomas A. However.C. Lt. arrived at Pensacola. over Pensacola. men had to remove one of the engines to lighten the ship enough to lift into the air. 1 J U N E • The Navy let its first contract for a lighter‑than-air craft when it ordered a non-rigid airship from the Connecticut Aircraft Co. Bellinger established a U. Kenneth Whiting. the A Few Pioneers   |   19 . Edison.

Fla. Fla.. incidence indicator. The Va. fuel gauge. to develop an aerial camera with high- perform duties as aeronautic mechanics. Henry C. course and distance indicator. suitable for photography at 1.g. 5 November 1915. Bellinger flew AH-10 while the “aeronautics duty only” category. paralleling clock. Patrick N. 153 became the first to provide for an aeronautic indicator. compass. 12) at Pensacola.. of sections not to exceed 6 officers and 28 enlisted men. meter. Pensacola. Officers served in 5 AUGUST • Lt.1915 continued 439969 Lt.. binoculars. consisted school aeroplanes. Bellinger signaled his spots with Very pistol flares. and so constructed that the pressure of the air during flight would not distort the focus. camera. L. and tachometer. oil gauge. 10 J U LY • A standard organization prescribed by General magazine camera. altitude barometer. reported that while the pendulum principle was basically of Naval Aeronautics established requirements for 13 unsatisfactory for aircraft use. carpenter mates were to Eastman Kodak Co. clock. with two sections forming a division. All except the binoculars. flying AB-2 from North Carolina (Armored Cruiser No. provided as lieutenant commander at the division level.000 to 2.000 yards (equivalent to later strikers) were to perform special duties. commanding officer of Naval Aeronautic Station Pensacola. and landsmen speed lens. Its composition. a sextant incorporating a instruments to be installed in service aeroplanes: air speed gyroscopically stabilized artificial horizon might be acceptable. and navigational instruments were also required for that of other forces established at the same time. Cmdr. skidding and sideslip Order No. with the highest rank spotting mortar fire for Army shore batteries at Fort Monroe. force within the Naval Militia. the Director Fla. 22 J U LY • Based on recommendations received from the 20  |  A Few Pioneers . sextant. enlisted structure provided that men taken in under regular rates of machinist mates and electricians were to perform 11 AUGUST • The Naval Observatory requested the duties as aeronautic machinists. Mustin makes the first catapult launch from a ship. Naval Aeronautic Station. altitude.j.

S. CC. completed the first Marine incumbent director detached on 4 March 1916. Wadleigh Capehart holds a sample bomb from the cockpit of a Burgess-Dunne plane. Cmdr. surpassing the pilot’s own record of merchant ship to operate aircraft.j.g. and 1st Lt.g. Although this C. referred to the General Board a proposal. Daniels commented that 11. Bellinger had the effect of abolishing the Office of the Director of completed an additional takeoff on 6 November. Richard C. for “twice breaking the American Hydroaeroplane altitude which had already been fitted to carry aeroplanes.” 5 NOV E M BER • Lt. 1915 continued 416327 Ens. Fla. 12) at 1158 in Pensacola A Few Pioneers   |   21 . that office continued to exist until the Alfred A. 12 OCTOBER • A directive was issued establishing an Bay. Henry C. Assistant Naval Constructor Lt. 12). and Lt. USMC. launching in flying boat AB-2 from the stern of North Carolina (Armored Cruiser No. Fla. made by Director altitude record for hydroaeroplanes in AH-14 at 11. Saufley set a U. Mustin made the first catapult launch from a commissioned warship.056 feet. L. which he had set only three days before. The the fleet had a more immediate need to determine how they Aero Club of America awarded Saufley its Medal of Merit could operate North Carolina (Armored Cruiser No. j. Richardson. to convert a over Pensacola.. Cunningham. Bristol. Corps launch on 8 November. Mark L. Naval Aeronautics. Sailors had originally removed the catapult from Officer in Charge of Naval Aeronautics under the Chief of a coal barge. record in one year.975 feet of Naval Aeronautics Capt. and on 28 October installed the device onto Naval Operations and giving authority for aviation programs the cruiser’s stern. 15 OCTOBER • Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels 3 DECE M BER • Lt. Holden in the Navy to CNO and to the bureaus. Patrick N.

assumed operational prescribed an anchor and a two-digit numeral. both in dark supervision over all aircraft and aeronautic stations. fore and aft on both sides of the fuselage. McDonnell. provided by the order of 27 March 1914 were to be used. Charles E.. Bristol received orders to command North Carolina (Armored Cruiser No. Clarence Naval Aeroplanes. included knowledge of radio sets. Richard C. Saufley bettered his own U. 75 feet. in accordance with an agreement between the two of Naval Aeronautics and both the title and the office departments. under a new title 15 A PR I L • A Bureau of Construction and Repair drawing of Commander of the Air Service. and ability to fly at least at the Pensacola Radio Station to experiment with aircraft one type of aircraft. Fla. as well as blue on a white background. men at Pensacola received four sets some knowledge of nautical astronomy and principles of of radio apparatus for aeroplanes. while those for lieutenant commanders. and the numeral. as “Distinguishing Marks for the further development of aviation in the Navy. piloting a Curtiss hydroaeroplane to 16. implemented a Navy Department decision. On 2 April Saufley again extended the or placed in service. 12) and.072 feet.S. Mark L. the anchor Office of Chief of Naval Operations.1916 1916 7 M A RCH • During an exhibition flight at Mobile. Navy business methods used in aeronautics. conditions. Fla. Stone had been assigned to flight instruction at Pensacola. and to qualify for a Navy pilot certificate. and the Bureau types of naval aircraft. These compasses. and that these numbers were to be used altitude record. for tests under all and stays. directing that designation numbers were to be assigned to all aircraft 29 M A RCH • Lt. ceased to exist. These extras 21 JA N UA RY • In a step that led to the establishment were cumulative for ranks in ascending order. Elmer F.. developmental work did not begin immediately. Lt. McAdoo beginning with 51-A. 198 defined qualifications naval aviators. a similar knowledge of motors. Ala.. 22  |  A Few Pioneers . Although initiation of airplane design. Lieutenants (junior grade) were to have radio. Fla.. modified from the British Creigh-Osborne design on the basis of recommendations by 25 M A RCH • General Order No. but the plane was subsequently rebuilt. the required to have knowledge of navigation (except nautical Officer in Charge of Naval Aeronautics requested the astronomy) and scouting problems. The pilot. 4 M A RCH • Capt. Radio Service authorize the radio operators knowledge of airplanes and motors. provided a model for the compasses widely for officers and enlisted men in the Aeronautic Force of used in naval aircraft during WWI. Sugden and 3rd Lt. practical and theoretical Superintendent. Simultaneously. of Steam Engineering had ordered approximately 50 aircraft the highest rank provided for the force. Ensigns were of an aviation radio laboratory at Pensacola. The service simultaneously assigned numbers to 33 aircraft.010 for identification purposes until the aircraft were tested feet at Pensacola. at which time standard designations record by attaining a mark of 16. Bronson assumed the remaining aviation duties in the outboard on the upper and lower wing surfaces. Guard officers 2d Lt. survived because the vessel’s rigging checked his fall. in the Mobile River. at anchor for the first group of enlisted men to receive flight training. under construction. a wind gust struck the hydroaeroplane AH-10 at an altitude of 6 JA N UA RY • Instruction commenced at Pensacola. 10 FEBRUA RY • The Bureau of Construction and Repair aviation machinists. Fla. Bristol detached as Director Fla. Enlisted aviation mechanics were to have knowledge of aircraft maintenance. was generally placed on the vertical tail surfaces. Edward O. the Naval Militia in addition to those prescribed for the same ranks and ratings of the Naval Militia. introducing the system of serial informed Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels that Coast numbers hereafter assigned to all aircraft. 30 M A RCH • Secretary of the Treasury William G.” The anchor and numeral were painted K. AH-10 11 JA N UA RY • The Naval Observatory forwarded two was demolished and Melba sustained damage to her rigging magnetic compasses to Pensacola.. causing it to crash into the schooner Melba. Lt. by late July Additional requirements for lieutenants called for a greater an officer and a civilian radio expert had been detailed to knowledge of nautical astronomy and ability to fly at least two aircraft radio experimentation at Pensacola.

. furnished helmets. Despite substantial tests which showed the aircraft failed to meet contract requirements. The aircraft 21 July 1919. aviation in the departmental organization by redefining the North Carolina became the first U. Fla.. 20 M AY • The Navy initiated development of a gyroscopically operated bomb-dropping sight and allocated $750 to the Bureau of Ordnance. Mark L. Taylor to request that the Aluminum Company certain heavier‑than-air components that had not been of America develop a suitable alloy for use in fabricating provided for in the earlier order. Fla. Norwich. when Secretary of the Navy the propeller mounted in the fuselage aft of the wings. Saufley crashed in AH-9 accept it into inventory. Bristol. Aviators were to be at NAS Pensacola were named in his honor. and boots. 1061646 22 M AY • The Naval Observatory sent a color camera. Cmdr. for use in placing an order with the Sperry Gyroscope Co. 1916 continued 13 M AY • Chief of Naval Operations Adm. including base lines. Investigators attributed the loss to a structural defect in the plane’s tail 18 J U LY • Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels surfaces. Navy Inspector Lt. in command of North Instruction and Required Qualifications of Personnel for the Carolina (Armored Cruiser No. On 11 September Commander of the be added to the Bureau of Navigation Circular “Courses of Air Service Capt. of value in aeronautic work. Murray Frank R. had been in the air for 8 hours 52 minutes. Richard C. and directed that the curriculum was to witnessed the event. and safety jackets. German successes in operating Zeppelins with a hitherto unknown aluminum alloy (later 12 J U LY • Lt. a 9 J U N E • During an endurance flight over Santa Rosa Island trial board recommended on 29 January 1917 that the Navy off Pensacola. The service struck the machine on from a height of about 700 feet. Navy ship equipped to responsibilities of bureaus and offices for specific elements carry and operate aircraft. William S. superseding that of 23 June 1913. suits.” this order embraced lighter-than-air and David W. bombsights (forerunners of turn and bank indicators). Benson requested appropriate bureaus to undertake development of gyroscopic attachments for instruments and equipment. to Naval Aeronautic Station The novel Gallaudet 59-A. George D. While the new directive A Few Pioneers   |   23 . In addition 22 J U LY • Serious interest in the development of light metal to extending the subject from “Naval Aeroplanes” to alloys for aeronautical use led Chief Constructor Rear Adm. 17 J U LY • Civilian pilot David H. 12).” be assigned to the cruiser. requested that 59-A Air Service of the Navy. Chevalier was catapulted revealed as duralumin) prompted the Navy’s interest.g. Fla. and compasses. “Aeronautics. note the propeller mounted in the fuselage Pensacola. gauntlets. of the naval aviation program. to determine if color photography would be aft of the wings. at Josephus Daniels approved a course proposed by Lt. McCrary. Lt. Enlisted men whose duties involved flying were also to receive wool head 20 J U N E • The issuance of General Order No. made by the Hess-Ives Corp. covers. killing him. The destroyer Saufley (DD 465) and Saufley Field established flight clothing allowances.S. McCulloch made the 3 J U N E • Formal instruction in free and captive balloons first flight of the Gallaudet 59-A. Conn... j. 222. Zeppelin-type girders. a novel airplane with began at Pensacola. The launch completed 8 AUGUST • The Secretary of the Navy clarified the place of calibration of the first catapult designed for shipboard use. Fla. defined the cognizance for aeronautics in the Navy Department. goggles. from North Carolina (Armored Cruiser No. Godfrey deC. 12) in flying boat AB-3 in Pensacola Bay.

maintained this altitude until the end of the run. William provided for the establishment of a Naval Reserve force of six S. The French aviation firm be finished with opaque yellow (or greenish-yellow) varnish. The N-9 became a popular training aircraft dived to the earth. composed of 150 officers and 350 enlisted men in addition to those provided by law for other branches of the Navy. unless controlled by the aviator.. The secretary’s concurrence set reorganization of the Naval Aeronautic Station. Benson directed that all aircraft loaned or donated to the classes.” the water without difficulty. would have February 1917.” Specified hydroaeroplane equipped with automatic stabilization and characteristics included two seats. Pa. It also 27 OCTOBER • Chief of Naval Operations Adm. loading of about 4 direction gear developed by the Sperry Gyroscope Co. and in effect made the Bureau of Construction and Repair a lead 9 SEPTE M BER • The Secretary of the Navy issued an order bureau for aircraft development and procurement. surplus graduates of aeronautics schools. N. Curtiss requesting him to “call at the Bureau [of Construction and 12 SEPTE M BER • Lt. Baker elevators and ailerons. the aeroplane is adequate and excellent. of the Navy’s development of what became guided missiles. The machine left Rate of delivery is important and must be guaranteed. the stage for the establishment of an agency for interservice Fla. which reassigned the training of commissioned and cooperation in aeronautics.. which served until 1948. a primary mission. pounds per square foot. Hewitt at Amityville.000 meters. and. that a joint Army-Navy board be appointed to consider the requirements for developing a lighter‑than-air service in 17 AUGUST • The Secretary of the Navy approved a the Army or Navy or both.1916 continued followed the division of cognizance over material established officers and enlisted men transferring from the Naval Flying by a general order on 20 June 1916. contract began with a telegram to Glenn H. and specified that the apparatus was to be as 1917 provided for the establishment of a Naval Flying Corps light as possible and use wavelengths of 600 to 4. subsequently named the enlisted sailors for aeronautic services with the fleet as Aeronautical Board. “Speed. The telegram resulted in a contract for 30 N-9 seaplanes. initiating formal flight testing as a basis for accepting new aircraft and establishing procedures to determine whether 10 AUGUST • Negotiation for the first aircraft production operational aircraft were safe to fly. public works. 12 AUGUST • Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels 20 SEPTE M BER • The Navy issued the earliest extant agreed with Secretary of War Newton D. manufacturing.Y. with pedals or a rudder bar to control recommended to Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels the vertical rudder—had proven its reliability during testing. and supply. medical. Societé de Production Armand Deperdussin’s system— comprising a central control stick to manipulate aircraft 11 OCTOBER • Secretary of War Newton D. was to undertake the development of a radio direction finder for use 29 AUGUST • The Naval Appropriation Act for fiscal year on aeroplanes. The telegram concluded. Island. climbed to its desired height.” This is one of the first recorded instances during WWI. Pensacola. including a Naval Reserve Flying Corps composed of Naval Militia by private individuals or organizations were to 24  |  A Few Pioneers . and members it assigned the General Board responsibility for advising as of the Naval Reserve Force with experience in aviation. and power loading of about 20 and electrical engineer Peter C. and ordered the establishment of an aeronautics school and departments for experimental test and 24 OCTOBER • The Bureau of Steam Engineering inspection. Wilkinson of the Repair] Monday with a proposition to supply at the earliest Bureau of Ordnance witnessed a demonstration of a piloted date practicable thirty school hydro aeroplanes. it went further in that Corps. Long pounds per horsepower. and pontoon of Curtiss N-9 aircraft were to for use in all of their aircraft. to the numbers and general characteristics of aircraft. This and War departments should adopt the straight Deperdussin instruction canceled the use of slate color and provided that system of controlling aircraft in flight as the standard system the wings. Baker that the Navy instruction regarding the color of naval aircraft. body. Theodore S. Wilkinson reported: “The automatic control of climb and details of construction to be proposed by you. when it dived which the company delivered between November 1916 and sharply. requested that the Navy Yard in Philadelphia.

be designated NMAH and be given numbers in sequence Adm. 17 NOV E M BER • Efforts to develop high-speed seaplanes additional tests on board Oklahoma during succeeding days for catapulting from ships led Chief Constructor Rear revealed problems.. 36) and Oklahoma Lt. 37) that demonstrated that kite balloons seaplane plummeted into the Potomac River. Clarence K. Luther Welsh. left. potentially provided an added advantage for battleships in gunfire spotting and scouting/reconnaissance. Indian Head. and 8 NOV E M BER • During an experimental bomb test provisions for radio. F. 15) and on board Nevada (Battleship No. a bomb exploded about three feet below an N-9 seaplane. killing 18 NOV E M BER • Lighter-than-air tests were completed pilot Lt. manufacturers. Bronson (Naval Aviator No. Richardson. However. Taylor to solicit suitable designs from beginning with one. flight at Naval Proving Ground. David W. L. The explosion tore the tail off. a 2½-hour endurance. 1916 continued 452495 Pioneer naval photographer W. namely that balloons carrying hydrogen A Few Pioneers   |   25 . and the (Battleship No. Johnson. Md. The requirements included a speed range of 50 to 95 miles per hour. and pilot E.

command but not the title were transferred to Rear Adm. undergoes a wind tunnel test. and the practical experience so far obtained in the utilization Albert Gleaves. Bristol detached as report to Congress. 26  |  A Few Pioneers . Oklahoma’s commanding officer. . the first airplane designed and built by the Navy. and if kept inflated and moored to ships. Paunack (Naval Aviator No. Mustin reported that an Eastman Aero camera. a 12-hour member Rear Adm. Lt. and was designated as the first lighter-than-air pilot the following November. is 13 DECE M BER • The Navy modified specifications for a such as to preclude the determination at this time of any training dirigible—which Chief of Naval Operations Adm.g. Fla. for being towed. and they leaked.100 feet 30 DECE M BER • The Commission on Navy Yards and over Naval Aeronautic Station Pensacola. 72-CN-6423 7 DECE M BER • Lt. they became easy targets for antiaircraft gunners at ranges under 12. Roger Welles.1916 continued posed an increased hazard. Helm—recommended that endurance at 35 miles per hour. .” The commission— William S.. Mark L. and the functions of the that “the present development of aeronautical machines . Atlantic Fleet. balloons restricted vessels’ maneuverability. tested at altitudes of 600 to 5. reported that if they were to correct these problems balloons would become valuable to battleship operations. 27) was also assigned to lighter-than-air training on board Nevada during this period.000 yards. For aviation the commission reported Commander of the Air Service. a crew of three. a radio a joint Army-Navy board decide upon locations for use by range of 150 miles. James M. and the capability of landing at sea and both services. the craft also revealed the surface ships’ positions. j. Meanwhile. Robert R. extensive system of aviation bases. submitted its preliminary 12 DECE M BER • Capt. of Navy yards and for submarine and air bases along the coastlines of the United States. Commander Destroyer Force. it took time to inflate them. Henry C. A model of 82-A. Capt. which had been authorized by the Naval camera tested up to that time. Benson had originally ordered in October 1916— commonly referred to as the Helm Board after senior to require a top speed of 45 miles per hour. Cmdr. and produced photographs Act of 29 August 1916 to select new sites for the expansion satisfactory for military purposes. of such machines to meet the tactical and strategical requirements of the Fleet and the defense of the coast. but he neglected to note that whenever men raised balloons for scouting or spotting the fall of shot. was the best Naval Stations.

on university campuses. and in 1919 the Navy decided and technical specialists. By war’s end Navy and Marine Corps recommended to Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels squadrons had organized the Northern Bombing Group. The sentiment in favor of aircraft produced thousands of aviators. which the Americans converted into 8 JA N UA RY • A Benet-Mercie machine gun installed in F-5Ls by installing superb Liberty engines. and many naval aviators urged the Navy to adopt them as the major means of taking airpower to sea. The aviators were flying from 27 stations in Europe.S. mechanics. Test of Strength   |   27 . and development in lighter-than-air. Curtiss. One detachment became the first from the 1917 United States to reach France.S. When the fighting ended. Air stations sprang up not ignore the logic of these claims and the usefulness on both sides of the Atlantic. aircraft designers. despite the chaos generated by the speed and breadth of its expansion. all of these a flexible mount in the AH-10 hydroaeroplane performed aircraft types traced their ancestry to the earlier work of the satisfactorily during firing tests at altitudes of 100 and 200 designer and pilot Glenn H. Fleet counted only one flying boats secured a place in aviation history in 1919 as the first aircraft to fly across the Atlantic. The Naval aviation’s outstanding technical product of the secretaries approved the recommendation. This decision represented production. the U. Baker the design and which prepared a round-the-clock air campaign that was to construction of an airship of the Zeppelin type under have led toward the first strictly American air offensive of the direction of the Chief Constructor of the Navy. one in the Azores three Army and three Navy officers to ensure effective islands. Other pilots held the opinion that aircraft operating air station. and enthusiasts of 54 aircraft on hand. one in the Panama Canal Zone. The Curtiss NC-type feet above Pensacola. but the program emerged from these early trials too poorly equipped to wage war. and should fly from warships of the fleet. two in committee also recommended the creation of a board of Canada. carriers also gained currency. Naval aviation expanded remarkably lighter-than-air craft pointed to airship successes in the war during the 19 months between the U. and the 1920s witnessed programs at new air stations. the designs progressed through HS-1s and H-16s to British Felixstowe F-5s. and Liberty aircraft engines advanced from a modest beginning for a program that occupied the concept to mass production and operation. flying boat. 48 available aviators and students. and shipboard with private industry. Navy and Marine Corps funds provided equally by the Army and Navy. and 12 in the United States. ground officers. Flying boats evolved into impressive weapons. Chapter 2 Test of Strength 1917–1919 A small group of pioneer Navy and Marine Corps aviators nurtured the early growth of naval aviation. Although appointment of the Joint Army and Navy Airship Board. with the war. and Secretary of War Newton D. interservice cooperation in prosecution of the work. Officers established training of these aeronautic types. which led to the war arguably became long-distance flying boats. The Naval Reserve Flying Corps design and operations. Aircraft of many types entered to convert a collier to a carrier. and Naval aviation achieved a good wartime record naval tacticians for years following World War I. Fla. Naval aircraft flew more than three million nautical miles and attacked and damaged 12 6 JA N UA RY • A committee of Army and Navy officers German submarines. declaration of war and urged development of their specialty. attention of a host of shipbuilders. When the call came on 6 April 1917. Planners could with Germany and the Armistice.

11) arrived to Goodrich..S. New York directed the procurement of 16 B-class nonrigid airships. and U. aircraft on board for fleet exercises at the Southern Drill Grounds. R. Goodrich Co. F. with an aviation detachment and confined to providing fabric to Connecticut Aircraft. was at Culebra.. Puerto Rico. 10 JA N UA RY • The Navy initiated its first production Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Corp. Benson recommended that eight aeronautic coastal patrol missions in conjunction with fleet operations until 23 March. Two Cty. 1917 1312 A Burgess-built Curtiss N-9H seaplane with a Hispano-Suiza engine used for training.. Fla. Cape May. B. and only Connecticut Aircraft had any accessories for manufacture by the Eastman Kodak Co. order for aerial photographic equipment when the Naval Rubber Co.. The U. and the Panama Canal Zone. Rubber Co.J. Her air detachment operated from ship and 5 FEBRUA RY • Chief of Naval Operations Adm.I. later officers began suitability studies in these areas. On 19 March the Navy awarded contracts for two airships to Connecticut. N.S. Hampton Roads.. 28  |  Test of Strength . days later the Navy issued specifications to five companies— Galveston.. Va.. William temporary shore bases. and performed scouting and other S. and nine to Goodyear. three to Curtiss. This quantity proved beyond the capabilities of Observatory issued requisitions for 20 aero cameras and any one company. The admiral did not mention specific sites but noted that planners were to consider locations “in 4 FEBRUA RY • Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels the vicinity of ” Massachusetts Bay.. Seven days Connecticut Aircraft Co. stations be established. Key West. two 15 JA N UA RY • Seattle (Armored Cruiser No. Newport. Texas. experience in building airships.

William S. Fla.’” the agreement. and Robert A. Naval Forces Operating of automatically controlled aeroplanes or aerial machines in European Waters Rear Adm. asked us to send a couple of our crack men to reinforce a The Secretaries of War and Navy subsequently approved squadron. Secretary of the Navy 22 M A RCH • A Bureau of Ordnance letter to Chief of Naval Josephus Daniels established standard flight clothing for Operations Adm. moleskin hood. Marlin.000 feet over Pensacola. 13 FEBRUA RY • Capt. 24 M A RCH • The First Yale Unit of 29 men enlisted in the 7 A PR I L • President Woodrow Wilson’s Executive Order Naval Reserve Flying Force and departed four days later to 2587 directed the transfer of the Coast Guard from the train at West Palm Beach. and coat. 6 A PR I L • Following the approval of the recommendation of the Board on Flying Equipment. short coat and trousers. USMC. directed that all seaplanes be finished in an opaque yellow color overall. Gates. Ingalls. 1 air station. Secretary of the Navy the apportionment of $50. and operation. Berther. Evans. and Vickers for leather gloves. Under Secretary of the Navy when the Naval Consulting Board recommended to the and Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Air. 1917 continued 10 FEBRUA RY • The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics established a patent subcommittee with Lt.000 to Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Air. Fla. William S. John H. “Whenever the French and English Test of Strength   |   29 . Lovett. goggles. 3 balloons. I would say. The strength of naval organization. submitted the first interservice agreement regarding the development of aeronautic resources and aircraft operations. 48 officers. which recognized a general division of aeronautical functions along lines traditional to the 6 A PR I L • The United States declared that a state of war services but stressed the importance of joint development. and B equipage. Benson listed machine guns the Naval Flying Service and authorized its issuance as Title under consideration for naval aviation: Colt. NH 60768 12 M A RCH • A committee of Army and Navy officers An H-12 twin-engine flying boat. further orders. Trubee Davison became Assistant Secretary 14 A PR I L • The Navy’s first guided missile effort began for War. The clothing consisted of a tan sheepskin long Vickers types for synchronized fire through propellers. performed the first loop with a seaplane in an N-9 at 3. Artemus L. stating. carry on experimental work on aerial torpedoes in the form Secretary of Defense. David S. April 1917. and 13 M A RCH • The Bureau of Construction and Repair 239 enlisted men. soft leather boots. waders. Sims later paid carrying high explosives. aviation (Navy and Marine Corps combined) totaled 54 airplanes. existed with the German Empire. brogans. consequently receiving the Distinguished Flying Cross for this contribution to aviation. Colt. 1 airship. These volunteers became the Treasury Department to operate as part of the Navy until first of several college groups to join as a unit for war service. belts. and life all-round fire for observers. Marlin. Francis T. them tribute. Commander. Four of the Yale men subsequently attained distinguished positions: F. black Benet-Mercie. Towers as a member. Evans then forced the craft into a spin and recovered. ‘Let’s get some of the Yale gang. The necessity for this subcommittee arose from the threat of infringement suits brought by the holders of basic aeronautic patents that caused prohibitive prices for aircraft and general demoralization of the entire industry. Lewis.

Fla. for the Army qualify officers as pilots of either seaplanes or airships. April 1917. qualification as quartermaster. Philadelphia Navy Yard. Fla. Calif. David W. return to the air. John H. Advance established the Aircraft Production Board as a subsidiary Base Force. equipped to carry and operate aircraft. Fellers designed the synchronizing flights this month the service grounded it and DN-1 did not gear to keep projectiles from striking the propeller.. other Marine Corps commands. The board subsequently established was initially called the “Joint Technical Board on Aircraft. 15 M AY • Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels 26 A PR I L • The first dead-load tests on a catapult installed established an order of precedence for work involved in on board Huntington (Armored Cruiser No. was agency to act in an advisory capacity on questions of aircraft established at Marine Barracks. Fla.Y. Pa. Except Zeppelins.. Irwin received orders to the 4 M AY • The Commandant of the First Naval District Material Branch to relieve Lt. Also on Operations. and selecting a few men for pilot training and Savage Arms Co. for use in air training.” 19370 The Navy’s first airship DN-1 approaches its floating hangar during flight tests at Pensacola. Towers as Officer received direction to assume control of the Naval Militia in Charge of Aviation at the Office of the Chief of Naval station at Squantum.. Baker agreed to a proposal from the Secretary of the Navy concerning the establishment of a joint board for the purpose of standardizing the design and specifications of aircraft. These were two of several actions taken immediately following the declaration of war to expand the flight training program during the construction of stations of a more permanent nature. synchronized to fire through the propeller arc flight at Pensacola. Draftsman W. 5 M AY • Naval Aeronautic Station Pensacola. with Chief Constructor at Pensacola. and the program also provided for training enlisted men as aviation 47-round magazine-fed Lewis gun manufactured by the mechanics. 5) were the preparation for war. which placed “aircraft and their performed at Mare Island Navy Yard. and the Rear Adm... Taylor representing the Navy. Mass. Marine Corps Reserve Flying Corps to the new organization. Cunningham. Fla. 17 M AY • Capt. was best for all-around fire. The proved the most suitable for synchronized firing. under Capt. reported on a test firing of a Berthier machine gun made by Hopkins and 20 A PR I L • The Navy’s first airship DN-1 made its initial Allen Arms Co. fire through the propeller arcs and 50 for all-around fire. and following two more beach. Huntington equipment” ninth on a list of 20 major fields of material thus prepared for her employment as the Navy’s third ship procurement. 17 M AY • Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels requested 1 M AY • The Bureau of Navigation issued an aviation the purchase of 50 aircraft machine guns synchronized to circular concerning expansion of the training program. USMC. N. 1917 continued this day the Navy completed arrangements to take over the Naval Militia station at Bay Shore. Noble E. The airship’s performance proved from an R-3 floatplane as it taxied on water and stood on the unsatisfactory on several counts. Alfred A. Membership included a with the transfer of men from the Marine Aviation Section representative from each service. production and procurement. The calling for assignment of new classes every three months secretary noted that tests had determined that the belt-fed and the establishment of an 18-month-long course to Vickers gun manufactured by the Colt Co. M. Towers continued to assist Irwin but received 30  |  Test of Strength . 5 M AY • Secretary of War Newton D. 16 M AY • A resolution of the Council of National Defense 27 A PR I L • The Marine Aeronautic Company..

to train 20 men of the Naval Reserve Flying 29 M AY • The Navy awarded a contract to Goodyear Tire & Force as aviators at the company field at Newport News.S. J.and 12-cylinder Liberty motors. This marked the 19 M AY • The Chief of Naval Operations requested that deployment of the initial U. of Akron.S. 8) that arrived at St. reported for flight detachment comprised 7 officers and 122 enlisted men and instruction to the Curtiss Field at Newport News. at Pensacola.C. placement on all naval aircraft. 100 speed air station at Camaret. Nazaire three days later. arrived on board the collier Jupiter (Fuel Ship No. government aircraft and directed its B-class airships. in various aeronautic experiments involving the operation of seaplanes and kite balloons from her deck through 1 August. 1917 continued additional duty orders to the Bureau of Navigation as N-9s and R-6s as the most satisfactory for school and service Supervisor. Hall of the Hall-Scott Motor Car Co. Va. Except Zeppelins authorized the rudder. the practice techniques—in a hotel room in Washington. with Lt. assistant pilot. lookouts spotted an apparent torpedo pass ahead of the ship and a second wake 19 M AY • The Harvard unit. The French had requested the early scouts. and E. Rubber Co. landing in a meadow ten miles from containing layers of felt. Fla. Ill. Kenneth became the sole means of identifying a particular aircraft. and blue vertical bands on Technical Board on Aircraft. 3) at Pauillac. indicating an attack by a German submarine. while those from Neptune housed at a French naval of 300 school machines. but determined that the scouts and large seaplanes were not sufficiently developed to permit a selection. and 100 large seaplanes. The aviators. Calif. gum rubber. seaplanes. to train 20 men as lighter-than- air pilots. Henry B. Goodyear pilot Ralph H. Fla. Ohio. 299 described a distinguishing a pilot. Upson flew the airship on this flight. As a result of this order. comprising seven student pass astern. white.. 30 M AY • Airship B-1 completed an overnight test flight sealing fuel tanks consisting of double-walled galvanized iron from Chicago. The board recommended deployment of the men to bolster allied morale. Naval Reserve Flying Corps. Ohio. The entire 23 M AY • The Joint Technical Board on Aircraft. 5) arrived from automatic control gear. A crew of three consisting of 19 M AY • General Order No.. with the blue forward. Va. 60 miles off the estuary of the Gironde River. Test of Strength   |   31 . Except detachment completed offloading by 10 June. and provide suitable testing grounds. G. J. construction of five prototype models of 8. and an Ivory soap. France. to furnish six sets of 28 M AY • Huntington (Armored Cruiser No. Goodyear had manufactured B-1 at Akron and whiting paste. The men from Zeppelins. 17 M AY • To continue experimental work in aerial torpedoes the Navy presented plans to Sperry Co. 17 M AY • The Navy awarded a contract to the Curtiss Exhibition Co.. worked of the building (bureau) number of each aircraft in figures out the design of these engines—based on conservative three inches high at the top of the white vertical band on engineering practices specially adapted to mass production each side of the rudder. Cecil in charge. Akron. military command to that two small seaplanes and one pilot be detailed for duty in country during WWI. assembled it in Chicago. D. of assigning numbers to aircraft using the AH prefix was discontinued and the building (bureau) or serial number 5 J U N E • The First Aeronautic Detachment. Vincent of the Packard Motor Car 19 M AY • The Secretary of the Navy directed the placement Co. and engineer manned subsequent insignia for all U. where she participated N-9 seaplanes. 200 service seaplanes. install five of them in Navy furnished Mare Island. 18 M AY • Representatives from the Bureau of Standards demonstrated to Army and Navy officers experimental self. included an element on board the collier Neptune (Fuel Ship No. Whiting commanding. When the ship reached a position about connection with radio experimentation at Pensacola. Lt. recommended that the initial production program Jupiter originally billeted on board a French receiving ship at to equip the Navy with the aircraft necessary for war consist Bordeaux. The insignia called for a red disc within a white star on a blue circular field to be displayed 4 J U N E • The Aircraft Production Board and the Joint on the wings and for red.

starting with 7 J U LY • Commander First Aeronautic Detachment Lt. and 17 J U N E • A joint Army-Navy team.Y. Pa. The change related to aircraft and flight.S. khaki. for U. sites located at Bay Shore. Ens. called the Bolling requested departmental approval. 32  |  Test of Strength .. each Expeditionary Forces Gen. 13 June. manufacture. The design.S. The French agreed to Commission after its senior member Maj. Reserve Flying Corps. Raynal C.C. to Berkeley.1917 continued 11 J U N E • Seattle (Armored Cruiser No. Le Croisic. was established as the Packard Motor Car Co. or moleskin of the same color as directive. use. USA. proposed a three-part program: a Ground School 22 J U N E • Change No. N. 11) transferred all 28 J U N E • Landsman Thomas W. establishing the Ground School in late July and later the flying uniform. a Preliminary Flight school for provided for a summer service flying uniform of Marine flight training through five to ten hours of solo flights. Militaire (Military Aviation School) at Tours. Raphael. The Navy implemented the plan without a formal coverall from canvas. a Completing Flight school for advanced flight training and to be worn when on immediate active duty with aircraft. They also agreed to start construction of for the American air services.S. had assembled the engine from parts first U. The U. at the mouth of the Gironde River— France. R-type Frederick S. France. River. and Italy including Commander-in-Chief. reported to the aircraft briefly served on cruisers. The 13 J U N E • NAS Dunkirk. which circulated for comment within the Navy. France. D. N. American and a training station at Moutchic near Lake Lancanau. Montauk. Trojan. The Navy members were three patrol stations—Dunkirk. France. Westervelt and Lt. in flight training. George C. training under the British Royal Flying Corps (RFC). Warren G. About the same time. 50 men of the detachment began training as 10 J U LY • A plan for training student officers of the Naval mechanics at St. Navy in a contingent of Detachment began preliminary flight training in Caudron 100 Americans for which the Canadians agreed to provide landplanes under French instructors at the Ecole d’Aviation flight training. Child. France. which was established on Cmdr. apparatus to the deck so it would not interfere with normal operations at sea. sailed for Europe to study air developments schools (pilots at Tours and mechanics at St. WWI.Y. and Rockaway on Long Kenneth Whiting cabled Secretary of the Navy Josephus Island. The men left during training at Tours. naval service were received at NAS Pensacola. dividing flight training into elementary and advanced courses. and in a University of Toronto in Canada for the start of flight number of early experiments with torpedoes. Barrett of the First of her aviation sailors and planes ashore in preparation for Aeronautic Detachment was killed in an airplane crash convoy duty at the Brooklyn Navy Yard. USA. order also provided for a working dress uniform made as a USNRF. Fla. 11 in uniform regulations became for indoctrination into the Navy and study of subjects the first to make special provision for aviators. and assembly of the motor required less than six weeks. Raphael. 20 J U N E • The first R-5 twin-float seaplanes assigned to 9 J U LY • A group of 24 potential naval aviators. naval air station developed on foreign soil during made by manufacturers in various plants from Philadelphia. 4 J U LY • The first eight-cylinder Liberty motor arrived for testing by the Bureau of Standards in Washington. train the detachment at existing French Army aviation Bolling. Calif. on an island at the mouth of the Loire The commission met key allied leaders across England. Allen officer in charge. Pershing. and Corps khaki in the same pattern and design as service whites. Barrett thus became the first the raised catapult on board but lowered and secured the member of naval aviation to die in that country during WWI. Army and the RFC arranged for the instruction 22 J U N E • Enlisted men of the First Aeronautic to include 25 men from the U. Daniels the results of his negotiations with the French regarding training and establishment of air stations. and St. 14 J U N E • The Navy let the first contract for construction of new patrol stations along the Atlantic coast.S. among the allies and to recommend a policy and program both in France). The qualification as a naval aviator and a commission as ensign. John J. The station was disestablished on 1 January 1919.

Pa. Lt. in Seattle and the orders to establish and command a station for the purpose of Dunwoody Institute in Minneapolis. Spencer arrived on 8 November under at the University of Washington. for use by the Army and Navy the Naval Air Detachment. undertaking aeronautical departments subsequently approved the action. France. Lt.. Both purposes of constructing aircraft. 23 J U LY • Ground instruction for prospective pilots and for 27 J U LY • Public Law 31 of the 65th Congress authorized aviation ground officers began at the Massachusetts Institute President Woodrow Wilson to take possession of North of Technology. McKitterick in establishing permanent aviation stations and aviation commanding.. initiated helium production in the United States.000 to construct a small plant for that purpose. In this and similar programs later established schools. with a class of 43 students comprising Island. 26 J U LY • The Army and Navy Airship Board endorsed a proposal by the Bureau of Mines for the experimental 27 J U LY • Construction of the Naval Aircraft Factory at production of helium and recommended the allotment of the Philadelphia Navy Yard. indoctrination and introduction to the fundamentals of marking the beginning of what became NAS North Island. Test of Strength   |   33 . aviation. Minn. was authorized for the $100. Calif.. which developments. until they began to move into permanent quarters on the island on 8 June 1918. officers received training pilots and mechanics and conducting coastal patrols. Ground was broken for the facility on 10 August. San Diego. The Navy subsequently divided this training into Spencer trained these men at Balboa Park on the mainland elementary and advanced. and providing aircraft construction cost data. 1917 continued 1053802 HS flying boats moored at NAS Moutchic. Earl W. Edward H.

France. 33) commanding. Meanwhile. was also ricocheted. from the air. The trend developed to use an opaque air measures against submarines. John L. obtaining European aircraft for use at those stations until more satisfactory types manufactured in the United States 16 AUGUST • The initial students of the First Aeronautic became available. and nearly struck the plane. Long Island. Ireland. Lt. The Navy operated Montauk torpedoes from aircraft. directed his staff to investigate the subject further. of delivery. was established wing of an F-5L flying boat at Huntington Bay. N. The plan underwent successive would be able to fly across the Atlantic to avoid difficulties expansion and ultimately provided 27 locations in France. The weapon struck the water at an unfavorable angle. with a power output of 301 to 320 hp. Lt. Bradley A. France. even if not destroyed. it seems to me the submarine menace could patrol stations in France. France. Taylor initiated NC flying boat development in a memo to Naval Constructor Jerome C. 1917 continued transferred to Lake Hourtin. McDonnell launched a dummy torpedo from beneath a 31 AUGUST • NAS Moutchic. 12 of whom also received orders to the Army’s training school at Issoudun. initially as a seaplane patrol station but later expanded the facilities to include lighter-than-air operations. for training in Franco– British Aviation flying boats. These students completed training by November when 13 men received orders to Moutchic. France.” and all aircraft 4 SEPTE M BER • The technical members of the Bolling manufacturers to use either opaque yellow or clear varnish Commission submitted a report to the Secretaries of War on floats and hulls. Marc A. and Italy. The ideal of several such plans dealing with an overseas base solution would be big flying boats or the equivalent. The experiment established earlier in the month. Edward O. commanding. Callan N. Detachment to complete the flight course at Tours. 34  |  Test of Strength . Hunsaker that outlined certain NH 2493 general requirements of an airplane needed in war and Women at work at the Naval Aircraft Factory. NAS Montauk. Mitscher (Naval marked the beginning of serious Navy interest in launching Aviator No. “The ‘United States Liberty Motor’ gives good 8 AUGUST • Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels promise of being a success. Their recommendations so many other exceptions that no standard existed during included assigning air measures precedence over all other the next six months. to paint the wings of naval aircraft with “English–Khaki–Gray–Enamel. establishing and operating yellow finish for school machines and a khaki finish similar as many coastal patrol stations in Europe as possible. which construction program. NAS 15 AUGUST • The Bureau of Construction and Repair Moutchic was disestablished on 1 January 1919. The decision marked the first be abated. etc.” England. Some of the other graduates went to St. France.Y. 14 AUGUST • An experiment initiated through the efforts preliminary to entering mass production. for instruction in Chasse (chase or scout) planes and from there to Scotland for further hours in British machines. and to that used on British aircraft for service machines.Y. as a flight and ground training station. 25 AUGUST • The 12-cylinder Liberty motor passed a 50-hour test. These variations to the color scheme that and Navy following the commission’s return from studying had been established the preceding March were followed by air developments in Europe. 25 AUGUST • Chief Constructor David W. France. Fiske and conducted by Lt. and if we can push ahead on the approved plans to establish one training and three coastal airplane end. Raphael. Pa. of Rear Adm. from which naval aviation operated by the close of WWI. authorized the Curtiss Co. Taylor stated.. Philadelphia.

used to patrol the English Channel for German submarines. approximately 140 miles distant. Mass.. Fla. and at Orleans. An additional change. France. clearing the tangle and putting a Marine Corps aviators. Hoyt aloft in a kite balloon. following month. of the same design as the summer uniform. the design.g. Shipfitter First Class Patrick McGunigal noted his device to be worn on the left breast by all qualified Navy and plight and jumped overboard. for all officers When Hoyt reached about 400 feet.S.. Henry W. Va. which is still in use today. 1917 continued 72979 HS-1L flying boats at NAS Tréguier. As sailors worked to haul the balloon down. a sudden squall 7 SEPTE M BER • Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels slammed the balloon into the water. approved on bowline around Hoyt. j. Operating Base Hampton Roads. 17 SEPTE M BER • Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels approved the establishment of 15 overseas naval air stations 8 SEPTE M BER • NAS Hampton Roads. Detachments under sent radio signals to operators at Naval Radio Station New training at the Curtiss School at Newport News. La. dropped. and 12 October. Va. hoisted observer Lt. was equipped for seaplane missions to be operational by 1 July established as an air training station and patrol base to 1918.. Men hauled the observer on deck..S.” from McGunigal subsequently received the Medal of Honor. Hoyt was knocked approved a change in the uniform regulations designating from the basket and the balloon’s rigging entangled him a winged foul anchor with the letters “U. Va. directed the deletion of the letters “U.. 7 SEPTE M BER • An R-6 flying from NAS Pensacola. Five of these stations were also to support airship and conduct experimental work in seaplane operations at Naval kite balloon operations. 7 SEPTE M BER • Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels 17 SEPTE M BER • Huntington (Armored Cruiser No. establishing the basic form of the device. the temperature suddenly assigned to aviation duty. causing the balloon to descend almost 200 feet.” as the official underwater. 5) approved a change in the uniform regulations which passed through European waters during the morning and authorized a forestry green winter service flying uniform. Test of Strength   |   35 . The successful Squantum. were transferred to the naval air station the test led to additional orders for 300 Simon radio transmitters.

was divided into the First Aviation 36  |  Test of Strength . and three days later the First Aviation Squadron transferred for training in landplanes to 26 SEPTE M BER • The Naval Air Detachment at Akron. D. N. Cone relieved Lt. N. was established as a naval aviation forces abroad. courses began at NAS Moutchic. became operational when Capt. 12) in 1916. Ohio. Lovett had also directed 22 OCTOBER • The Ground School program at the the assembly of the aircraft and subsequently became the Massachusetts Institute of Technology expanded to include fourth Secretary of Defense. Irwin requested Carolina (Armored Cruiser No. received commissions as ensigns. Noble E. which had evolved from the First Aeronautic have use of the Navy area at any time. terms of use were laid out in a revocable license beginning on 1 November and ending within six months of the war’s 24 OCTOBER • U. led to the adoption of both the engine and the airplane as standard service types. and with the understanding that the Army was to Service..C. that representatives of bureaus having cognizance over some phase of the program meet each week to discuss and 14 OCTOBER • The Marine Aeronautic Company at expedite all matters pertaining to aviation.700 First Marine Aeronautic Company composed of 10 officers operational aircraft of the following Curtiss types under and 93 men. Lt. France. This flight and other successful demonstrations 94 to 104. Cmdr. established a production program of 1..Y. 2 NOV E M BER • Twelve men organized as the Second Yale 12) completed the removal of her catapult. Hutch I. and all Unit who undertook flight training at their own expense aeronautics gear at the Brooklyn Navy Yard. marking the end of the operational test of aircraft 5 NOV E M BER • To coordinate the aviation program on board three warships. The First Marine Aeronautic Company trained here from 14 October until its 24 OCTOBER • Routine instruction in flight and ground departure for the Azores on 9 January 1918. which had started with North Officer in Charge of Aviation Capt. On the same day the First Marine Aeronautic consideration: 235 H-16 and 825 HS-1 flying boats and 640 Company transferred for training in seaplanes and flying R-6 seaplanes. and the Except Zeppelins.. the first flight in a Franco–British Aviation flying boat.. made designation L-12. N. The and 114 airplane inspectors before the end of the war.J. Philadelphia. The engine subsequently received the 27 SEPTE M BER • Ens.000 feet in ten minutes and attained a to accomplish training specifically as dirigible pilots and speed of 95 mph at 1. with 14 students enrolled. BuNo A-295. special courses to train men as inspectors. Kenneth Whiting of command over all 6 OCTOBER • NAS Cape May.J. at NAS Moutchic. N. USNRF. Lovett. The Naval Aviator (Dirigible). reported the qualification of 11 students. seaplane and lighter-than-air patrol station. Foreign conclusion. boats to NAS Cape May.. transferred her aeronautic equipment ashore at New York City. N. N. Maxfield commanding. The pilots soon thereafter received their designations as 13 OCTOBER • Huntington (Armored Cruiser No.S. These men became the first flying boat climbed 4. the Army field at Mineola on Long Island. Detachment.Y. Baker inspector school and met the expanding need for qualified authorized the Navy to use a part of the Army landing field at inspectors of aeronautical material by producing 58 motor Anacostia. as 21 OCTOBER • An HS-1 made the first successful Navy lighter-than-air pilots and requested their designation as flight test of a 12-cylinder Liberty engine at Buffalo. 3 experimental subsequently received naval aviator numbers ranging from engine. to erect and maintain a seaplane hangar. including Maxfield.. 11 OCTOBER • North Carolina (Armored Cruiser No. aircraft.Y.Y. Louis H. France. The program was eventually established as an 6 OCTOBER • Secretary of War Newton D. Pa. N.Y. Naval Aviation Forces.1917 continued 18 SEPTE M BER • The Joint Technical Board on Aircraft. at Buffalo. USNRF.680 rpm using the No. Robert A. 5) naval aviators. Squadron composed of 24 officers and 237 men.

Hutch I.. Lt. The 22 NOV E M BER • Commander. Investigation of Material established a committee to intensify efforts to develop light metal alloys for aeronautical use. S. George 150 men. and 6 kite balloons.” This was a major was the first armed patrol by a U. Naval Forces Operating in European 18 NOV E M BER • Naval aviation began aerial coastal Waters Vice Adm. N. Gen. The aircraft’s motor died. waters. Marco A. Six of these stations were under Yale Unit piloted a pair of Tellier flying boats on a two hour consideration for development in the United Kingdom and familiarization flight. Pichon Jr. The program also O. The Curtiss “flying bomb” is the predecessor of today’s guided missiles. to investigate reports of up to four German the War Department to naval needs for aviation material submarines that had been spotted south of Belle-Île. The school at NAS Moutchic required 9 officers. in which he pointed Test of Strength   |   37 . The Army established at NAS Pauillac. 20 officers. Fla. 87). in Paris and at the headquarters in London for a total of 870 officers and 8.S.. Benson issued a report regarding the development of J. Long Island. U. Smith. 21 NOV E M BER • Chief Signal Officer Maj. Wilkinson and Machinist’s Mate Second Class T. 10 NOV E M BER • A Navy “flying bomb” manufactured by the Curtiss Co. Squier. Henry H. Foreign Service Capt.. a Tellier flying boat. j. N-9s received conversions for automatic operations as flying bombs that closely resembled 651988 subsequent guided missiles. forcing Smith to make a “tail to wind” landing in rough water.S. 1917 continued 9 NOV E M BER • The Argentinean government granted permission to use as instructors in the ground school at Pensacola. Landon of the First planned stations ashore. Brady flew Seaplane No. France. enabling the station’s at three stations in France. three Argentine naval officers who had recently qualified as U. Ricardo Fitzsimmon Jr. Forces.454 men. France. This necessary to equip and arm seaplane bases. and crewmembers Electrician 24 NOV E M BER • Chief of Naval Operations Adm. and 183 men at each of 15 Reginald C. arrived for testing at the Sperry Flying Field at Copiague on Long Island. The aircraft were unarmed because nine in France. William S. Lighter-than-air allotments included four they had not received ordnance.S. for 16 seaplanes. naval aviators—Lt. France. 22 NOV E M BER • Pilot Ens. and Lt. Baker approved a recommendation “that priority be given by Croisic. 87. USA. planes to stand ready to fly combat patrols. Designers intended the flying bomb (also called an aerial torpedo) for automatic operation carrying 1. and a repair and assembly base. witnessed a demonstration of the N-9 needed a further store depot and receiving barracks to be flying bomb at Amityville. William Homer M. Carlos F. Cone reported to Commander. N. In addition to this specially designed aircraft. 13 officers.Y. from Le aircraft torpedoes and torpedo planes. A consignment of bombs airships and a complement of 15 officers and 198 men each reached Le Croisic two days later. a French 15 NOV E M BER • The National Advisory Committee destroyer rescued the survivors minutes before the damaged for Aeronautics’ Subcommittee on Standardization and plane sank about 25 miles southeast of Rochebonne. and 75 officers and men subsequently established a parallel aerial torpedo project. Naval Aviation members included Naval Constructor Jerome C. 14 NOV E M BER • Secretary of War Newton D. Two days later. Lt. naval aviator in European step toward the expansion of the Navy’s aircraft production. Coombe and Ens.Y.S.g. Kenneth R. Zar. USNRF (Naval Aviator No. and 60 men each at three stations in the United Kingdom (Ireland). U. Hunsaker. with a range of 50 miles and a top speed of 90 mph.000 pounds of explosive. Sims that they had allotted patrols in European waters from Le Croisic.

was established. authorization for the Curtiss HA type. France. 27 NOV E M BER • NAS Le Croisic. modern warships. demonstrated a helicopter of military value. and were thus incapable of delivering power plants and propellers in order to successfully obtain a torpedo with an explosive charge large enough to seriously a helicopter.” Planners intended the 1 DECE M BER • NAS Pauillac. It was disestablished on development with the Secretary of the Navy’s 28 January 1919. was established as aircraft to function in the escort and air superiority role an assembly and repair station supporting naval air stations over the French coast from Calais to Dunkirk. Fla. synchronized machine guns forward and dual flexible machine guns in the rear cockpit equipped the two-man.. was the standard Navy flying boat trainer. the Joint Technical Board on Aircraft.. Except Zeppelins. but limited support of development efforts damage large. at Pensacola. Corry commanding. William M. subsequently known as the “Dunkirk Fighter. France. out that available aircraft could carry no more than a 600. 1917 continued 177954 The two-seat Curtiss Model F. was redesignated Naval Air Station (NAS) Pensacola. in 1918. 5 DECE M BER • The secretaries of the War and Navy single-pontoon seaplane. 38  |  Test of Strength . These concerns hindered to moral encouragement of potential vendors until they torpedo plane development in WWI and beyond. The members recognized the need for improvements in pound ordnance load. Dual in France. departments established a policy regarding helicopter development on the basis of recommendations made by 7 DECE M BER • Naval Aeronautic Station Pensacola. Fla. 7 DECE M BER • The Navy initiated fighter aircraft Lt. It was disestablished on 15 February 1919.

. and during the battle several new instruction program at the Blue Hill Observatory at ships steaming offshore opened fire. 40) and Terry (squadron) N124 of the French Aéronautique Militaire (Destroyer No. was established landed between NAS Dunkirk and Chantier de France. At about 0100 Technology. and that he be Test of Strength   |   39 . JA N UA RY • NAS Chatham. The Germans struck again on the night of 21 January and in the training program at the Massachusetts Institute of a small bomb tore out the end of the mess hall. lieutenant commander in the Naval Reserve. Lake Charles. Francis T. to overcome difficulties arising from the Florida requested that the director of Harvard University’s Blue Hill location’s remoteness from the principal manufacturing Observatory. Several Herbert O. The Germans frequently 31 DECE M BER • The First Aviation Squadron of the bombed the area during the succeeding days but did not Marine Corps. later reinforced by six HS-2Ls. About 50 men from NAS Dunkirk helped the French fight fires. Lafayette.. the chiefly as an elementary flight training station and as a base nearest of which knocked out windows and cut several holes for limited patrol operations. offered their services to naval aviation. was established. Four bombs destroyed seven French HD-2 seaplane fighters and a large wooden hangar. McKitterick commanding. Lt. be enrolled as a and industrial areas. activated at bombed the French air station adjacent to NAS Dunkirk. The Marines service the men enrolled as ensigns and traveled to NAS subsequently flew antisubmarine patrols over convoy Moutchic. 22 JA N UA RY • The 12 officers and 133 enlisted men of the First Marine Aeronautic Company. was established to provide a base for short test flights. commanding. 25) at Naval Base 13 at Ponta Delgada in (Army Air Service). for training in seaplanes. N. transferred to NAS Hampton Roads. McAdie. D. and the Army station at Langley Field. Edward H. La.. McIlvain. disembarked from the transport about 12 American volunteer chase pilots from Escadrille Hancock escorted by Beale (Destroyer No. aerial bombardment of naval aviation facilities on record. 1 JA N UA RY • The Experimental and Test Department at Pensacola. Fla. 19 JA N UA RY • NAS Anacostia. France.. commanding. Capt. Mass. USMC. Dunn also arrived on board the ship and six of the men had seen action over the lines and officers days later hoisted his flag aloft. lanes in the Azores area with two N-9s and ten R-6s. 18 JA N UA RY • During a nighttime raid the Germans Capt. Dr. At least six large caliber Harvard University. Fifty-four men of the station but failed to inflict casualties. Roy S. 1918 Va. Mass. 1918 15 DECE M BER • The Marine Aeronautic Detachment..C. for advanced training in landplanes. The school carried out a major portion of the the Germans fired a 15-inch gun. Following their release from French to be deployed overseas during WWI. This was the first instance of enemy Aviator No. Fla.. JA N UA RY • During the New Year a detachment of USMC. popularly known as the Escadrille the Azores. Alexander G. and a bomb shattered the windows of the commanding officer’s office. William M.. Evans. Marine Barracks. France.. as well as housing and repair services for seaplanes on test flights from NAS Hampton Roads.Y. but held some classes at the and several smaller rounds impacted within the perimeter Aerographic Laboratory on the MIT campus. Naval Reserve Flying Corps Va. Philadelphia Navy Yard. 25 JA N UA RY • Supervisor. commanding. and to display new seaplanes for study. This marked the arrival of recognized the value of their experience for pursuit the first trained and equipped American aviation command operations at Dunkirk. Enemy aircraft qualified as aerologists by the end of the war. Another four bombs 18 DECE M BER • NAS Key West. Pa.. Commander Azores Detachment Rear Adm. to Gerstner Field.. and the Americans 22 DECE M BER • The start of classes with a single student subsequently loaned their allies four HD-2s for temporary enrolled marked the addition of an Aerography School use. USMC (Naval inflict significant damage. returned three nights later. Capt. transferred from Mineola. in the storehouse and pay office. Va. Geiger. 12).

1918 continued assigned to the Chief of Naval Operations Aviation Office to Friedrich Christiansen commanding. following July. William B. France.S. Paul J.S. and the naval air stations in Ireland. above and below. German necessity of using the men there for other work.Y. placing the red nearest the rudder post.. naval aviation change in national aircraft insignia. Sturtevant. air station at Brest. and blue vertical bands flying as chase pilots with Italian planes that contended on the rudder. Dichman took command air stations at Cape May. British and German eyewitnesses reported 3 FEBRUA RY • Aerial gunnery training for prospective that the Americans continued to fire as they fell. Fla. which replaced the white operations in Italy consisted of training American pilots star on the outer sections of the wings. Roy S. Geiger. Faux managed to escape. 22 FEBRUA RY • NAS Queenstown. Bolsena 8 FEBRUA RY • General Order No. Plans for the establishment of several additional stations in Italy were 10 FEBRUA RY • The Marine Aeronautic Detachment. The Vrach. which served as a base and Rockaway. Aircraft began to fly patrols other with a South African pilot named Faux and copilot from Queenstown on 30 September. J. Fla. U. Philadelphia Navy Yard. At least five German W. cancelled following the Armistice. N. France. It was disestablished on 28 January 1919. Atwater commanding. Montauk of the U. 4 FEBRUA RY • NAS Fromentine. The 22 FEBRUA RY • Officer in Charge of Aviation Capt. C. and as an assembly Coco Solo. to NAS Miami. The Navy submarines often shelled sailing craft or power boats at sea returned the facility to the French on 15 January 1919..J. the Habsburg advance in autumn 1918. aircraft. C.. provide wireless transmitting and receiving equipment to permit pilots on patrol to communicate with the naval 13 FEBRUA RY • Lt. was established. U. to escort a convoy to Dutch waters. copilot British Flight Lt. N. France. conducting bombing raids on Austro- with concentric circles of red and blue around white. Chatham.. and for seaplane and kite balloon operations. Key West. at Felixstowe. which was disestablished on 15 February 1919. Grattan C. Cmdr. This began what became expanded this request to cover all naval air stations. Stevenson. commanding. Peyton commanding. transferred disestablished on 2 January 1919. was 15 FEBRUA RY • Two H-12s—one with pilot Ens. Ens. 3 FEBRUA RY • Work began on a lighter-than-air station 16 FEBRUA RY • A German submarine appeared off L’Aber for airships at Gujan southwest of Bordeaux.S. to operate water-based aircraft from Marine Barracks. in view of men ashore but departed without station never became operational because of frequent delays incident. France. Sturtevant naval aviators and enlisted men began under British Royal posthumously received the Navy Cross for this action and Flying Corps instructors at the Army’s field at Camp for previous patrols over the North Sea. white. USMC. and Hungarian targets including the naval fortress at Pola. W. Noble detachment consequently moved to nearby Marine Flying E. Lt. 364 promulgated a operated primarily as a flying school. on Italian machines. Bailey—departed the British station disestablished on 10 April 1919. The D. NAS Queenstown was British Flight Lt. Mass. Ireland. San Diego. Texas. C. H. England. and became the first Taliaferro near Fort Worth. and facility served as the assembly and repair station for all crewmembers S. Purdy. French islanders told the Americans that prior resulting from material transportation difficulties and the to the arrival of the naval aviation detachment.29 fighter floatplanes. 21 FEBRUA RY • The Italian and United States flags rose Aircraft began to fly seaplane patrols from the facility the simultaneously over the establishment of NAS Bolsena. NAS Brest. Oberleutnant 40  |  Test of Strength . naval aviator to fall in battle with enemy forces. Albert established. just off the coast. Calif.. Irwin asked the Director of Naval Communications to Field. Panama Canal Zone. Miami. and reversed the order of the red. and NAS Bolsena was Capt. Holeridge and A. attacked the two create a Naval Aerological Organization. but the Germans shot down Sturtevant. Pa. Italy.. The following May officers plant for aircraft shipped overseas. The first of two air stations opened in that country during WWI.

Stephan Potter.S. Several U. 6 M A RCH • The Bureau of Navigation established instrument allowances for naval aircraft. F.. Cmdr. originally scheduled the station for establishment on 15 November and it consequently failed to open prior to the 28 FEBRUA RY • President Woodrow Wilson issued Armistice. 1 M A RCH • NAS Paimboeuf. advanced. all student aviators were to exploit for which he also received the Navy Cross. waters and possessions. 130). the Chief of Naval 11 M A RCH • Work began on an airship station at Guipavas Operations established an allowance list of aerographic near Brest. and received orders to British Royal the station at Paimboeuf was the only airship facility that Naval Air Station Roehampton to commence instruction. altimeter. and an altimeter and clock for kite circular letter to his subordinate commands defining the balloons and training planes. Planners equipment for air stations abroad. USNRF (Naval Aviator No.S.S. which provided that following U. light fast bombing. Cmdr. of Lt. in General Order No. clock. and a clock for service in seaplanes and aviation intelligence officers Commander. USCG. England. The Americans returned the facility to the French Proclamation No. Hutch I. Prior to the Armistice 17 M A RCH • Twenty-two kite balloon pilots arrived at the U. Alexander G. 9 M A RCH • The Navy initiated a revised training program shot down one of the attackers to receive credit as the first for naval aviators (seaplanes). duties and functions performed by such officers at British Royal Navy air stations. became operational before war’s end. German coast. but Liverpool. disestablished on 25 January 1919. Test of Strength   |   41 . J. allotting a compass. with the suggestion that provisions 6 M A RCH • A falling-weight type catapult launched an for similar services be made at naval air stations “as may seem unmanned flying-bomb type plane that flew 1. Potter specialize in one of three general types of seaplanes— had trained with the Second Yale Unit at the Curtiss plant at fighting scouts. naval aviators had served with the French at Paimboeuf since November 1917.000 yards at expedient. effective in 30 days but published on 13 January 1919. Navy obtained 12 airships from the French. formerly of Harvard University’s Blue Hill Observatory. Ten additional kite balloon pilots arrived in May 1918 for duty in France. France. NAS Ile Tudy was the Joint Army and Navy Board on Aeronautic Cognizance. 407 of 8 July. Cone distributed a airships and free balloons. and pilot Ens. Mass. Lt. on weather phenomena in the upper atmosphere to flight and advanced specialization courses and designated the operations. Sugden.S. N. U. and on 31 October it was specifically stated that aviation intelligence officers be specially trained for this work. 1432. France. Foreign Service Capt. 19 M A RCH • As combat operations underlined the need for two altimeters. naval aviator to shoot down an enemy seaplane. and acting largely on the recommendations stations at which the respective courses were to be given. 7 M A RCH • Wartime expansion drove the establishment of the Office of the Director of Naval Aviation in the Office 19 M A RCH • A formation of flying boats flew a long-range of the Chief of Naval Operations and the expansion of the reconnaissance mission over the Heligoland Bight off the Aviation Section into a division. In addition. and statoscope for Forces. naval gray enamel.Y. Lt. an a period of general training. Maxfield commanding. in Britain and France.” Supplementary letters clarified the duties and the Sperry Flying Field at Copiague on Long Island. Buffalo. was established 15 M A RCH • The Bureau of Construction and Repair as the Americans assumed control of the airship station directed that all new naval aircraft be painted in low-visibility there. 1st Lt. This order prohibited private flying over the United States. and patrol. Naval Aviation flying boats. as well as its territorial 14 M A RCH • NAS Ile Tudy. NAS Paimboeuf was Upon graduation the men detached to kite balloon stations disestablished on 26 January 1919. Maloney commanding. McAdie. was established. 1918 continued 26 FEBRUA RY • Recognizing the importance of data the change divided the program into elementary. N. functions. commanding. France. without a special license issued by Charles E. German seaplanes attacked the planes.Y. a compass. Louis H.

30 M A RCH • Commander. Cone directed a temporary halt to construction on these stations. William S.. Commander. on the allied lines to begin Operation Michael.” not including Philadelphia. or “Dunkirk Fighter.S.” BuNo A-2278. John F. 31 M A RCH • The First Aviation Squadron transferred from at Port Washington on Long Island. Pa. Johnson commanding. Pa..S. naval aviator during a flight Charles M. During the fighter’s Gerstner Field at Lake Charles. Cone NAH 2121 cabled air stations in France to determine the availability of The first H-16 flying boat built at the Naval Aircraft Factory. Foreign Service Capt. England. USMC. A PR I L • NAS La Trinité. made its first flight. A fire destroyed the plane on 7 August. was established.070 men and several hundred machine guns. 1918 continued 27 M A RCH • The first aircraft built at the Naval Aircraft Factory at Philadelphia. Navy H-16s. The principal armament of this single-engine. the first of After the Germans overextended their supply lines and allied a series of German offensives along the Western Front in reinforcements stabilized the front. Fla. naval aviation in France to relocate 30 M A RCH • The Navy ordered an 18-T (Kirkham) to NAS Pauillac. 42  |  Test of Strength . two-seater landplane 21 M A RCH • Curtiss test pilot Roland Rohlfs and observer consisted of two synchronized and two flexible machine guns.S. and European stations during WWI. Capt. Hutch I. which provided an 21 M A RCH • Thousands of German guns opened fire estimated 2. 10 A PR I L • A training school for female apprentices began at the Naval Aircraft Factory at Philadelphia. heavily damaged. though the citation did not specifically 5 February 1919. Sims sent a message to Navy forces in France to prepare to reinforce the allies to “the utmost of our capacity” to contain the German breakthrough on the Western Front. the base never efforts. the facility had been selected with Waters Vice Adm.S. Located in the fishing from British Royal Naval Air Station Portland. Sims reported the attack as a view to relay kite balloons for convoys between Brest and “apparently successful. on an enemy submarine by a U. William S. Naval Forces Operating in European Waters Vice Adm. BuNo A-1049. men for “transport and other auxiliary work. Bernard L. to Marine Flying Field. however. second flight on 15 April the aircraft capsized and was Miami. leaves the assembly building. but The French began to move some government offices and directed the retention of these reinforcements to stand ready industrial facilities from the vicinity of the capital to other for deployment within a “fortnight.” McNamara received the Navy Cross for his services achieved this function.S.” and Secretary of the Navy Josephus La Pallice while ships entered Quiberon Bay. N. made the first flight of the prototype HA seaplane. U. France..S. declined the offer of the men and rescinded their orders. those qualified or in training. McNamara made the first attack operation since November 1917. mention this battle. Naval Aviation Forces. and allied leaders feared an enemy drive on Paris. Ens.” areas of the country. equipped with two 230- pound bombs and five Lewis machine guns. Pa.Y. village of La Trinité-sur-Mer about four miles from Carnac Commander. which had been in 25 M A RCH • Ens. NAS La Trinité was disestablished on during the war. U. Naval Forces Operating in European on the Bay of Morbihan. Smith. including arrangements for sections of the headquarters of U. on 3 April the French France. an H-16. triplane fighter from Curtiss Engineering Corp. U. La. Due to later Daniels commended McNamara for his “valiant and earnest modifications in the convoy system. conducted antisubmarine patrols from U.

H. France. Cmdr. Miami. USMC. later deployed to France and operated as the Day Wing of the Northern Bombing Group. The latter two commands had disbanded the day before. Studer and pilot Ens. Fla. departed to naval air second plane dropped two bombs and then flew to Stewart stations in Europe. The station was disestablished on 12 were organized within this force on 16 June. Capt. commanding. shown in its 1919 18T-2 guise with extended wings. A headquarters 17 A PR I L • NAS Berehaven. Reed Jr. marking the first the First Aviation Squadron and the Aeronautic Detachment. McAdie commanding. Alfred A. William F.S. W. was established. 13) and directed her to attack. United Kingdom (Ireland) company and four squadrons. (Destroyer No. Harrell with observer the designations of 7 through 10. set records for both speed and altitude. naval air station. The French Test of Strength   |   43 . 15 A PR I L • The First Marine Aviation Force. These squadrons February 1919. escorted by the Americans off the coast of France. Williams flew two planes on a patrol from NAS Ile Tudy. Fla. Kenneth R. reported for Cunningham. B. 1918 continued 1061648 The first Curtiss-built 18T Kirkham fighter. E. such assignment made to a U. Lt. with observer O. was formed with men of “aerographical” duty at NAS Pensacola. The Alexander G. and D.. Smith comprised an authorized strength of 18 planes each. designated A. where they subsequently received 22 A PR I L • Pilot QM1 R. C. USMC. These squadrons normally QM2 H. Both aircraft bombed and 16 A PR I L • The first detachment of trained aerologists damaged a U-boat stalking a convoy of about 20 ships consisting of 9 officers and 15 enlisted men. 17 A PR I L • Lt. at Marine Flying Field.

gas valve. Royal Air Force. Potter attempted to climb. May 1918. Potter. A. N. France. on the beach at Pensacola. Frederick improved British variant of an H-12—Side No. 23 A PR I L • The first shipment of Liberty engines to naval 25 A PR I L • The airship Capitaine Caussin suffered an aviation commands in France arrived at the assembly and accident during a patrol from NAS Paimboeuf. died in Christiansen’s fifth (claimed) victory. The destroyer dropped three depth charges. and oil floated to the surface. Lt. Ardente of two flying boats on a patrol from Felixstowe. and two crewmen the pilot the Legion of Honor. 1918 continued 426915 Naval planes. which had failed to close after valving. hundred feet. rank of Chevalier. caused the airship to lose pressure and dive into the sea from several 25 A PR I L • Ens. Cmdr. The impact threw two crewmembers into Magor. antisubmarine gunboat Ardente joined the battle.2A—an the water. Culbert jumped from the airship and aided them until 44  |  Test of Strength .2A’s stern gunner. and his Smith received the Navy Cross for this exploit. and Capt. flew an Felixstowe F. Stephan Potter. Fla. England. Christiansen shot the F. 8677. Maxfield and Lt. bits of sea growth. as one P. A repair station at NAS Pauillac.. Light. Louis H. The French gunner fired a burst that ignited a fire on board the flying credited Smith and Williams for probably sinking the boat and boat. attempted to ram the boat. including two Curtiss F-boats (foreground). and the patrol about six miles west-southwest of North Hinder wreckage. USNRF. but her action compelled German Oberleutnant Friedrich Christiansen led a flight of Stewart to turn away from her depth charge run at the last five single-seat planes and a pair of two-seaters that attacked moment. Magor. but he was too low to turn awarded Smith their Croix de Guerre and also bestowed upon into the wind and crashed.

. the airship. was established. Ens. and that six advanced training squadrons be organized there to begin training patrol plane and night 27 A PR I L • The airship AT-1. 2 M AY • NAS Wexford in the United Kingdom (Ireland) 13 J U N E • Pilot Lt. The station’s Meteorological Officer. completed a 25-hour. in code communications at up to 120 nautical miles. NAS Arcachon was disestablished on 7 January 1919. Pennoyer commanding. 30 A PR I L • Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels 4 J U N E • NAS L’Aber Vrach. E. 24 M AY • The first consignment of American-built HS-1 29 A PR I L • The British transferred the Royal Air Force flying boats. USNRF. Merrill P. located southwest of Bordeaux. Lt. Fla.. Lt. This became one of the first radio sets used in.Y. Trojan. Ens. Carl E. and France. Lt. acting directed that the bureaus and offices expedite the assembly commanding officer until relieved by Lt.. Thomas 20 M AY • Work began on a naval air station at La Pallice. and manned by a crew comprising Ens. 43-minute flight from France. During the patrol the airship never formally established. Bombing Group to undertake air operations in the Dunkirk–Bruges–Ostend–Zeebrugge region against 8 J U N E • NAS Arcachon. Ens. to maintain 19 J U N E • Sailors at NAS Pensacola. 1918 continued rescuers recovered all the swimmers. developed a technique to carry recording use on H-16s had demonstrated dependability in voice instruments aloft in a kite balloon. John H. Lt.. 6 M AY • NAS Coco Solo. who immediately established (BuNos A-1575 and A-1583) on board the cargo ship Lake NAS Berehaven. made February 1919. Brown. June. Ens. Dashiell commanding. This was the facility to the French on 5 January 1919. Reed Jr.. Zeno W. longest flight on record for an airship of this type. The station was disestablished on 15 James B. to operate from St. Delano. France. and the first tube 29 J U N E • Two Levy-Le Pen HB-2s became the first aircraft set developed for. France. N. and the Americans returned the escorted three convoys through a mined zone. Joseph N. Charles P. and four at Miami. German submarines and their support facilities. was established. Merrill P. Placid arrived at NAS Pauillac. Patton and Lt.g. while it drifted to the beach where the crew then dismantled He also directed that elementary training at Pensacola. 18 M AY • The Chief of Naval Operations set training goals to provide pilots for foreign service and directed that eight Test of Strength   |   45 . approved a plan recommended by the General Board and Cmdr. Arthur D. an HS-1. Wicks on 15 of the necessary men and equipment. naval aircraft. Brewer. gradually refining his communications at distances of up to 50 nautical miles. Maxfield received a gold life saving medal. was established.000 feet. Delano elementary training squadrons be operated—two at Bay and French Commandant Leroy guided Capitaine Caussin Shore. Fla. and method to take six soundings a day at an altitude of 1. Henry B. commanding. when they arrived from NAS Le Croisic. and he Fla. began taking patrols over the seaward approaches to the Panama Canal. that a Marconi SE 1100 radio transmitter designed for William F. at NAS Pauillac. j. Culbert bomber pilots as soon as practicable. two at Key West. Shumway commanding. Ralph G. be discontinued as soon as the students on board had and Culbert each received French life saving medals. McCracken. Cecil commanding. The station NAS Paimboeuf. Lt. France. Fla. consisting of six planes (BuNos A-808 through kite balloon station at Berehaven in the United Kingdom A-813) on board the transport Houston and two planes (Ireland) to the Americans. the first flight of the initial American-built aircraft to be assembled in France. France. William B. upper atmospheric weather soundings to provide information on wind velocity and direction required for navigational 15 M AY • The Bureau of Steam Engineering reported training flights. USNRF. Mason and passengers Cmdr. Panama Canal Zone. NAS L’Aber Vrach was developed by Naval Forces in Europe for the Northern disestablished on 22 January 1919. was established. Frederick P. and Ens. graduated. Jameson.

Cooke commanding. war. 1918 continued 1053765 The last of the six rotary-engine Thomas-Morse S-5s purchased by the Navy. 214 the westernmost air station established in Europe during the Squadron of the British Royal Air Force. the National Naval Volunteers and authorized President Woodrow Wilson to transfer as a class all of its members 4 J U LY • A detachment of 12 kite balloons and 42 men in their confirmed ranks and ratings to the Naval Reserve. NAS Whiddy Island was 1 J U LY • An act of Congress repealed all laws relating to disestablished on 29 January 1919. or Marine Corps Reserve. Patrol planes from the island met Atlantic convoys as they approached the British Isles. 4 J U LY • NAS Whiddy Island was established as a small Northern Bombing Group. of extensive lighter-than-air operations in Europe. NAS Lough Foyle was disestablished on 22 February 1919.. Naval Reserve Flying Corps. was established. Pa. to take special training with seaplane station on the western end of the Irish island the British marked the completion of their course by located in Bantry Bay in the United Kingdom. which marked the beginning 1 J U LY • NAS Lough Foyle. Henry D. Philadelphia. The detachment initially operated from the adjoining French kite balloon station at Lannion. 7 J U LY • The Naval Aircraft Factory. 46  |  Test of Strength . This was to be participating as observers in a night bombing raid by No. Cmdr. arrived at NAS Berehaven in the United Kingdom (Ireland). 30 J U N E • The first Navy pilots of the Night Wing. United Kingdom (Ireland). completed its first order for 50 H-16s.

with pilot 1st Lt. Channel. was established when the British Test of Strength   |   47 . Long Island. Eyewitnesses dubbed the action which it was designed. and then U-156 its fourth successful flight and first test of the Davis gun for submerged and escaped. NAS Porto Corsini Nauset Beach. pilot Ens. Chevalier commanding. John J. Lt. and Lt. the plane departed the area. Roger W. France. was established. Mass.. Two disestablished on 10 April 1919. France. the first experimental aircraft designed and No. made gunfire drove the aircraft to higher altitudes. Howard. The plane had encountered turbulence en route. which performed satisfactorily against a target moored in the Delaware River near the factory. USCG (Coast Guard Aviator 27 J U LY • N-l. The Austro- Perth Amboy of the Lehigh Valley Railroad as she towed the Hungarians learned of the event and bombed the station that barges Lansford and Nos. sank three of the barges. A. 19 J U LY • During a patrol in an H-12 from Killingholme. Kenneth Whiting commanding. Eaton. was placed in operating days later U-156 slipped through fog and attacked the tug status. 6). 1918 continued 14 J U LY • NAS St. Baker approved a 21 July two planes took off from NAS Chatham. planes on patrol from NAS Montauk. with pilot assigning responsibility for the development of rigid airships Ens. Lt. England. and 766 three miles off night but failed to inflict serious damage. assembly. At 1050 on 25 J U LY • Secretary of War Newton D. German built at the Naval Aircraft Factory. Lt. thrusting the boat’s bow downward and lifting her stern until the screws almost broke the surface. Cmdr. to the Navy. to recommendation by the Joint Army and Navy Airship Board intercept the submarine—an HS-2L. Lt. A-1695. Virgil C. fires on board the tug that burned her to the waterline.. Italy. N. The plane dropped a bomb that burst 20 feet to port of the submarine’s waist. but Schieffelin 1918. subsequently depth charged UB-110 HS flying boats at NAS Brest. Mass. the survivors revealed they failed to submerge because of U. Lingard and crewmembers Ens. Shields and MMC Edward H. For this battle and an action on 9 July Schieffelin British Royal Air Force facility at that location on the English later received the Navy Cross. England. NAS St. “The Battle of Chatham. Victor Vernon piloted N-1. surmised that UB-110 was a different boat than the one he had bombed because of the distance between the two 23 J U LY • NAS Eastleigh. 6) off Fire Island. NAS Eastleigh was (Armored Cruiser No. Philadelphia. j. England. USNRF. Cmdr. British ships including destroyer Garry. Lt. Trojan was disestablished on 19 January 1919. Godfrey deC. Haviland commanding. 20 J U LY • NAS Killingholme. forcing it to jettison a bomb. After signaling the U-boat’s position to a 1053803 trawler. 403. and LMM Bernstein sighted a surfaced U-boat east of Whitby. Griffin commanding.S. Navy aircraft had patrolled from the station since February damage sustained during a previous attack. Wallis B. and Garry rammed and sank the boat.. German shooting started was disestablished on 31 December 1918. Two 24 J U LY • NAS Porto Corsini. sighted the stricken cruiser and sent the first reports of her sinking. The facility served as a supply. E3 Taggert. Eric A. 740. Cutler. and R-6. Cape Cod. They bombed but missed the submarine.Y. was established at the positions. Edward M. and wounded three men. A-991.” Sheppard operated the gun. Schieffelin and crewmembers Lt. and repair station to 19 J U LY • The German submarine U-156 sank San Diego support the Northern Bombing Group. Interviews with turned their Royal Air Force station over to the Americans. about 15 miles from that position and forced her to surface. Pa. NAS Killingholme was disestablished on 6 January 1919. Philip B. Trojan.g.

500 to 2. Charles Fahy. which drove the boat back to the planes circled the position. 7. The plane patrolled in good weather above the however. and International Federation of American 2 AUGUST • The first Marines of the Northern Bombing Homing Pigeon Fanciers arrived from the United States. of the craft. arrived several minutes later and each dropped Carson returned fire and bombed the submarine as it two bombs that caused more oil and bubbles to rise. which caused more oil. W. feet. France. the American Racing Pigeon Union. England.Y. 1. 8. J. surface at a sharp angle. Haizlett. This aircraft had originally been intended for use on board ship and did not prove successful. Boylan and observer QM2 interest because it was the first monoplane developed under L. arrived separately at NAS Pauillac. and the British The French officially transferred the pigeons to the U. Northern Bombing Group. O’Loughlin. and rear gunner D. bubbles.S. night combat the Northern Bombing Group began as pilot Ens. pilot Ens. Air Force (RAF) to maintain proficiency. Leslie R. with observer E2 G. accepted their service and assigned them to missions. USNRF. observation squadrons. George F. B. USNRF. 13 AUGUST • During a patrol from NAS Dunkirk. in some cases from altitudes of 1. Wintsch flew a Donnet-Denhaut flying boat from Navy contract. spotted additional wreckage. The U-boat stayed there briefly and and departed. Morris H. and 9.000 including some planes. second pilot Ens. Although equipped with a British ABC engine. received 300 pigeons of Headquarters Company and Squadrons A. j. French trainers experienced in handling the birds The squadrons were subsequently redesignated Squadron cared for the creatures until 21 August when trainers from Nos. It was also one of the smallest manned aircraft NAS Ile Tudy. 48  |  Test of Strength . and with French 11 AUGUST • Pilot Ens. Fla. Wade received the designation from NAS Killingholme. large American air-cooled radial engines. The attempted to submerge. then slid stern first underwater. James B. French trawlers also fired at the (possible) submarine and sighted a long trail of oil. They proceeded to aerodromes messages. Taylor made the initial Aéronautique Militaire (Army Air Service) bombing and flight of the M-2 Kitten landplane at Mineola on Long Island. C.000th naval aviator. but is of special 3 AUGUST • Pilot QM1 C. handlers beginning on 12 October 1918. The French credited Carson with sinking the craft and awarded him the Croix de Guerre. The Marines requested At least one French trainer each then remained at the permission from the British to operate with the Royal headquarters in Paris and at Pauillac to facilitate operations.S. Because of at 2230 to patrol a course intercepting a reported German fractional numbers assigned to men who had preceded him.g. France. Julian F. 5 AUGUST • Pilot Ens. R. and debris to appear. with observer MM1 deck gun. N. Zeppelin raid. Observers on board aircraft and airships between Calais and Dunkirk for operations as the Day “liberated” the birds by throwing them upward and clear Wing. hitting the aircraft in several places with fragments. and the other by Germans challenged the plane and opened fire with their Boatswain L. T. patrol from Killingholme. 217 and 218 (bombing) Squadrons of the RAF. France. having almost 15 AUGUST • The independent offensive operations of consumed its fuel to complete the first U. The aircraft was designed for use with a two-cylinder Lawrance aircraft detected converging wakes approaching the 30 hp air-cooled engine that became the predecessor of the surface and dropped two bombs. Hawkins and second pilot Lt. and C of from the French. the immediately disappear and then a large spot of oil. During WWI naval aviation used homing the First Marine Aviation Force arrived on board transport pigeons as an additional means of sending and receiving DeKalb at Brest. The Marines subsequently flew with Nos. Wolff. respectively. Taber.1918 continued 30 J U LY • One hundred seven officers and 654 enlisted men 10 AUGUST • NAS Pauillac. Carson sighted a surfaced U-boat. Part of their equipment. The Bailey. in response to a U-boat sighting. France. Group arrived at the front. with an empty weight of less than 300 At 1640 the plane spotted an apparent periscope almost pounds. Meanwhile. clouds without sighting the Germans but dropped through heavy weather at South Shields at 0530.000 at NAS Pensacola. in rain and poor visibility of Naval Aviator No. built for the Navy. Lawrence took off in a flying boat 13 AUGUST • Ens. National Aeronautic Association. two seaplanes. Ashton W. he was not the actual 1. one piloted by Ens. Frank E.

and CMM Ellsworth W. Charles H. Enemy guns fired at the deployed in France. 17 AUGUST • The blimp AT-1 made a brief flight from NAS Paimboeuf. Ens. USNRF (Naval Aviator No. NAS France. Unit commands were set up for France. landed alongside control and direct the operations of stations in these areas. to dispatch patrols over the northern approaches to the Atlantic coast. 19 AUGUST • The 18-T Kirkham experimental triplane fighter achieved speeds of 161. seaplane station on Cape Breton Island. Sims seat fighters and two M-8 two-seat bombers from NAS Porto in London. 1 SEPTE M BER • Commander. Liqued observed the trials. 19 AUGUST • NAS Halifax. slipway because of defective bomb-carrying gear. Kneeland. Hutch I. Trojan. Craven of the admiral’s staff from the harbor entrance and damaging a fighter flown by relieved Cone. Vath died immediately. Ens. Ireland. Thomas T. Roosevelt as a passenger during his tour of overseas facilities. All naval forces fortress of Pola on the Adriatic Sea. USCG. Foreign Service Capt. and QM2s Leonard L. Ludlow (Naval Aviator No. Belgium. the downed pilot. 342) in an M-5 three miles B. Cone detached to head the aviation section of the staff of Commander. Nova Scotia. Italy. Stoker. dropped leaflets on the Austro-Hungarian and operation of air stations in France. Richardson. The facility was the first of two air stations established in Canada. with the exception of the Northern incoming aircraft. Capt. The 3 SEPTE M BER • Aircraft began the first naval air Navy subsequently named two ships in his honor. was placed in operating status. Naval Constructors Holden C. commanding. died when his seaplane exploded on the L. George were placed under the command of Rear Adm. Edmund B. William S. Naval 21 AUGUST • At 1120 a flight of five Macchi M-5 single. Hanrahan commanding. Bellinger commanding. U. England. Robert Donahue. The blast also killed seven other men—QM2 Miles H. Capt. for a patrol. Nova Scotia. and located near Eastern Passage at Dartmouth. 1st Lt. Italy. Naval Aviation Forces. Patrick N. 27 AUGUST • Following almost a year’s operation. and Lewis F. 20 AUGUST • While preparing to depart NAS St. Wilson. Cmdr. and 158 mph in trial 1053768 runs over a measured course. operations from NAS Lough Foyle in the United Kingdom (Ireland) with patrols over the North Channel entrance to the Irish Sea. CC. Test of Strength   |   49 . U. and five fighters and two seaplanes rose to Bombing Group. France. Holley and 31 AUGUST • NAS North Sydney was established as a E3 Earl J. was established.S. Aviator No. Hammann later received the Medal of Honor. Forces Operating in European Waters Adm. 1918 continued Hale of Squadron 1 participated in a night raid in a Ca-44 on the German submarine repair docks at Ostend. shooting down pilot Ens. Lt. John J. and the Northern Bombing Group to 1494). Hammann. Henry H. carrying Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. 162. Nova Scotia. This was the station’s only fatal accident during WWI. David C. USNRF (Naval Hampton Roads. Sixteen other men received injuries. Tucker died during the succeeding days. 421). intercept the Americans. and Charles N. commanding. Barry. Richard E.S. Va. MM1 Jessee C. Cone had supervised the construction Corsini. Richardson. and returned to Porto Corsini. Hammann evaded his pursuers. Lt. Byrd Jr.. An HS-2L flying boat powered by a Liberty engine. took him on board. England. McVeigh.

213 Squadron of the British in connection with the Bureau of Ordnance’s flying bomb Royal Air Force. USNRF (Naval Aviator No. 23 SEPTE M BER • The flywheel catapult. 213 Squadron ever had. and laboratory work. “No. Ingalls.S. developed this catapult balloon while serving with No. sighted a German two-seat Rumpler over Nieuport. For these and other meritorious acts the project. Ormsbee Jr.Y. British awarded Ingalls the Distinguished Flying Cross. In November the 25 SEPTE M BER • Pilots Ens. day-bombing plane arrived at 24 SEPTE M BER • While on a test flight in a Sopwith Camel.” electricians that included code work. Medal. Mass. Jova and ACMM school transferred to Harvard University. a forerunner of In company with another Camel. j. The Sperry Co. John A. launched a flying bomb from Copiague ace. N. 7 SEPTE M BER • The first U. David S. Lt.. began a course of instruction for aircraft radio service. semaphore and blinker study. BuNo A-3295.. Ingalls also shot down at least one enemy observation on Long Island. Belgium. 85). and the United States conferred upon him the Distinguished Service 23 SEPTE M BER • The Aircraft Radio School at Pensacola. Francis E. 1918 continued 1053766 The Davis recoilless antisubmarine gun mounted on a flying boat. gunnery.” the British evaluated his Fla. Ingalls attacked and scored those subsequently installed on board Lexington (CV 2) and his fifth aerial victory in six weeks to become the Navy’s first Saratoga (CV 3). the front in France—a DH-4 designated D-1.g. during a flight in two planes observed 50  |  Test of Strength . “He is one of the finest men.

France. David H. Additional planes 1 OCTOBER • NAS La Trinité in France became operational. USMC. Belgium. located at Lake Cazaux on the Gironde River about five Ormsbee later received the Medal of Honor. Sgt. Tallman. Edwin S. arrived airships ordered were built. 5 OCTOBER • Squadron D of the First Marine Aviation than-air craft originally planned. Frank Nelms Jr. a raid against German-occupied Westend. Duffy. Brewer. 218 Squadron of the British Royal Air Force. 27 SEPTE M BER • Pilot Ens. France. He pulled out the gunner presence. flying a plane with received the Navy Cross. BuNo A-2291. came about. USNRF. and rifle fire and delivered 2. On this day and the next miles distant and dropped two bombs and a smoke bomb the aircraft made five low-level runs in the face of enemy on the suspected U-boat. and flew from NAS Paimboeuf. during the convoy. machine gun. N. The Americans at NAS Arcachon agreed to accommodate up to several aircraft from 25 SEPTE M BER • NAS Whiddy Island in the United the French station at Bayonne. and Lt. Mulcahy. and only 10 of the 30 Force. USMC. and Cpl. dove overboard. McCulloch made the initial flight of the first NC 30 SEPTE M BER • The Goodyear twin-engine airship flying boat. Sgt. The Germans down one of the attackers. (The precedence of these medals No. 4 OCTOBER • Cmdr. France. and award of the Distinguished Service Medal and the gunners observer Sgt. crewmembers 2d Lt. C-1. miles southeast of NAS Arcachon. The airship could not return fire because the firing spring had quarters of a mile away in Pensacola Bay. at an aerodrome at Le Fresne. the aviators sighted a “dark spot” four U. Northern Bombing Group. the force of which pounds of food and badly needed supplies to a French shook the aircraft. H. Fla. then made repeated dives into the tangled 1 OCTOBER • The French disestablished a naval air station wreckage in an unsuccessful attempt to rescue the pilot. CC. F. USMC. completing the Day Wing. and resumed coverage of the convoy. about ten miles German scout planes attacked the Marines. Archie Pou and Duffy spotted three trawlers firing on a suspected Paschal. Test of Strength   |   51 . Their attack generated a “violent artillery.600 explosion” that brought oil to the surface. of Squadron convoy sailing from La Pallice to Quiberon. and rendezvoused with a observer GySgt. Holden C. The war ended before the Navy introduced all of the C-class lighter.) a German Fokker aircraft to score the first Marine Corps victory in aerial combat. accomplished its maiden flight. with observer QM2 H. opened fire and 13 shrapnel shots rapidly burst near the craft. Ralph Talbot. France. reinforced the group during the month. Ormsbee broken on its solitary 47 mm gun during a second practice landed his plane nearby. 1 OCTOBER • The airship AT-13 (also designated P-4) 8 OCTOBER • Pilot 2d Lt. Two Donnet-Denhaut flying Kingdom (Ireland) became operational. As AT-13 circled C flew D-1. Henry mine about four miles south of Point de Penmarc’h. USMC.Y. observer QM1 Otis Wherley flew two seaplanes during a second pilot Capt. Everett R. Robert G. Richardson. Nine which it discovered to be a surfaced U-boat. USMC. The seaplanes dropped a message buoy to regiment surrounded by German troops near Stadenburg. and swam for the shot en route. USMC. the leading trawler and departed. Lytle. USMC. As the L. boats arrived that afternoon and later made the first flight operations from NAS Arcachon. Paschal. Pou. and Tallman threw the food packages overboard. Robinson. at NAS Rockaway. and patrol over a northbound convoy from NAS Ile Tudy. Amil Wiman. USMC. Robert S. and held his head above water until other men arrived in a speedboat. The pilots consequently received the 28 SEPTE M BER • Pilot Lt. Francis P. BuNo A-4118. Wiman. and pilot QM2 P. flew a plane during the earliest recorded trawlers departed. 1918 continued a two-seat plane go into a tailspin and crash about three. USMC. Belgium.. NC-1. aerial food-dropping mission. USMC. but D-1 shot south of the lighthouse of Le Four. shot down was reversed in 1942. comprising 42 officers and 188 enlisted men. AT-13 alerted escort ships to the submarine’s wreck as the stricken aircraft sank. the first Marine DH-4 received in France. Harry Wershiner. Tuttle with 2 OCTOBER • Pilot Capt.S. the airship approached a suspicious object.

to Holyhead. Bernard L. Estorly. flew an HS-1 from NAS Ile in a DH-4 designated D-1 shot down a German plane. Ohio. For this battle and an detected what she believed to be a submarine on listening earlier raid in which they had engaged enemy aircraft. George S. Ralph Talbot. Robert G. 17 OCTOBER • A pilotless N-9 training plane converted to an automatic flying machine launched from Copiague on Long Island. Montgomery received a sailed from Dublin.. to NAS Rockaway. Ralph A. 300) sighted and bombed a U-boat 10 OCTOBER • German submarine UB-123 sank the stalking the convoy. F. Despite mist that obscured Medal of Merit for this flight.Y.5. Ireland. which itself was an Foyle sector off northern Ireland. Hamlen. 2d Lt. Marcus H.S. 22 OCTOBER • Pilot Ens. 14 OCTOBER • Eight DH-4s and DH-9As of Marine Day Roulette and James Royal delivered the airship C-1 from Squadron 9 made the first day raid-in-force by the Northern Akron. William S. Ens. with USMC. their targets the aircraft dropped 17 bombs. and civilian mechanics M. Warner L. Donald T. USNRF. Montgomery Jr. which led and Robinson later received the Medal of Honor. Cone traveled on board while en route to head preventing the Germans from attacking the convoy. Colgate W.. USMC. France. 19 OCTOBER • While flying as 644471 part of a convoy escort in the Lough The F-5L was a Naval Aircraft Factory version of the British Felixstowe F. via Washington.Y. 1918 continued pitch propeller hubs for use on twin-engine airships. but Tudy. Talbot devices. USNRF.12. the aviation section of the staff of Commander. Bombing Group. Robinson.g.C. with observer GySgt. commendation for “probably damaging” the submarine and Hutch I. D. Duffy. Ens. USNRF. USMC. Pou. to investigate an area in which the Germans two other German aircraft attacked and wounded Robinson. USMC. Ralph Talbot. At least 11 German aircraft counterattacked. and in London. Lt.000 feet. D. with reported the construction of five Hart and Eustiss reversible observer 2d Lt. Naval Forces Operating in European Waters Adm. Edwin S. N. improved American Curtiss H. USMC. Darden Jr. USNRF. Belgium. despite his wounds. The Navy consequently ordered two of these for F-5Ls. flying against the German-held rail Smith and Hamlen later received the Aero Club of America’s junction at Thielt Rivy. (Naval Aviator No. Ens. Sims 22 OCTOBER • Maj. the French to surmise that Pou and Duffy drove off a U-boat. Capt. The French patrol boat Leger at a Belgian aerodrome at Hondschoot. Smith. flying eastward at an altitude of 4. j. N. flew a DH-4 52  |  Test of Strength . The plane flew a prescribed course but failed to land at the preset range of 14. Observers last saw the plane over the air station at Bay Shore. and landed exploded a mine by bombing. The explosions brought heavy British steamer Leinster in the Celtic Sea while the ship turbulence and oil to the surface. Hood. Preston. U. USNRF. Wales. 15 OCTOBER • The Bureau of Steam Engineering 25 OCTOBER • Pilot 2d Lt. had made an attack earlier in the day. but the sounds faded following the attack.500 yards. The men sighted and Talbot came about and downed a German plane. Cone was among the casualties but recovered crewmembers Lt. observer QM2 H.

Sprague and of launching flying boats. To prevent planes from immersing Ropke dropped two bombs. Four minutes later pilot Ens. 1 NOV E M BER • NAS Tréguier. Pilot Ens. Test of Strength   |   53 . France. USNRF. Bailey. was established. crashed into a newly arrived pile and accompanied Rowen. Sprague.500 bombs. Augustus M. The determined attacks clear. reached the scene in a third of 1. and caught fire. who had returned with Dent The aircraft rebounded. proved ineffective. Harold J. then eased the aircraft into the water by a line. with a Caproni Ca-44 heavy bomber on board. France. November 1918. The rise and fall of observer H. A. The destroyer 1 NOV E M BER • The night flight training program was Ralph Talbot (DD 390) was commissioned in the pilot’s discontinued at NAS Pensacola. Morris H. Ropke. NAS Tréguier arrived in a second plane and dropped two more bombs on was disestablished on 19 January 1919. The impact threw Darden aircraft and bombed the same spot. with Lt. honor on 14 October 1937. flew a plane on a patrol and sighted the tide on the river and the steep incline of the shipway at an oil wake indicating a possible U-boat about four miles the former French station necessitated an unusual method southwest of Point de Penmarc’h. Marines pulled the bombs from the pile and rolled them in the mud until the fire was extinguished. designated D-1 that struck a bank of earth on the edge of the same position. 26 OCTOBER • Pilot Ens. Baldwin commanding. Fla. 1918 continued 229907 A sea sled used to transport and launch planes. William C. but Talbot was trapped in the front cockpit and died. Dent and observer Ens. men put the machines onto a cradle on tracks and Elbert J. Rowen with Bailey an ammunition dump in a field near Le Fresne in France. nose-first. again on board as observer.

T.S. to rendezvous with the convoy of ships carrying President Only flights now authorized are those necessary to look Woodrow Wilson and the U. station at a distance of 150 miles at Arlington.. and it was shipped to the United British six-stage amplifier had received signals from a radio States in January. Naval aircraft made at least 39 attacks against U-boats and partially 2 DECE M BER • The Chief of Naval Operations renewed succeeded in driving off submarines during at least ten of efforts to develop planes to operate from ships by requesting these battles.. Marine Corps.000 officers and established a new world record for people carried in flight by men had shipped abroad. Va. At dawn on balloons except those judged necessary for mine sweeping. France. balloons on hand. Redfield. The weapon’s development had begun the feasibility of carrying fighter aircraft on lighter-than-air craft.180 men for the 27 NOV E M BER • Flying boat NC-1. motorcycles to the charity during early examples of naval aviation humanitarian relief efforts. William S. together with 6. France. Nazaire. delegates to the peace for dangerous mines and harbor flights reduced to strict conference at Versailles.” compelled them to steer almost entirely by compass. Six of 22 NOV E M BER • Pilot Lt. and and sailed separately on 28 December.Y. including 74 officers. S.728 planes. N.998 pounds of ordnance on the enemy and flown Beach. more than three million nautical miles of war patrols. France. USA. The airships separately sighted and then escorted the convoy ships 17 NOV E M BER • NAS Hampton Roads. On 13 December one H-16. Sims ordered the 12 NOV E M BER • Naval aviation headquarters in France preparation of two airships with photographers on board sent a dispatch to all air stations: “Suspend patrol flights. and 215 kite and free officers trained to perform the special duties involved. for their their inability to continue their work without support. Deflate all kite a flight of seaplanes from NAS Brest. Va. 13 December airships AT-13 and Capitaine Caussin lifted Limit ascensions and trips to mine searching. When representatives Northern Bombing Group. ambulances. Squadron 10 remained behind sailors and Marines transferred trucks.Y. and 282 officers and 2. Crompton piloted airship C-1 and lifted 1st Lt. The naval air arm suffered 208 casualties. a torpedo launching gear at the Naval Aircraft Factory at at NAS Rockaway.716 officers and 30. test of material off from Guipavas. Pa. During the 19 months authorized the use of the titles Aerographic Officer and of U.693 men for the Navy. German lines. reported that despite intermittent fog that afternoon. BuNo A-2291. 8 DECE M BER • Commander. and with the slowest Bombing Group flew 14 independent raids behind the flying speed possible. About 570 aircraft and 18. two HS-1s. W. Sailors began to deflate an H-16 equipped with a radio direction finder using the Capitaine Caussin the next day. and the Day Wing of the Northern of the simplest form. minus Squadron 10. Planners subsequently added minimum to test planes and train personnel. but 25 mph winds and a rough sea disrupted their attempts at formation flying. The Marines participated in 43 missions with that the Bureau of Construction and Repair provide aircraft the British and French. but severe wind and rain squalls and training of personnel. France.1918 continued 11 NOV E M BER • The Allied Countries and Central Powers 23 NOV E M BER • Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels signed an armistice to end WWI. lightly loaded. commanding officer of the 52d Aero Squadron at Mineola. conducted a test to determine the Philadelphia. Victor Vernon and observer the planes reached and escorted the ships at different times. George Crompton Jr. 15 airships.107 aircraft. Following the Armistice the Navy 6 DECE M BER • The Marines of the Day Wing of the cancelled contracts for 1. and four HS-2Ls took off from Brest. in an Army JN-4 Jenny in a wide spiral climb to 54  |  Test of Strength . Williams dropped a 400-pound dummy torpedo from an F-5L from a height of 40 feet during the initial test of 12 DECE M BER • Airship Officer Lt. Va. participation the total strength of naval aviation Navigation Officer in naval air station organization to identify comprised 2. preceding July. Naval Forces Operating in European Waters Adm. return to Newport News. embarked from the Commission for the Relief of Belgium reported on board transport Mercury at St. Naval aircraft had dropped a total embarking 51 persons during a flight from NAS Rockaway of 155. A. N.S.

and back. assigned to various ships including Shawmut. Medical inspectors noted that naval Redfield from that height.g. j. with extra mileage credit for the planes. The contest standard evaluated the basis of the miles traveled Leighton commanding. the exercise to be a “considerable success.S. Exceptions included an with ships. Steele Jr. balloons. Cuba. on passenger load. USNRF. few men succumbed.. a division of three single-seat scout in ten hours of flight.” that killed one officer and five men and incapacitated 210 men.158 fatalities during 1918. McDonnell commanding. Cmdr. Atlantic Fleet. Lt. 1919 2.Y. Trojan. Edward O. 35). Atlantic Fleet. Northern Bombing Group experienced respiratory exposure Henry C. 4) at Boston Navy Yard. “mother ship”). recalled. Lt. Cmdr. This accomplishment Flying Field. Similar outbreaks of lesser concern occurred within range of a target as a means of attacking German submarine pens. Thomas E. N. Fla. almost to the ceiling with bodies stacked one on top of completed assembling at Guantánamo Bay. Two days another. 3 FEBRUA RY • Capt. Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels reported outbreak in September 1918 at NAS St. Fla. and despite proximity demonstration of the capabilities of aircraft and the to the outbreak and the adverse weather of the northern advantages to be gained from their coordinated employment climate. and a division of six kite miles and received credit for a total of 970 miles. Azores. 9 FEBRUA RY • The submission of aerological data 1919 obtained at various naval air stations to the Weather 1 JA N UA RY • During this period the worldwide influenza Bureau for use in coordinated study of weather conditions epidemic caused more than 50 million deaths. Bruce G. record.g. j. this flight surpassed by more than 25 hours the board Shawmut (Minelayer No. Miami. John G. a squadron of six H-16s. The firm of Murray and Tregurtha of Test of Strength   |   55 . Thomas C. Cape Sable. Maytham 24 JA N UA RY • The Marines at Ponta Delgada. however.. facilities treated 121. Aircraft immediately assemble but consisted of Shawmut as flagship designer and pilot Glenn H. France. Ill. assumed ending on 26 December. Rodman carried 11 passengers 670 statute board Texas (Battleship No. completed a flight in a B-class airship from NAS Key West received orders to abandon their station and return to the to Tampa. Mass. marked the beginning of a permanent provision for aviation flew an H-16 to score the Navy’s first win in the Curtiss in fleet organization. Although recognized only as a command of Fleet Air Detachment. George W.” 24 DECE M BER • Pilot Ens.500 feet over Fort Tilden. Naval aviation in Europe dispersed in long-range spotting practice. Johnson launched in an the first two months of 1919 a recurrence of the epidemic N-9 from a sea sled and attained a speed of approximately affected NAS Brest. bettered Maytham’s endurance mark of 32 hours on 23 November with a continuous flight of 40 hours 26 minutes. Lt. United States. Great later the detachment began operations by participating Lakes. and the Jenny made a free flight aviation staff predominantly confronted these issues with back to earth. Fla. “The morgues were packed 15 FEBRUA RY • The Fleet Air Detachment. Rodman. All elements of the detachment did not Marine Trophy Race at NAS Pensacola. Fla. when Marines and sailors of the 50 knots during a test at NAS Hampton Roads. France. Navy medical commenced with a report submitted by NAS Pensacola. Frank M. on U. Curtiss had set up the annual and aircraft tender (commonly referred to by pilots as the competition in 1915 to encourage seaplane development. The detachment’s establishment enabled testing of the capabilities of aviation to operate with fleet forces and 30 DECE M BER • Pilot Lt. On 17 March the men arrived at Marine covering approximately 690 miles. Paul commanding. rendering the station inoperative at times. existing world record. The men gave a practical following the Armistice. Cmdr. Mustin had recommended that a powerful motor during transportation in cold and crowded rail cars en route boat be converted into a sea sled to launch a plane at a point to that station. and Palm Beach.225 Navy and Marine victims including 4. During 7 M A RCH • Pilot Lt.” Navy Nurse Josie Brown of Naval Hospital. “skill and good judgment. Va. Crompton then released at other stations.

twin-engine. 9 M A RCH • Lt. Navy battleship when he successfully took off from the development.S. Cuba. Harry Sadenwater.g. j. Cuba.1920. his desk in the Navy Department 65 miles away. Cmdr. engine. USNRF. and bombers for fleet use. South Boston. single- lay at anchor at NS Guantánamo Bay. McDonnell made the first 13 M A RCH • The Chief of Naval Operations issued flight of a Sopwith Camel from a turret platform on board a a preliminary program for postwar naval airplane U. 35) as she fighters. who was seated at essential features of the device. and civilian carried on a conversation from an airborne flying boat with industrialist Albert Hickman designed and patented the Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels. demonstrated the feasibility of using voice radio and telephone relay for air to ground communications when he 56  |  Test of Strength . The specialized types desired comprised No.. seaplane for Marine Corps operations. Edward O. c. 2 14-inch gun turret of Texas (Battleship No. Mass. manufactured the sled. and a combination landplane and 12 M A RCH • Lt. torpedo carriers. 1919 continued 428436 A Sopwith 1 1/2–Strutter sits on a flying-off platform atop a 14-inch gun turret of most likely Oklahoma (BB 37) during operations off Guantanamo Bay. and long distance patrol and bomber planes for station use.

Hinton. Breese. pilot Lt. Rhoads. Read commanded 26 A PR I L • Flying an F-5L (BuNo A-3589) equipped with NC-4. for the Navy was tested in an aircraft. Cuba. 1061650 8 A PR I L • Capt. Lt.250 nautical miles from Hampton Bay. took off from NAS Rockaway. James L. for the United States following almost seven weeks of participation in fleet exercises. Cmdr. Each plane and Ens. Naval Operations. Va.. which he adapted for attachment to navigational board jumped clear and survived. to Pleasantville. Craven detached from the Bureau of Navigation for duty in the Office of the Chief of Airship C-5 makes a record flight but fails to cross the Atlantic. Coil and his crew of six made the nonstop voyage to determine whether they were able to cross the Atlantic. The evaluations failed to find this particular instrument acceptable but marked the first recorded tests of this device. Although the record was unofficial because 14 M AY • Lt. Hugh S. Test of Strength   |   57 . the gale tore the airship requested from the Naval Observatory a supply of bubble from the moorings and swept her to sea. John H. N. Coil commanded the the crew made the flight without National Aeronautic Association supervision and prior to the date on which airship C-5 during a record flight for nonrigid airships from seaplanes received recognition as a separate class for record Montauk Point.g. Cmdr. England. A-2291. However. sextants. 1919 continued 21 M A RCH • A gyrocompass developed by Sperry Gyroscope Co. Bellinger commanded NC-1. St. Newfoundland. Lt.050 nautical miles in 25 hours 50 flight until 1 May 1925. over the next three days. on the first leg of a projected of NAS Porto Corsini. L. and Lt. Harold B.Y. of Seaplane Division One (NC-1. BuNo disestablishment of NAS Eastleigh. and NC-4) took off from Trepassey Bay. Cmdr. covering 1. Byrd Jr. began on 31 December 1918 with the disestablishment for Halifax. j. and MMC Eugene S. Towers commanded NC-3. which subsequently proved an invaluable navigational instrument for long-range flight. Grow and Lt. Ens. Herbert C. Cmdr. Delos Thomas completed a record flight of 20 hours completed the flight’s second leg. Rutledge Irvine. Noble E. Elmer F.Y. Souther. USCG. the first of three NC Capt. two 400 hp Liberty engines. thereby providing an artificial horizon that made it 16 M AY • A few minutes after 1800 three NC flying boats possible for men to use these instruments for astronomical observations from aircraft. A-2293. their achievement stood as the longest seaplane Newfoundland. Roads. Newfoundland. along with crewmembers Lt.. purposes. Irwin as Director of Naval Aviation. Thomas T. The two sailors on levels. A-2294. Albert C. navigational equipment for the forthcoming NC flying shortly following C-5’s arrival a heavy gale sprang up. for the voyage to the Azores with NC-3 in the van. Long Island. Ens. Rodd. from Halifax to Trepassey 19 minutes covering 1. Nova Scotia. Emory W. and boats’ transatlantic flight. flying boats of Seaplane Division One. and 28 A PR I L • In the process of developing and testing determined that such a flight would be feasible. 4) of Fleet Air Detachment sailed from NS Guantánamo Bay. Walter K. N. Johns. 10 A PR I L • The roll-up of naval air stations in Europe that Towers commanding. Cmdr. despite efforts to deflate the bag. Lt. Richard E. Italy. 7 A PR I L • The Seaplane Squadron and Shawmut (Minelayer No. At one point Radioman Ens. The squadron operated entirely afloat and without support from ashore during this period. minutes. Stone. Patrick N. completed with the transatlantic flight. NC-3. crewmembers Ens. The following month Craven relieved 8 M AY • At 0959 flagship NC-3.

Rodd. Patrick N. L. Hinton. Cmdr. The 17 M AY • At 1323 NC-4 descended to Horta in the Azores. landed at sea to determine their positions. j. Cmdr. Richard H. Breese. at Horta at 1230 the following day. Lt. Read. Stone. and completed the first Atlantic Ocean crossing by air when he sustained damage that rendered them unable to resume the landed at Lisbon. Read of NC-4 in the fog. plane encountered rough seas. Lt.g. John H. Ens. Herbert C. seas disabled the plane. Herbert C. 1919 continued 1061649 The crew of NC-4 with Commander Azores Detachment Capt. Lt. Also on (Destroyer No. Jackson. James L. Lt. left to right: 1st Lt. Walter K. Greek 58  |  Test of Strength . and arrived at Ponta Delgada at 1650 on 19 May. On 31 May. Cmdr. 92) attempted to tow NC-1. Rodd of NC-4 intercepted a radio message from steamer Ionia took NC-1 in tow but the lines parted. Albert C. Rhoads. Bellinger of NC-1 descended early on the morning of 26 May. Jackson. After five hours on the water. left Trepassey Bay. England at 1326. Albert C. CMM Eugene S. but NC-1 broke this date a radio station at Bar Harbor. Newfoundland. Elmer F. but heavy again and arrived at Plymouth. USCG. Lt. and Capt. Portugal after departing from the Azores flight. The other NC boats lost their bearings 27 M AY • At 2001.400 miles away. the previous day to reach the Azores by air. drifted backward toward the NC-4 became the only one of the three NC flying boats that Azores. The crew clambered on board Ionia and arrived message from one of the planes from about 1. intercepted a up and sank. Gridley steamship George Washington 1. Read lifted off to the water 45 miles on the other side of Flores. Cmdr. Maine.325 miles distant. Towers landed NC-3 about 35 miles from the island of Fayal.

1919 continued 650875 Lt. Charles H. Va. USNRF. and their numbers continued to a modification to the aircraft color scheme whereby stretched drop because of the rapid postwar demobilization. 27 May 1919. while the specified color for platform for use in the experimental development of other exterior surfaces continued as naval gray enamel. Thus. died when the flying boat he was board stated that “aircraft have become an essential arm piloting during a flying circus at Langley Field.100 enlisted men 21 J U N E • The Bureau of Construction and Repair reported remained in naval aviation. Cmdr. Va. following the completion of the first flight across the Atlantic. fell into a of the fleet. wing and tail and in some instances fuselage surfaces 12 J U N E • A contract was issued to construct a revolving were to be aluminum-colored.. for peacetime development to establish a naval air service “capable of accompanying and operating with the fleet in all Test of Strength   |   59 . fabric surfaces were to be finished with aluminum enamel. The Hammann. 23 J U N E • The General Board submitted the last of a series of reports to Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels 14 J U N E • Medal of Honor recipient Ens. techniques and equipment for landing aircraft onto ships at Hampton Roads. concerning a policy for developing a naval air service. Portugal.” and urged the adoption of a broad program tailspin and crashed. Read runs flying boat NC-4 into Lisbon. 31 M AY • By this point 669 officers and 7. Albert C.

and this program provided turrets at Newcastle. third row. left to right: first row. Breese. waters of the globe.. D. Lt. Albert C. Louis T. 60  |  Test of Strength . Cmdr. James L. Lt. Patrick N. 1 J U LY • The Secretary of the Navy authorized installation of launching platforms on two main turrets in each of eight 1 J U LY • British Maj. England. Stone. 2 July 1919. CMM Eugene S. Lt. Herbert C. second row. temperature and humidity of the upper atmosphere. USCG. Roosevelt. 35) received airship R-34 during a flight across the Atlantic to Mineola. MM Rasmus Christensen. Elmer F. George H. USNRF. Experience with Texas and the direction for a number of actions taken during the the battleships subsequently converted disclosed that these following months. Holden C. Rodd. Lt. Richardson. Sopwith Camels. John H.” On 24 July the secretary approved (with a platform to launch aircraft from one of her 14-inch gun some modification) the report. Bellinger. Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Lt. which eventually led 25 J U N E • NAS Anacostia. Hinton. Rhoads. Lt. Cmdr. Barin. Scott commanded the rigid battleships. CC. Cmdr. Lt. Secretary Daniels. McCulloch. j. Lt. USNRF. At times a mix of Hanriot HD-2s. fourth row. During WWI Texas (Battleship No. reported experiments to discarding these plans and increasing the emphasis on in which planes carried aloft instruments to measure the catapults. Cmdr. USNRF. L. Walter K. Nieuport 28s.C. Lavender. and Lt. Robert A. 1919 continued 45354 Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels with the NC transatlantic fliers. Read. and Sopwith 1 ½–Strutters operated from the battleships. Towers. Harry Sadenwater.g. platforms interfered with operating the turrets and planes and reduced visibility from the bridge. Ens. David H.

S.. reported that 27 naval aviators completion the plane was returned to NAS Rockaway. N. The Navy subsequently dispatched NC-4 on a recruiting tour across 2 J U LY • The officer in charge of the Navy Detachment the United States that began in Boston.C. on 1 January 1920. Navy Department Building in Washington. Zachary Lansdowne (Naval Aviator No. Cmdr. Mass. Lt.. N. landplanes from battleship turrets.g. This training was to prepare the men to operate three days later when he lifted off for the United Kingdom. The British achievement spurred American presented them to the American public from the steps of the interest in the development of lighter-than-air craft.S. Upon School at Langley Field. j. D. Ralph Kiely had become the first two U. Roosevelt and Lansdowne accompanied R-34 by Scott’s invitation on received some of the NC flying boat crewmembers and the return flight. on 1 October under instruction in landplanes at the Army Air Service and finished in Charleston. 1919 continued 1061481 An uncowled R-6 drops a torpedo. 105) and Lt. Va.Y. and were approaching the end of the formation flight syllabus in 11 J U LY • The Naval Appropriations Act for fiscal year 1920 made several important provisions for the future of Test of Strength   |   61 .Y. naval 2 J U LY • Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels and aviators to report for European duty in airships during WWI. Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. had completed their preliminary flight phase in JN-4s.C.. Scott arrived on 6 July and remained until midnight DH aircraft.

white. later named Wright 19 AUGUST • The Secretary of the Navy ordered the (AZ 1). later designated during WWI. conversion of two merchant ships into seaplane tenders. General Order No. 1 AUGUST • To merge aviation with other naval activities 23 AUGUST • General Order No. 509 of 5 November to other divisions and to the Bureau of Navigation. 499 directed that airships the Aviation Division of the Office of the Chief of Naval were to carry enough parachutes during flights for each Operations was abolished. the blue forward. The decision all lighter-than-air craft during flights over water. aircraft in place of the concentric circle design adopted and purchase of a rigid airship from abroad. The act also limited to six the heavier-than-air bands on the rudder reverted to their prewar position with stations along the coasts of the United States. named Langley (CV 1). and its functions were reassigned person on board. actually was commissioned as such. By this order the red. 62  |  Test of Strength . naval aviation. only one of which. 1919 continued 1053767 The crew and gondola of a C-class airship with a bomb on its starboard rack. including conversion of the collier Jupiter included the transfer of the Aircraft Test Board to the Board (Fuel Ship No. and added that life preservers were to be carried in Aviation Section of the Planning Division. The 1919 amplified this directive to apply also to flights in kite Director of Naval Aviation retained his title as head of the balloons. subsequently of Inspection and Survey. construction of use of the prewar white star national insignia on all naval a rigid airship. later designated ZR-1 and named Shenandoah. and blue vertical ZR-2 (R-38). 3) into an aircraft carrier.

22 OCTOBER • Secretary of War Newton D. Secretary Josephus Daniels suggested their arrival for about 1 December to coordinate with the start of classes. Baker approved the Navy’s request for 18 naval aviators and 10 mechanics to attend landplane training at the Air Service Training School at Carlstrom Field. 1 NOV E M BER • The Aerological School opened with a class of one Marine and four Navy officers at NAS Pensacola. 1919 continued 28 AUGUST • President Woodrow Wilson issued Executive Order 3160 that returned the Coast Guard from the wartime command of the Navy to the Treasury Department. Arcadia. In addition to an unobstructed “flying-on and flying-off deck. and facilities for repair of aircraft. Calif. Test of Strength   |   63 . the new plans provided for catapults to be fitted on both forward and aft ends of the flying-off deck. Riverside. Va. Baker that in response to his request arrangements had been made for six Army soldiers to attend the enlisted men’s course in meteorology at NAS Pensacola. The schedule had originally earmarked her completion for 5 July 1920.” stowage space for aircraft. Two days later Secretary Baker approved a similar program at March Field.. 3) to an aircraft carrier were modified and the Bureau of Construction and Repair issued a summary specification. Fla. 5 DECE M BER • Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels approved the basic agreement covering the procurement of the rigid airship R-38 (ZR-2) from the British Air Ministry. as necessary to the successful operation of scouting planes from battleship turrets. Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels requested this training as an extension of the program already conducted under the Army at Langley Field. Fla. Fla. 18 NOV E M BER • Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels informed Secretary of War Newton D. 21 NOV E M BER • Engineering plans for the conversion of the collier Jupiter (Fuel Ship No.

Impressive technical progress also characterized training. Despite slim funds. Most of this controversy without authority to direct but ended with a flourishing was typical of new technology developing at a rapid pace. Each year planes flew faster. Naval pilots used their skills to turn airplanes to new uses in polar exploration and 20 JA N UA RY • An allocation of $100. torpedo Air Pilots unless they could send and receive 20 words per attack. Fla. reported that in the future no students were to be designated Sailors and Marines developed innovative tactics naval aviators or given certificates of qualification as Navy and learned techniques of dive bombing. The air arm steadily increased in size and strength while improving its administrative and operational position within the Navy. 19 JA N UA RY • The commandant at NAS Pensacola. spotting for gunfire. and expansion of operating facilities. Critics 22 JA N UA RY • CQM Harold H. and Marine Corps aircraft as a guide to procurement. and naval aviation contributed to world records. and provided for the free accurate bombsight was developed. People within the aircraft industry became discontented with small peacetime orders. It also set forth the decade. with oleo struts and folding wings enhanced the operating capabilities of carriers. played important roles in the annual fleet war games. Karr became the first directed charges of duplication. radial air-cooled the conditions under which commanders coordinated air engines developed into efficient and reliable sources of operations in coast defense. as Engine Company. Many naval aviators grew frustrated with their career limitations and lack of command responsibilities. Aircraft equipped exchange of technical information.000 to the Bureau of photographic surveying. and operating minute on radio telegraph. patrol squadrons performed scouting functions. higher. and longer. in coastal defense included questions on the further need The Roaring Twenties   |   65 . journalists reported angry statements by the proponents of airpower and virulent retorts from its opponents. from advanced bases. enlisted man to receive the designation Naval Aviation Pilot and jealousy toward aviation advocates. enunciated the means by which propulsion. Bureau of Aeronautics. In the early 1920s small air but some of these questions would persist for decades. defining the functions of Army. government procurement policies. Debates over the under a program enabling enlisted sailors to undergo flight role of airpower and such issues as the role of the services training. scouting. The period began under the leadership of a director for a Navy.. Together these elements to aircraft was published. At the end of the decade three carriers 1920 sailed in full operation. and an to avoid duplication of efforts. and commanders regularly assigned 8 JA N UA RY • The policy of the Army and Navy relating planes to battleships and cruisers. prejudice. however. Chapter 3 The Roaring Twenties 1920 –1929 T he 1920s stand out in the history of naval aviation as a decade of growth. Navy. and solved the basic and unique Steam Engineering initiated the development and purchase problems of taking aviation to sea. Better instruments came into use. of 200-hp radial air-cooled engines from the Lawrance Aero Controversy also riddled these years. and federal competition. inefficiency. detachments in each fleet proved effective during operations at sea.

17 M A RCH • The approval of a change in the flight 2 A PR I L • NAS Hampton Roads. procured from contractor Charles Ward Hall. and two sets of metal wings for an HS-3 flying boat months of operation. 66  |  The Roaring Twenties . renewed Navy interest in aerial torpedoes. 12 May 1920. Twelve German Fokker D. N. 1 M AY • A report from the Bureau of Construction and 24 M A RCH • The first Coast Guard air station opened in Repair disclosed developmental and experimental work in Morehead City. The station began operations with metal construction for aircraft. D. but a lack which used welded steel extensively. were to be obtained from of funds compelled the closure of the facility following 15 the Army.VIIs. using candle- separated the heavier-than-air (seaplane) and lighter-than-air lighted free balloons to measure the force and direction of (dirigible) courses. 27 M A RCH • Testers completed examination of a Sperry 12 M AY • An MBT bomber dropped a torpedo in the gyrostabilized automatic pilot system in an F-5L flying boat Potomac River off Hains Point.C. 1920 184698 An MBT bomber drops a torpedo in the Potomac River. from nine to six months for the duration of the shortage.. and reduced the overall training period the wind.C. Va. Va. The event marked at NAS Hampton Roads. reported the success training program to overcome an acute shortage of pilots of night weather soundings since January. six HS-2L flying boats borrowed from the Navy.

Leighton commanding. approved a Naval Aircraft Factory design of a turntable catapult powered by compressed air for fabrication at the 17 J U LY • The Navy prescribed standard nomenclature for Philadelphia Navy Yard. wreckage. N. Moffett for kite balloons. Within the V type. Corry died from his burns four days later and posthumously received the Medal of Honor. 12) while she sailed in a maneuvering area unknown to the pilot 94 miles at sea. nonrigid dirigibles. Cmdr. The Roaring Twenties   |   67 . Destroyer.731 nautical miles. 1) 6 J U LY • In a test of the radio compass as an aid to navigation. without landing. 28 J U N E • Six F-5L flying boats of the Atlantic Fleet Airboat Squadron. Class 7 M A RCH • Capt. and torpedo and bombing planes. Moffett relieved Capt.. was designated NAS Pearl Harbor. The AUGUST • The Navy directed that all Marine Corps aircraft detachment was subsequently redesignated VP-3M and in were to carry an insignia that comprised a circle pierced by 1933 returned to San Diego. The pilot located the ship and. types and classes of naval vessels and aircraft. and R Thomas T. Lt. the middle circle blue. Pa. including 4. on Ford Island. Planes bombed target ship Indiana (Battleship No. P. Army Air Service was installed onto the airship C-10 at NAS Rockaway Beach. to evaluation on 4 November. twice between 13 and 16 October. Pa. and Train. G. Arthur C. Calif. would later become instrumental in the development of the respectively. Cmdr. following a seven-month cruise a series of tests at Tangier Sound in the Chesapeake Bay through the West Indies during which the squadron logged under controlled conditions to determine the accuracy 12. 12 M A RCH • A Marine air detachment designated Flight L arrived at Guam to reinforce the island’s aerial defenses. and despite the volunteers for the fall semester. Craven as Director of Naval Aviation. Corry crashed in a JN-4 near Hartford. and the Bureau of Engineering develop radio-controlled aircraft. N. the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Air. this time navigating by signals from Norfolk. 20 JA N UA RY • Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels 12 J U LY • A General Order provided for the organization of approved a recommendation that the Bureau of Ordnance and forces afloat into the Atlantic. using “Z” for lighter-than-air craft and “V” for heavier-than-air craft. Under this order 20 JA N UA RY • The Bureau of Construction and Repair the air detachments in each fleet became air forces. naval air arm. made the return trip to Hampton 1921 Roads. patrol. and asked for Conn. 13 OCTOBER • F-5L and H-16 flying boats carried out returned to Philadelphia. Va. The impact threw Corry clear. for the formation of seven type forces: Battleship. fleet. 22 J U N E • The Bureau of Navigation revealed plans to select four officers for a two-year postgraduate course in 2 OCTOBER • Pilot Lt. and completed a third an F-5L flying boat flew from NAS Hampton Roads. Cruiser. Pacific. the class letters F. O. Ohio (Battleship No. and T identified fighter. and Asiatic fleets. Mine. Hart and manufactured by the Engineering Division of the and the center white. and the damage caused by near-misses and direct hits. William M. observation. scouting. The Navy ordered Hart’s reversible 17 SEPTE M BER • The site of the naval aviation activities pitch propellers for VE-7 biplanes in June. S. an anchor and surmounted by a North American bald eagle. and rigid dirigibles. Va. William A. Part of the requirement was intense flames rising from the stricken Jenny. he valiantly that appointees take flight instruction and qualify as naval but unsuccessfully attempted to pull Wagner clear of the aviators after completing their studies. Submarine. letters assigned within the Z type consisted of K. Bruce G. Wagner and passenger aeronautical engineering at the Naval Academy and at Lt. 1921 18 J U N E • A reversible pitch propeller designed by Seth The circle’s outer ring would be red..000 flown on maneuvers with which aircraft could drop bombs on stationary targets with the fleet. respectively.Y. Territory of Hawaii.

000.000-pound bombs. Naval officers upheld the effectiveness of ships by noting that the target vessels had not been able to maneuver or defend themselves. The Army participated subject to the Navy’s requirement that the bombing be accomplished as a series of controlled tests. July 1921. and that inspectors board the target vessels following each attack to assess the results.000-square- 466366 mile area. Navy opposed an Army proposal to attack Iowa. available hindered testing.. proclaimed the obsolescence of warships and increased his lobbying for an independent air force. and their planes continued their runs until they sank the ship. Moffett. and many of the strength. chromium-vanadium steel alloy proved satisfactory participants could not have found the ship without aids. The incident escalated the controversy on the effectiveness of aerial bombing against ships when the Army refused to allow investigators to board Ostfriesland. but 161903 many observers noted the capability of A bomb explodes near the German battleship Ostfriesland off the Virginia Capes. designed to provide detailed technical and tactical data on the effectiveness of aerial bombing against ships. the first of when Army. William Mitchell. 4) 1 hour 57 minutes after being alerted to her approach somewhere within a 25. Navy. Philadelphia. On 29 June Navy planes located the radio-controlled Iowa (Coast Battleship No. the series with which Navy and Army fliers captured many ending the next day when Army NBS-1 bombers sank the world speed records. and attacked the ship with dummy bombs. 1921 continued 21 J U N E • The services began a series of controversial bombing tests off the Virginia Capes. USA. and of the value of compartmentation in enabling vessels to survive such damage. Brig. because the ship provided an unfair advantage by maneuvering under 15 M A RCH • The Metallurgical Laboratory at the Naval radio control. Five These findings marked an advance in the development of days later the German light cruiser Frankfurt sank beneath 74 metal as a high-strength aircraft structural material. Gen. bombs dropped from Army and Navy aircraft. which sank in 12 minutes after the first hit. The rudimentary aerial navigation equipment Aircraft Factory. 68  |  The Roaring Twenties . however. In the first test. and New Jersey (BB 16) and Virginia (BB 13) on 5 September 1923. Army in laboratory tests and in the manufacture of aircraft fittings.100 feet on the German submarine U-117.and 2. unopposed planes to sink capital ships. three naval F-5L flying boats dropped 12 bombs from 1. Pa. The William A. battlewagon with a total of eleven 1. reported that a high. who later becomes the first chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics. Additional tests sank (decommissioned) Alabama (BB 8) on 27 September 1921. and Marine planes dropped 52 bombs. bombers sank the German destroyer G-102 on 13 July. Bombing runs against the German battleship Ostfriesland began on 20 July 16 J U N E • The Navy ordered two CR-1 racers.

launched an N-9 seaplane piloted by Naval Constructor and directed that BUAER make special provision in its Cmdr. wires at NAS Hampton Roads. building. 1921 continued 1 J U LY • The Aviation Machinist’s Mate. Philadelphia. described the scope of its relationships with other bureaus 26 OCTOBER • A compressed air. 428435 1 AUGUST • Torpedo Squadron. Pa. At 1737 on 24 August. an explosion so mounted “that it was to take up the forward motion of the in the forward section broke the airship into two parts. Cmdr. to aeronautic training and the assignment of men to aviation. which the Navy had purchased from the British Royal Air Force. CC. 11 AUGUST • The practical development of carrier BuNo A-6080. tested a An N-9 seaplane prepares to launch from a ship-type turntable catapult on a pier at the Naval Aircraft Factory. The occasion marked the consisted essentially of athwartship wires attached to weights successful completion of the first phase of designer Carl along with fore and aft wires. of Aeronautics and defined its duties under the Secretary Lt. Hoyt. and their qualifications required meeting the standards of the general rating in addition to those required for the aviation specialty. and 28 of the Navy as comprising “all that relates to designing. Moffett. Henry W. Maitland. L. Aviation Metalsmith.) proposed lifted off on her fourth trial flight at 0710 from Howden “a nice soft cushion” as a landing surface for aircraft carriers. Pride taxied an on loan to the builder. These five ratings were the first concerned specifically with the air arm and based solely on aviation requirements. Pa. Aerodrome in England. powered by a 400-hp Curtiss engine and arresting gear began when pilot Lt. Bradley A. and airplane and not check its forward velocity at once. 9 AUGUST • Rear Adm. The crash killed 16 Americans. These tests resulted in the development of arresting gear for Langley (CV 1) that The Roaring Twenties   |   69 . Alfred M.7 mph in Omaha. and Photographer basic aviation ratings were established. 10 AUGUST • A general order established the Bureau including prospective skipper Cmdr. Prior to this time the Navy had identified certain general service ratings parenthetically as pertaining to aviation. WWI high-altitude bombsight mounted on a gyroscopically stabilized base at Yorktown. Aviation Rigger. Holden C. Coil. Va. including Air Commodore E. during the first organization to furnish information “covering all aeronautic successful test of the device from a pier at the Philadelphia planning. Atlantic Fleet. M. fitting out. for by the Chief of Naval Operations. Norden’s development of an effective high-altitude bombsight for the Bureau of Ordnance. Fiske (Ret.” 3 NOV E M BER • Civilian pilot Bert Acosta in a CR-1 racer. RAF. won the Pulitzer Race with a world Aeromarine plane onto a dummy deck and engaged arresting record speed of 176. 23 AUGUST • The rigid airship R-38 (ZR 2). Maxfield. operations and administration that may be called Navy Yard. and Lt. Richardson. 12 J U LY • An act of Congress created the Bureau of Aeronautics and charged it with matters pertaining to naval aeronautics as prescribed by the Secretary of the Navy. Emory W. Britons. turntable catapult having cognizance of aeronautical materials and equipment. Louis H. Aviation Carpenter’s Mate. and repairing Naval and Marine Corps aircraft. Va. William A.” both of the sections together with men and debris fell into the Humber River near Hull. Neb.” The order granted BUAER the authority to make 1 SEPTE M BER • The Bureau of Aeronautics began recommendations to the Bureau of Navigation and the functioning as an organizational unit of the Navy Commandant of the Marine Corps on all matters pertaining Department under Rear Adm.

Ralph F. French. Wright (AZ 1).000 tons.000–135. Japanese. British. and lesser figures for train naval aviators in the use of landplanes. Wood piloted the C-7 1922 during the first flight of an airship inflated with helium gas at Norfolk. The same ratio for aircraft carrier tonnage set the overall limits at 135.C.S. than-air use to Marines in Haiti.000 tons with a provision that. Guam. Calif. and Quantico.. 1 DECE M BER • Lt. The 70  |  The Roaring Twenties . Johnson commanding.000–81. 1922 1053778 The Navy’s first vessel especially fitted as a seaplane tender. 16 JA N UA RY • The Bureau of Aeronautics directed the shipment of Army-type seat pack parachutes for heavier- 16 DECE M BER • The seaplane tender Wright (AZ 1). and Japanese capital ships. Diego. they could build two carriers of not more than 33. the French and Italians.000 tons each or obtain them by converting existing or partially constructed ships that the treaty would otherwise require to be scrapped. and U.. uniquely designed as a heavier-and lighter-than-air tender. N. Alfred W. Capt. the commanding officer of NAS San established a respective tonnage ratio of 5–5–3 for British. the Dominican Republic. received authorization to establish a school to American. as long as the nations did not exceed total carrier tonnage by doing so. Va. Cmdr. The treaty Fleet commands. was commissioned at New York.. Italian. representatives signed 20 DECE M BER • To meet requirements of several Pacific the Washington Treaty limiting naval armament. The treaty also limited new carriers to 27.Y. D. Va. 6 FEBRUA RY • At a meeting in Washington.

S. the Navy constructed at Lakehurst the largest hangar for in a public law passed in August 1916.. Langley (CV 1). Va. D. Philadelphia. The Secretary of deck and converting holds to hangars and fuel tanks. Following the The Roaring Twenties   |   71 . Pa.. million tons. replacing her coal-handling derricks with a wooden flight the assembly of the Navy’s first rigid airship. The Norfolk designated ZR-1.J. partially constructed capital ships totaling more than 1. British. Americans.S. aircraft carrier. marking the initial step in 3). aircraft carrier Langley (CV 1) was commissioned at Norfolk. Yard. 2 M A RCH • The Navy initiated experimental investigation 7 FEBRUA RY • The completion of a 50-hour test run of and development of catapults using gunpowder. 25 M A RCH • The Secretary of the Navy established NAS Lakehurst later completed the assembly. was Navy Yard had converted Langley from the collier Jupiter (AC completed at NAS Lakehurst. Langley the Navy had authorized her construction on 9 August 1919. The first materials for ZR-1 arrived at the Naval Aircraft Factory. and Japanese scrapped 66 existing or built to date in the United States to accommodate the craft. under the command of 11 FEBRUA RY • The first cradle of the rigid airship Executive Officer Cmdr.C. During this an Experimental and Research Laboratory as provided period. which the 200-hp Lawrance J-1 radial air-cooled engine by the eventually produced a new type of catapult for use in Aeronautical Engine Laboratory at the Washington Navy launching aircraft from capital ships. N. Kenneth Whiting. was named in honor of aviation pioneer Samuel P. 20 M A RCH • The first U.. 1922 continued 185915 Fighters and torpedo planes pack the deck of the first U. foreshadowed the successful use of radial engines in naval aircraft. Langley. where construction began in 1920.8 measuring 804-feet-long by 318-feet-wide by 200-feet-high. subsequently named Shenandoah..

.1922 continued construction of buildings at Bellevue. Ramsey launched in a VE-7 biplane via a letter identified the manufacturer and the second. the Bureau of and with the Naval Appropriations Act of 1926 this name Aeronautics issued a contract to the Packard Motor Car Co. The aircraft possessed inadequate longitudinal 17 June 1922. and test Sound Research Section of the Engineering Experiment the feasibility of operating more aircraft from these ships. The second engineers. McFall and passenger of a combination of letters and numbers in which the first Lt. arresting gear will consist of two or more transverse wires Mullenix. and the spotting plane to each fleet battleship and cruiser. the compressed air catapult from the battleship Maryland (BB 46) class (or mission) of the aircraft. the bureau defined development of new high performance engines. William A. People 24 A PR I L • Seeking to increase the service life of aircraft generally called this facility the Naval Research Laboratory. with Lt. . and Chief Rigger K. DeWitt C. the Aircraft 22 A PR I L • Secretary of the Navy Edwin Denby approved Radio Laboratory at NAS Anacostia.. Such endurance testing—whereby runs to destruction 27 M A RCH • To comply with a provision of the law identified the weaker components of an engine. free balloon. Symbols consisted commenced when pilot Lt. Va. 29 M A RCH • The Navy promulgated a change in the aircraft designation system: adding the identity of the 24 M AY • Routine operation of shipboard catapults manufacturer to model designations.C. D. Moffett reported for Laboratory as the first all-metal airplane designed for training. operated with helium in the first Lexington (CV 2) and Saratoga (CV 3) to various design recorded use of the gas in a U. Numbers that appeared off Yorktown. Station were consolidated at the new organization in Bellevue prior to its establishment in July 1923. Reed Jr. “The balloon. and ability to operate aircraft from existing capital ships. enterprising aviators developed techniques modifications of the basic model. the Naval Radio a recommendation from the General Board to assign a Research Laboratory from the Bureau of Standards. the functions and qualifications of Naval Aviation Observers and recommended a course of study for their training.” to conform to the number of the ship squadron they served was changed to a system of numbering squadrons serially by 72  |  The Roaring Twenties . The plane Balloon Race held later in the year in Geneva. Joseph P. Shade. The 1 A PR I L • The Bureau of Aeronautics sent descriptive first. but its completion marked a step forward in the development of all-metal aircraft. Rear Adm.S. MO for supporting conventional surface forces by scouting and would indicate a Martin observation plane. engines beyond the 50 hours then required.. The Navy subsequently installed catapults between letters indicated the series of designs within classes on battleships and then on cruisers. Norden and Warren Noble. Norfleet and Chief specifications of arresting gear of the type later installed in Rigger James F. thereby achieving the built by the same manufacturer (the 1 being omitted). including Carl L. Upon 25 A PR I L • Pilot Eddie Stinson made the initial flight of an approval of the course and its qualifications by the Bureau ST-1 twin-engine torpedo plane built by Stout Engineering of Navigation.C. finished third in the race with a distance of 441 stretched across the fore and aft wires . qualifying as the first Naval Aviation Observer on the Navy. D. Switzerland. for a 300-hour test of a Packard 1A-1551 dirigible engine. the second spotting for ships’ guns. [and which] lead miles and became the only Navy qualifier for the International around sheaves placed outboard to hydraulic brakes. which were establishing the Bureau of Aeronautics that emphasized that then redesigned for longer life—came to be an important its chief and at least 70 percent of the bureau’s officers were step in both increasing the operating life of engines and in the to consist of either pilots or observers. after engaging the transverse wire is guided down the deck by the fore and aft wires and is brought to rest by the action of the 17 J U N E • The practice of numbering aircraft squadrons transverse wire working with the hydraulic brakes. Andrew C. and the second-design observation planes built by Martin were M2Os. William F. Wis. For example. stability. Cmdr. manned by Lt. From numbers following a dash after the class letter indicated these platforms. 31 M AY • Two free balloons represented the Navy in the National Elimination Balloon Race at Milwaukee. became official. modification of MOs were MO-2s.

Harold A. D.6 mph in Navigation. when a passing river steamer interrupted experimental of instruction at the Army’s Chanute Field at Rantoul. high-frequency radio transmissions between Anacostia and a receiver across the river at Hains Point. these officers had previously completed the flight surgeon the bombing run demonstrated that planes could launch course at the Army Technical School of Aviation Medicine. employment of spotting aircraft in fleet fire control. Fla. The planes in a TR-1. A. Va. which were capable of running straight. Mich.000 yards and scored eight “hits” on Arkansas. the first class of student naval aviators analysis of the phenomenon marks the first step in the chain to receive training in landplanes. 1922 continued class in the order of their initial authorization. The observation and 3 J U LY • Class XVI. proposed the use of radios to detect the (CC 3) to carriers as permitted under the terms of the passage of ships at night or during heavy fog. battleship Arkansas (BB 33) while she sailed in a formation of three battleships maneuvering at full speed off the Virginia 1 J U LY • The training of nucleus crews for two rigid airships. Fleet (and further divide it into the Battle Fleet and the Scouting Fleet) on 6 December. Fla. designated LZ-126 by the builder. Elliott in a VE-7H. commenced training at of events that led to the Navy’s introduction of radar. Gorton averaged 112. Hoyt Taylor and 1 J U LY • Sailors began training in the care and packing of civilian L. 1 J U LY • Congress authorized the conversion of the 27 SEPTE M BER • The commanding officer at NAS unfinished battle cruisers Lexington (CC 1) and Saratoga Anacostia. 8 OCTOBER • Lt. Despite artificialities that 1 J U LY • The first eight medical officers to report for flight prevented the practice from demonstrating the true combat training began instruction at NAS Pensacola. The Navy subsequently torpedo practice against a live target when they attacked the christened the ship Los Angeles (ZR 3). Second place went to Lt. The Navy also adopted the use of letter abbreviations to indicate missions. During the 25-minute attack the bombers approached subsequently named Los Angeles (ZR 3) and Shenandoah the ships from port and starboard and released 17 Mk VII (ZR 1). torpedoes. The Roaring Twenties   |   73 . began at NAS Hampton Roads. NAS Pensacola. Friedrichshafen. 601020 26 J U N E • The Navy ordered a rigid airship from the Lt. Germany.. “best method of detection” resulted from the unexpected nature of a radio signal observed by Cmdr. Gorton wins the Curtiss Marine Trophy Race for sea­ Zeppelin Airship Co. 8 October 1922. Model 1 A torpedoes at distances of 500 to 1. and requested that they be ordered to meet as a TR-1. The reported Washington Treaty. Young of the Aircraft Radio Laboratory at that parachutes as ten chief petty officers arrived for two months station. held during the National list of bureau and division representatives to the Bureau of Air Races at Detroit. as a nonmilitary aircraft as part of WWI 27 SEPTE M BER • Eighteen PT seaplanes of Torpedo and reparations under the terms approved by the Conference of Bombing Plane Squadron One conducted the first mass Ambassadors on 16 December 1921.C. Ill.S. C. the fleet aviation commands whose titles had previously been changed from Air Forces to Air Squadrons were retitled Aircraft Squadrons of the Scouting and Battle fleets. United States obtained the zeppelin. Four of capabilities of either the surface or air servicemembers. Capes.. 17 J U N E • In anticipation of a reorganization that was to merge the Atlantic and Pacific fleets into a U. Adolphus W. powered by a Lawrance J-1 engine a board in order to draw up tactical doctrine governing the over the 160-mile course. BuNo A-6303. Adolphus W. Gorton won the Curtiss 17 J U LY • The Chief of Naval Operations forwarded a Marine Trophy Race for seaplanes.

Mich. 1922 continued 1053781 The 1922 Pulitzer Trophy Air Race third-place finisher Lt. poor-quality gasoline. respectively. and on the homeward leg from Washington. George T.. Wyatt flew BuNo A-6377. Harold J. and Pensacola. Williams flew CR-2 and CR-1 racers with D-12 engines to finish third and fourth. The planes attained speeds of 193 and 187 mph.. Owen flew two DH-4B-1 biplanes during a round trip transcontinental flight. inclement 74  |  The Roaring Twenties . Wyatt and Lt.. Ohio. The pilots made the trip in short hops along a southern route on the outward leg from San Diego. 14 OCTOBER • Lt. Neb. Ariz. Brow and Lt. They completed the 7. Brow poses with his CR-2 racer.C. Layovers caused A VE-7 biplane similar to the first plane to take off from Langley (CV 1). Calif. Utah. through Tucson. Omaha.. D. 14 OCTOBER • Pilots Lt. Calif. Ben H. Salt Lake City.000-mile trip in about 90 hours of flight and 651598 returned to San Diego on 29 November... in the Pulitzer Trophy Race at Detroit. and San Francisco. La. Fla. New Orleans. Alford J. by mechanical difficulties. through Dayton. Harold J.

Godfrey deC. Cmdr. 1922 continued 215821 An Aeromarine similar to the one that first landed on board Langley (CV 1) practices landings on the ship. Chevalier (Naval Aviator No. made the first landing on board the carrier Langley (CV 1) while she steamed off Cape Henry. Virgil C. 7) crashed in a VE-7 at Lochaven near 1053779 Norfolk. 41) completed the Navy’s first carrier takeoff. Va. 12 NOV E M BER • Lt. Griffin (Naval Aviator No. Chevalier (Naval Aviator No. from Langley (CV 1) at anchor at Berth No. Godfrey deC. Va. 7). Portsmouth. flying a VE-7SF biplane. 58 in the York River. The Roaring Twenties   |   75 . Va. He died from his injuries two days later while in the Naval Hospital. Va. 26 OCTOBER • Lt. 17 OCTOBER • Lt. Cmdr. weather. flying an Aeromarine 39-B. BuNo A-5932. An aerial camera fitted to the gun mount of a DH-4 biplane. and lack of navigating equipment accounted for most of their elapsed time.

equipped most new aircraft with newer engines. formerly of the Imperial German Navy. and Teal (AM 23). Cmdr. The Navy promptly expended its residual stocks of WWI engines.. Laboratory from the Washington Navy Yard. and announced the feasibility of radio control of in the Panama Canal Zone. Anton conducted maneuvers on the largest scale and under the most Heinan.. Robert P. made the first catapult launch from Langley (CV 1) offered advantages of longer life and lower cost. D.C. Early the following morning a single plane an F-5L flying boat proved satisfactory up to a range of ten representing an air group took off from Naranyas Cays miles. Ohio. Rutledge Irvine established a world bombs. This system. Planners compensated for the tenders Aroostook (CM 3) and Gannet (AM 41) at NAS San lack of carriers and aircraft for the attacking “Black” fleet Diego on North Island. thereby 10 M A RCH • The Navy modified its aircraft model clearly establishing the factory as the center of the Navy’s designation system by reversing the order of letters. realistic conditions attainable. Wick. at NAS 18 FEBRUA RY • In annual fleet problems. Homer C. the Bureau at anchor in the York River. with a useful load and antiaircraft guns to defend the canal. in the 76  |  The Roaring Twenties .J. The squadron 1 operating from the tenders Wright (AZ 1). Fla. and freed 1923 itself of stocks of obsolescent engines. On 21 February the battleship Oklahoma (BB 37) approached the 15 A PR I L • The Naval Research Laboratory reported that area and launched a seaplane by catapult to scout ahead of an evaluation of equipment for radio control of aircraft in the Black Fleet. The board recommended that the U. likely future enemy.S. by designating two battleships as simulated carriers. bomber equipped with a Liberty engine over McCook Field near Dayton. placing the aeronautical development and experimental work. Sandpiper served with Aircraft Squadrons.1923 18 NOV E M BER • Cmdr. that two years’ service in an operating unit subsequent to graduation from flight training 15 M A RCH • Ground school work began during the was no longer required for designation as naval aviator.609 feet in a DT torpedo of carriers. Magruder at Pensacola. the Navy Lakehurst. Pa. The lessons learned included the need for more planes altitude record for Class C airplanes. subsequently named Los Angeles (ZR 3) and Shenandoah (ZR 1). Fleet Problem I included a test of the defenses of the Panama Canal against aerial attacks. reaching 11. already assigned. The designation FB thus indicated fighters built by Boeing. of Aeronautics issued guidelines that severely restricted the repair and reuse of engines more than two years old. Kenneth Whiting. The 19 M A RCH • Fighting Plane Squadron Two was established “Blue” fleet and Army coast artillery and aircraft defended the under Commanding Officer Lt. N. Va. flying a PT 21 FEBRUA RY • Recognizing that newer aircraft engines seaplane. develop and fortify bases in the Hawaiian Islands. which 12 FEBRUA RY • The Bureau of Navigation informed applied only to new aircraft and did not change designations Commandant Eighth Naval District Rear Adm.000 kilograms. and theoretically destroyed Gatun Spillway with ten miniature 17 A PR I L • Pilot Lt. to rush completion of 1. attached to the (AM 51). Philadelphia. The 26 A PR I L • The General Board completed a study on naval tests revealed that it took two minutes to prepare the deck strategy in the Pacific that anticipated Japan as the most following each landing.. canal assisted by 18 patrol planes of Scouting Plane Squadron and Executive Officer Lt. remained in use until 18 September 1962. Molten Jr. flew undetected and without airplanes during landings and takeoffs. encountering aerial opposition or antiaircraft fire. training of nucleus crews for two rigid airships. Calif.. class letter first and manufacturer’s letter last. Battle Fleet. Thomas P. thereby enabling the 6 FEBRUA RY • Secretary of the Navy Edwin Denby service to aggressively sponsor the development of improved authorized the transfer of the Aeronautical Engine aircraft engines to meet requirements. under lighter-than-air expert Capt. and to fit all battleships with catapults. 21 FEBRUA RY • Langley (CV 1) tested aircraft handling with Aeromarine planes operating in groups of three. to the Naval Aircraft Factory.

26 M AY • The chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics agreed with the chief of the Air Service on the advantages to the aviation industry and the military services of working under identical aeronautic specifications whenever possible and further stated the desirability of Army and Navy working together toward that end. including Guam. and at locations along the supply lines to these points. The Roaring Twenties   |   77 . Ohio. 1923 continued 1053770 Minelayer Aroostook (CM 3) serves as an aircraft tender. when the Aeronautical Board assigned Two versions of the Douglas-designed DT—the first planes designed a full-time staff to carry on the work. and built for the Navy as torpedo bombers. and advocated the creation and maintenance of a fleet capable of sustained operations in the western Pacific. Barnaby received orders to McCook Field. In December Lt. as the bureau’s representative at an interservice conference on 426931 standardization during a series of annual meetings that continued until 1937. Ralph S. 1919–1931. Dayton. Philippines.

Schur set three world Fleet continued their assault on the record books with eight records for Class C seaplanes in a DT-2 torpedo bomber new world marks for Class C seaplanes: powered by a Liberty engine at San Diego. left.: for planes carrying a 500-kg load in an F-5L patrol • Lt.898 feet miles. in an F-5L at 466 miles. Henry T. Henry T. Mainrad A. Stanley set an altitude record of 5. Edward E. and 10 hours 29 minutes 58 seconds. with a 1.75 • Lt. km in a DT-2 torpedo bomber at 72 mph. • Lt. with a 500-kg payload.885 with a 1.49 mph for 1. with a 1. for planes. Battle bomber.g. in a DT-2 at 205. in an F-5L patrol plane at 574. Herman E. Halland set distance and duration • Lt. 7 J U N E • Planes and pilots of Aircraft Squadrons.2 miles.25 miles. Dolecek set an altitude record of 7. Harper set the altitude record of 13. with “no useful load.500-kg load and the duration mark and 7 hours 35 minutes 54 seconds. Cecil F. on board aircraft tender Teal (AM 23).000-kg payload. Halland set an altitude record of 4. Battle 12 J U N E • Pilot Lt.979 • Lt. in an F-5L. in an F-5L.000 km. j.682 feet records. Calif. 1923 continued 1053769 An F-5L flying boat.” in a DT-2. Fuller set an altitude record of 8. and 2 feet in an F-5L. Stanley set distance and duration records. Robert L. and a DT torpedo bomber. at 2 hours 18 minutes. Schur set the speed record for 500 plane. with a 250-kg payload. with a 2.: a duration • Lt. Fleet established seven world records for Class C seaplanes • Lt.850 feet for mark of 11 hours 16 minutes 59 seconds. Earl B. feet for planes.438 feet at San Diego. Fuller set distance and duration marks. j.000-kg load. right. • Lt. • Lt.g. distance mark of planes carrying a 250-kg useful load in a DT-2 torpedo 792. 6 J U N E • Planes and pilots of Aircraft Squadrons. Brix set an altitude record of 10. Robert L. Calif. 78  |  The Roaring Twenties . Herman E. record of 51 minutes.000-kg load and a duration hours 45 minutes 9 seconds. and speed of 70. • Ens. Mainrad A.

marked 15 OCTOBER • Aircraft Nos 2-F-7. where between 29 and 31 August she received at NAS Lakehurst. Langley (CV 1) moored at the Washington Navy Yard where President Warren G. from NAS San Diego. departed for San Francisco via Bakersfield. of assigning experimental airplanes to fleet squadrons for Alford J. Barkelew operations from cruisers.46 mph. Cmdr. respectively. David Rittenhouse wins the 1923 Schneider Trophy in a CR-3 assigned the destroyer Charles Ausburn (DD 294) while seaplane converted from the CR-2 racer. Forrest P. Va. Calif. at 243. and at Squantum. an R2C-1 racer. Calif. Their victory twice received damage during mooring.89 mph for 200 km. McDonald Lt. Mass. marking the first presidential visit to a U.. 13 AUGUST • The establishment of Naval Aviation Reserve Units at Ft. Race at St. 13 J U N E • Following a demonstration at a flying exhibition to civil and military dignitaries near Washington. and 2-F-11 constructive action toward building an effective aviation of VF-2. for San Francisco. took off branch of the Naval Reserve Force. carrier. David Rittenhouse and Lt. H.95 and 121. Ralph A.. which enabled sailors from one of the ten Omaha (CL 4)-class scout cruisers. Pilot Lt. England. Capt. Harding boarded the ship. Williams set the new records for 100 and 200 km in operational evaluation before adopting them as service types. taking the first four places all at faster speeds than the previous year’s winning time.C. Sherman commanding. Four days later Commander Scouting Fleet Vice Adm. N. and 2-F-12 of VF-2... the guy-wires and support structure for Rutledge Irvine won first and second place in the international the fly-off rails restricted the arc of the forward 4-inch gun seaplane race for the Schneider Trophy in two CR-3 seaplanes off the bow. Frank C. Ofstie set world speed records for Class C seaplanes for 100 and 200 km in a TS-1 seaplane equipped with a Lawrance J-1 engine with speeds of 121. the ship finished an overhaul at the Philadelphia Navy Yard. to operate the plane in a truck three days later. to participate in an American Legion convention. McCrary commanding. Lt. On 16 October.38 over 20 to 29 December. BuNo A-6551.J.14 mph. a TS-1 seaplane. John D. McCord recommended to the fleet that future installations on board destroyers be located between their No. and skipper Lt.S. The destroyer completed the installation of the catapult 4 SEPTE M BER • The rigid airship Shenandoah (ZR 1) before her bridge on 23 August and sailed to Hampton made her first flight.. to subsequently salvage the aircraft. Mo. 4 stacks 6 OCTOBER • Navy planes swept the Pulitzer Trophy and mainmasts. Rittenhouse placed first at 177. Eberle directed the selection of a destroyer undergoing overhaul for 175426 a trial installation of a catapult and a seaplane. BuNo A-6300. BuNo A-6692. 5 J U LY • Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Louis. Edward W. Both first 21 J U LY • The Bureau of Aeronautics established a policy and second place bettered the world’s speed mark. N. Frank R. Hamilton.. Pa. Lt. and the wings extended beyond the ship and equipped with D-12 engines at Cowes. at San Diego. Calif.. The seaplane and established a new world record for seaplanes with a speed of catapult were removed from Charles Ausburn at Philadelphia 169. during navigation. commanding. Operational experience revealed that the seaplane impacted the destroyer’s visibility 28 SEPTE M BER • Pilots Lt. Roads. 2-F-9. D. respectively.Y. 2-F-7 23 AUGUST • The light cruiser Detroit (CL 8) received the crashed en route at Mojave but a working party returned first UO-1 observation biplane. 2-F-5. 1923 continued 13 J U N E • Pilot Lt. mph and Irvine second with 173.812 and 243. Aircraft The delivery marked the introduction of routine float plane Nos 2-F-2. E.673 mph. The Roaring Twenties   |   79 .

Alford J. 1923 continued These flights necessitated long journeys over alternating deserts and mountains. Alford J.. 80  |  The Roaring Twenties .Y. Harold J. Brow. Williams takes off in the record set two days before by Lt. Alford J. averaging 259.. Williams stands alongside his winning R2C-1 racer at the 1923 Pulitzer Trophy Air Race. bettering 1923 Pulitzer Trophy Air Race winner Lt. Brow established a world speed record in an R2C-1 racer equipped with a D-12 engine at Mitchel Field on Long Island.47 mph in four flights over the 3-km course. 2 NOV E M BER • Pilot Lt. 459589 Lt. 4 NOV E M BER • Pilot Lt.59 mph in an R2C-1 racer 458279 equipped with a D-12 engine at Mitchel Field. All of the planes returned by 23 October 1923.Y. N. Williams raised the world speed record to 266. Harold J. his R2C-1 racer. N.

BuNo A-6605. and back to conduct service tests under actual operating conditions. The Roaring Twenties   |   81 . Pa. VF-2 reported to launching it by submerging the boat. D. bettering the best previously reported climb of 2. In one exception all squadrons of a station. Philadelphia. another color to increase visibility in case of a forced landing. M.. Upon received the first UO-1 observation biplane to operate arrival VT-20 operated from the tender Ajax (AG 15) as the routinely from battleships. and installed aviation squadrons to discontinue the practice of striping or on board the battleship Maryland (BB 46) received the camouflaging aircraft and instructed them to paint all aircraft designation type A. Commanding Officer 6th Composite Group. overhauled once every six months. except the stretched Langley (CV 1) of catapult type A. notably the fleet could uniformly paint the upper wing chrome yellow or type letter “H” for hydraulic catapults. Rhea commanding. D. Only some of the crew were on board and. and Control Force carried out tactical exercises Virgil C. despite their efforts. and strafed opposing force Marines 6 NOV E M BER • Pilot Lt. and NAS Key West. N. where onlookers below reported observing W. Lt. Cmdr. During Fleet Problem III.. Cmdr. screened VO-2. which 12 NOV E M BER • The battleship Mississippi (BB 41) sailed from San Diego.R.. Griffin supervised a crew from Langley (CV 1) that for Fleet Problems II.C.. Under this system the compressed air. P. “P” squadron operated from an improvised camp at Coontz for powder. Fla. assembling the plane. Murray commanding.000 feet in the same time.000 feet in a minute. Fleet.C. embarked the cargo ship Vega (AK 17). Williams climbed in who simulated an opposed landing to seize the Panama Canal. The Navy fabric on the wing and tail and some aluminum fuselage subsequently extended this designation system with surfaces. Disembarking there on 2 February. Lt. Cmdr. an R2C-1 racer to 5. the indicated the energy sources—“A” for compressed air. Fla. 1924 5 NOV E M BER • The submarine S-1 (SS 105). Eberle approved the establishment of VS-3 as a special the airship’s red and green warning lights dimly through the service squadron for the purpose of developing long-distance clouds. Cmdr. Pierce returned the ship as the storm scouting planes. Powel 1924 M. subsided. Edward that evening. III. turntable catapult demonstrated at 4 FEBRUA RY • The Bureau of Aeronautics directed naval the Naval Aircraft Factory. Mason commanding. or modification to include other energy sources. Mark I.J. P. R. and the device on board by 1 July with the prescribed naval gray. Army Air Service. Va. 16 NOV E M BER • The Bureau of Aeronautics directed 16 JA N UA RY • A storm ripped the rigid airship Shenandoah that all planes attached to vessels of the fleet were to be (ZR 1) away from her mooring mast at NAS Lakehurst. first air detachment of the Asiatic Fleet. and Island. Mark III.R. Charles P. carried out a series of tests designed to show the feasibility of stowing and launching a seaplane JA N UA RY • During the winter the Battle Fleet. 25 JA N UA RY • VF-2 embarked the collier Jason (AC 12) 7 DECE M BER • The Bureau of Aeronautics established a and sailed from Coco Solo in the Panama Canal Zone for new designation system for catapults whereby a type letter Culebra Island. and “F” for flywheels—while Mark numbers Field subsequently (informally) designated Camp Robison. George D. 3 JA N UA RY • VT-20. for the Philippines. Lt. Calif. 26 FEBRUA RY • VS-3 received authorization to fly one division of Curtiss CS seaplane torpedo bombers from NAS Anacostia. and IV en route to Panama and cooperated with S-1 by removing a disassembled MS-1 from from those waters to the point of mobilization at Culebra a tank on board the submarine. at NAS Anacostia. Scouting on board a submarine at Hampton Roads. to NAS Miami. Lt.. the airship drifted over New York City later 3 DECE M BER • Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Alford J. indicated major design modifications. force.

Frank W. Wooster launched by catapult in a DT torpedo 11 J U LY • Pilot Lt. Wead and gunnery officer Lt. with new marks for a distance of 994. and 74. Price broke world records for Class C seaplanes in a anchor in the bay off Pensacola. Grant won the race for the in a CS-2 with a Wright T-3 Tornado engine over a two- Curtiss Marine Trophy in a VE-7 fighter at an average speed day period at NAS Anacostia. V. Stanton H. 1924 continued 19-N-9670 Airship Shenandoah (ZR 1) and oiler Patoka (AO 9) accomplish the first use of a mooring mast on board a ship. The Bureau of Steam Engineering investigate the development overall color was to be aluminum enamel with clear varnish of a single-wave radio sending and receiving set suitable for on wooden spars and struts. with a 20-mile sending radius used on the top surfaces of upper wings of training planes and powered by a small battery. CS-2 equipped with a Tornado engine over two days at NAS Anacostia. W. 24 J U N E • The Bureau of Aeronautics issued a technical 21 A PR I L • The Bureau of Aeronautics requested that the order prescribing the external color of naval aircraft. 2 M AY • Pilot Lt. 963. service parachutes by all sailors and Marines on all flights.. Dillion and gunnery officer Lt. with of 116. bomber carrying a dummy torpedo from Langley (CV 1) at John D.500 km. John D. D. Fla.17 mph for 1. force. 8 August 1924.C. or fleet. 8 M A RCH • Pilot Lt.C. L. and yellow or other high visibility color could similarly be applied to all aircraft of any station. D. Wead and gunnery officer underway in Narragansett Bay.41 mph for 500 21 M A RCH • The Bureau of Aeronautics directed the use of km.I. with 13 hours 23 minutes 15 seconds.000 km. attaining 73. one for duration. Naval yellow enamel was to be installation in fighting planes. Shenandoah remained Lt. and three for speed.19 19 J U N E • The Bureau of Ordnance issued a contract for miles and a duration of 14 hours 53 minutes 44 seconds. 74.123 miles.1 mph in Miami.27 mph for 1. 8 AUGUST • The rigid airship Shenandoah (ZR 1) secured to the mooring mast of the oiler Patoka (AO 9) while 22 J U N E • Pilot Lt. M. R. Price set five world records for class C seaplanes moored to Patoka during the ship’s passage to anchor 82  |  The Roaring Twenties . Frank W.: one for distance. the development of an antiaircraft director for shipboard fire control to the Ford Instrument Co.or engine-driven generator. Fla.

in a PN-7 flying boat equipped with two Wright commissioned at the Navy Yard Puget Sound.14 mph for the 500. than to attain victory by a flyaway. Zachary Lansdowne commanding. Lt. Searchlights trained about 1. Lt. leg of a round-the-world flight. at 68..J. and 200 km. Lakehurst.J. and 161. a distance record of 248.137 miles.507 mph for both 100 consisting of 2 officers and 20 enlisted men served as a ship. Steele Jr. 25 OCTOBER • Following the withdrawal of all foreign entrants from the Schneider Cup Race scheduled at Bayshore 1 SEPTE M BER • The first parachute school in the Park. began a round. Texas. Andrew Crinkley and Lt. Henderson set four records for speed over 100 and 200 km.4 mph 7 OCTOBER • The rigid airship Shenandoah (ZR 1). and 500 km in landing. The airship flew more than 5.317 miles in 258 hours of flight. operation.137 trip transcontinental cruise from NAS Lakehurst. 11 NOV E M BER • Pilot Lt. San Diego.J. and with prospective skipper Capt. Lt. achievement marked the first use of a mooring mast erected Lyon landed a CS-2 seaplane at Quantico. and testing of parachutes at NAS Lakehurst. and three more. distance 62. control of aircraft. Shenandoah discovered the “enemy” fleet.. The flight exceeded world records 11 AUGUST • Observation planes from the light cruiser for endurance and distance but was not officially timed and Raleigh (CL 7) took off from the water near the Arctic therefore not an official record. A section of VO-2 load of 1. but heavy rains The airship was subsequently named Los Angeles. and cast off the following day. George R. This 10 OCTOBER • Lt.500 kg.078 mph. cruisers Detroit (CL 8) and Milwaukee (CL 5) sailed into the to take part in a Scouting Fleet problem 300 miles at sea. and 62. series of record attempts in which the scheduled contestants and other naval aircraft put 17 world records in the book for 15 SEPTE M BER • An N-9 training seaplane equipped with Class C seaplanes: Lt.. Hardison set world records for speed over 100 km in a PN-7. The 12 OCTOBER • The rigid airship designated ZR-3 lifted aircraft intended to locate suitable emergency landing areas off from Friedrichshafen. Va.000 Cmdr. Osborne B.000 miles in 81 hours and arrived on 15 October at NAS 15 AUGUST • In the first use of rigid airships with the fleet.000 yards ahead aided the launch. with a useful Wash. with loads of 250 18 SEPTE M BER • The repair ship Medusa (AR 1) was and 500 kg. Germany.507 mph. The successful night catapult launch in a UO-1 observation airship returned to Lakehurst on 25 October having covered biplane from the battleship California (BB 44) at anchor 9. on board.C. Wash. of which operated ashore. Rossmore D. the United States agreed to cancel the race rather Navy opened to train enlisted men in the care. T-2 engines at 78.. following a on board ships to facilitate airship operations with the fleet. Circle on the first of several reconnaissance flights over the Greenland coast from Angmagsalik to Cape Farewell. at San Diego. Hugo Eckener. Md. Calif. powered by a D-12 engine with 188. N. and a duration plane repair detail to support the operations of VO-1—both record of 5 hours 28 minutes 43 seconds. N. Va. 1924 continued off Jamestown. The Navy instead staged a maintenance. Atlantic to provide ZR-3 with weather reports and forecasts.J.4 mph. compelled her early retirement to base. continuous flight from NAS Anacostia. George W. T. and four records.. with a useful load of 2. miles. The airship returned to Lakehurst on 17 August after 40 hours in the air.9 seconds. and duration 1 hour 49 minutes 11.25 mph for both the 100 and 200.. Dixie Kiefer completed a including a flight to Camp Lewis at Tacoma. Lt. Cuddihy broke a world speed radio control and without a human pilot on board conducted record of almost two years standing in a CR-3 racing seaplane a 40-minute flight at the Naval Proving Ground.I. Although the aircraft sank from damage sustained while Ofstie broke world speed records for 100.55 miles. in speed over 100 kilometers of 68. Menner commanding. Bremerton.000 kg. with a useful load of 1.460 miles. kg. of 20 hours 28 minutes and 1. Dahlgren. The Roaring Twenties   |   83 . N. R. R. George T. Capt. 200. and for distance. with a speed of 78. and a stay of 11 days on the West Coast. Calif. D. The oiler Patoka (AO 9) and the light Shenandoah (ZR 1) lifted off from NAS Lakehurst. Ralph A. this test demonstrated the practicability of radio a CR-3 with marks of 178. under the command for Army aircraft crossing the Atlantic via Iceland on the last of Dr. N. The airship’s voyage included stops at Fort Worth..

movement to Guadalupe Island. Charles P.000 feet to obtain weather data and to test upper-air to Secretary of the Navy Curtiss D. expansion of aviation offerings command before receiving the designation. Following this demonstration the dependability. The admiral advocated the battleship Mississippi (BB 41) at the Navy Yard Puget introduction of steps to develop planes of greater durability. Pa. The small size of Langley (CV 1) and Naval Aircraft Factory. Hayden and passenger convinced Commander in Chief U. the had appointed the board on 23 September 1924 to consider following February the schedule extended to weekend and recent developments in aviation. Fleet Adm. George W. and the further improvement Navy began wide-scale use of powder catapults on board of catapult and recovery gear.C. Moffett was appointed the importance of battleships. and establishment of a defined policy governing assignment of officers to aviation. two years of sea duty. commanding. and radius. This marked the On 1 December Langley became the flagship of Aircraft introduction to the fleet of the first command trained to Squadrons.. new 23. Capt.1925 14 NOV E M BER • The chiefs of the Bureau of Aeronautics carriers up to treaty limits. The requirement at the Naval Academy and assignment of all qualified that qualified medical officers make flights in aircraft was academy graduates to aviator or observer training following limited to emergencies and the desire of the officers. William M.000-ton carrier. Wilbur. The problem concluded on 11 March. Battle Fleet. The members of the board devoted most of their discussion to 13 M A RCH • Rear Adm. 2 M A RCH • Fleet Problem V off the coast of Southern California became the first problem to incorporate 13 DECE M BER • The all-metal NM-1 biplane flew at the aircraft carriers. and the beginning of Langley’s operations as a ship of Aircraft Squadrons. 1925 11 M A RCH • NAS Anacostia. Coontz also reported that battleships and cruisers. the rigid airship designated ZR-3 as Los Angeles. reported arrangements 17 JA N UA RY • A special board headed by Chief of Naval for routine aerological sounding flights to an altitude of Operations Adm. The Navy designed the inexperience of the ship’s crew in aircraft handling and built the plane to develop metal construction for restricted its operations to sending no more than ten planes naval airplanes. including construction of 2 A PR I L • Pilot Lt. Battle 25 NOV E M BER • First Lady Grace A. Bremerton. experience now permitted routine catapulting of planes from battleships and cruisers. Philadelphia. 17 NOV E M BER • Langley (CV 1) ended more than two years in experimental status upon reporting to the Battle 22 JA N UA RY • VF-2 began landing practice on board Fleet as the first operational aircraft carrier in the U. D. at NAS Anacostia. L. and intended the type for Marine Corps aloft simultaneously to scout in advance of the “Black” fleet expeditionary use. Eberle submitted its report 10. C. for the development of the Navy in its various branches. Robert E. William A. D. operate as a squadron from a carrier. These flights began in mid-April. and laying down of a qualifications for flight surgeons that included a three. gave prominence to aviation. introduction of a progressive aircraft month course at the Army’s school of aviation medicine and building program to ensure a complete complement of three months of satisfactory service with a naval aviation modern planes for the fleet. Steele Jr.C. Langley (CV 1) off San Diego. Sound. but their recommendations for a second tour as chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics. Cmdr. The secretary sounding equipment. Lt. Langley once launched ten planes in 13 minutes but the carrier’s limited performance 14 DECE M BER • Pilot Lt. expeditious completion of and the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery agreed on Lexington (CV 2) and Saratoga (CV 3). Fellers launched in an MO-1 observation Coontz to recommend the rapid completion of Lexington plane via a powder catapult from a forward turret of the (CV 2) and Saratoga (CV 3). and to recommend a policy holiday flights. Mason and passenger 84  |  The Roaring Twenties .S. Calif. Coolidge christened Fleet.000 feet. Edward W. Navy. and the altitude increased to 15.S. Wash.

other officers on duty that involved flying. and the top surface of upper wings. Delbert L. Calif. Wilbur approved the reorganization of certain departments at the Naval 1 J U LY • When a law enacted on 28 February became Academy as required to make aviation an integral part of the effective on this date.. civilian research ship Bowdoin joined Peary off Wiscasset.000-mile voyage the expedition plane remained in the air into the next day for a total time of reached Etah in northern Greenland on 1 August. Harold J. The Roaring Twenties   |   85 . Price of VF-1 made the first planned night landing on board a U. His decision established a program that began to organize into ten squadrons of four divisions each. Schildhauer and Lt. landing gear. Lyon followed shortly thereafter. Mass. and elevators. and for each of four as aviators or observers during the first two years after fighting squadrons at 18 officers and 20 enlisted men. from San Francisco. Cmdr. commanding. aluminum color.. Although the orange-yellow. Gorton. and and khaki for summer for naval aviators. to Honolulu. stabilizers. Byrd Jr. Adolphus W. abolition of a special aviation uniform. The Naval Aircraft Factory there manufactured the metal. the entire service adopted the khaki uniform in 1941. The Pa.S. hulled flying boat equipped with two Packard engines. amphibians on board the destroyer Peary (DD 340). fuselages. graduation. sailed with three Loening during a test flight in a PN-9. Calif. John D. copilot Lt. 8 A PR I L • Lt. BuNo A-6878. etc. 31 August–10 September 1925. and the 28 hours 35 minutes 27 seconds. design received minor modifications in later years. broke the world endurance record for Class C seaplanes Richard E. James R. Following a 3. 31 AUGUST • Pilot Cmdr. The Naval Air Detail. aircraft carrier when he landed on Langley (CV 1) at sea off San Diego. with the Class of 1926. the Navy authorized new forestry green uniforms for winter wings. Lt. Lts. (An accidental landing occurred on the night of 5 February 1924 when Lt. Connell. BuNo A-6878. Kyle of northern Greenland. the Packard engines. at Philadelphia. John Rodgers attempts to fly a PN-9 flying boat from San Francisco to Honolulu but 8 A PR I L • Almost two years following the completes the voyage 450 miles under sail. Clarence H. in which all midshipmen received Authorized squadron complements for each of three three months of special ground and flight instruction. 5 M AY • Secretary of the Navy Curtiss D. The Maine. equipped with two and floats of seaplanes were to be painted Navy gray.) Cmdr. to accomplish aerial exploration of the area 1 M AY • Lt.000 square miles before the end of the month. 1925 continued Lt. John Rodgers.. and scouting and three bombing squadrons were established additional instruction as necessary to qualify graduates at 40 officers and 130 enlisted men. and a crew of three attempted to fly the metal modifying the standard color of naval aircraft. the Naval Aviation Reserve began curriculum. Braxton Rhodes demonstrated the feasibility of using flush-deck catapults to launch landplanes when they catapulted in a DT-2 torpedo bomber from Langley (CV 1) while the carrier lay moored at NAS San Diego. Calif. aerial explorers covered 30. observers. The hulls hulled PN-9 flying boat. 17 J U N E • The MacMillan Expedition departed from Boston. and Rossmore D. Brow 426936 stalled while practicing night approaches. Byron 29 M AY • The Bureau of Aeronautics issued a directive J. Conley.

The Fédération already qualified as such. Charles E. to Scott Field.12 statute miles that had been flown until the landing as a new world 3 OCTOBER • In view of the need for an accumulation of airline distance record for Class C seaplanes. covered about 450 miles under sail when the submarine Edward W. Zachary Lansdowne. Battle Fleet. Despite an scene of the crash. John F. Rosendahl Squadrons.J. The record upper air data for improved weather forecasting. and 29 survived the ordeal. The PN-9 29 SEPTE M BER • Chief of Naval Operations Adm. but they rigged sail from the wing fabric and set course for the island of Kauai. Fourteen men died. the Bureau remained unbeaten for almost five years. forced the ballooned for an hour before they landed 12 miles from the plane down shortly after 1600 on 1 September.. Eberle directed the training of all heavier-than-air R-4 (SS 81) sighted the flying boat on 10 September barely naval aviators in the operation of landplanes if they were not ten miles from the goal of the voyage. of Aeronautics requested that aircraft squadron flagships take upper air soundings twice a day when at sea. John Rodgers and his crew receive a traditional Hawaiian greeting at Kauai after their harrowing crossing. This first of control car and aft section of the hull fell directly to the the Navy’s utility squadrons received assignment to Aircraft ground. however. but navigation officer Cmdr. 1925 continued 184669 Cmdr. Territory of Hawaii. 3 SEPTE M BER • A severe squall tore the rigid airship Shenandoah (ZR 1) apart as she flew over Byesville. lost at sea for ten days. Rodgers and his crew remained Cmdr. Calif. Aéronautique Internationale accepted the 1. Lt.841. including skipper Lt. Ohio. The was formed from VS-2B at NAS San Diego. Lack of fuel. en route from NAS Lakehurst. Moloney commanding. and six crewmembers manning the forward section free- 86  |  The Roaring Twenties . extensive air and sea search. Ill. 5 OCTOBER • VJ-1B. N.

14 DECE M BER • The Lampert Committee filed its report. submitted its report to President Calvin Coolidge. abolish the competitive bidding requirement Pilot Floyd E. SC-2 torpedo bombers. aircraft industry.. Pa. Bennett made the first flight over the North in favor of other restrictions that promote the government’s Pole in Fokker trimotor Josephine Ford. Richard E. their engines. best interests. expend for new flying equipment $10 million they returned to base at Kings Bay. and training planes ended at NAS Anacostia. the Navy would establish flight an adequate representation of aviation in the high military schools at NAS Hampton Roads. and Huff-Daland aircraft designed as land. and NAS San Diego. engine trouble forced the two Navy entries flown by Lt.. were Army-Navy exercise that included Fleet Problem VI in the among the items of special interest to the Navy.S.5 hours. the report recommended the government cease competing to produce aircraft. Expressing particular concern over the state of the Calif. Md. Cmdr. Air Services on 24 March 1924. councils. implement a five-year construction and procurement program. known as the Morrow Board after its senior 18 DECE M BER • The competitive trials of Consolidated. The review favored on flight instruction during their first year of sea duty.. prominent civilian and military leaders. Curtiss. member. and their 9 M AY • Pilot Lt. and by the Douglas and Boeing 1053780 companies. annually in both the War and the Navy departments. Wilbur The House of Representatives had established this committee directed that beginning with the Class of 1926 all Naval as the Select Committee of Inquiry into the Operations of Academy graduates were to complete a 25-hour course the U. the board made These trials led to the procurement of the Consolidated NY recommendations on the aviation industry and military series of training planes used into the 1930s. and new bombing planes under construction by the Naval Aircraft Factory. Spitzbergen. 21 A PR I L • Secretary of the Navy Curtiss D. Ralph A.S. Philadelphia. After circling the Pole. Its recommendations against a separate air force and in favor of representation for aviation in operational commands and high-level administrative 1926 offices. Cuddihy and Lt. An SC-1 scout bomber and torpedo plane. Ofstie from the race during the last lap. and Aviation accessories. Va. George T. Byrd Jr. and its recognition of the need for long-range 1 M A RCH • The combined U. The Roaring Twenties   |   87 . Panamanian and Caribbean areas through 15 March. D. 30 NOV E M BER • The President’s Aircraft Board. NB-1 trainers. To establishment of a Department of National Defense and provide for this instruction. aviation that influenced a number of legislative actions taken during the following months.C. UO-1 observation biplanes. 1926 26 OCTOBER • During the Schneider Trophy Race at Bay Shore Park. 27 OCTOBER • The Bureau of Aeronautics reported the use of oleo shock-absorbing landing gear on FB-1 fighters. and completing the round trip in 15. Fleet participated in a joint procurement and standard replacement schedules. sea On the basis of views expressed in extended hearings by gunnery. Norway.

Thomas P.. and tactical flight units as well as naval aviators or naval aviation observers to command 6 J U N E • The last elements of the Alaskan Aerial Survey aircraft carriers and tenders.. aviation stations. 1926 continued 460634 A D-12 engine powers this F6C-1 fighter. with a speed of 130. 10 J U LY • Edward P. which later became the protoype F6C-4. planes parked on the flight deck during landing operations in retroactive to 6 April 1917. The mission comprised the tender establishment of a five-year aircraft program to increase the Gannet (AM 41). September. Wash. and the requirement YF-88. the Seattle. which housed a photo lab. performed that the number of enlisted pilots was to comprise not less in cooperation with the Department of the Interior to than 30 percent of the total number of pilots on active duty conduct early aerial mapping of Alaska. Jeter won the Curtiss Marine as the Morrow Board after its senior member. Ben H. recommendations of the President’s Aircraft Board. known 88  |  The Roaring Twenties . the creation of the office of an Expedition. authorized the assignment of naval aviators to command D. departed assistant secretary of the Navy to foster naval aeronautics. Wyatt commanding. The law became effective on 1 July.C. Lt. Warner took the oath of office as the 24 J U N E • Congress approved an act implementing the first Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Aeronautics. Californian waters on 16 June. 14 M AY • Lt. for Alaska. The act Trophy Race held over the Potomac River off Hains Point. and the barge number on hand to 1. continued through in the Navy. in an F6C-1 Hawk. 2 J U LY • Congress authorized the Distinguished Flying 16 J U N E • The Bureau of Aeronautics reported that Cross as an award for acts of heroism or extraordinary the emergency barricade on board Langley (CV 1) had achievement in aerial flight by any member of the armed successfully prevented landing aircraft from crashing into services.000 useful planes. including the National Guard and the Reserves. three OL amphibians. The expedition. schools.94 mph.

with an average speed of 231. 22 OCTOBER • In a display of tactics developed by VF-2. of operations in a series Edward P. One Marine Corps and two Navy fighter maintained the shape of the hull. VF-5 on the XS-2 in a tank affixed to East Coast was simultaneously developing similar tactics. Warner becomes the first of tests investigating the Assistant Secretary of the Navy for 13 NOV E M BER • Lt. but he died from his injuries. Reeves reported on resulted from the fact that a gas-tight stressed-aluminum the results of the first dive-bombing exercise.363 mph. John Rodgers (Naval Aviator No. surprise. The design also had “light bombing.000 feet at the preappointed time of which the fleet surfaced and launched Lt.. Schultz survived but sustained serious injuries. The Hawks conducted almost vertical dives from B.” conducted in a formal fleet gunnery to be pressure-rigid in that positive internal gas pressure competition.. simulated an attack on the heavy Lt. known as skin covered the lightly framed hull. 1926 continued 28 J U LY • The submarine ships of the Pacific Fleet as they sortied from San Pedro. Va. 18 AUGUST • The Navy let a contract to the Aircraft Development Corp.. Dolph C. 28 July 1926. Allen launches XS-2 seaplane from the submarine S-1 (SS 105). took feasibility of basing planes Aeronautics. This became the submarine also recovered first fleet demonstration of dive bombing. (SS 105) Lt. The the tactic proved operationally effective... the deck. Schilt. the system incorporated a stabilized line of sight to aid in tracking approaching aircraft. Sailors extricated Rodgers from the wreck and took him to a hospital. along with three Navy observation squadrons. Momsen commanding. for a metal-clad 13 DECE M BER • Commander Aircraft Squadrons. BuNo A-6470. pilot Cmdr. indicating the obvious nature of the solution to the problem completing the first cycle of effective bomb delivery. airship designated ZMC-2. a flight of F6C-2 carrier- 1053777 based fighters. secured the had independently initiated this demonstration. 12. Schultz crashed in a VE-9 biplane. 10 July 1926. The Roaring Twenties   |   89 . Although VF-2 the aircraft. USMC. Christian F. The descriptive term “metal-clad” Battle Fleet Rear Adm. Lt.C. second place in the Schneider Cup Race in an R3C-2 racing on board submarines. seaplane at Hampton Roads. Charles Calif. Joseph M. Cmdr. but nonetheless achieved complete Dolph C. Wagner commanding. Allen in a Cox. planes of VF-1 completed 127 landings on board Langley (CV 1) off southern California. Developed by the Ford Instrument Co. handling aircraft at sea. had been forewarned. 2) and aircrewman AMM1 Samuel J. of Detroit. in the Delaware River near the dock of the Naval Aircraft Factory. squadrons. D. Frank D. the ship ran into a heavy mist on a later date. S-1. 19 NOV E M BER • The battleship Maryland (BB 46) This experience allowed the squadron to land 12 planes in 21 conducted experimental firing of the Mark XIX antiaircraft minutes under the emergency conditions encountered when fire control system. Schilt’s achievement marked the final Navy 9 AUGUST • In a day of tests to determine the speed of participation in international racing competition. Mich. 27 AUGUST • While attempting to land at the Philadelphia Navy Yard after a flight from NAS Anacostia. The general consensus among observers was that Klemin XS-2 seaplane. and submerged.

for duty in charge of the Aviation Section of the Naval Medical School in Washington. that Commander Aircraft Squadrons must be allowed wide Cmdr.C. in effect since 1922. This marked the beginning load. BuNo A-6878. The exercise concluded on 5 March. with a 500-kg useful 2 M A RCH • Just prior to Fleet Problem VII the Army and load. The observation squadrons simulated attacks from need to provide constant protection against air attack. John R. Rassieur. Steven W. and assailing light surface craft demonstration at NAS Anacostia. Champion took off in the Wright XF3W Apache equipped with a Pratt & Whitney Wasp 9 M A RCH • During Fleet Problem VII conducted in the engine and National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Caribbean through 14 March. Stonestreet.000 feet. Cmdr. Robert W. and the other men all sustained varying degrees of injuries. George R. destroying enemy aircraft in flight. The Marine and Navy fighters separately made Aeronautics reported that the exercises revealed that ships 45-degree dives and dropped 25-pound fragmentation should be allowed great latitude in maneuvering. Cabaniss died. The Bureau of to an altitude of 33. D. including burns. RM1 J.1927 participated. in an O2U Corsair at 147. the Panama Canal. Lt. 31 M A RCH • Pilot Lt. Va.. as its first passenger transport following a people on ships or ashore.C. 23 A PR I L • Lt.000 feet.C. and 1. Henderson broke the world months the school devoted all of its resources to intensive altitude record for Class C seaplanes. sailors and Marines gained supercharger from NAS Hampton Roads. and sank. with crewmembers Lt.C. crashed in a PN-9 flying boat. Lt. Callaway set a new 100-km world speed record for Class C seaplanes. Guantánamo Bay. For the next three 14 A PR I L • Lt. R. George R. by which Navy medical officers trained at the Army’s flight surgeon school. attacking exposed Ford Motor Co. Four Navassa Island. Evaluators noted that the exercises speed record for Class C seaplanes carrying a useful load of confirmed their opinion that ships alone could not knock out 500 kg in an O2U Corsair with a speed of 136. During the simulation ships bombarded the Pacific side of the canal. William T... Carleton C. The uses visualized for this tactic included disabling or demolishing flight 9 M A RCH • The Navy purchased a JR-1 trimotor from the decks. Vincent. interservice agreement.g. breaking the existing world record for Class C seaplanes by better than 3. 90  |  The Roaring Twenties . caught fire. Martin B. D. and AAM2 E. Frank D. wind and heavy seas while flying off the northwestern tip of Calif.178 feet in an O2U Corsair equipped with of flight surgeon training in the Navy as well as the end of an a Pratt & Whitney Wasp engine over Washington. D. 5 M AY • Lt. and aircraft bombed the 30 A PR I L • Lt. The PN-9 took off in a moderate swell during the morning watch but encountered a cross 1 JA N UA RY • VF-2 was established at NAS San Diego. Lt. reported Cabaniss Field in his honor at NAS Corpus Christi. test the feasibility of using enlisted pilots in fleet squadrons. James D. NAS Hampton Roads. reaching 22.263 mph at NAS Hampton Navy engaged in a joint exercise to test the U. 36) and the commanding officer of the aircraft tender Aroostook 1927 (CM 3). with a 500-kg useful instruction in aviation medicine. James M. defenses of Roads. The wind carried away the plane’s tail and naval aviators and ten aviation pilots manned the squadron to it crashed nose down. Shoemaker commanding. Texas. Wagner commanding. at NS Henderson in charge. and climbed further experience in carrier operations. Oliver. Va. 1 JA N UA RY • A flight test section was established as a ACMM C. A flight of F6C and FB-5 biplanes of VF-2. MC. W.S. and submarines. D. copilot Cmdr. Cuba. Roe. On 9 July 1941 the Navy dedicated 18 JA N UA RY • Lt. scored 19 hits with freedom of action in employing planes.455 feet. j. Cmdr. Poppen.023 mph at the canal but could do so in combination with aerial attacks. that carriers bombs. Barner broke the 500-km world Miraflores Locks. separate department at NAS Anacostia. 45 bombs on a 100-by-45 foot target. These findings called for greater defense of the canal from attacks from above. Va. Cabaniss (Naval Aviator No.

Under this system VF-1 of Battle Force became metal aircraft structures resulted from a report that the Naval VF-1B. designation letters and identification number. the tactic as a standard method of attack. Champion reached 37. Battle Fleet. Eberle ordered the Commander in Chief. a suffix letter to indicate the fleet. VF-5S carried out the tests in late in the XF3W Apache over NAS Anacostia. Researchers discovered that the application of anodic coatings 1 J U LY • The practice of sending Naval Reserve aviation decreased the corrosion of aluminum by salt water.. began with the assignment of the first group of 50 newly commissioned 27 M AY • Chief of Naval Operations Adm. breaking summer and early fall.. 21 M AY • Lt.. Aircraft Factory.932 mph above NAS Hampton Roads. hitherto a officers to one year of training duty with the fleet following serious obstacle to the use of aluminum alloys on naval aircraft. ensigns. Edward W. Fla. force. Philadelphia. graduation from NAS Pensacola.000 km in an O2U Corsair with a effective providing.995 feet against moving targets. in addition to the standard class speed of 130. The Roaring Twenties   |   91 . D. Pa. Va. Rutledge Irvine established a world record for 1 J U LY • A new system of squadron designation became Class C Seaplanes for 1. This achievement exceeded directly to the development of equipment and adoption of any altitude previously reached by heavier-than-air planes. submitted on this date.C. Carleton C. or unit to which the squadron 23 M AY • A major advance in the transition from wooden to served. 1927 continued 426930 O2U-1 Corsairs observe for battleship Florida (BB 30). to conduct tests to evaluate effectiveness of dive bombing 4 J U LY • Lt. the results of which generated wide the world altitude record for Class C seaplanes that he had discussion of the need for special planes and units and led established two months earlier.

The flight logged 11 hours 7 minutes 18 seconds in the air and a distance of 947. and a new world duration record with a 1.S. R. The planes dove in sequence in approximately 1027066 Saratoga (CV 3) launches her planes. with a useful load of 2. USMC. Pope set new world duration and distance records for Class C seaplanes. D. Rowell. Byron J.000 kg. Marines and 48 Nicaraguan National Guardsmen at Ocotal. Ross E. led a flight of five DH-4B-1 biplanes of VO-7M in a strafing and dive-bombing attack against bandits surrounding a garrison of 41 U. 5370 An RR-5 trimotor transport assigned to NAS Anacostia. Connell and copilot and naval aviation pilot S. in a PN-10 flying boat equipped with two Packard engines. Nicaragua.705 miles.000-kg load. 92  |  The Roaring Twenties . 1927 continued 8 J U LY • Pilot Lt. on the same flight from NAS San Diego.C. 15 J U LY • Maj. Calif.

Pride made the first takeoff and 16 AUGUST • Pilot Lt. D. Rodd took off in a PN-10 flying boat from NAS San Through 8 January. 1919. USMC. Calif. Christian F. until the rigid airship stood on her nose.. and stores. N. as the ship moved from the Fore River Plant to the seaplanes during two days of flights in a PN-10 flying boat Boston Navy Yard. Schilt subsequently payload carried to that altitude to date by a Class C seaplane. and dropped 17-pound 8-inch gun turrets fore and aft of the bridge that limited the fragmentation bombs from as low as 300 feet. 16 NOV E M BER • Saratoga (CV 3) was commissioned at Camden. and duration with a 500-kg 6 JA N UA RY • Nicaraguan rebels drove two separate load. They flew a total of 1. Twenty-five men rode the craft over the mooring mast during the extraordinary incident. 5 JA N UA RY • Lt. and bombers as 1st Lt. Carleton C. landing in a UO-1 observation biplane on board Lexington Herbert C. Capt. Albert W. while the Marines lost one 2 DECE M BER • The first F2B-1 fighter to serve in killed and one wounded. however. establishing a new world record that stood 1928 for two years. but Los Angeles did not suffer appreciable damage. with a useful load of 7. Herbert C. USMC. Yarnell commanding.726 pounds. Rodd broke three world records for Class C (CV 2). scouts.. The former battlecruiser was the first carrier and fifth ship of the Navy to bear the name.. 1928 50-degree dives from 1.569 miles and spent 20 hours 45 columns of Marines to the village of Quilahi. Quincy. Connell and copilot Lt.000 feet. however.J.. Christian F. Designers.J. Schilt. Mass. Calif. retained four twin heroism under fire in Nicaragua. Saratoga’s heavy displacement 521201 enabled the operation of a large air group of 80 to 90 planes and thus allowed for a mix of fighters. Alfred M. and evacuated 2 wounded officers and 14 enlisted to 2. The bandits lost 40 to 80 men. Mass. Harry E. observation biplane on a crude airstrip the Marines created. The Roaring Twenties   |   93 . Aircraft from subsequently operated from Saratoga (CV 3). Byron J. 25 AUGUST • A blast of cold air raised raised the stern of Los Angeles (ZR 3) on her moorings at NAS Lakehurst. Havillands broke up the attackers in less than an hour. The planes other nations had accomplished diving attacks during contributed to fighter development with their air-cooled WWI and the Marines used similar techniques in Haiti in radial engines and tubular steel frames. Marshall commanding. voluntarily made the first of 11 flights in which he landed an O2U-1 Corsair 18 AUGUST • Pilot Lt.000 meters to break the world record for the greatest men one or two casualties at a time. Connell and copilot Lt. 25 J U LY • Lt. and the squadron suffered three wounded and four captured. Schilt flew in Marines and supplies while Diego. The craft then slowly settled back down 180 degrees from the original position. of VO-7M. Capt. receives the Medal of Honor for his needed for missions. the Navy and Marine Corps recognize these organized dive-bombing and low-altitude attacks at Ocotal 14 DECE M BER • Lexington (CV 2) was commissioned at as the first made in direct support of ground troops. Pilot 1st Lt. as the first carrier and fourth ship of the Navy to carry the name. Schilt. The de space for aircraft.C. and climbed under fire. received the Medal of Honor.419 feet in the Wright Apache rigged as a landplane above NAS Anacostia. with two Packard engines over San Diego. distance with a 500-kg load. Champion reached 38. Byron J. and the Nicaraguan guardsmen squadron inventory arrived at VF-1B. fuel.. N.—distance. minutes 40 seconds in the air.

on board Saratoga (CV 3). Md. Under this scheme. Roger S. Cmdr. crashed into the passengers and take on fuel. Theodore G. Hugo Schmidt landed on board Saratoga (CV 3) at sea off Newport.. The engines became effective whereby standard type names were aviation pioneer had received the Navy Cross for his assigned to engines based upon the cubic inches of piston service with submarine chasers in WWI. and the destroyer displacement to the nearest ten. and the air-cooled radial J-5 Whirlwind the first takeoff and landing in a UO-1 observation biplane became the Wright R-790. Portions of the amphibian’s 1 FEBRUA RY • Joint Army-Navy nomenclature for aircraft tail and wing drifted onto a beach several days later. Ellyson (Naval 27 JA N UA RY • The rigid airship Los Angeles (ZR 3) Aviator No. R. Mitscher made Curtiss V-1150. 1) and crewmembers Lt. V-type Curtiss D-12 engine received the standard type name 94  |  The Roaring Twenties . Marc A. and Lt.I. 27 FEBRUA RY • Pilot Cmdr. the Ellyson (DD 454. 11 JA N UA RY • Air Officer Cmdr. Va. and supplies. 1928 continued 424479 A UO-1 observation biplane similar to the one that first landed on board Saratoga lands on the ship. to Annapolis. Chesapeake Bay while en route from NAS Hampton Roads. water. BuNo A-7335. Ransehousen died when their XOL-7 The airship remained on board long enough to transfer observation amphibian. later DMS 19) was named in his honor.

12 J U N E • Lexington (CV 2) anchored in Lahaina Roads. Pa. J-3. which required them to make air-cooled engines of recent design. The Bureau of Aeronautics reported that “little could be expected from a problem in which air operations were so limited and where the air forces available were so small. Commanding Officer Lt. over two days: speed over designed for alternate installation of two or three engines. Charles E. BuNo A-7384. at the end of a speed run from San Canal. reassigned this engine its earlier D-12 designation. Calif. and The initial configurations of this first large monoplane flying duration at 17 hours 55 minutes 13. The ship rose skyward carrying four sailor for Class C seaplanes. This aircraft was load. with a useful load of 1. and crewmembers 27 J U N E • Lt. Rosendahl called all stop for the engines.243. won the Curtiss with provisions for use of R-790-A to indicate a major Marine Trophy Race in an F6C-3 Hawk at NAS Anacostia. line handlers to the control car hundreds of feet into the air. with an elapsed time of 72 hours 34 minutes. Pa. and the Hawaiian Islands. USMC. with a payload of 2. the designation Wright R-790 was retained 19 M AY • Maj.426 feet in a PN-12.. carrier operations and in scouting patrols during Fleet Problem VIII in Pacific waters between San Francisco. in a PN-12.. Arthur Gavin and copilot Lt.000 km at 80. Rosendahl attempted to maneuver the airship. with a speed of 157. mooring lines. and in evolved in later production versions into BM-1s.6 mph over the 100-mile course. the landing lines.000 kg.J. to Honolulu that broke all existing records for at NAS Lakehurst. BuNo A-7384. but heavy wind gusts snapped her the distance. Hawaii. Zeus Soucek set 28 FEBRUA RY • A contract for the XPY-1 flying boat was world marks for Class C seaplanes. N. Zeus Soucek set the world duration record for Class C seaplanes in a PN-12. The Roaring Twenties   |   95 . the standard type name Curtiss V-1150 and Secretary of the Navy as service equivalent to sea duty.288 mph. The aircraft tenders Aroostook (CM 3) and Gannet (AM 41) also took part. and J-4.. 25 M AY • Lt. could be certified by the for example. equipped with two 525-hp Pratt & Whitney engines. BuNo A-7384. 2 M A RCH • During a flight from New York to the Panama Territory of Hawaii. the rigid airship Los Angeles (ZR 3) attempted to moor Pedro. equipped with two Wright Cyclone engines in a two-day flight of 36 hours 1 minute that 416531 culminated over Philadelphia. Arthur Gavin and copilot Lt. regular and frequent aerial flights. 3 M AY • Pilot Lt. earlier models of this engine kept the old D. Lutz.. 2. boat procured by the Navy evolved into the PBY Catalina.6 seconds. Pa. distance at 1. J-2. to 18 A PR I L • Naval aviation gained limited experience in 19. Cmdr.C.593 feet at Philadelphia.000-kg useful issued to the Consolidated Aircraft Corp. This order abolished. but a snow 26 J U N E • Lt. 1928 continued 28 FEBRUA RY • The Navy issued an order limiting the 11 M AY • An Act of Congress provided that duty performed application of standard type names for aircraft engines to by officers assigned to airships. On the other hand. Lexington (CV 2) anchors off Diamond Head. at Philadelphia. designations. Charles A..000 kg. These combination with her crew’s improved expertise in aircraft handling operated 42 planes—30 fighter and 12 observation types. flight for Class C seaplanes in a PN-12. Arthur Gavin set a world altitude record of squall buffeted the craft and Rosendahl ordered men to release 15. BuNo A-7384. Langley (CV 1) took part with for development of the XT5M-1 “diving bomber. Arthur Gavin made a world record altitude pulled the four sailors into the car without injuries.” which a lengthened flight deck and altered arresting gear. modification. with a 1.. 30 J U N E • The Navy issued a contract to the Martin Co.” The problem concluded on 28 April. Calif.20 miles.

C. aviator must pilot a plane for 10 hours at night and make at and thereby reduce per capita training expense.5 million. Together with similar operations on board Saratoga (CV 3) later in the month. 96  |  The Roaring Twenties . and a as part of the train that supported Saratoga.000 kilocycles and featuring an engine-driven generator. aviation pilots.. Pa. 9 A PR I L • Evaluators confirmed the feasibility of and reported that on the first trial two of the three sights had abandoning fore-and-aft wire arresting gear during placed a bomb within 25 feet of the target. equipped with two 525-hp Bahía Honda in Cuba in support of planes that flew from NAS Pratt & Whitney engines. Akron.000-pound bombs. relieved Langley (CV 1). with both 1. On the morning duration of 16 hours 39 minutes. The aircraft tender Aroostook (CM 3) days: distance and speed for 2. Charles This effort sought to increase the proportion of officers F. Pa. Philadelphia.000.. Chief of Naval Operations Adm.. Gorton and copilot BMC destruction of the Panama Canal. which was delayed by yard work. D. operating on a frequency of 3. including Saratoga’s employment to achieve the theoretical 11 J U LY • Pilot Lt. to provide the Bureau of Aeronautics required..000 to 1 M A RCH • Secretary of the Navy Curtiss D. constructors and EDO officers were to be assigned to duty in the aeronautical organization. with a 2. each qualified completing the flight training course at NAS Pensacola. Saratoga launched 69 planes that arrived over the Miraflores and Pedro Miguel Locks undetected shortly 25 J U LY • The Bureau of Aeronautics authorized the after dawn and destroyed the locks without opposition. Calif. subsequently inoperable.. 13 M A RCH • Rear Adm. Ohio. Va.000-kg load. over two Hampton Roads. 14 DECE M BER • The shipment of 14 fighting-plane radio telephone sets. BuNo A-7384. D. and NAS San Diego. small carriers to supplement larger fleet types. became the first dive bombers Saratoga (CV 3) in Fleet Problem IX attached to opposing designed to drop 1. 1 M A RCH • The Navy changed the indoctrination courses 1929 at NAS Hampton Roads. The removal of bow and stern catapults on Langley (CV 1) Bureau of Aeronautics noted that the losses incurred drove because the ship had not operated either for three years. Adolphus W. battleships and light cruisers repeatedly rendered their planes cubic-foot rigid airships ZRS-4 and ZRS-5. Wilbur 4.000 km. at 1.. the additional naval early evaluation of radio equipment in single-seat aircraft. Reber set five world records for Class C seaplanes (AV 1). Va. recommended the acceptance of three prototypes of the production version of the Mark XI Norden bombsight.C. This Corps and one officer of the line for engineering duty only. The aircraft tenders Wright Earl E.043 mph. of 26 January. home the necessity of providing carriers with “maximum escort protection. and As the exigencies of the Navy permitted and the needs of manufactured at the Washington Navy Yard. Hughes ordered that. operations on board Langley (CV 1). by 1 July 1930.1929 aircraft and the similar XT2N-1 from the Naval Aircraft 23 JA N UA RY • The participation of Lexington (CV 2) and Factory. Bureau of Aeronautics. William A. least 20 landings.336 miles and 81.” The concussion from the gunfire of the 6 OCTOBER • The Navy let contracts for the 6. to 16 JA N UA RY • Experience in night flying became a emphasize flight familiarization and determine aptitude. to the Goodyear airpower in a handful of ships that confirmed the need for Zeppelin Corp. Moffett was appointed for a third consecutive tour as chief of the 21 JA N UA RY • The Naval Proving Ground at Dahlgren. directed the designation of 33 officers of the Construction to VB-2B on board Saratoga initiated service tests. Sandpiper (AM 51).000-kg loads. forces introduced new elements into fleet operations.... and Teal (AM 23) operated near in a PN-12. Va. and 2. Fla. Observers noted the concentration of naval christened Akron and Macon. open requirement for all heavier-than-air naval aviators and naval only to those meeting the physical requirements for aviators. at Philadelphia. equipment was designed at NAS Anacostia. respectively. The problem concluded on 27 January. and that student aviators meet the same requirement during the first year of their initial assignment.

Canada. B. Cmdr.140 feet in the XF3W NAS Lakehurst. The Roaring Twenties   |   97 . which were essential to long-range radio reception. Williams received the Distinguished hook-ons to the trapeze of the rigid airship Los Angeles (ZR 3) Flying Cross from Secretary of the Navy Charles F. N. N.000-cubic-foot airship equipped on board Langley (CV 1).601 to 4. to Savage adequate shielding had brought with it undue cost in terms of Harbor on Prince Edward Island. ZMC-2 built by Aircraft Development Corp. the 1932 edition of the General Specification for the Design and Construction of Airplanes for the United States 8 M AY • The Bureau of Aeronautics announced the policy Navy included a requirement for ignition shielding. and developed and applied principles of operation. 1929 continued their conclusions culminated a year of experimental civilians C. The balloon won aircraft maintenance or degradation of plane performance. Hyland from Naval Research development on the landing platform at NAS Hampton Laboratory. A naval radio group attached to the Bureau of Roads. Although 4 M AY • Lt. Lt. Tomlinson won the race for the Curtiss Marine Trophy held at NAS Anacostia. Settle and Ens. which permitted some remarkable radio reception. Adolphus W. This airship 8 M AY • Pilot Lt.52 mph. and established world distance records and for magneto. Va. and radio fields held later in the year. which contributed directly to flight safety and aircraft performance test accuracy. Apache equipped with a 425-hp Pratt & Whitney Wasp engine over NAS Anacostia. D. qualified for the International Race this conference spokesmen for aircraft. D. William G. the results appeared generally indifferent in that day flight from Pitt Stadium in Pittsburgh..000 cubic each other’s problems in order to develop practical shielding meters’ capacity. Mich. Williams had been foiled when the hook failed to operate after making had studied the action of aircraft in violent maneuvers and contact with the trapeze.. with a speed of 162. standards. D. 4 J U N E • Pilot Lt. Alford J. and led Secretary of the Navy Charles F. inverted flight.. 20 AUGUST • Pilot Lt. Navy representatives included Lt. W. At the Litchfield Trophy. Mirick and L. the 1920s. in the XF7C-1 Seahawk. Apollo Soucek set the new world altitude mark for Class C seaplanes in the XF3W Apache at 38. 11 J U N E • A conference at the Bureau of Standards established general standards for shielding aircraft 80-G-416204 engine ignition. with a flight of 952 miles. Pa. Adams Standards had developed basic techniques for shielding to authorize the removal of the wires in September. made its first flight at Grosse Ile Airport in Detroit. A. Later.C. Gorton’s earlier attempts on 3 July for extraordinary achievement in aerial flight. and Washington. engine. 25 M AY • Pilot Lt.560 feet. Adams over NAS Lakehurst. sparkplug. and cable specialties considered for balloons in three categories from 1. Apollo Soucek set a new world record subsequently served for several years for training purposes at for Class C landplanes. of providing all carrier planes with brakes and wheel-type tail skids following successful tests of a T4M-1 torpedo plane so 9 AUGUST • The metal-clad 200. Gorton in a specially equipped UO-1 observation biplane made several successful 10 M AY • Lt. 8 May 1929. Apollo Soucek sets a new world altitude record in the XF3W Apache over Allen I. BuNo A-7653.C.J. airborne radios from ignition interference at the close of WWI.J. reaching 39. Price from the Bureau of Aeronautics. Wilfred Bushnell limited use of ignition shielding had been made throughout won the National Elimination Balloon Race during a two. Thomas G..C.

The carrier supplied 1929 to 24 January 1930. Byrd Jr. reached the pole at 0114 on this date. McKinley. associated equipment from carriers.. the Bureau of Ordnance reported that the device Capt. the South Pole in a Ford 4-AT trimotor named Floyd Bennett. 4.160 kilowatt-hours of energy through 16 January. during an Tacoma. Wash. Langley (CV 1) sailed from Bremerton. civilian pilot Bernt Balchen.. The plane took off from Little America on McMurdo Sound at 1529 on 28 November. 98  |  The Roaring Twenties . Wash. USA. to alleviate the city’s shortage of hydroelectric overhaul at Puget Sound Navy Yard from 13 November power following a severe drought. one of a small number authorized the removal of the fore-and-aft wires and of naval ships equipped with turboelectric power plants.. 29 NOV E M BER • Commander and navigator Cmdr. Ashley C. 27 DECE M BER • Based upon scores obtained with the Richard E. and returned to Little America at 1008. made the first flight over gave about 40 percent more hits than earlier bombsights. 1929 continued 21724 Metal-clad airship ZMC-2 joins the fleet in 1929. stopped briefly for fuel at Axel Heiberg Glacier. Adams 18 DECE M BER • Lexington (CV 2).251. to a specially dredged berth at became the first carrier to complete this work. SEPTE M BER • Secretary of the Navy Charles F. civilian new Norden gyro-stabilized Mk XI bombsight during fleet copilot and radio operator Harold June. and photographer exercises.

flying a UO-1 observation biplane. 184590 PD-1 patrol planes demonstrate high-altitude horizontal bombing. hooks on to rigid airship Los Angeles (ZR 3). Gorton. Adolphus W. 1929 continued 461642 Lt. 20 August 1929. The Roaring Twenties   |   99 .

1929 continued 426932 Sailors release a T4M-1 torpedo plane from arresting gear on board Langley (CV 1)—the fiddle bridges in the background support the fore and aft wires. 426947 A trio of F4B carrier-borne fighters of VF-1B. 100  |  The Roaring Twenties .

and folding wings all improved aircraft performance. more accurate bombsights. culminating in the air. but the fleet aviation equipment. and repeated sufficed to equip operating commands. These circumstances slowed the program. flight ashore and at sea. a type that eventually proved catapults on board aircraft carriers and developed better capable of great refinement to absorb the energy of heavy recovery procedures for battleship and cruiser observation aircraft landing at high speeds. action to develop a means of recovering seaplanes by ships The Great Depression   |   101 . Better and patrolled the seas under conditions that approached war. Chapter 4 The Great Depression 1930 –1939 T he 1930s began quietly with an international treaty that extended previous agreements to reduce naval armaments. In the United States. N. the rigid airships into oblivion. 29 JA N UA RY • A Bureau of Aeronautics report revealed The Navy installed hydraulic arresting gear and that hydraulic arresting gear. (ZR 3) at an altitude of 3. When the Republic struggled to inventory. By association. and the nations moved inexorably toward global war. money became available for more naval aircraft. The Navy swing began. continued German successes. the period began with the Serious setbacks occurred in the field of lighter-than- stock market crash of October 1929. Barnaby made a successful Engineers and designers learned more about the value of a air-to-ground flight in a glider from rigid airship Los Angeles streamlined. efficient 1930 retractable landing gear. expanded its pilot training program and designed and laid In spite of the hardships the fleet made gains down new ships. 7 FEBRUA RY • The Bureau of Aeronautics initiated Tactical innovations of the 1920s became fleet doctrine. 31 JA N UA RY • Lt. however. Dependable radio-controlled planes were put to practical use as targets for antiaircraft guns. As the years passed the peace dissipated. aircraft performance rose. controllable-pitch propellers. Slowly. The United manufacturers produced more reliable products and States proclaimed neutrality as WWII erupted. aircraft inventory barely committees. smaller radios. Business declined. Va. was under development at planes. the service gradually struck them from its curtailed operations. new ships. an upward of war echoing across the seas grew louder.000 feet over NAS Lakehurst. The fleet drastically operations. Pioneers demonstrated the feasibility of instrument NAS Hampton Roads. As the decade drew to a close the ominous rumblings and modernization of naval air stations. As engineers and aircraft into the air would soon operate from their decks. As it acquired broader respect. Ralph S. clean design. Entire squadrons had begun to turn in the record performances once accomplished by individual pilots. aircraft on the drawing boards or rising in aviation technology. forced induction power plants. and unemployment (ZRS 5) sounded the death knell of the Navy’s rigid airship staggered the nation. and the crashes of airships Akron (ZRS 4) and Macon Great Depression. In spite of favorable reports from investigating expansion of naval aviation. and research and testaments to the value of these airships in specialized development programs suffered. Three new aircraft carriers enabled the Navy to equip peacetime forces with a respectable seagoing air arm. nonrigid airships almost followed recover prosperity through the initiation of public works.J. naval aviation achieved prominence in both fleet organization and operations and became a truly integrated element of naval power. making the airplanes better weapons.

The problem monoplane and biplane types. and Langley (CV 1) and aircraft tenders Wright (AV 1) and Sandpiper (AM 51) took part in Fleet Problem XI in the 10 M A RCH • Despite adverse weather during Fleet Caribbean. Pa. maneuvers to gain tactical superiority over “enemy” forces. Philadelphia. but recommended developing in differentiating friend and foe led ships to shoot at friendly the aircraft further to facilitate a rational comparison of planes. as well as studied how forces and aircraft in search operation exercises and practiced concentrated forces attacked dispersed opponents. and of the scouting planes in the inventory. 102  |  The Great Depression . In addition. (CV 1) and aircraft tenders Aroostook (CM 3) and Wright (AV 1) participated. Philadelphia. 1930 460387 The XF5B-1. failures high-altitude characteristics. a Boeing Model 205 fighter later purchased by fleet to achieve long-range gunnery superiority. The exercises underscored how 14 FEBRUA RY • The first monoplane designed for carrier suddenly airpower could reverse engagements by enabling a operations. and cruiser gunfire damaged Langley. arrived for testing at NAS strength of light forces. Observers recognized the shortcomings reported adversely on the XF5B-1’s landing. had progressed to the point performance requirements in diving tests. Saratoga (CV 3). the first prototype dive bomber gear. D. Pa. Saratoga (CV 3). that the Naval Aircraft Factory. concluded on 15 March. and assure that torpedo planes could Anacostia. study the problem and work up designs for Carriers Lexington (CV 2).C. the Navy’s first monoplane designed for carrier operations. takeoff. received authorization to construct working models to establish the 14 A PR I L • Carriers Lexington (CV 2).000-pound bomb. particularly attractive for its promise to improve designed to deliver a l. The problem focused on scouting and on Problem X in the Caribbean. enhance the the Navy and designated XF5B-1. The Board of Inspection and Survey later attack the enemy. practicability of various retracting mechanisms. underway when it requested that the Naval Aircraft Factory. and Langley a system able to recover O2U-3 Corsairs. met its strength and performance in fighting planes. commanders employed light concentrating dispersed forces.. 15 FEBRUA RY • The design of retractable landing 21 M A RCH • The XT5M-1..

left.” 1 SEPTE M BER • Capt.. but on the extreme long-range patrol planes. which carried forward the general limitations of the earlier agreement and provided for further reductions of naval armaments. Neb. USMC.and 16-inch hooded cockpit of an O2U Corsair completed an instrument guns. USMC.C. instruction completed their course in early 1932. the development comprised the only military entry in the race for the of “proper type” scouting planes.C. USMC.000 feet before the longest blind flight to date. the equipping of all airplanes with radios. A. this order Hyland had detected an airplane flying overhead during caused a temporary lull in enlisted pilot training. call for the establishment of several “semi-permanent task groups [each] consisting of carrier. Young and L. Arthur H. The signatories broadened the definition of aircraft carriers to include ships of any tonnage designed primarily for aircraft operations. Vernon M. USMC. to NAS but not before her planes dropped eleven 1. Page Jr. cruisers and destroyers.000 miles from Omaha. 1930 continued Unfavorable weather and visibility complicated the exercise.000-pound bombs Anacostia.C.. 17th of 20 laps Page crashed—in all likelihood from carbon monoxide poisoning—and later died. Arthur H..08 mph over the Potomac River at NAS Anacostia. Arthur H.. Lt.. When men already in the system or under Laboratory reported that researchers Leo C. Page Jr. acted as safety pilot and took over the controls only Experience from Fleet Problem X the preceding for the landings after Page brought the plane over the fields month and in this exercise led the Bureau of Aeronautics to at 200 feet. flight of about 1. Guymon. Two nights later “Black” battleships Tennessee the previous year. USMC. (BB 43) and West Virginia (BB 48) mistakenly identified their carrier Saratoga as “Blue” Lexington and opened fire at her from 21 J U LY • Capt. USMC. Ohio—the on Blue battleships from an altitude of 10. Page Jr. via Chicago. 31 M AY • Capt. the growth of scouting Thompson Trophy in Chicago. 4 J U N E • On the first anniversary of the pilot’s seaplane Light cruiser Richmond (CL 9) briefly fired her 6-inch guns at altitude record. The pilot gained and squadrons to 18 aircraft. complete the longest blind flight to date. with a speed of 164. Apollo Soucek reached a new height of Lexington on 16 April. The umpire subsequently ruled Saratoga out of action. Their success led to the formal establishment of a project at the laboratory 22 A PR I L • The signatories of the Washington Naval for “Detection of Enemy Vessels and Aircraft by Radio. and stated no capital ships in existence on 1 April 1930 were to be fitted with such platforms or decks.166 feet in a Wright F3W-1 Apache landplane equipped knocked out six planes on the flight deck and evaluated the with a Pratt & Whitney 450-hp engine over NAS Anacostia. 1st Lt. England. and an increase in the value of increased an early lead in an XF6C-6 Hawk. problem ended on 18 April. failure of Lexington’s other aircraft to lay smoke as a serious D. The Great Depression   |   103 . Guymon. Arthur H. Page Jr. and Cleveland. 21 July 1930. Ill. D. 21 A PR I L • The Bureau of Navigation issued a circular letter directing that no more enlisted applicants be recommended 5 NOV E M BER • The director of the Naval Research for pilot training.. regaining the world altitude record he had held briefly tactical omission. D.000 yards with their respective 14. Capt..” Treaty signed an additional accord at London. experiments in the directional effects of radio. agreed that the installation of landing-on or flying-off platforms on warships designed and used primarily for other purposes were not to make such ships aircraft carriers. The umpire ruled that the shots 43. and 1st Lt.. Vernon M. won the last annual Curtiss Marine Trophy Race for service seaplanes 460434 in an F6C-3 Hawk. from a sealed a range of 9.

Aircraft checked but did not and relegated participation in coastal defense to secondary stop the battleship fleet advance. days. the defense of a coastline. including first problem as a scout. an XOP-1 autogiro. to Nicaraguan waters to help Marines. The policy also directed fleet operation of air stations support. air forces’ responsibilities for coast defense. as the primary task of naval aviation. and reorganized naval aviation and established it as an integral the attack and defense of a convoy. Patoka (AO 9). in the aeronautical engineering group for study at the California defense of coasts and overseas possessions. many heavy cruisers lacked sufficient stability for catapult and recovery operations. to 282. and for the next aircraft. and other vessels assist 104  |  The Great Depression .. from Pitcairn Aircraft Co. Fleet. Dahlgren. and support functions were to expended half of their fuel and ammunition in just two be maintained by shore commands. As a result. one concluded on 21 February.. which added advanced seaplane training courses and reinstated bombing and torpedo courses and observation and gunnery courses that were dropped in November 1929. initiating 9 JA N UA RY • Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Lexington (CV 2). William V. aircraft repairs. pilot training syllabus. the land-based air arm of the Army. three academic years students received assignments to either Massachusetts Institute of Technology to study aircraft 15 FEBRUA RY • Carriers Langley (CV 1). Douglas A. development of a propeller type the Navy would later adopt Pratt and Army Chief of Staff Gen.5 hours. hospital ship Relief (AH 1). generated controversy. William Problem XII. In addition. The terms of the agreement concentrated naval aviation with mobile 3 M A RCH • The Bureau of Aeronautics approved a operations of the fleet while recognizing the primacy of the recommendation of two officers from the postgraduate Army Air Corps. Pratt’s guidelines stressed fleet mobility and offensive weak in battleships against another fleet with reverse action to protect against invasion from overseas.75 hours or. The problem pitted one fleet strong in aircraft and Adm. Rigid airship Los Angeles (ZR 3) took part in her development of the offensive power of the fleet. practicing strategic scouting. The in strategic naval operating areas. to Hamilton Standard Propeller Co. suitable for use on combat aircraft. short course in photography among the additions.1931 28 NOV E M BER • Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Va. engines or CalTech to study aircraft structures. test. and two patrol squadrons of the Battle Fleet reported for duty to Commander Base Force. ensured the further expanded the ground school course to 386. but her “extreme vulnerability” advanced base forces. These changes expanded the 1931 regular flight course to 258. Cuba. utility squadron. The problem 2 DECE M BER • Seaplane tender Aroostook (CM 3). Institute of Technology. U. with a development of dive-bombing equipment and tactics.75 hours. part of the Navy under Commander in Chief. for two variable-pitch propellers. the battleship fleet defeated the carrier fleet. Pratt issued a naval air policy effective on 1 April 1931 that of carriers and light cruisers. The evaluators discovered that displacing gear eliminated the recently encountered danger of bombs colliding with 2 M A RCH • The Bureau of Aeronautics awarded a contract releasing airplanes. providing that 25 FEBRUA RY • The Bureau of Aeronautics issued a new command with its first aviation organization. and Swan (AM 34) fought across the 31 M A RCH • Lexington (CV 2) sailed from NS Eastern Pacific toward Panamanian waters during Fleet Guantánamo Bay. and despite inferior air status. only stations necessary for limitations of carriers became apparent when their aircraft training. assigned the strengths. for those also taking 8 JA N UA RY • The completion of tests at the Naval advanced combat. the employment V. and Saratoga (CV 3) together with aircraft tenders Wright (AV 1).S. MacArthur and which would help aircraft engines realize their full announced an agreement on the division of their respective potential during WWII. the Navy’s practice of assigning postgraduate students to civilian institutions 22 JA N UA RY • The Navy ordered its first rotary-wing broadened to permit greater specialization. The new syllabus also Proving Ground.

1931. received a contract for stricken capital. specifications for aircraft markings that directed use of 20 Scouting. The Great Depression   |   105 . and Base Forces were designated Commander inch-wide colored bands around the fuselage of section Aircraft [name of force]. Early the next afternoon. This plane marked colors on the empennage whenever two or more squadrons the first naval aircraft to incorporate retractable landing gear of the same class operated together. willow green. Effective on this date.000-pound) bombs procured in sufficient numbers Scouting.. black. assigning royal red. leader planes. 1931 continued 1053789 Marine expeditionary aircraft at Marine Corps Field Quantico. heavy (1. and Base Forces. and provisions to the 9 A PR I L • Glenn L. Submarine. General Order No. victims of an earthquake that demolished much of Managua. Va. 12 BM-1s. Aviation type commands in the Battle. to equip a naval squadron. 211 of 10 December 1930 provided for the appointment of dedicated commanders for aircraft and 1 J U N E • The Bureau of Aeronautics issued new for each type of ship. Martin Co. for the purpose of reducing aerodynamic drag and thereby Nicaragua. white. Fleet was reorganized into Battle. Lexington inaugurated increasing performance. These planes were further developments of the XT5M-1 and the first dive bombers capable of attacking with 1 A PR I L • The U. supplies. BuNo A-8878. and lemon yellow for sections 1 through 6 2 A PR I L • Grumman received a contract for a protoype respectively. The same order permitted use of distinguishing XFF-1 two-seat fighter. true blue. carrier relief operations when she launched five aircraft carrying medical teams.S.

S. Akron. D. Hoover. was laid at the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co..S. N. 7 OCTOBER • Aircraft obtained 50 percent hits with the newly developed Norden Mk XV bombsight in a bombing 19 J U LY • Lts. 23 SEPTE M BER • Rigid airship Akron (ZRS 4) made her first trial flight around the Cleveland. Ohio area. The technology was expanded to include the use of compressed air to launch a 1 J U LY • NAS Coco Solo. compared to slightly who stayed aloft for the greatest number of hours—when more than 20 percent hits with the earlier Mk XI model. W. 26 SEPTE M BER • The keel for Ranger (CV 4). 1931 continued Ohio. Adams and Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics Rear Adm. in an XOP-1 autogiro. Assistant 30 SEPTE M BER • The Bureau of Aeronautics reported Secretary of the Navy for Aeronautics David S.. Navy ship designed and constructed as a carrier. with a distance of 195 miles overnight to Marilla. Fleet and their function of providing mobile air units for fleet operations. 10 SEPTE M BER • Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics Rear Adm. Panama Canal Zone. 20 percent reduction in takeoff run and a slight increase in maximum speed. Settle and Wilfred Bushnell demonstration conducted from an altitude of 5. D. Thomas G. William A.000-pound bomb. Moffett. Alfred M. 23 SEPTE M BER • Pilot Lt. J.000 feet against received the Litchfield Trophy—awarded to the aeronauts anchored target ship Pittsburgh (CA 4). and by the end of 1932 the Naval Aircraft Factory. 215856 C. Territory of Hawaii. were redesignated Fleet Philadelphia. 106  |  The Great Depression . 8 AUGUST • Lou Hoover. 1 J U N E • After civilian test pilot C. the first 1 June 1931. Pearl Harbor. they won the National Elimination Balloon Race in Akron. Kenneth Whiting completed three landings and takeoffs in an XOP-1 autogiro on board Langley (CV 1) while the carrier was underway. The 112 passengers included Secretary of the Navy Charles F.C.C. powder catapults on hangar decks. the wife of President Herbert C. D. Faulkner lands an XOP-1 autogiro at NAS Anacostia. christened rigid airship Akron (ZRS 4) at the Goodyear-Zeppelin Corp. Ohio. William A.. on wheels. Pride and passenger Capt. Moffett directed the expedition of the variable-pitch propeller test and evaluation program. Pa. U... and NAS plane. O2U-3 Corsair. qualifying them for the subsequent international race. marking the first such onboard autogiro operations at sea.Y.. a 1053772 variable-pitch propeller on an F6C-4 Hawk had provided a A BM-1 dive bomber carrying a 1. The admiral noted that in recent tests at NAS Anacostia. J.C. The investigators visualized the installation of Towers completed a 30-minute evaluation flight in the plane.. Ingalls and that it was conducting studies for catapulting landplanes Assistant Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics Capt. John H. Va. Faulkner arrived at NAS Anacostia. used this method to successfully launch an Air Bases (FABs) to conform with their transfer to the U.

light vessels. which included scouting all-metal car and a 320. and submarines. When VS-8A. including . The ensuing repairs caused her to miss Fleet Problem XIII. The airship deployed without her planes because the trapeze had not been installed and the vessel’s aircraft storage facilities remained incomplete. Blue aircraft subsequently sank submarines Barracuda (SS 163) and Bonita (SS 165). 9 DECE M BER • Langley (CV 1) completed nine days of operations off the New England coast in which sailors tested 2 A PR I L • Torpedo Squadron 5A (ex-VT-20) sailed from the cold-weather operating capabilities of carrier deck gear the Philippines on board seaplane tender Jason (AV 2) for and aircraft as well as the effectiveness of protective flight NAS San Diego. The problem concluded on 18 March. N. Lexington (CV 2). and attrition attacks her the largest nonrigid airship designed especially for the by aircraft. From then attack and the need for better flotation gear on board battleship until 1941 other Marine squadrons maintained some carrier and cruiser planes. proficiency through periodic operations afloat and field carrier landing practice ashore. dive bombers. Alfred M. Calif. 22 FEBRUA RY • Rigid airship Akron (ZRS 4) incurred damage while being towed from her hangar. Planes from “Blue” carrier Saratoga and FAB Pearl Harbor bombed “Black” 27 OCTOBER • Rigid airship Akron (ZRS 4) was submarine Narwhal (SS 167). Charles E. remaining in the area. N. rendering her out of action on commissioned at NAS Lakehurst. Pride and Capt. Langley (CV 1). bombsight trials against Pittsburgh (CA 4) in October 1931.J.50-caliber shipboard machine guns began operations as an integral part of Aircraft.000-cubic-foot envelope that made and tracking. West Coast as the first step in an overseas campaign in which an advanced force moved from a concentration point to a first 7 OCTOBER • Evaluation of experimental K-class airship objective. N. of the Black submarine division. Repairs delayed Navy until that time. marking the Army’s first commitment to single craft—207. Lt. and as the first Marine aviation squadrons assigned Evaluators also noted the vulnerability of submarines to aerial to carriers. the Navy-developed sight that became so essential to the high-altitude precision bombing in WWII. Cmdr. embarked on Observers called for increased antiaircraft measures against board Saratoga (CV 3) and Lexington (CV 2). 23 September 1931. 24 M A RCH • The Army Air Corps responded to enthusiastic reports from its observers at the Mk XV Norden 3 NOV E M BER • Rigid airship Akron (ZRS 4) made a ten. Kenneth Whiting complete the first XOP-1 autogiro operations on board Langley (CV 1). was disestablished the following June. 1932 1932 9 JA N UA RY • Rigid airship Akron (ZRS 4) operated with the Scouting Fleet off the Carolinas and northeast of the Bahamas. respectively. hour flight out of NAS Lakehurst. She set a new record The corps requested that the Navy provide the service with for the largest number of individuals carried into the air by a 25 Mk XV sights. Battle and six to eight additional carriers to project forces overseas. Force. 2 NOV E M BER • VS-14M and VS-15M.. the single squadron clothing. rigid airship Akron (ZRS 4) from participating. 10 March. convoy attack and defense. The Great Depression   |   107 . 215836 7 M A RCH • Planners envisioned Fleet Problem XIII off the Lt. K-1 featured an enclosed (CV 3) took part in the problem. after which Argonaut (SM 1) took over command Rosendahl commanding.J.J. and Saratoga K-1 began at NAS Lakehurst. aviation in the Asiatic Fleet was reduced to the observation aircraft on board cruisers. They served as such until late 1934.

Cmdr. after eight years of service and more than 5. it proved 441980 impracticable to obtain the required number of enlisted pilots. Mass. USMC.. C.. Aeronautics David S. 1932 continued seaplanes shot Akron down. 22 NOV E M BER • Following tests of an XOP-1 with the 2d saving measure. this marked the beginning of almost a year in which no new prospective aviators enrolled. 10 NOV E M BER • The Navy issued its first production order for radio equipment suitable for installation in single- 1 J U N E • President Herbert C. The service announced that it was suspending the appointment of a successor as a cost. Marine Brigade in Nicaragua. reported the autogiro’s chief value in expeditionary duty as 1 J U N E • Rigid airship Akron (ZRS 4) took part in her inspecting small fields for landing areas. Commander Scouting Force cited rigid airship vulnerabilities and recommended against further expenditures for the craft.. John R. was redesignated at Camp Kearny. with a contract for 125 sets of GF-1 radios to the resignation of Assistant Secretary of the Navy for the Aviation Radio Corp. Drinker hydraulic gear installed on board Langley in June and at Harvard University School of Public Health. The September 1931. Settle and Bushnell a request by the Bureau of Aeronautics to discontinue the established a new world distance record of 963. 25 SEPTE M BER • Lts.J. second exercise with the Scouting Fleet off the California and ferrying officers and noncommissioned officers. Ingalls. This decision maneuvers. N. 30 J U N E • Los Angeles (ZR 3) was decommissioned for fiscal reasons at NAS Lakehurst. The airship twice located and tracked the enemy.J. The office remained vacant until 1941. results of their studies pointed to the need for anti-G or anti- blackout equipment. Lt. 18 M AY • With enough qualified students to fill several Switzerland.. Va. N. evacuating casualties. MC. K. Poppen. The restrictive nature of the requirement was modified to include an exception for when. Mulcahy. arriving on 11 May 15 AUGUST • NAS Hampton Roads. in the opinion of the Secretary of the Navy. Poland. Maj. W. prototype XF9C-1 Sparrowhawk and an N2Y-1 trainer during the voyage. Hoover accepted seat fighters. 8 M AY • Rigid airship Akron (ZRS 4) flew across the country from NAS Lakehurst. Calif. 28 J U LY • The Bureau of Aeronautics allocated funds to the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery for research into the 2 M AY • The Bureau of Aeronautics directed the installation physiological effects of high acceleration and deceleration of hydraulic cylinder-type arresting gear on board Langley that pilots encountered in dive bombing and other violent (CV 1) to replace the weight-type gear. Settle and Wilfred Bushnell won the International Balloon Race at Basel. In effect. but 108  |  The Great Depression .000 hours in the air. 1 J U LY • An amending act became effective that reduced the requirement for the Navy’s share of enlisted pilots from 30 percent to 20 percent. in a two-day flight that ended on the Polish- classes at Pensacola. Thomas G. Va. performed the resulted from operational experience with two sets of pioneer research under the direction of Dr. instituted in 1930. Akron embarked the NAS Norfolk.123 miles for practice of waiving the two-year sea duty requirement balloons in three categories of volume. San Diego. Francis P. the Bureau of Navigation approved Latvian border near Vilna. Akron (ZRS 4) hoists an F9C-2 Sparrowhawk into the rigid airship’s hangar. coast. Fla.

. 10 FEBRUA RY • Fleet Problem XIV began off the West Coast to train the fleet for the complex mission of escorting 16 FEBRUA RY • President Herbert C. Lexington of the officers selected for postgraduate work commenced (CV 2) lost contact with her cruisers and made speed to with one year in the School of the Line. USA threatened to raid an outlying possession. over destroyers as plane guards. Fla. precluding flying operations. and torpedo aircraft would resume assigning naval officers to flight training at were causing. Those men who reach a launching point during the morning watch. but demonstrated ability and interest in an advanced technical two battleships surprised and sank the carrier from a range specialty studied a second year in that area. of 4. for extraordinary achievement as a pioneer aviator and repelling a carrier raid. Calif. without a new plan for postgraduate work that combined the existing encountering antiaircraft fire. bomber. The problem (Ret. organizing the coast for defense. but opposing planes surprised programs for specialists and for the general line and extended and damaged the ship.” master of science degrees in most instances. Ely. in the third year. Both sides achieved surprise attacks. awarded posthumously to Ely’s son Eugene B. Ely consisted of tracking. Aircraft from Saratoga (CV 3) bombed an oil refinery at Venice. leading to episode: “The LEXINGTON had not launched a plane.).500 yards. later redesignated the XBF2C-1. The evaluation succinctly summarized the they detached to civilian institutions for work. the superiority of cruisers last group had received assignments. an oil 4 JA N UA RY • The Postgraduate School Council approved field at El Segundo. in May or June—almost a year after the strength of three 18. All clouds thickened. Hoover presented an expeditionary force overseas while enemy forces the Distinguished Flying Cross to Col. and the need to improve communication procedures and the system of identification. Lessons learned included the “crying” need for planes capable of better performance and the “great handicap” 25 JA N UA RY • The Bureau of Navigation announced it that the slow speeds of patrol. Overnight on 15–16 February the the aeronautical engineering program to three years. and docks at Long Beach. the necessity for carriers to attain the treaty NAS Pensacola. 1933 1933 tactics.. and practicing carrier air group for significant contribution to the development of naval 46266 The XF11C-3. Nathan D.000-ton ships. The Great Depression   |   109 .

J. 21 A PR I L • Macon (ZRS 5) made her first flight. j.. the seaplane in position for hoisting on board. including Langley (CV 1). which engaged the probe and held 10 M A RCH • Navy ships. McCord attempted to elude the storms and then brought her about. Each 13 J U N E • The Bureau of Aeronautics issued a contract of the two commanders exercised type functions within for the development of special radio equipment for making his force. Many buildings without reinforced five additional battleships. Akron encountered fog and then thunderstorms as she neared New York. tender-based aviation postgraduate school and a third year at a civilian university. Herbert V. the rigid airship Macon (ZRS 5). with Chief of Recovery Act. Frank C. which consisted of a V-shaped float 4 M A RCH • Rigid airship Akron (ZRS 4) flew over the attached to the stern by a system of struts that permitted the inauguration ceremonies for President Franklin D. Panama Canal Zone. Roosevelt allotted the Bureau of Aeronautics Rear Adm. Scouting Force. By year’s end the bureau between two principal commands: carriers and their completed arrangements for a two-year course at the aircraft were assigned to Battle Force. In less than two months 110  |  The Great Depression . Her hangar bay could accomodate five of the little fighters. Bruce A. Lt. Macon (ZRS 5) in Akron. D. The younger Ely had demonstrated the operational test of a device later called the Plane Trap. Passing German tanker Phoebus rescued Cmdr. Macon was the last such airship procured for the Navy. Skipper Cmdr. William A. squadrons and FABs Pearl Harbor. Van Voorhis in an O2U Corsair made the first aviation as a civilian. McCord left the airship’s F9C-2 Sparrowhawks behind. Calif. Territory of Hawaii. 1933 continued in calibrating radio direction finders along the Atlantic coast. christened the rigid airship well as a speed run in which she reached 70 knots.J. served as type blind landings on board carriers to the Washington Institute commander for all fleet aircraft. William A. Ott and passenger Lt. President Franklin D. 18 A PR I L • Pilot Lt. The success of provided aid to the victims of an earthquake that occurred the mechanism led to proposals to install the same gear on in Long Beach. Ohio. Commander Aircraft. and 71 4284422 other sailors perished. 16 J U N E • Under the terms of the National Industrial 4 A PR I L • Rigid airship Akron (ZRS 4). 29 A PR I L • The Bureau of Aeronautics recommended that postgraduate instruction in aerology resume. F9C-2 Sparrowhawks return to their mothership. but a downdraft violently thrust the ship into the sea at about 0300 on 5 April off Barnegat Light.g. Roosevelt float to ride in the water at an even depth. Classes 1 A PR I L • Fleet aviation was reorganized and divided had been suspended since 1929. lifted from NAS Lakehurst. N. at 1830 to assist including two aircraft carriers. Lisle J. toward the float pushing a knobbed probe on the nose of its pontoon into the V-float. Battle Force.C. The Navy struck Akron on 30 April. to Base Force. and the reorganization of Technology. abolished Aircraft. installed on battleship Maryland (BB 46). feasibility of operating aircraft from ships in 1910 and 1911. the wife of the Chief airship executed preliminary turning and climbing trials as of the Bureau of Aeronautics. but the airship lost power and lights when she crashed. A seaplane taxied in Washington. Wiley and two crewmen but Moffett. The survivors attempted to escape through the fabric fuselage. McCord. Moffett. George A. and the men who straggled from the wreckage in the darkness faced the cold Atlantic without life vests. N. masonry walls collapsed and at least 120 people perished. embarked. Maxson had proposed the device. Moffett $238 million to the Navy for new ship construction. The rigid 11 M A RCH • Mrs. and Coco Solo.

Frederick N. and then together with Lt. In spite of the partial failure. Recovery over the stern succeeded on the first attempt. Ott on board battleship Maryland (BB 46) was tested off Point Fermin. Battle Force. 1933 continued contracts were awarded for the Navy’s fifth and sixth 7 J U LY • Rigid airship Macon (ZRS 5) received her planes carrier. Dresel commanding. With the net trailing from a boom. Sound. The device resembled a cargo 8 AUGUST • Commander Aircraft. Cmdr. Sailors then attempted an alongside recovery. while underway over Long Island Enterprise (CV 6). respectively. which was necessary for ships with cranes amidships. a seaplane again caught the net but then swung into the ship and crumpled its wing. the possibilities of the plane net were apparent and later adjustments corrected deficiencies. Ward Harrigan tested the trapeze with an N2Y-1 trainer. D. 23 J U N E • Rigid airship Macon (ZRS 5) was commissioned 441982 at Akron. Lt. when towed by the ship. rode the surface forward and remained slightly submerged aft so that seaplanes taxied on and caught the net with a hook on the bottom of its pontoon. j. which were commissioned as Yorktown (CV 5) and on board for the first time. Kivette 22 J U N E • An underway recovery device proposed by Lt. George A. Alger H. Calif. Ohio. 462618 An F4B-4 fighter. The Great Depression   |   111 . A trio of F9C-2 Sparrowhawks fitted with airship hook-on gear.g. requested net fitted with a wood spreader at its forward edge and canvas underneath which. checked the apparatus with heavier F9C-2 Sparrowhawks.

Aeronautics to authorize additional instruction for specially recommended students who had failed to qualify on their first attempt or whose training had been interrupted. N. possible under the annual appropriation. of VF-1. International Balloon Race at Chicago. 17 OCTOBER • In order to prevent a pilot shortage as Fleet Marine Force and Aircraft Squadrons West Coast a result of the curtailment in naval aviator training. based on board Langley (CV 1). which marked the initiation of pointed out that construction of the net and pontoon hook Navy-sponsored development of the PBY Catalina series of were well within the capacity of the ship’s company and flying boats. to equip operating aircraft with nonstop from NAS Norfolk. Fordney. for her new home on the West Coast Chester L. decision permitted the Bureau of Aeronautics to maintain Cmdr. and turned westward over into the stratosphere from Akron. Aircraft Squadrons East Coast Expeditionary Forces was redesignated Aircraft One. Herman E. Ill.237 feet in a 600. Macon embarked a single 20 DECE M BER • To organize the aviation element of the N2Y-1 trainer for the voyage. Halland of VP-5F commanding. completing a record distance other improvements in naval aircraft and accessories not formation flight of 2. Pa.. 9 AUGUST • Commander Battle Force. The airship followed the Atlantic of 61.. The next month a requalification course for naval aviators and naval aviation pilots who had been on non-flying duty was also authorized. Va. into 8 September. During Exercise D the following day cruiser antiaircraft guns shot the airship down. Lt.000-cubic-foot free balloon flying coast down to Macon. N. The craft arrived at Sunnyvale on the Bridgeton..J. bombing and other violent maneuvers. Thomas G. Ohio. This request stemmed from the successful trials abdominal belt according to the specifications prepared by VF-3 had conducted on board Langley and marked the Navy’s Lt. and on one F4B-4 equipment. 2 SEPTE M BER • Lt. John R. operating from Saratoga (CV 3). Fleet Marine Bureau of Navigation approved a request by the Bureau of Force. the Expeditionary Forces became Aircraft Two.000-plane program. and attempt to develop. to FAB Coco Solo. Cmdr.500-mile nonstop flight in approximately 70 hours.059 miles in 25 hours 19 minutes. Aircraft for the XP3Y-1. Their 51 hours in the air set new 17 NOV E M BER • The sum of $7. W. The 7 SEPTE M BER • A flight of six P2Y-1 flying boats. Kendall took second place in the Gordon Bennett time. W. Settle and Maj. Thomas G. for use by pilots in dive initial acceptance of variable-pitch propellers. to the Navy from National Industrial Recovery Act funds for the procurement of new aircraft and equipment. newly formed Fleet Marine Force. Calif.. Thirty-six fighters subsequently downed Macon a second Charles H. participated in fleet exercises. commenting on 28 OCTOBER • A contract was issued to Consolidated tests of the plane net made by battleship Maryland (BB 46).1933 continued authority to use variable-pitch propellers on six F4B-4 fighters 24 OCTOBER • Initiating development of its anti-blackout of VF-3. Panama modern navigation instruments and radios. techniques for underway 14 NOV E M BER • Rigid airship Macon (ZRS 5) recoveries.J. 112  |  The Great Depression . Cmdr. flew its 1. USMC. 12 OCTOBER • Rigid airship Macon (ZRS 5) departed 20 NOV E M BER • Lt. set a global altitude record at NAS Sunnyvale. and landing near the southern route. MC. Poppen. to develop and manufacture a special exercises. and to make Canal Zone. with a distance of 776 miles into 4 September. Cmdr. Ga.. the Navy authorized the Naval Aircraft Factory. during forthcoming Philadelphia. afternoon of 15 October.5 million was allotted world records for duration in three categories of volume. completing the 2. Settle and Lt. NAS Lakehurst. directed that all battleships under his command experiment with.

).000-pound bombs. Researchers based from Lexington shot down rigid airship Macon (ZRS 5)— the feasibility of the pulse technique on new developments though she transmitted a sighting report of the carrier. authorized the Navy and authorized construction of. and broke a nine-day-old Class C seaplane world record for distance in a straight line with a Six P2Y-l flying boats complete a nonstop formation flight from San new mark of 2. or receiving antenna. A. to FAB Pearl Harbor. Calif. Territory of Hawaii. and special receiving tubes. time of travel in government plants. The Great Depression   |   113 . The act improved aircraft tenders to replace the slow and poorly authorized the President to procure naval aircraft for ships equipped ships in service. to Pearl Harbor. This of their ratios..399 miles. Naval Research Laboratory. and the need for of 1922 and the London Naval Treaty of 1930. 11 January 1934. antiaircraft guns promptly shot the airship down. Hoyt Taylor. Under the act. Cmdr. unfavorably with their value as scouts. an development of pulse radar (as later known) to detect ships aircraft carrier of about 15. approved by President counterbalanced their great cost. The exercise concluded on 12 May. Carl Vinson (D-Ga. high.and 1. increased complexity and duration of the fleet problems power transmitting tubes. the bearing. On 5 January fighters downed Macon a second time. Territory of Hawaii. receiving. exceeded the distance 426937 of previous mass flights. led umpires to initiate periodic recesses to rest crews. by comparison.. established the composition of the Navy cruiser plane handling. and approval. 14 M A RCH • Dr. made a nonstop formation flight from San Francisco. the pulse technique promised realism comprised Fleet Problem XV in the Caribbean and much greater utility because it was to provide range and in Panamanian waters. 10 JA N UA RY • A group of six P2Y-l flying boats.) and Park and cruiser-based planes.000 tons. and directional sending named Wasp (CV 7) was laid down in 1936.S. had built to 95 percent display equipment—all mounted in close proximity. among other ships. Knefler McGinnis of VP-10F commanding. The bill also provided that not less than 10 percent of to thousands of times longer than the duration of a pulse. the inefficiency of battleship and Trammell (D-Fla. Aircraft sank Saratoga (CV 3) and put bearing as well as detection. The fleet comprised 65 and aircraft. Roosevelt and popularly known as the Vinson. in 24 hours 35 minutes. the authorized aircraft and engines were to be manufactured Reception of an echo was to indicate a target. and because the entire apparatus Lexington (CV 2) out of action. head of the Radio and naval purposes in numbers commensurate with a treaty Division. naval strength to expand to these limits within eight microseconds in duration separated by time intervals tens years. and vulnerability Franklin D. The lessons learned Trammell Act after the two members of Congress who included the utility of small carriers in recovering battleship- sponsored the measure. the carrier subsequently to the target and back. into the next day. Project researcher Leo C. the necessity of carrier planes capable at the limits prescribed by the Washington Naval Treaty of carrying 500. including the cathode ray tube. The treaty designers intended the act to enable equipment was to send out pulses of radio energy of a few U. the distance. On 6 May six FF-1 fighters could be installed on board a single ship. The following night she flew over the “enemy” fleet with all her lights lit. Lt. the Japanese. The by the radio industry. slow speed. 1934 1934 3 JA N UA RY • Rigid airship Macon (ZRS 5) took part in fleet exercises. Observers noted the liability of airships in fleet operations and 27 M A RCH • An act of Congress. Compared to the beat in a continuous radio wave technique under development at 19 A PR I L • Three separate exercises designed to enhance NRL for nearly four years. Young had proposed percent of its allotted treaty strength at the time of the act’s the basic concept involving special sending. Calif. Their accomplishment bettered the best previous time for the crossing. Francisco.

1934 continued 20 A PR I L • Rigid airship Macon (ZRS 5) made a but the crew accomplished temporary repairs and continued.. in the first demonstration of the blind landing system intended for carrier use and under development by the Washington 1061485 Institute of Technology.C. In subsequent flights Akers took An FF-1 fighter. and landed at landing gear. The success of the method was such that the only plane trap in use.. was removed in June. that on board battleship Maryland (BB 46). D. Frank Akers made a hooded landing in an OJ-2 observation biplane at College Park. Fla. issued a directive describing the method that each ship of his command was to use. College Park without assistance. 428440 Ranger (CV 4). the first naval aircraft to incorporate retractable off under a hood from NAS Anacostia. transcontinental flight from Moffett Field. Macon Locka. to Opa. the first Navy ship designed and constructed as a carrier. 1 M AY • Lt. The airship encountered severe turbulence en returned to Moffett Field on 16 May. Calif. Macon’s planes flew cross country independently. 28 A PR I L • The equipment and techniques of alongside recovery by plane net had developed to the point that Commander Cruisers. 114  |  The Great Depression .. route that caused diagonal and interring girders to buckle. Battle Force. Md. and underway recovery of seaplanes by battleships and cruisers soon became routine.

. with aircraft landing using her bow arresting gear. accepted a commission in Francisco–Oakland Bay.. continued flight operations the next day.. Orville completed a 206. King. enrolled and trained as Flying 8 AUGUST • During a training flight over the area of San Cadets in the Army Air Corps. Calif. including the recovery of aircraft over her stern. completed the streamed her spy-basket in the first attempt since rigid Pensacola course.. This type. Miller and Kivette to launch landplanes from aircraft carriers. Frederick instability and poor performance validated their caution. E. The airship returned to Moffett Field. 4 J U N E • Ranger (CV 4). j. and. 21 J U N E • Ranger (CV 4) Air Officer Lt. rigid airship Macon (ZRS 5) sent her planes ahead as scouts.g. Roosevelt. received authorization to manufacture and test a Type Orleans (CA 32) when the ships sailed from Panama to the H Mk I flush-deck hydraulic catapult. the first U.g. for special training toward qualification as naval aviators. Davis and MMC H. 7 NOV E M BER • During training with the fleet.4-mile flight from Birmingham. Ranger completed normal operations. Arthur C. The ship anchored overnight off Virginia Beach. Capt. was commissioned at Pier 7 at NOB Norfolk. Va. Because proved capable of extensive refinement and eventually of the improved performance of the aircraft on this first flight attained acceptance as a primary carrier launch system. Charles H. Kendall and Howard T. and then went full speed astern. two days later. Fla. Ala. Miller and Lt. finally. Harold B. 1061904 18 J U LY • Fourteen Class of 1933 Naval Academy graduates A TBD-1 Devastator torpedo bomber. and hosted a brief visit by Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics Rear Adm. Their route to designation in to Commerce. without landing gear. which 1 AUGUST • Lts.. spotted and shadowed Saratoga (CV 3) for several hours. Kan.. reported to NAS Pensacola. deck for embarked President Franklin D. Planners intended it Hawaiian Islands via Clipperton Island. Bristol commanding.. gear and discovered heavy cruisers Houston (CA 30) and New Pa. Ga. 1934 continued 22 M AY • The Navy ordered its first single-engine NS-1 biplane trainers from Stearman Aircraft Co. Wallace of the carrier’s V-2 division made the first takeoff and landing on board the ship in an O3U-3 Corsair. Kivette launched from the trapeze of rigid airship Macon (ZRS 5) in F9C-2 Sparrowhawks without their wheel landing 1 NOV E M BER • The Naval Aircraft Factory. Arthur L. discharge upon graduation from the academy because of a lack of vacancies in the Navy. carrier equipped with bow and stern arresting gear. Calif. BuNo 9318. airship Akron (ZRS 4) had performed an aborted test in 1932.. 30 J U N E • The Navy awarded a contract to Douglas for the XTBD-1 torpedo bomber. Philadelphia. Ranger was the first U. Wichita. j. to win the National Elimination Balloon January 1935 was circuitous—they received an honorable Race and qualify for the international race. its 19 J U LY • Pilots Lt.. Va. Crewmembers initially lowered the basket empty. the dropped bags of newspapers and magazines onto Houston’s initial step in the Navy’s development of hydraulic catapults. rigid airship Macon (ZRS 5) either the Navy or Marine Corps.S. Cmdr.S. N. The Great Depression   |   115 . ship built from the keel up as a carrier. it became Macon’s standard operating procedure to fly planes from the trapeze in this configuration. Ernest J.

Sailors The XBT-1 heavy dive bomber. 116  |  The Great Depression . which preceded the SBD Dauntless. Moffett Field. Calif. The exercise suspended on 8 December when a pair of planes failed to return to light cruiser Cincinnati (CL 6). and one athwartships on their hangar decks. Two days later her planes spotted and tracked Lexington (CV 2). to take part in a minor tactical training exercise. Although Los Angeles did not fly again. 458706 The cameraman in an SU-1 Corsair scout takes an oblique photograph. 13 December 1934. 1934 continued 15 NOV E M BER • Plans to install hydraulic flush-deck 18 NOV E M BER • The Navy issued a contract to Northrop catapults on board carriers were formalized in a Bureau of Corp. but dive bombers from the carrier shot the airship down. Macon found the aircraft and hovered over the scene until ships arrived to rescue the pilots. Aeronautics request that Enterprise (CV 6) and Yorktown (CV 5) reserve space for two bow catapults (each) on their 5 DECE M BER • Rigid airship Macon (ZRS 5) flew from flight decks. subsequently dismantled the airship in seven weeks. 14 DECE M BER • The reinflation of rigid airship Los Angeles (ZR 3) after nearly three years in decommissioned status enabled her to become airborne in the hangar at NAS Lakehurst. she continued in use as a test and experimental ship for another 1053784 five years and was stricken on 29 October 1939.J. N.. for the two-seat XBT-1 scout and dive bomber.

MC. 14 JA N UA RY • While Ranger (CV 4) completed post-trial repairs and alterations at the Norfolk Navy Yard. Pa. Poppen. appointed by President Franklin D. and Buffalo. Swanson they could encounter in cold weather.. 5 JA N UA RY • The Bureau of Navigation stated that Lt. A major share of 2 JA N UA RY • Rigid airship Macon (ZRS 5) conducted its recommendations referred to commercial and civil aviation. Field. and assignment of officers with special engineering ability and industrial experience to continuous related duty. John R. Roosevelt as provided in the Air Mail Act of 12 June 1934. additional duty at the Naval Aircraft Factory in that city to Philadelphia. and the lessons learned observation seaplane. Judges considered work by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. submitted a report that in 1935 essence set forth a broad policy covering all phases of aviation and the relation of the government thereto. and work on hygienic and physiological aspects of research and development projects. with primary trainer was ordered from the Naval Aircraft Factory. The airship returned the next day to Moffett larger appropriations to support the Reserve organizations. Conn.C. and flight clothing under the exacting conditions 15 DECE M BER • Secretary of the Navy Claude A. Pa. conduct their annual physical examinations. D. The Great Depression   |   117 .Y. 1935 observe pilots. Va. Poppen’s orders marked the first assignment of a flight surgeon to the factory other than as part of a specific mission. The squadrons approved the acceptance of the XO3C-1 single-engine biplane completed the tests on 2 February. N.. 22 JA N UA RY • The Federal Aviation Commission. Cmdr. which was later redesignated XSOC-1. An SOC-1 Seagull observation seaplane launches from the catapult of a heavy cruiser.. were used to prepare for experiments on board Ranger the next winter. special equipment. was to be ordered to the 9 FEBRUA RY • The XN3N-1 prototype of the Canary Naval Dispensary at the Philadelphia Navy Yard. visibility tests with carrier Lexington (CV 2) to determine but some had implications for military aviation: expansion how easily ships could sight the airship and who would and close coordination of experimental and development discover whom first—airships or ships. the test a draw. to test carrier 41601 aircraft. some of her squadrons made the first of a series of cross-country flights from Norfolk to Hartford. 21 DECE M BER • The flight tests for NS-1 Kaydet biplane trainers concluded at NAS Anacostia. Calif..

and the ship mass flight from FAB Pearl Harbor via French Frigate Shoals. Philadelphia. commanding 29 A PR I L • The five phases of Fleet Problem XVI covered a rigid airship Macon (ZRS 5). been stricken. boats penetrated the screen boded poorly for the ships. Herbert V.. first single-seat Navy fighter with an enclosed cockpit to serve in squadron inventory. Territory of her planes on a sortie up to 225 miles distant during a fleet Hawaii. 5 J U N E • An act of Congress authorized the designation of specially qualified officers for the performance of 118  |  The Great Depression . and for Barracuda (SS 163) to fire four helmsman reported that the wheel felt slack in his hands. thereby converting it to an XOP-2 as the service’s first heavier-than-air craft without fixed wings. Lexington (CV 2). The program provided many of the aviators An XN3N-2 “Yellow Peril” trainer built at the Naval Aircraft Factory. Crewmembers dropped excessive ballast and Macon shot and a dive bomber caught Bonita on the surface and made a over pressure height where her automatic gas valves opened. enemy.900 yards. causing a structural failure. Planes pursued the submarines. During her first fleet problem Ranger (CV 4) joined but the airship passed through a rainstorm. bow up. Calif. torpedoes from 1. to remove the fixed wings from an XOP-1 autogiro. waters. who manned cockpits during WWII. 11 FEBRUA RY • Cmdr. took four of her F9C-2 Sparrowhawks to the bottom. Severe weather hampered the operations in Alaskan Wiley turned away from the coast to avoid the fog. and the eastern Pacific. The slowness of sending patrols unreinforced upper fin. imaginatively sent four of vast area from the Aleutian Islands to Midway. and her fall signaled the demise of the type in the Navy. The recovered planes. Wiley. The act set up a new program for pilot training in which qualified college graduates between the ages of 18 and 28 were to be eligible for one year of flight instruction. pass before she submerged. On 26 February Secretary 1 M AY • The Bureau of Navigation issued a new pilot training of the Navy Claude A. Macon The exercise concluded on 10 June. The on 30 April enabled “Black” submarine Bonita (SS 165) to damage worsened and the loss of gas from the after gas close within 500 yards and fire six torpedoes at Ranger as she cells placed her at an extreme angle of trim. Two of the 83 men on board died. and returned to inactive duty as members of the Reserves.500. paid a 1061654 bonus of $1. The new course did not differentiate between student naval aviators and student aviation pilots but specified 90 additional 19 FEBRUA RY • The initial F2F-1 arrived at VF-2B as the hours of indoctrination courses for reservists. but the ease with which the which blew away the small margin of lift that remained. The following took the major aerial role during landing exercises when day the airship came about to return to Moffett Field. combined forces launched a strategic offensive against the but encountered fog off Cape San Martin. Twenty-four minutes later Macon crashed and sank off Patrol squadrons marred by casualties subsequently made a Point Sur. Swanson informed all bureaus and syllabus that required about 300 hours of flight instruction divisions of the Chief of Naval Operations that Macon had and 465 hours of ground school in a total time of one year. Pa. 15 A PR I L • Passage of the Aviation Cadet Act created the grade of Aviation Cadet in the Navy and Marine Corps Reserves. A severe gust Langley (CV 1). was the fourth rigid airship lost. Patrol and Marine aircraft exercise off the Santa Barbara Islands. and uniform gratuities and insurance. Following three additional years on active duty they were to be commissioned as ensigns or second lieutenants. Calif. and Saratoga (CV 3) in the of wind struck Macon at about 1705 and carried away her main body of the “White” fleet. benefits of pay. 1935 continued 12 M A RCH • The Navy issued a contract to Pitcairn Aircraft Co.

Secretary of the Navy at least 423 people. Frank Akers made the first blind landing on board a carrier in an OJ-2 observation biplane with a hooded cockpit. Calif.. Fla. and his subsequent Highway. The Great Depression   |   119 .. 1935 continued 5206 One of three Douglas RD-2 Dolphins built for the Navy as VIP transports painted in Navy Blue. blocks from a Coast Guard PJ-1 Flying Lifeboat to warn 20 J U LY • The first class of Aviation Cadets to report for flight training convened at NAS Pensacola. prior Day Hurricane” devastated the middle Florida Keys. West became the first of the group to become a naval aviator when he was designated Naval Aviator No. The hurricane caused additional damage along the approval of the board’s report brought about the assignment Florida panhandle and through Georgia and the Carolinas. 4. had dropped more than 100 message Corps to this category. aeronautical engineering duty only. located Langley (CV 1) underway in an unknown position. Akers took off from NAS San Diego. Clemmer. Akers subsequently received the Distinguished Flying Cross. killing to the Navy’s acquisition of the airfield. 30 J U LY • Lt.C. foreground. USCG. Elliott M. and the Army’s Bolling Field. and landed on board catching the number four arresting wire. D. 1061655 2 SEPTE M BER • A storm known locally as the “Labor NAS Anacostia.854 on 12 June 1936. of 11 officers of the line and 33 members of the Construction Lt. including 258 WWI veterans working Claude A. Swanson appointed a board in September to select on the Federal Emergency Relief Administration Overseas the first officers for this designation.

James K. Cmdr. Oahu. Averill. N. the Army and a crew of three completed a flight in the XP3Y-1 patrol agreed to turn the following over to the Navy: Bolling Field plane. D. formerly Defender of the Goodyear Corporation’s commercial fleet of advertising and 26 SEPTE M BER • President Franklin D. Knefler McGinnis. Lt.. shown here with his crew. powered with two 825-hp Pratt & Whitney engines. in 34 hours 45 minutes into 15 October. 1935 continued 1053771 The XP3Y-1—the prototype Catalina—sets a 3. Wilkinson. Guard planes flying from CGASs Miami and St. Alameda.443-mile record when. both parties understood the Army’s in Florida searched for survivors. Knefler McGinnis. to Miami. culminating several years of study and 14 OCTOBER • Pilot Lt. Calif. Luke Field on Ford Island.. 120  |  The Great Depression .. j. By this approval and a subsequent executive order. under the command of Lt. approved an Army-Navy proposal for the transfer of air station properties. Lakehurst. Petersburg Calif. During one flight Clemmer flew 16 victims to Miami for treatment—the largest number of people carried 5 OCTOBER • The first G-class airship G-1 arrived at NAS in that type of plane to date. directed patrol boats intention to construct new fields at Bolling (adjoining its toward victims.J. discussion of the joint use of aviation facilities in certain areas. people of the approaching tempest. naval aviation pilot Thomas P. on 15 October 1935 after taking off from the Panama Canal Zone. it lands in Alameda. Calif. In this exchange.C. Cmdr. and carried the injured and recovered bodies previous location) and on Oahu (Hickam Field). The Navy used it. for training purposes. from Cristobal Harbor in the Panama Canal Zone to Hawaiian Islands. at NAS Anacostia. Five additional Coast The Navy agreed to turn over to the Army NAS Sunnyvale.g. Calif. and Rockwell Field on North Island. Roosevelt passenger airships.

They established new world records for Class C seaplanes of with the U. the type that became the Navy’s first production monoplane.383 miles airline distance and 3. British. 15 NOV E M BER • The chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics approved recommendations from a fighter design competition and thereby initiated development of the XF4F-1 biplane and 1936 the XF2A-1 monoplane. this developmental sequence 20 JA N UA RY • The Bureau of Engineering acted on a provided prototypes of the Navy’s first-line fighters in use request from the Bureau of Aeronautics to initiate naval when the United States entered WWII. aloft to measure pressure. The final agreement on 25 March 1936 3. England (the first was held in 1930).S. These instruments—later renamed 9 DECE M BER • During a second naval disarmament radiosondes—were attached to small free balloons and sent conference in London. and French—also rejected line distance.281.443. The Great Depression   |   121 . Navy. and humidity of the Japanese naval delegation walked out following the the upper atmosphere. and to transmit this information to Americans’ refusal to grant the Imperial Japanese Navy parity ground stations for weather forecasting and flight planning. temperature. 1936 16054 A late version of the F2A Buffalo. support to the Bureau of Standards for the development of radio meteorographs. Although it included subsequent changes and modifications. by the Italians—proved ineffective and spelled the last attempt at disarmament treaties before WWII.255 miles broken between the Americans.

The problem encountered additional foul weather and endured a “local concluded on 6 June. Marine. three BF2C-1 included two carriers to either side and ranged from the Goshawks. Calif. Fleet had divided. The next day a “williwaw”—strong. of the Naval Research Laboratory began testing a laboratory 122  |  The Great Depression . Teal (AVP 5). and the western coast of Central bombers. six BG-1 dive bombers. and civilian observers exercise to meet a surprise offensive by an enemy fleet at a embarked. the Ranger’s anchorage in the inner arm of Kachemak Bay. snow and icing hindered operations. The officer in charge received the title Director of Aviation. squall of considerable violence” on 27 January. three SBU-1 dive West Coast to Panama. On 11 February the ship came 28 A PR I L • Researchers R.S. Alaska. Fla. winds reached gale force and stranded a party ashore. Page about for North Island. Guthrie and Robert M. 22 JA N UA RY • Ranger (CV 4). which had been set up independently under the Commandant of the Marine Corps in the previous year. three O3U-3 Corsairs. and as such continued to serve in the dual capacity of advisor 1061653 to the commandant An SBU-1 dive bomber. 1936 continued 18 M A RCH • The XN3N-1 prototype of the “Yellow Peril” primary trainer completed flight testing at NAS Pensacola. Participants included carriers Langley (CV 1). Saratoga (CV 3). Lessons learned included the requirement glaciers through passes leading to the water—swept across for the installation of automatic pilots in all planes. The forces involved comprised six F2F-1 single-seat fighters. (AVP 1). C. The America. arrived in Cook Inlet. with the Cold Weather Test 27 A PR I L • Fleet Problem XVII consisted of a five-phase Detachment and 16 Army. and Thrush gusty winds that blow down from the mountains and (AVP 3). Ranger and the ineffectiveness of aircraft tenders. and two JF-1 Ducks. Sandpiper (AVP 9). efficiency and determined what materials and improvements Patrol squadrons played a significant role. was established as a division. Gannet (AVP 8). The improvement of optical equipment for patrol planes. The detachment time when the U. and Ranger (CV 4). supported by were necessary to increase carrier capabilities under extreme seaplane tenders Wright (AV 1). of that bureau. Lapwing weather conditions. under an minesweepers were redesignated small seaplane tenders arrangement that had been in effect since the establishment (AVP). 1 A PR I L • The Marine Corps Aviation Section. on aviation and head of the Marine 22 JA N UA RY • The nine Lapwing (AM 1)-class Corps organization in the Bureau of Aeronautics. expedition studied the effects of cold weather on operating Lexington (CV 2).

11 J U N E • In an effort to adapt commercial airplane In a subsequent report. Taylor Model Basin. later named the David 21 J U LY • Lt. provide patrol squadrons an extra aircraft as a rotating spare to replace squadron planes undergoing maintenance inspections. Together with her sister ship Charleston (PG 51). Delmer S. E. Base Force. including the removal of the forward flight deck. Fahrney proposed a procedure for maintenance techniques to naval use. 6 M AY • Construction of a facility.. and -3 in the flight syllabus that emphasized instrument flying. Cmdr. model of a pulsed radio wave detection device (pulse radar). This marked the implementation shapes and forms. 1936 continued 465883 Langley (AV 3) following her conversion to a seaplane carrier. 23 J U LY • The Navy awarded a contract to Consolidated Aircraft for the XPB2Y-1 four-engine flying boat. A Seagulls at times into 1943. under development by Grumman and Brewster. N. these gunboats each 7 AUGUST • The Bureau of Navigation approved a change operated a mix of an average of one to two SOC-1. Fahrney received orders W. respectively. the Bureau of developing radio-controlled target planes and also recognized Aeronautics authorized Commander Aircraft. This aircraft 1 J U LY • Gunboat Erie (PG 50) was commissioned at New had been selected for development as a result of a design York Navy Yard. Cmdr. was authorized by legislation that to report to the chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics and the provided buildings and appliances for use by the Bureau of director of the Naval Research Laboratory in connection with Construction and Repair in determining vessel and aircraft an experimental project. commissioned the following week. of a May recommendation by the Chief of Naval Operations to obtain radio-controlled aircraft for use as aerial targets. new instrument flying unit consequently formed at NAS The Great Depression   |   123 . W. to the feasibility of using such aircraft as guided missiles. -2. competition held late the previous year. 10 J U LY • The chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics approved a At one point Guthrie and Page detected planes at distances program of improvements to the XF4F-1 and XF2A-1 fighters of up to 25 miles.Y. Hanson commanding.

and changed from a part-time program of annual conferences to two hours of radio-range flying under the hood.000 homeless in Louisville. Lexington (CV 2) of the Northern Aircraft. Arthur P. sailed for Spanish waters to evacuate Ranger launched strikes against each other. Saratoga (CV 3) of the Oahu Bombardment Force in 1937 with the forward part of her flight deck removed and sent her planes against coastal guns between Pearl Harbor was redesignated AV 3 on 21 April of that year. Marvelle completed test distinguishing colors to aircraft carriers for use as tail markings bombing in a T4M-1 torpedo bomber scout against submarine by all squadrons on board. and patrol squadrons. the same numbers as their ship 27 FEBRUA RY • The Secretaries of the War and Navy divisions. The aircraft fires in the area of Cincinnati. The Coast Guard reported became the prototype in the PBM Mariner series of flying that 1. and assisted in controlling looting. Calif. with a cumulative effect that caused the submarine to sink. Fla.500 feet and dropped twelve 100-pound confusion when squadrons transferred between carriers. according to their aircraft Departments approved the expansion of the Working groups. 1937 Morse commanding. the Navy class light cruisers. one employing a full-time joint staff of officers and civilians. Marine squadrons. completed a nonstop.848 Coast Guardsmen operating 11 planes and 351 boats boats used during and after WWII. according to the hull numbers of their carriers. Lt. and Diamond Head. 4 M AY • During the nine phases of Fleet Problem XVIII an enemy fleet attempted to establish an advance base in the 15 SEPTE M BER • Carrier Langley (CV 1) detached from Hawaiian Islands. The flooding killed at least 200 people and rendered more than 230. Braun and Marvelle flew practice of assigning colors to squadrons and eliminating at an altitude of 2. Following a brief period of operation Force launched a strike against Wheeler Field (Army Air she entered the yard for conversion. This problem Americans trapped in the fighting during the Spanish Civil enabled the fleet to assess whether to employ carriers with War. Mississippi River Basin. In addition. Braun and aircrewman 15 M A RCH • The Bureau of Aeronautics assigned Chief Aviation Ordnanceman W. seaplane and fighter courses. Boynton L. helped restore communications. 21 J U N E • Twelve PBY-1 Catalinas of VP-3. Rear Adm. The Coast Guardsmen also 1 J U LY • The Navy revised its system of aircraft squadron saved livestock. interservice efforts in standardization trainers.. Carrier squadrons were numbered mail. Ohio. except for Naval 124  |  The Great Depression . Robert W. inserted between the service its functions to include work in aeronautical standardization. Ranger (CV 4) of the Hilo Force sent her aircraft against the Pearl Harbor Navy Yard.1937 Pensacola. included six hours in Link By this decision. 3. carried the designation numbers. At the main body or as a detached asset and to gain “valuable times ships equipped with aircraft. The new course. 30 J U N E • The Navy issued a contract to the Martin Co. for On 24 January multiple gasoline tanks exploded and spread the XPBM-1 two-engine flying boat patrol plane. The ship emerged early Corps). 18 SEPTE M BER • Squadron 40-T. rescued 839 people “from imminent peril” and “transported to safety” a total of 67. 19 AUGUST • Pilot Lt.613 people. thereby changing the existing ex-R-8 (SS 85) off the Virginia Capes. serially without regard to Committee of the Aeronautical Board and the extension of assignments. nine hours of modified acrobatics in NS aircraft. which had begun in Spanish Morocco on 17 July. B. “Black” carriers Lexington and Saratoga and “White” Fairfield commanding. including Omaha (CL 4)– data” on aircraft-hunting submarines. obtaining four near-misses. As a result. bombs over a two-day period. to along the Ohio and Great Miami rivers that devastated the Coco Solo in the Panama Canal Zone. The problem concluded on 9 May. The change also abolished the use of suffix letters to indicate organizational assignment. recommended using small carriers to take over scouting and spotting duties.292-mile flight 14 JA N UA RY • Heavy rains generated widespread flooding overnight in 27 hours 58 minutes from San Diego. battleship and cruiser squadrons. operated with the squadron. Base Force. The problem included a simulated attack Battle Force for duty as a seaplane tender to Commander on facilities on Oahu. Ky.

fourteen SBU-1s of VS-41 TC-13 and TC-14. District and Reserve squadrons. 1937 continued 105378 An SB2U-1 Vindicator readies to take off from Saratoga (CV 3). The transfer included airships SBU-1s of VS-3 (Saratoga). and Ranger (CV 4) embarked on board Lexington: ten BG-1 dive bombers of VB-4 (Ranger). Noonan disappeared in a Lockheed 10E Electra. 2 J U LY • The Navy agreed to accept Army airships and eleven SBU-1 dive bombers of VS-2 (Lexington). nine lighter-than-air equipment. Lexington. Capt. and one O3U-3 Corsair of Lexington Utility. nine SU-4 Corsairs of VS-42 (Ranger). to coordinate the search. and interposed the M for commanding. New Roads and initiated the search for Amelia Earhart and Guinea. 3 J U LY • Pilot Amelia Earhart (Putnam) and navigator Fred J.S. nine BM-2 the early stages of WWII. 4 J U LY • Lexington (CV 2) sailed from Coronado while attempting to reach Howland Island from Lae. Fleet Adm. An air group from Marine squadrons between the V prefix and mission letters. Arthur J. NR-16020. Commander in Chief. Noonan from about 100 miles north of Howland Hepburn dispatched Lexington (CV 2). biplanes of VT-2 (Lexington). Leigh Noyes Island on the morning of 13 July. U. Fred J. The weather worsened The Great Depression   |   125 . Saratoga (CV 3). which flew antisubmarine patrols during (Ranger).

Langley (AV 3) entered a cloud bank without warning. Saratoga’s reconnaissance float seaplane designed for patrol and torpedo attack from 126  |  The Great Depression . the development of fast carrier task forces. 1938 15 J U LY • The Ship Experimental Unit. however. Philadelphia.. Factory. 6 AUGUST • The Navy issued a contract to Goodyear Corp. 9 AUGUST • Contractor demonstration flights of the Hutchins remained at the controls of his flying boat to enable XOZ-1 rotary-wing aircraft. The problem emphasized flying boat made its first flight. Hester. Elmer G. W. Koch. manned by Lt. Capt. Scouting Islands. Walton and W. P. where this function had been ARM2 J. An epidemic of tonsillitis on board the change. made was efficient and that the areas covered were the most probable ones. Carpenter. Pa. Hatfield. Inc. B. torpedo plane developed for the service. Va. Landgreber. Niedzwiecki. posthumously received the Medal of Honor.J. based on the facts and information available. Men also contended with equatorial heat. E. Fitzmaurice. easterly side of a weather front. 0450 on 29 March from a position about 100 miles north of Oahu. including NOB Norfolk. but control shifted for and Noonan. which were defended by the “Red” fleet. had modified the craft board the other Catalina died. and bombed several ships. and unit from NAS Norfolk. Va.. Pennsylvania Aircraft Corp. With mined approaches. AMM2s J. S. began operating at the Naval Aircraft Observer E. having masked her approach by sailing on the 17 DECE M BER • The Navy accepted the XPTBH-2 twin. and BuNo 0463. Calif. AMCMs V. McKay. and M. McKay. Cooper. The collision occurred when for two new nonrigid airships. Hutchins. Rawles. Griffin. J. 16 M A RCH • Severe weather hampered the 12 phases of Fleet Problem XIX in the Northern Pacific between 9 SEPTE M BER • The XPBS-1 four-engine monoplane Alaska and the Hawaiian Islands. and transport. responsible for 2 FEBRUA RY • Two PBY-2 Catalinas collided in the dark: the development and testing of equipment and techniques BuNo 0462. manned by Lt. The hunt controlled flight at CGAS Cape May. The drone took off covered 151. J. N. G. ARM1 J. Hall Aluminum Aircraft Co. Officers and men transferred to the G.. destroying the planes spotted on her flight deck and damaging the deck beyond repair. Saratoga (CV 3) attacked at assigned squadrons. from an N2Y-1 trainer into an experimental gyroplane by installing a new engine and a rotary wing with cyclic control. H. McWhorter commanding. AMM1 G. Woodruff. the planes passed through or around squalls.1938 to squall conditions when Lexington began the search. All the men on Pa. Carlton performed since 1921. Noyes concluded. and sank within two hours.. AMM1 J. burned. and Carpenter to escape with injuries and were completed at the Naval Aircraft Factory. D.” Lexington came about during the first dog watch on 18 July. that “the search flight maneuvers to an airborne TG-2. L-1 for training purposes and a formation of nine planes on a bombing training run from K-2 for coastal patrols. Sikorsky constructed this air attacks against enemy shores by several carriers aircraft as a long-range patrol plane and it later served as a approaching at high speed from separate directions. which included a water takeoff.556 square miles but failed to locate Earhart and landed via a land-based radio set. B. AMCM M.000 miles from 30 SEPTE M BER • Yorktown (CV 5) was commissioned at San Diego. Both Catalinas crashed. O. During Phase One 36 patrol bombers flew more than 1. Naval Aviation for carrier landings. This was the last twin-float Despite several days of winds stronger than expected. and Force. which was reestablished effective on this date. and AMM2 L. five patrol wings numbered 1 through 5 were Lexington deleted her from flight operations and Saratoga established as separate administrative commands over their fulfilled the role of Lexington. Philadelphia. 1 OCTOBER • Patrol aviation with its associated tenders In Phase Five the “Blue” fleet attacked the Hawaiian was transferred from Base Force to Aircraft. Ernest D. The afternoon flight on 23 DECE M BER • A JH-1 drone successfully made radio- 14 July (unintentionally) started at 00° and 180°. Lexington (CV 2). Hatfield.

tests on decreasing aerodynamic drag to increase speed. battleship California (BB 44) received modifications to use radiosondes. concluded on 27 April. The problem an increase in the total tonnage of underage naval vessels. Harbor. and Hickam and Wheeler Fields (Army Air Corps). The data led the on weather conditions in the upper atmosphere at NAS Army and the Navy to aim to decrease drag when designing Anacostia. Diehl. but the defenders Among the provisions for naval aviation the act authorized retaliated and lightly damaged Saratoga. the ships and facilities at Lahaina. D. Walter S. recommended by Cmdr. Capt. 1 J U N E • Researchers initiated the routine use of indicated a potential increase in the speed of the XF2A-1 of radiosondes (or radio meteorographs) to obtain data 31 mph over the 277 mph already achieved. 17 M AY • Congress passed the Naval Expansion Act.C. 8 October 1939. Va. aircraft spotted light cruiser Richmond (CL 9) north of 12 M AY • Enterprise (CV 6) was commissioned at Newport Lahaina Roads. and also authorized the president to increase the number of naval 21 A PR I L • The delivery of the XF2A-1 to the Langley aircraft to “not less than” 3. which The carrier launched a second strike that morning against provided for a 20 percent increase in active naval vessels. White commanding. 1938 continued 13554 Enterprise (CV 6) en route to Pearl Harbor with the planes of her air group arrayed on the flight deck. Lexington (CV 2) and other high-performance aircraft. amounting to 40. Wailupe Radio Station.. These tests. The carriers built as a result Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory were laid down in 1939 and 1941 and named Hornet (CV 8) Committee for Aeronautics initiated full-scale wind tunnel and Essex (CV 9).000. Newton H. respectively. By year’s end. and her attack group bombed FAB Pearl News. recovering on board by 0835. The Great Depression   |   127 .000 tons for aircraft carriers.

This event heralded a new departure in antiaircraft finding by Commander Aircraft. and proponents of 1 J U LY • Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Battle Force.S. 8 J U N E • Secretary of the Navy Claude A. Carrier Air Group. aircraft as training devices in the fleet. Swanson 14 SEPTE M BER • A radio-controlled N2C-2 target drone established a policy limiting the provisions for maintenance engaged in a simulated dive-bombing attack against mobile of aircraft on board carriers and aircraft tenders to those target/gunnery training ship Utah (AG 16) during test firing required for upkeep and minor repairs. that the belt’s practice and indicated the usefulness of radio-controlled advantages did not offset its disadvantages. and named after its senior 128  |  The Great Depression . new specification prescribing color for naval aircraft. Observers viewed this as the first demonstration of air-to-surface missiles. Leahy guided missile development subsequently cited the test as an authorized new command billets entitled Commander example of the weapons’ efficacy. Swanson in accordance with the Naval 1053773 Expansion Act of 17 May Nonrigid airship K-2. (The color of the XPB2M-1 four-engine flying boat. patrol plane. the anti-blackout or antiaircraft exercises. 1 DECE M BER • The Hepburn Board. of her antiaircraft batteries. 2 NOV E M BER • A revision of the pilot training syllabus instituted minor adjustments in the flight program and changes of greater significance in the ground program. and game board problems as a practical approach to instruction in scouting and search. with a attack. 1938 continued 8 J U N E • After more than two years of evaluation by fleet 24 AUGUST • In the first U.) of flying boats. Ranger (CV 4) fired upon a radio- abdominal belt for use by pilots in dive bombing and other controlled JH-1 making a simulated horizontal bombing violent maneuvers returned to developmental status. Trainers were to be finished in orange-yellow overall with 23 AUGUST • The Navy issued a contract to Martin for aluminum-colored floats or landing gear. use of a drone target aircraft in squadrons and naval shore activities. the prototype for the airships of WWII. William D. and carrier squadrons organized into groups designated by the name of the carriers to which they 15 OCTOBER • The Bureau of Aeronautics issued a were assigned. Initially intended as a service aircraft remained essentially as prescribed in 1925. celestial navigation for enlisted students. this craft was later converted to the PB2M-1R aluminum overall with orange-yellow on wing and tail Mars transport and served as a prototype for the JRM series surfaces visible from above. appointed by Secretary of the Navy Claude A. Additions included a special course for flight surgeons.

Panama Canal Zone. to support two carrier groups. Guam. of which the Navy was to procure 135. The board recognized the demands that were to be met if the approach of war precipitated a great expansion. The board recommended enlarging 11 stations and building 16 new ones. on 22 May The Great Depression   |   129 . Ranger (CV 4). to supplement cruisers in carrier task forces. the requirements of training. refueling of patrol planes by submarine Nautilus (SS 168). died at his home in Sarasota. Fla. The facilities at San Diego. 1939 member Rear Adm. 19 January 1939.S.. right to left. Fleet. Controversy arose over discarding SB2A Buccaneers and prolonged preoperational the efficacy of patrol planes taking part in attacks on carriers development of SB2C Helldivers. Hepburn. This was the prototype for the Navy’s first successful amphibian patrol plane procured by the service. The month before. 1061652 Wake Island. As part of The problem tested the use of planes and carriers in a convoy the mobilization in ensuing years. Alfred A. She was the archetype for the WWII K-class 7 A PR I L • The Navy ordered an amphibian version of PBY patrol airships. including Oahu (Kaneohe Bay). Lakehurst. those at FAB Pearl Harbor. and five other Pacific Islands. and other ships instead of adhering to their principal role as scouts.J.” The principal considerations that determined the locations of shore establishments included the total number of planes to be maintained. thereby completing and the northeast coast of South America and included action on a 1938 design competition. the coordination of antisubmarine measures between were placed for both bombers. directed that Submarine prototype shipboard radar designed by the Naval Research Division 4 and Patrol Wing 2 were to conduct refueling tests Laboratory. the PBY-5A. U. 1939 15 M AY • The Navy issued a contract to Curtiss-Wright 20 FEBRUA RY • Fleet Problem XX ranged the Caribbean for the XSB2C-1 dive bomber. Yorktown (CV 5). 27 M A RCH • Following the successful experimental Territory of Hawaii. Lt. but serious managerial aircraft and destroyers.. and strategic considerations. and the trial of evasive tactics against and developmental problems eventually contributed to attacking planes and submarines. Md. Evaluators also recommended fast battleships 27 M AY • The first Marine Aviator. Arthur J. Brewster received a contract for the XSB2A-1. at frequent intervals and carry out an advanced base problem each quarter to develop the possibilities for refueling patrol 16 DECE M BER • Airship K-2 arrived for trials at NAS planes under a variety of conditions. N. and Enterprise (CV 6) were to be expanded to accommodate four from Limon Bay. had reported for flight training at Annapolis. carrier groups. The problem Cunningham. Col. large production orders escort. Enterprise (CV 6) and Yorktown (CV 5) for the first time. Midway Island. and that the existing shore stations “had failed to keep pace with the requirements of the number of planes authorized by the act of 1936. Catalina flying boats from Consolidated Aircraft. 9 DECE M BER • Battleship New York (BB 34) received Commander in Chief. reported on its survey of aviation shore establishments. Lexington (CV 2) leads. Calif. Cunningham concluded on 27 February.

During training. and was later assigned to future commissioning of others upon completion of flight the Northern Bombing Group to lead its Day Wing. or accept commissioned pay and the new carriers at sea. The law also extended the service limitation to the postwar period he served as the first administrative head seven years following training. of which the first four were of Marine Corps aviation and then commanded the First Air to be required. 130  |  The Great Depression . $500 discharge payment. but aviation cadets already serving in the fleet completed a two-day underway refueling evaluation off would choose either to remain on the old pay scale with the southern California. The bonus payment upon release to inactive duty 13 J U N E • Saratoga (CV 3) and oiler Kanawha (AO 1) was reduced. 1939 continued 16455 A Marine SBC-4 Helldiver dive bomber. a day subsequently celebrated as the birthday of Marine 13 J U N E • The revised Aviation Cadet Act of 1935 Corps aviation. was among second lieutenants of all cadets on active service and for the the men who proposed operations. 1912. confirming the feasibility of refueling $1. and provided for promotion to the next Squadron in Santo Domingo. higher grade on the basis of examination after three years of service.500 bonus. During WWI Cunningham organized and provided for the immediate commissioning as ensigns or commanded the first Marine aviation command.

by which the peacetime authorizations. The squadron returned the aircraft to In compliance. Roosevelt the Philippines. for operations over the Caribbean. the Chief of Naval Operations ordered the Philippines in December 1940 and joined with VP-21 Commander Atlantic Squadron to establish combined air to form the nucleus of Patrol Wing 10. Clark made 11 provided support—and Guam. with demonstrations of catapulting aircraft from hangar decks. before the Japanese States and the West Indies to report and track belligerent attack on Pearl Harbor. 1 J U LY • By Executive Order the Aeronautical Board. P2Y-2 launched SBC-3 Helldivers and O3U-3 Corsairs from flying boats of VP-52 and -53 from Chesapeake Bay. Va. Joint Economy Board. 11 SEPTE M BER • In the first redeployment of patrol Joint Board. respectively. formed the core of a reserve striking force at Hampton Roads. The event also marked the first Thrush (AVP 3).. Territory of proclaimed a limited national emergency and directed Hawaii. in the Caribbean. air. reached Manila the preceding day. 13 J U LY • The Chief of Naval Operations authorized a Fleet Air Tactical Unit to provide research and advisory activities 14 SEPTE M BER • The principal Atlantic Squadron naval related to operational use of new aircraft. including an increase in the Navy’s first digit of a squadron designation number became the enlisted strength from 110. and flight deck and hangar deck catapults in the first practical PBY-3s of VP-33 and PBY-1s of VP-51. Pearl Harbor in the Territory of Hawaii for the Philippines via Midway. and VS-41 and -42 embarked.I. Roosevelt expanded the naval presence at Pearl Harbor. 24 AUGUST • The acting Secretary of the Navy approved the detailing of a medical officer to the Bureau of 21 SEPTE M BER • Fourteen PBY-4s of VP-21 took off from Aeronautics to establish an aviation medical research unit. 28 SEPTE M BER • The establishment of the Hawaiian Detachment. including Enterprise (CV 6). VP-21 and -26 were and ship reconnaissance of the sea approaches to the United redesignated 101 and 102.S. Cmdr. also in 5 SEPTE M BER • President Franklin D. Fleet.813 to 145. VP-21’s Catalinas. Va. The following June VP-26 flew to Sangley Point. 8 SEPTE M BER • President Franklin D. from Norfolk. understanding between the Secretaries of War and Navy. P. and Munitions squadrons for the Neutrality Patrol. aviation commands deployed for the Neutrality Patrol were PBY-2 Catalinas of VP-54 and minesweeper (seaplane 4 AUGUST • Enterprise (CV 6) and Yorktown (CV 5) tender) Owl (AM 2) from Narragansett Bay. R. surface. together with small demonstration of launching planes from carriers by means of seaplane tenders Gannet (AVP 8). to counter Japanese aggression during the Second The Great Depression   |   131 . Ranger (CV 4). The first ships sailed to enforce the patrol the following day.000 and the recall of same as the wing to which the squadron was attached. Thurston B. Langley (AV 3). and nurses.R. tender) in the Asiatic Fleet. to patrol the southern approaches to the Caribbean through the Lesser Antilles. the adaptability of twin-engine aircraft and of tricycle landing only “carrier” (she had been converted into a seaplane gear to carrier operations. Lapwing (AVP 1). traded its reconditioned PBY-4s with those proclaimed the neutrality of the United States in WWII of VP-21 and returned to the Hawaiian Islands to overhaul and directed the Navy to organize the Neutrality Patrol. or underwater threats in the area. Army and Navy.. and hydraulic flush-deck catapults. VF-4. VB-4. enlisted men. The squadron encountered landings and takeoffs in a twin-engine XJO-3 equipped with a typhoon between Guam and the Philippines but arrived tricycle landing gear while operating with Lexington (CV 2) in Manila on 25 September as the first patrol unit in the off Coronado Roads. PBY-3 Catalinas of Board commenced functioning under the direction and VP-33 transferred from the Panama Canal Zone to NS supervision of the president as commander in chief of the Guantánamo Bay. 1939 continued 1 J U LY • The Navy adopted a standard system of numbering measures to strengthen national defenses within the limits of patrol squadrons in reference to patrol wings. These boards all previously functioned by Two days later PBY-1s of VP-51 arrived at San Juan. U.. Clark demonstrated the basic Asiatic Fleet since 1932. Wake—where seaplane tender Childs (AVD 1) 30 AUGUST • Lt. Cuba. Meanwhile. retired officers. Calif.

1939 continued
463784

The airships J-4 and L-1 conduct training exercises at Barnegat Bay, N.J., c.1939.

Sino-Japanese War. The detachment sailed for Pearl Harbor 14 OCTOBER • The Naval Aircraft Factory, Philadelphia,
on 5 October. Pa., received authorization to develop radio control equipment
for use in remote-controlled flight testing so test pilots could
1 OCTOBER • In order to expand pilot training perform dives, pullouts, and other maneuvers within the
immediately, Naval Air Training Base Pensacola, Fla., set aircraft’s designed strength without risking their lives.
up a program of concentrated instruction that reduced the
training period from 12 to 6 months. The new program 16 OCTOBER • The Germans dispatched tanker Emmy
provided a primary course in landplanes and a basic phase in Friedrich from Tampico, Mexico, to deliver refrigerants for
service landplanes and instrument flying for all students. It magazine cooling systems to the armored ship Admiral Graf
also restricted advanced program students to specialization Spee, which hunted Allied merchantmen across the Atlantic
in observation planes, carrier aircraft, or patrol and utility and Indian oceans during this period. Neutrality Patrol ships
aircraft. Ground school was similarly compressed from 33 to sailed to trail the tanker, including Ranger (CV 4). British light
18 weeks. cruiser Orion and Canadian destroyer Saguenay located the
blockade runner in the Yucatán Channel, and on 24 October

132  |  The Great Depression

1939 continued
463683

By the end of the decade, the rotund F3F biplane with fabric-covered wings was decidedly obsolete. First delivered to the Navy in 1936, all were
phased out of squadron service by the end of 1941. The Marines of VMF-2 flew this F3F-2 variant, February 1938.

British light cruiser Caradoc intercepted Emmy Friedrich, but 4 NOV E M BER • President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed
the Germans scuttled the ship to avoid her capture. the Neutrality Act into law. The measure repealed the arms
embargo, prohibited U.S. vessels from entering combat
23 OCTOBER • Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Harold zones, and established a National Munitions Control Board.
R. Stark directed the modification of decommissioned and The chief executive also declared the waters surrounding the
Reserve destroyer Noa (DD 343) to operate the XSOC-1 British Isles a combat zone.
or SON-1 Seagull. Noa underwent the removal of her aft
torpedo tubes and the fitting of a seaplane before her aft 1 DECE M BER • Ens. Albert L. Terwilleger was designated
deckhouse at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, Pa. She was a Master Horizontal Bomber, becoming the first naval aviator
recommissioned on 1 April 1940 and nine days later the in a fleet squadron to so qualify.
XSOC-1, BuNo 9413, was assigned to the destroyer, and
on 10 May an SOC-1 arrived on board. While anchored 8 DECE M BER • To effect a higher degree of coordination
for seaplane handling trials on 15 May at Harbor of Refuge, in research, the Secretary of the Navy directed the Bureaus
Del., Noa hoisted Lt. George L. Heap and the XSOC-1 of Aeronautics and Ordnance (acting separately) and the
over the side to make an emergency flight to transfer a sick Bureaus of Engineering and Construction and Repair (acting
seaman from Noa to the Naval Hospital in Philadelphia. as one unit) to designate an officer to head a section in their
Heap accomplished additional underway takeoffs and, on 20 respective bureaus devoted to science and technology, act
May Noa commanding officer Cmdr. Ernest S. L. Goodwin as a liaison officer with the Naval Research Laboratory,
reported to navy yard CO Capt. Rufus W. Mathewson on and serve as a member of the Navy Department Council
the success of these operations. Mathewson forwarded for Research. The same order transferred the research and
Goodwin’s conclusions to CNO, and the report influenced invention duties performed in the Office of the Chief of
Secretary of the Navy Charles Edison to direct, on 27 May Naval Operations to the secretary’s office and placed them
1940, the outfitting of six destroyers of the DD-445 class under the administration of the director of the laboratory.
with planes, catapults, and plane handling gear.

The Great Depression   |   133

1939 continued
20 DECE M BER • The Navy issued a contract to
Consolidated Aircraft for 200 PBY Catalina-type aircraft to
support an increase in patrol plane squadrons that resulted
from Neutrality Patrol requirements. The contract comprised
the largest single U.S. order for naval aircraft since the end of
WWI.

134  |  The Great Depression

Chapter 5

World War II 1940 –1945

T he fleet faced the supreme test of war only 30 years
after acquiring its first airplane and just 19 years
after commissioning its first aircraft carrier. Naval
aviation carried the fight to the enemy and forged ahead to
become the backbone of fleet striking power.
victory. American armed forces drove the Axis from
strategically located bases, cut off its raw materials,
and placed the Allies in position to launch the final air
and amphibious offensives. These late efforts would be
rendered unnecessary by the destructive power of the
In one swift, skillfully executed stroke at Pearl Harbor, atom unleashed upon the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and
Japanese carrier planes temporarily crippled the Navy’s Nagasaki, but the fleet’s liberation of Japanese-held islands
battle line. The handful of carriers in the Pacific filled in the Central Pacific made the atomic attacks possible.
the ensuing void and demonstrated the potency of naval For the first time in naval history the opponents
airpower when they struck a retaliatory blow against the engaged each other entirely in the air without sighting
Japanese home islands in 1942. enemy ships. Radar pierced the night, giving the fleet
Although the geographic position of the United States new eyes, as technological progress improved the defense
provided the strategic advantage of the ability to move and added power to the offense. Scientists contributed
ships between the Atlantic and Pacific fleets via the Panama to the war effort by developing specialized equipment
Canal, it also placed the nation squarely between two wars and applying scientific principles to operational tactics.
with few commonalities. Logistics assumed new importance, and advances in
Air operations in the Atlantic consisted of a blockade replenishment at sea increased naval mobility.
and campaign to protect convoys of ships that delivered In the course of the war, Navy and Marine pilots
raw materials, munitions, and reinforcements to the Allies. claimed the destruction of more than 15,000 enemy aircraft
The convoys’ safe arrivals enabled a series of amphibious in the air and on the ground; sank 174 Japanese warships,
operations that liberated the European continent from including 13 submarines totaling 746,000 tons; destroyed
Axis hegemony. 447 Japanese merchant ships totaling 1,600,000 tons; and
In the Pacific, Allied strategy focused first on stopping sank 63 U-boats in the Atlantic. In combination with other
Japan’s alarmingly rapid advance, and then on the bitterly agents, Navy and Marine air forces helped sink another
contested task of driving the enemy forces back over a 157,000 tons of warships and 200,000 tons of merchant
broad expanse. ships, and another 6 Japanese and 20 German submarines.
The United States entered World War II unprepared Although World War II contributed significantly to the
to execute either Allied strategy—Atlantic or Pacific. development of aviation, experience proved some prewar
The Navy and Marine Corps air arms mustered only one theories on the role of airpower to naval operations to be
small and seven large commissioned aircraft carriers, five misconceived. The bombing tests of the 1920s had persuaded
patrol wings, and two Marine aircraft wings, about 5,900 some airpower proponents of the obsolescence of navies, but
pilots and 21,678 enlisted men, 5,233 aircraft of all types, carrier task force operations in the war gave little credence to
including trainers, and a few advanced air bases. such conclusions. Those who questioned the importance of
Distance from the enemy and tremendous airplanes to navies were equally off the mark. Advocates of
industrial power, however, enabled the United States independent airpower had also doubted the possibility and
to build the ships, planes, and equipment necessary for usefulness of close air support for troops; battle experience

World War II   |   135

1940
validated such support as indispensable. The disappointment 19 M A RCH • The Navy authorized fleet activities to
of naval officers who visualized decisive fleet engagements apply additional national star insignia on the sides of the
in the tradition of Trafalgar and Jutland matched that of fuselages or hulls of Neutrality Patrol aircraft to assist in their
airpower theorists who saw their predictions go awry. By identification.
the test of war it became exceedingly clear that neither
armies nor navies could achieve objectives in war without 22 M A RCH • The Navy initiated guided missile
first achieving air superiority, and that neither could exert as development at the Naval Aircraft Factory, Philadelphia,
much force alone as with the aid of air striking power. Pa., with the establishment of a project for adapting radio
controls to a torpedo-carrying TG-2 airplane.
1940
A PR I L • Fleet Problem XXI, consisting of two phases
4 JA N UA RY • The establishment of Project Baker in Patrol and lasting into May, involved coordination of commands,
Wing 1 expanded experiments with blind landing equipment. protection of a convoy, and seizure of advanced bases around
the Hawaiian Islands and eastern Pacific. Observers noted the
15 FEBRUA RY • Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet, tendency of commanders to overlook carrier limitations and
noting that reports on air operations in the European war assign them excessive tasks, the need for reliefs for flight and
stressed the problem of aircraft vulnerability, recommended carrier crews under simulated war conditions, the success of
equipping naval aircraft with leak-proof or self-sealing fuel high-altitude tracking by patrol aircraft, and the ineffectiveness
tanks, and pilots and observers with armor. The Bureaus of of low-level horizontal bombing attacks. The war compelled
Aeronautics and Ordnance had investigated these forms of the cancellation of Fleet Problem XXII in 1941.
protection for two years, but this formal statement of need
accelerated procurement and installation of both. 23 A PR I L • Cmdr. Donald Royce was designated to
represent the Navy on an Army Air Corps evaluation
24 FEBRUA RY • The Bureau of Aeronautics issued a board for rotary-wing aircraft. The board was incidental
contract for television equipment, including a camera, to legislation directing the War Department to undertake
transmitter, and receiver capable of airborne operation. rotary-wing aircraft development.
Researchers used this equipment to transmit instrument
readings obtained from radio-controlled structural flight 25 A PR I L • Wasp (CV 7) was commissioned at Boston,
tests and to provide target and guidance information for the Mass., Capt. John W. Reeves Jr. commanding.
conversion of radio-controlled aircraft to offensive weapons.
7 M AY • President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered fleet
27 FEBRUA RY • The Navy awarded a contract to Vought- ships to remain in Hawaiian waters indefinitely as a signal of
Sikorsky Aircraft for the design of a full-scale flying model American resolve to deter Japanese aggression. Subsequently,
(as distinguished from a military prototype) of a “Flying Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet Adm. James O. Richardson
Flapjack” fighter, designated VS-173, with an almost circular asserted that the facilities at Pearl Harbor were inadequate
wing. This design, which produced a potential high speed to support the fleet and protect against attack. Richardson’s
of nearly 500 mph combined with a very low takeoff speed, stance contributed to his relief on 1 February 1941 by Adm.
originated in the research of former National Advisory Husband E. Kimmel.
Committee for Aeronautics engineer Charles H. Zimmerman.
16 M AY • President Franklin D. Roosevelt requested a
29 FEBRUA RY • The Bureau of Aeronautics initiated action congressional appropriation of $1.18 billion to strengthen
that led to a contract with University of Iowa professor H. O. national defense, including $250 million for the Navy and
Croft to investigate the possibilities of a turbojet propulsion Marine Corps.
unit for aircraft.
27 M AY • Secretary of the Navy Charles Edison directed
the equipment of six DD-445–class destroyers with planes,

136  |  World War II

1940 continued
catapults, and plane handling gear. Halford (DD 480), 27 J U N E • President Franklin D. Roosevelt established
Hutchins (DD 476), Leutze (DD 481), Pringle (DD 477), a National Defense Research Committee to correlate and
Stanly (DD 478), and Stevens (DD 479) were subsequently support scientific research on the mechanisms and devices
selected. On 23 December 1942 Pringle received the first of war. Among its members were officers of the War and
aircraft, an OS2U-3 Kingfisher, BuNo 5870. Just before Navy departments appointed by the respective secretaries.
the new year, BuNo 01505, an OS2N-1, was assigned to Although the committee’s functions specifically excluded
Hutchins. Before these two ships and Stanly joined the fleet in research on the problems of flight, the organization made
early 1943, however, shortcomings in the plane hoisting gear substantial contributions in various fields important to naval
led to removal of the aviation equipment. Halford and Stevens aviation, including airborne radar.
performed limited aircraft operations, but in October 1943,
the Navy ordered the equipment removed from both ships 14 J U LY • Scientists E. L. Bowles, Ralph Bowen, Alfred L.
and cancelled its installation on Leutze. Loomis, and Hugh H. Willis attended the initial meeting of
what became the National Defense Research Committee’s
14 J U N E • The Naval Expansion Act of 1940 was signed Division 14, or Radar Division. During this and subsequent
into law. The measure authorized an 11 percent increase in meetings with other researchers, the group defined its
the size of the fleet, approved a 79,500-ton augmentation mission: “to obtain the most effective military application of
of aircraft carrier tonnage over the limits set by the 1938 microwaves in minimum time.” In carrying out this mission,
expansion act, and sought to increase the number of naval Division 14 developed airborne radar the Navy used for
aircraft by instituting a cap of 48 airships and 4,500 planes. aircraft interception, airborne early warning, and other
The next day, President Franklin D. Roosevelt approved an specialized applications.
Act of Congress to raise the total number of planes to 10,000,
including 850 for the Naval Reserve. 19 J U LY • Another expansion of the Navy authorized an
increase of 200,000 tons over the aircraft carrier limits of the
17 J U N E • Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Harold R. Two Ocean Navy Act and a new aircraft ceiling of 15,000
Stark requested $4 billion from Congress to increase the planes. This act also allowed further increases in aircraft
authorized strength of the Navy by 70 percent. This measure strength upon presidential approval.
was subsequently known as “The Two Ocean Navy Act” and
signed into law on 19 July. 5 AUGUST • Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Harold R.
Stark established ground rules for the exchange of scientific
20 J U N E • The Bureau of Construction and Repair merged and technical information with the British Tizard Mission,
with the Bureau of Engineering to form the Bureau of Ships. named after its senior member, Sir Henry T. Tizard. In
In addition, the Office of the Undersecretary of the Navy was general, the rules provided for the expected free exchange of
established, with naval aviator James V. Forrestal of World information on matters concerning aviation, including the
War I service assuming the position on 22 August. field later known as radar. On 12 August, following reports
of British progress, the Bureau of Ordnance requested
25 J U N E • The Navy abolished the aeronautical engineering that the National Defense Research Committee sponsor
duty only designation, resulting in the designation of all men development of the proximity fuze, which had already been
subsequently appointed to that group as engineering duty under consideration, on a priority basis and with emphasis
only. on its antiaircraft use.

25 J U N E • Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Harold R. Stark 17 AUGUST • A team known as Section T after its
promulgated plans to expand the flight training program. chairman, Dr. Merle A. Tuve of Division A of the National
They called for the assignment of 150 students per month Defense Research Committee, was established to examine
beginning on 1 July, and a regular increase to an entry rate of the feasibility of various approaches to developing the
300 per month within a year. proximity fuze. Eight days later, the Navy issued a contract
to the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism at the Carnegie

World War II   |   137

1940 continued
Institution, Washington, D.C., for research culminating in granted authority to call fleet reservists as necessary—
the radio VT fuze for antiaircraft guns as well as radio and Naval Reserve sailors had hitherto been ordered to active
photoelectric VT fuzes for bombs and rockets. duty on a voluntary basis. On 24 October, the Bureau
of Navigation announced plans for mobilizing aviation
22 AUGUST • Former naval aviator James V. Forrestal squadrons that called for ordering to active duty one-
assumed his duties as the first Undersecretary of the Navy. third the number of squadrons by 7 November, and the
remainder by 1 January 1941.
29 AUGUST • The exchange of radar development
information with the British Tizard Mission began at a 9 OCTOBER • Secretary of the Navy William F. Knox
conference attended by Sir Henry T. Tizard, two of his approved a recommendation by the General Board to
associates, and representatives of the U.S. Army and Navy, equip 24 submarines authorized for construction with
including Lt. John A. Moreno of the Bureau of Aeronautics. gasoline for delivery to seaplanes on the water. This move
The conference dealt primarily with British techniques for followed a demonstration in which submarine Nautilus
detecting German bombers, but also touched on means (SS 168) refueled patrol planes and conducted a successful
of identifying friendly aircraft. Later meetings focused on test dive to 300 feet with aviation gasoline on board; it
British development of shipboard and airborne radar. A also came after the Navy made plans to prepare Argonaut
British disclosure of particular importance for airborne (SS 166) and Narwhal (SS 167) to carry 19,000 gallons of
radar application was the cavity magnetron, a tube capable aviation gasoline.
of generating high-power radio waves of a few centimeters
in length. 11 OCTOBER • Rear Adm. Harold G. Bowen, the technical
aide to the Secretary of the Navy, proposed a program for
2 SEPTE M BER • The Americans and the British made an the development of radio ranging equipment (radar). This
agreement in which the United States exchanged 50 overage formed the basis for the Navy’s prewar radar development
World War I Emergency Program destroyers for 99-year effort, which included an airborne radar for surface search in
leases of sites for naval and air bases in Antigua, the Bahamas, addition to identification equipment and shipbased radar.
British Guiana (Guyana), Jamaica, St. Lucia, and Trinidad,
and similar rights without consideration for bases in 12 OCTOBER • Wasp (CV 7) launched 24 Army Curtiss
Bermuda and Newfoundland. The acquisition of these sites P-40 Warhawks of the 8th Pursuit Group and 9 North
advanced the sea frontiers of the United States and provided American O-47s of the 3rd Observation Squadron off the
bases from which ships and aircraft covered the strategically Virginia Capes, marking the first launches of Army aircraft
important sea approaches to the East Coast and Panama from a U.S. carrier. The participants gathered data on the
Canal. The British received 44 of the destroyers and the comparative takeoff runs of Army and Navy planes.
Canadians the remaining six. British Prime Minister Winston
S. Churchill had appealed to President Franklin D. Roosevelt 23 OCTOBER • The Navy set up an administrative
for the reinforcements as a matter of “life and death” during command for carrier aviation within the Atlantic Squadron,
the Battle of the Atlantic. entitling it Aircraft, Atlantic Squadron.

3 OCTOBER • Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Harold 24 OCTOBER • An administrative command for patrol
R. Stark requested that the naval attaché in London obtain aviation in the Atlantic Squadron was established under the
samples of British radio echo equipment (radar), including title Patrol Wings, Atlantic Squadron.
aircraft installations for interception (AI), surface vessel
detection (ASV), and aircraft identification (IFF). 28 OCTOBER • The Chief of Naval Operations reported
the entrance into service of planes with armor and fuel
5 OCTOBER • Secretary of the Navy William F. Knox protection, and announced the addition of such protection
placed all organized reserve divisions and aviation to all fleet aircraft—except those assigned to Patrol Wing
squadrons on short notice for call to active duty and 2—within a year.

138  |  World War II

1941
1 NOV E M BER • A fleet reorganization divided aviation 1941
forces administratively between the Atlantic and Pacific
oceans and marked the beginning of the independent 9 JA N UA RY • The first group of contractors arrived on
development of forces according to strategic requirements. Wake Island to construct an air station.
In the Atlantic, aviation was transferred from Scouting
Force to Patrol Force, which replaced the Atlantic Squadron 1 FEBRUA RY • The establishment of the Atlantic and
as a fleet command parallel to Scouting Force. The Pacific Pacific Fleets completed the transition that began in
patrol wings remained attached to Scouting Force under the November 1940 to divide aviation between the two oceans.
combined command Commander Patrol Wings, U.S. Fleet, The titles of the Atlantic Fleet aviation commands became
and Commander Aircraft, Scouting Force. Aircraft, Atlantic Fleet, and Patrol Wings, Atlantic Fleet.
No change was made in the aviation organization of the
11 NOV E M BER • The first general meeting of the Pacific Fleet.
Radiation Laboratory occurred at the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology. The laboratory served as the 10 FEBRUA RY • A one-month instruction course began
principal scientific and developmental agency of Division 14 under Project Baker to train patrol plane pilots to make blind
of the National Defense Research Committee and became landings using radio instrument landing equipment, which
instrumental in airborne radar development. the Navy was procuring for all patrol aircraft and their bases.
One pilot from each of 13 squadrons, one radioman from
15 NOV E M BER • Seaplane tender Curtiss (AV 4), Cmdr. each of five patrol wings, and two radiomen from each of five
Samuel P. Ginder commanding, was commissioned in naval air stations attended the course.
Philadelphia, Pa., as the first of two ships of her class.
26 FEBRUA RY • An extensive modification of aircraft
15 NOV E M BER • PBY-2 Catalinas of VP-54 began the markings added the national star insignia to both sides of
first U.S. naval air operations from Bermuda, supported by the fuselage or hull and eliminated those markings on the
seaplane tender George E. Badger (AVD 3). upper right and lower left wings; discontinued colored tail
markings, fuselage bands, and cowl markings; mandated
16 NOV E M BER • The Bureau of Aeronautics established removal of red, white, and blue rudder stripes; and changed
a catapult procurement program for Essex (CV 9)-class the color of all markings except the national star insignia to
carriers, providing for the installation of one flight deck those of least contrast to the background.
catapult and one athwartships hangar deck catapult on each
of the 11 projected ships of the class. 1 M A RCH • Support Force, Atlantic Fleet, Rear Adm.
Arthur L. Bristol commanding, was established for
18 NOV E M BER • The Chief of Naval Operations operations on the convoy routes across the North Atlantic.
authorized use of the abbreviation “RADAR” in unclassified The directive placed the component patrol squadrons under
correspondence and conversation, and directed the use a patrol wing that was established at the same time.
of the phrase “radio detection and ranging equipment” in
lieu of various terms used before, including radio ranging 11 M A RCH • An act of Congress empowered President
equipment, radio detection equipment, radio echo Franklin D. Roosevelt to provide goods and services
equipment, and pulse radio equipment. to those nations whose defense he deemed vital to that
of the United States. Isolationists criticized the Lend-
30 DECE M BER • The Bureau of Aeronautics directed the Lease program for drawing the country close to war, but
painting of fleet aircraft in nonspecular colors. Ship-based the act allowed the United States to provide the Allied
aircraft were to be Light Gray all over. Patrol planes were to belligerents with war material, food, and financial aid
be Light Gray except for surfaces seen from above, which without joining in combat. The “cash and carry” provisions
were to be Blue Gray. of the Neutrality Act of 1939 were also changed to permit
the transfer of munitions, and on 17 November, Archer

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1941 continued
(BAVG 1) became the first of 38 aircraft escort vessels unmanned Vought O3U-6 Corsair under radio control
(escort carriers) transferred to the British under the beyond the safe bounds of piloted flight. The information
program during World War II. obtained proved valuable in overcoming flutter encountered
at various speeds and accelerations.
17 M A RCH • The chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics
approved a proposal for establishing a special 30 A PR I L • The Bureau of Aeronautics directed the
subcommittee of the National Advisory Committee for preliminary design of a transport glider, an initial step toward
Aeronautics to promptly review the status of jet propulsion a glider development program, at the Naval Aircraft Factory,
and to recommend plans for its application to flight and Philadelphia, Pa. As the program progressed, requirements
assisted takeoff. were clarified, leading to the construction of 12- and
24-place wooden or plastic amphibian gliders by firms not
27 M A RCH • The Americans, British, and Canadians already engaged in building military aircraft.
signed the ABC-1 Staff Agreement in Washington, D.C. The
accord established a Combined Chiefs of Staff, outlined 30 A PR I L • The commanding officer of NAS Lakehurst,
a framework for strategic cooperation between the Allies, N.J., ordered the salvage of metal-clad airship ZMC-2 and
and directed the Atlantic Fleet to reinforce the British in its assignment, complete with engines, instruments, and
convoying ships to Britain as soon as possible. appurtenances, to the Lighter-Than-Air Ground School at
Lakehurst. ZMC-2 had flown more than 2,250 hours since
28 M A RCH • Capt. Elliott Buckmaster, Yorktown (CV 5) August 1929.
commanding officer, reported that during five months of
operational experience with the CXAM radar the ship had 2 M AY • Fleet Air Photographic Unit, Pacific, was established
tracked planes at a distance of 100 miles. Buckmaster under Commander Aircraft, Battle Force. The move preceded
recommended equipping aircraft with electronic identification by one day the establishment of a similar unit in the Atlantic
devices, and carriers with separate and complete facilities for Fleet under Commander Patrol Wings, Atlantic.
tracking and plotting all radar targets.
3 M AY • Project Roger was established at the Naval Aircraft
19 A PR I L • The development of a guided glider bomb Factory, Philadelphia, Pa., to install and test airborne radar
(GLOMB) began at the Naval Aircraft Factory, Philadelphia, equipment. Its principal assignment was to support the
Pa. The prototype was designed to be towed long distances Radiation Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of
by a powered aircraft, released in the vicinity of a target, and Technology and the Naval Research Laboratory in various
guided by radio control in an attack. A television camera radar applications, including search and blind bombing, and
enabled the GLOMB to transmit a view of the target to a radio control of aircraft.
control plane.
8 M AY • The Bureau of Aeronautics directed the
20 A PR I L • The first successful test of electronic establishment of Aviation Repair Units 1 and 2 to provide a
components of radio-proximity fuzes occurred at a farm in nucleus of aircraft repair and maintenance people ready for
Vienna, Va. A 37mm pack howitzer fired a radio oscillator, overseas deployment as advanced bases were constructed.
or sonde, that made radio transmissions during its flight,
demonstrating that radio tubes and batteries could be 10 M AY • The Naval Aircraft Factory, Philadelphia, Pa.,
constructed ruggedly enough to withstand firing from a reported to the Bureau of Aeronautics that it was in the midst
gun. The presentation led Section T of the National Defense of negotiations with the Radio Corporation of America for
Research Committee to concentrate on the development of the development of a radio altimeter suitable for use in radio-
radio-proximity fuzes for antiaircraft guns. controlled assault drones.

26 A PR I L • The project officer of the Naval Aircraft Factory, 15 M AY • Seaplane tender Albemarle (AV 5) arrived at
Philadelphia, Pa., reported the successful flight test of an Argentia, Newfoundland, to establish a base for Patrol Wing,

140  |  World War II

1941 continued
Support Force operations and
to prepare for the imminent
arrival of the first squadron,
VP-52, to fly patrols over the
North Atlantic convoy routes.

19 M AY • German battleship
Bismarck sailed from
Gotenhafen (Gdynia) in
German-occupied Poland
for Rheinübung (Exercise
Rhine)—a sortie into the
North Atlantic to raid Allied
convoys. The battleship
rendezvoused with heavy
cruiser Prinz Eugen, and
the two ships broke into
the shipping lanes and
then detached to maraud
independently. On 24 May,
PBY-5 Catalinas from VP-52
battled strong gales during

415346
an unsuccessful search for
A PBM Mariner launches using jet-assisted takeoff (JATO) rockets.
Bismarck from Argentia,
Newfoundland. On 26 May, British Pilot Officer Dennis 27 M AY • President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed an
A. Briggs, Royal Air Force, of Coastal Command’s No. 209 unlimited national emergency and a need to ready military,
Squadron, and U.S. Navy observer and copilot Ens. Leonard naval, air, and civilian defenses to repel aggressive acts or
B. Smith in AH545A, an RAF PBY-5 Catalina from Lough threats directed toward any part of the Western Hemisphere.
Erne in Northern Ireland, spotted Bismarck as she made
for Brest, France. Briggs transferred the controls to Smith 2 J U N E • Long Island (AVG 1), Cmdr. Donald B. Duncan
while he sent a sighting report. The Catalina broke through commanding, was commissioned as the first aircraft escort
the clouds on the port beam of the battleship and received vessel of the U.S. Navy at Newport News, Va. The flush-deck
minor damage from antiaircraft fire. American observer Lt. carrier was converted in 67 working days from cargo ship
James E. Johnson served on board the British Catalina from Mormacmail.
No. 240 Squadron that subsequently relieved AH545A,
maintained contact with the quarry, and assisted in directing 4 J U N E • The Naval Aircraft Factory, Philadelphia, Pa.,
the pursuers toward Bismarck. Ships of the British Home reported to the Bureau of Aeronautics that its development
Fleet sank the German battleship on 27 May. of airborne television had progressed to the point that signals
thus transmitted could be used to direct the pilot of the
21 M AY • The Bureau of Aeronautics requested the transmitting plane to alter its course.
Engineering Experiment Station at Annapolis, Md., to
develop a liquid-fueled assisted takeoff unit for patrol planes. 11 J U N E • An aircraft armament unit was formed at NAS
This marked the Navy’s entry into the field of designated Norfolk, Va., with Lt. Cmdr. William V. Davis as the officer-
jet-assisted takeoff and its first program, outside of research in-charge, to test and evaluate armament installations of
into jet exhaust from reciprocating engines, directed toward increasing complexity.
utilizing jet reaction for aircraft propulsion.

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1941 continued
1 J U LY • The test, acceptance, and
indoctrination units—which had been
established in May in San Diego, Calif.,
and Norfolk, Va., to fit out new patrol
aircraft and to indoctrinate new crews in
their use—were expanded and set up as
separate commands. The San Diego unit
retained its description and was placed
under Commander Aircraft, Scouting
Force. The Norfolk unit was named
the Operational Training Squadron
and moved under Commander Patrol
Wings, Atlantic.

1 J U LY • Patrol Wing, Support Force,
was redesignated Patrol Wing 7, Capt.
Henry M. Mullinnix commanding.

3 J U LY • Seaplane tender Barnegat
(AVP 10) was commissioned at Puget
26567

The first U.S. aircraft escort vessel, Long Island (AVG 1), steams at sea with two Brewster F2A
Sound Navy Yard Bremerton, Wash.,
fighters parked at the forward end of her flight deck, 8 July 1941. Cmdr. Felix L. Baker commanding.
Barnegat became the first of 26 ships of
28 J U N E • To strengthen the provisions for using science her class.
in war, President Franklin D. Roosevelt created the Office
of Scientific Research and Development. He included 4 J U LY • PBY-5 Catalinas of VP-72 flew protective patrols
in its organization both the National Defense Research until 17 July from Reykjavik, Iceland, to cover the arrival of
Committee and the newly established Committee on a Marine garrison from the United States. Seaplane tender
Medical Research. Goldsborough (AVD 5) supported the squadron.

30 J U N E • Initiating an Army-Navy turboprop engine 7 J U LY • The 1st Marine Aircraft Wing (MAW), consisting
development project, the Navy awarded a contract to of a headquarters squadron and Marine Aircraft Group 1,
Northrop Aircraft for the design of an aircraft gas turbine was organized at Quantico, Va., Lt. Col. Louis E. Woods,
developing 2,500 horsepower at a weight of less than 3,215 USMC, commanding. The wing became the first of its type
pounds. in the Marine Corps, and the first of five MAWs organized
during World War II.
1 J U LY • VS-201 commanding officer Lt. Cmdr. William D.
Anderson completed the first U.S. Navy landing, takeoff, and 8 J U LY • Patrol Wing 8 was established at Norfolk, Va.,
catapult launch from an aircraft escort vessel when he flew Cmdr. John D. Price commanding.
from Long Island (AVG 1).
12 J U LY • The Naval Research Laboratory was transferred
1 J U LY • Commander in Chief, Atlantic Fleet Adm. Ernest to the Bureau of Ships from the Office of the Secretary of
J. King organized ten task forces to support the defense of the Navy, where the Naval Research and Development
Iceland and to escort convoys between the island nation Board was established. The board members, led by a
and the United States. The two countries had agreed for U.S. civilian scientist with the title Coordinator of Research and
forces to occupy and defend Iceland. Development, represented the Chief of Naval Operations

142  |  World War II

1941 continued
and the Bureaus of Aeronautics, Ordnance, Ships, and Yards 28 J U LY • The Chief of Naval Operations directed additional
and Docks. Dr. Jerome C. Hunsaker served as coordinator gunnery and tactical training in the pilot training program. He
until his relief in December by Rear Adm. Julius A. Furer. also confirmed the establishment of advanced carrier training
groups within both the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets, at Norfolk,
17 J U LY • The realignment of Section T for proximity fuze Va., and San Diego, Calif., to teach newly designated naval
development enabled the organization to devote its entire aviators how to operate current-model carrier aircraft. Last, the
effort to radio-proximity fuzes for antiaircraft projectiles. The CNO assigned a number of patrol squadrons in each fleet to
responsibility for photoelectric and radio fuzes for bombs provide familiarization, indoctrination, advanced gunnery, and
and rockets shifted to Section E of the National Defense tactical training for new flight crews.
Research Committee at the National Bureau of Standards.
28 J U LY • The Navy redesignated the Operational Training
18 J U LY • Senior Support Force staff officer Cmdr. James V. Squadron of the Atlantic Fleet and the Test, Acceptance, and
Carney reported the installation of British-type ASV radar Indoctrination Unit of the Pacific Fleet as transition training
in one PBY-5 Catalina each of VP-71, -72, and -73, and in squadrons.
two PBM-1 Mariners of VP-74. Identification equipment
was first installed at about the same time in various planes. 29 J U LY • The Secretary of the Navy approved the
In mid-September, the Navy issued radar to five additional installation of a radar plot on board carriers.
PBM-1s of VP-74 and one PBY-5 of VP-71, and, shortly
thereafter, other aircraft in Patrol Wing 7 squadrons, making 1 AUGUST • A microwave radar (AI-10) developed by
that wing the first operational naval command to receive the Radiation Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute
radar-equipped aircraft. Its squadrons operated from of Technology, which featured a plan position indicator,
Norfolk, Va., Quonset Point, R.I., and advance bases on underwent its initial test in the Lockheed XJO-3 twin-engine
Greenland, Newfoundland, and Iceland during the final test plane, BuNo 1267, at Boston Airport, Mass. During
months of the Neutrality Patrol. the test flights, scientists operated the radar and devised
modifications while Project Roger sailors (most frequently,
18 J U LY • Pocomoke (AV 9), Cmdr. Lester T. Hundt Chief Aviation Pilot Cecil L. Kullberg) flew the aircraft. The
commanding, was commissioned as the first of two seaplane operators detected ships up to 40 miles away and achieved
tenders of her class at Portsmouth, Va. radar-guided approaches to simulated enemy aircraft at
ranges of up to 3.5 miles. Operational radars developed from
18 J U LY • The Joint Board membership was revised to this equipment, including the ASG for K-class airships and
include the Deputy Chief of Staff for Air and the chief of the the AN/APS-2 for patrol planes, were capable of searching a
Bureau of Aeronautics, giving aviation representation on the circular area—a tactically important feature for search-and-
highest of the Army and Navy boards. rescue operations and finding submarines. The evaluations
continued until 16 October.
21 J U LY • The Navy abolished the requirement that all
students assigned to the carrier phase of flight training were 1 AUGUST • The Bureau of Aeronautics requested the
to train in each of the three basic aircraft types, and it began Naval Research Laboratory to develop radar guidance
the practice of assigning students to specialized training in equipment for assault drones to relay target information
either fighters, scout bombers, or torpedo planes. to a control operator and to serve as automatic homing
equipment, initiating radar application to guided missiles.
25 J U LY • Wasp (CV 7) loaded 30 Army Curtiss P-40C
Warhawks and three Stearman PT-13 primary trainers of 5 AUGUST • As President Franklin D. Roosevelt traveled to
the 33rd Pursuit Squadron at Norfolk, Va., for transport to Placentia Bay, Newfoundland, for a conference with British
Reykjavik, Iceland. The carrier sailed with Task Force 16, Rear Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill, the president’s flag still
Adm. William R. Monroe commanding, for the 6 August flew from presidential yacht Potomac (AG 25) to conceal his
delivery of Army reinforcements to Iceland’s Allied garrison. departure with heavy cruisers Augusta (CA 31) and

World War II   |   143

1941 continued
Tuscaloosa (CA 37) and five destroyers. Augusta embarked Newfoundland, to the Mid-Ocean Meeting Point south of
three SOC-1 Seagulls and one SOC-2 of her aviation unit, Iceland. Seventeen days later, U.S. destroyers rendezvoused
while Tuscaloosa operated one SOC-3 and three SON-1 with Canadian-escorted convoy HX-150 south of
Seagulls of VCS-7. On 7 August, the U.S. ships reached Newfoundland for the first such voyage.
Placentia Bay, and on 9 August British battleship Prince of
Wales arrived at nearby NAS Argentia with Prime Minister 5 SEPTE M BER • Artemus L. Gates (Naval Aviator No.
Churchill and senior leaders embarked. Also present were 65), who was discharged from the Naval Reserve in 1928,
Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Harold R. Stark and the took the oath of office as Assistant Secretary of the Navy for
president’s son, Ens. Franklin D. Roosevelt Jr., USNR, Aeronautics, the first person to hold the post since David S.
temporarily detached from destroyer Mayrant (DD 403). Ingalls resigned on 1 June 1932.
Discussion included a forthcoming joint declaration,
subsequently known as the Atlantic Charter, which outlined 9 SEPTE M BER • The Bureau of Aeronautics requested that
the Allied obligation to the “final destruction of Nazi the National Defense Research Committee and the Naval
tyranny.” The chief executive also offered planes and warships Research Laboratory develop an interceptor radar suitable
to escort British merchant ships between the United States for installation in single-engine, single-seat fighters, such as
and Iceland (Prime Minister Naval Plan 4). The conference F4U Corsairs.
concluded on 12 August. Prime Minister Churchill departed
on board Prince of Wales, and the president sailed with 1 OCTOBER • Secretary of the Navy William F. Knox
Augusta to Potomac at Blue Hill Bay, Maine. approved popular names for 17 projected or in-service naval
aircraft: F2A Buffalo, F4F Wildcat, F4U Corsair, J2F Duck,
6 AUGUST • VP-73 and VP-74 initiated air patrols over OS2U/OS2N Kingfisher, PBB Sea Ranger, PBM Mariner,
North Atlantic convoy routes from Reykjavik, Iceland. PBY Catalina, PB2Y Coronado, SB2A Buccaneer, SB2C
Helldiver, SB2U Vindicator, SBD Dauntless, SO3C Seagull
6 AUGUST • The Chief of Naval Operations issued (subsequently renamed Seamew), SOC Seagull, TBD
Tentative Doctrine for Fighter Direction from Aircraft Carriers, Devastator, and TBF Avenger.
recognizing the anticipated impact of radar on fighter
operations, and directed the immediate organization of 1 OCTOBER • The Navy established the Aviation Supply
fighter direction centers on board radar-equipped carriers Office in Philadelphia, Pa., under the joint cognizance of
and other ships. the Bureaus of Aeronautics and Supplies and Accounts. The
office provided centralized control over the procurement and
7 AUGUST • The Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics issued distribution of all aeronautical materials regularly maintained
a preliminary plan to install long-range search radar (British in the general stock.
ASV or American ASA) in patrol planes, as well as short-
range search radar (British Mk II ASV modified for Fleet 8 OCTOBER • The Navy established Special Project Dog
Air Arm or American ASB) in one torpedo plane in each within VJ-5 to test radio-controlled offensive weapons
section—starting with TBF-1 Avengers. Space needed for and to train people in their use. VJ-5 was also directed
search radar was to be reserved in new scout-dive-bombers to develop a radio-controlled fighter plane as an “aerial
and scout-observation planes. The plan also called for British ram,” or aerial torpedo, to be flown into enemy bomber
AI Mk IV radar in an SBD Dauntless, with a view to the formations and exploded.
radar’s use as an interim interceptor; interception equipment
in some F4U Corsairs as available; appropriate radio 13 OCTOBER • The Bureau of Aeronautics directed the
altimeters in patrol and torpedo planes; and recognition painting of all fleet aircraft nonspecular Light Gray, except
equipment in all service airplanes. for surfaces seen from above, which were to be Blue Gray.
Beginning in late December, this color scheme extended to
1 SEPTE M BER • The Navy assumed responsibility for shore-based airplanes, except trainers.
transatlantic merchant convoys from a point off Argentia,

144  |  World War II

1941 continued
20 OCTOBER • Hornet (CV 8) was commissioned at (1st Mobile Striking Force) had departed Japanese waters to
Norfolk, Va., Capt. Marc A. Mitscher commanding. attack Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands.

21 OCTOBER • In tests with magnetic airborne 28 NOV E M BER • In response to the war warning message
detector (later magnetic anomaly detector) gear carried the Chief of Naval Operations issued the previous day, Task
out in cooperation with the National Defense Research Force 8, Vice Adm. William F. Halsey Jr. commanding,
Committee, a PBY Catalina from NAS Quonset Point, R.I., formed around Enterprise (CV 6), sailed from Pearl Harbor,
located submarine S-48 (SS 159). Territory of Hawaii, to deliver 12 F4F-3 Wildcats from
VMF-211 to augment Wake Island’s defenses. Halsey
29 OCTOBER • VP-82 received the first Lockheed PBO-1 approved Battle Order No. 1 stating that Enterprise steamed
of a planned full complement of Hudsons at NAS Norfolk, “under war conditions.” The Wildcats launched during the
Va., marking the beginning of patrol squadrons’ extensive morning of 4 December, and the carrier returned to
use of land planes during World War II. These aircraft were Hawaiian waters. The ship’s mission and heavy seas that
painted with British markings because they were originally delayed her return ensured Enterprise eluded the Japanese
destined for the Royal Air Force’s Coastal Command. attack on 7 December.

1 NOV E M BER • President Franklin D. Roosevelt placed 1 DECE M BER • Patrol Wing 9 began to form at NAS
the Coast Guard under the operational control of the Navy Quonset Point, R.I., with the appointment of Lt. Cmdr.
for the duration of the national emergency. Thomas U. Sisson as the wing’s acting commanding officer.

4 NOV E M BER • British oiler Olwen reported a German 5 DECE M BER • In a response to the war warning message
raider in Atlantic equatorial waters. Two days later, SOC-1 of 27 November, Task Force 12, Rear Adm. John H. Newton
and -3 Seagulls of VCS-2 operating from light cruiser Omaha commanding, including Lexington (CV 2), sailed from Pearl
(CL 4) en route to Recife, Brazil, screened Omaha and Harbor in the Territory of Hawaii to deliver 18 SB2U-3
destroyer Somers (DD 381) during the capture of blockade Vindicators from VMSB-231 to reinforce the defenders of
runner Odenwald, disguised as U.S. freighter Willmoto. The Midway Atoll. Lexington thereby escaped Japan’s 7
Germans attempted to scuttle Odenwald, but a boarding December attack.
party from Omaha saved the ship.
6 DECE M BER • On the eve of the Japanese attack, the
18 NOV E M BER • Dr. L. A. DuBridge of the Radiation U.S. Navy possessed 790 vessels manned by approximately
Laboratory reported complete the initial design of a 3cm 380,000 sailors.
aircraft intercept radar.
7 DECE M BER • The Japanese Dai-ichi Kidō Butai (1st
26 NOV E M BER • Kitty Hawk (AVP 1) was commissioned Mobile Striking Force), Vice Adm. Nagumo Chūichi
at the New York Navy Yard, N.Y., Cmdr. E. C. Rogers commanding, including carriers Akagi, Kaga, Hiryū, Sōryū,
commanding. She was converted from merchant ship Shōkaku, and Zuikaku, launched a morning attack by 353
Seatrain New York as the first of two aircraft ferries. aircraft in two waves against military installations on Oahu
in the Hawaiian Islands. Destroyer Ward (DD 139) sighted
27 NOV E M BER • Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Harold and sank—with assistance from pilot Ens. William P.
R. Stark—persuaded by intercepted and decrypted Japanese Tanner of VP-14 in a PBY-5 Catalina designated 14-P-1—
messages; Allied intelligence information, including aerial Japanese midget submarine I-22tou when the vessel
reconnaissance that identified the movements of key attempted to infiltrate Pearl Harbor. The Japanese
Japanese ships; and the apparent failure of negotiations to nonetheless attained surprise.
find a diplomatic solution to Japanese expansionism—sent The ships struck included seaplane tenders Curtiss
a “war warning” message to the commanders of the Atlantic (AV 4) and Tangier (AV 8). An Aichi D3A1 Type 99 carrier
and Pacific Fleets. The previous day, the Dai-ichi Kidō Butai bomber also crashed Curtiss. The attackers destroyed

World War II   |   145

1941 continued
19948

Two sailors, next to the wing and float of a destroyed PBY Catalina flying boat, watch as destroyer Shaw (DD 373) explodes in the center background
during the Japanese 7 December 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor.

188 planes at NASs Ford Island and Kaneohe Bay, Ewa 5 midget submarines (U.S. forces recovered one), and
Mooring Mast Field (USMC), and the Army’s Bellows, fewer than 100 men. Concluding that he had inflicted
Hickam, and Wheeler Fields. Many planes were easily a devastating victory and suffered minimal casualties,
lost because they had been parked wingtip to wingtip as a Nagumo turned back to Japan, sparing the fuel tank farms
security precaution. Despite his wounds, AOMC John W. and ship repair facilities that later helped the counterattack
Finn of VP-14 mounted a machine gun on an instruction of the Pacific Fleet’s three carriers, which had been absent.
stand and shot down one of the three Japanese planes Task Force 8, Vice Adm. William F. Halsey Jr.
downed at Kaneohe Bay. Finn subsequently received the commanding, formed around Enterprise (CV 6), sailed
Medal of Honor. about 200 miles west of Pearl Harbor. A VS-6 search flight
The attack killed 2,403 servicemembers, including launched in two-plane sections of SBD-3 Dauntlesses
2,008 sailors and 109 Marines; it wounded 1,143, including and arrived off Oahu during the raid. The Japanese shot
710 sailors and 69 Marines. In addition, 68 civilians down some of them, and others succumbed to friendly
died and 35 were wounded. The Japanese lost 29 planes, fire. The first U.S. naval night recovery during World

146  |  World War II

Islands considered launching a raid against Midway during Despite extensive damage. but rough weather spared the bastion Japanese apparently believed that they shot down the flying from an attack. 4019. and four F4F-3 Group) from Roi. Some Dauntlesses landed at Kaneohe Bay in spite Company for 25 sets of ASB airborne search radar. and bombed and strafed Japanese destroyer Kisaragi. P-5. which of the fighters with his . Vice Adm. three Japanese Mitsubishi A6M Type 0 carrier fighters of the 3rd Kōkūtai (Air Group) pounced on a 7 DECE M BER • Japanese destroyers Sazanami and Ushio PBY-4. piloted by Lt. The Japanese bombed the island VF-6. commanding. Marine Corps 5-inch coast-defense guns Type 96 land-attack planes of the Chitose Kōkūtai (Air sank or damaged several Japanese ships. sank Japanese fleet submarine SB2U-3 Vindicators she had set out to deliver to Midway I-70 north of the Hawaiian Islands. and TBD-1 almost daily during the ensuing two weeks. Lexington (CV 2). but antiaircraft fire had perforated slightly damaged the airline’s Martin 130 Philippine Clipper an oil line so Marines cannibalized his plane. launched planes 10 DECE M BER • An SBD-3 Dauntless of VS-6. that launched at dusk to locate Japanese ships erroneously reported off Oahu. Aircraft No. spotted Japanese submarine RO-66 on the surface World War II   |   147 . The enemy eluded patrolling Marine USMCR. USMC. Wilson Brown Jr. Harmon T. Payne shot down one returned fire and claimed damage to both ships. Pan American Airways employees and wounded one. Saratoga (CV 3) had completed overhaul and on Navy Yard in the Philippines. probably 25 servicemembers and wounded 30. totaling 103 planes—4 antisubmarine patrols over the South Atlantic from Natal. The plane left the island with the company’s 39 also damaged light cruiser Tenryu and armed merchant surviving Caucasian employees and passengers. The attackers bombed the airfield and installations. Bow gunner ABMC Earl D. SBD-2s and SBD-3s of VB-6 and VS-6. had Kauai. abandoning cruiser Kongo Maru. the Chamorro staff. 1941 continued War II occurred that evening when Enterprise turned Corps Wildcats. 425 miles southeast of Midway Island. They also killed five attributed to her depth charges. designation XAT) for dive bombers and torpedo planes. reached Wake Island undetected Wildcats from VMF-211 bombed and strafed the invaders. embarked to search for the attackers and changed course with the on board Enterprise (CV 6). The ship sank with all hands. Utter of shelled Midway Island.S. Utter coordinated carrier air strikes that led to the destruction of Japanese battleship Yamato. and killed touching off a catastrophic explosion on board. and searched southwest of Oahu before returning to Pearl Harbor on 13 10 DECE M BER • Japanese aircraft bombed the Cavite December. As American planes raced 7 December reached San Diego. Rendezvousing about 120 miles west of warship sunk by U. Calif. steaming with Task Force 12. because the island lacked radar. but ground fire slightly holed eight bombers on her searchlights to aid returning F4F-3 Wildcats of and killed one crewman. and a rain squall cloaked their Capt. The Japanese carriers that attacked the Hawaiian the Navy’s first verifiable air-to-air kill of World War II. 14 F2A-3 Brazil. boat. the Catalina survived because the their return to Japan. additional F4F-3 and -3A Wildcats of VF-3. Lexington and Enterprise joined Task Force 3. David D.30-caliber machine gun to claim retired. flew Wildcat 211-F-11. and 15 miscellaneous aircraft. the first Japanese still on board. The Naval of automobiles and construction equipment parked on the Research Laboratory had developed this radar (under the ramp to prevent landings. to escape. Devastators of VT-6. aircraft during World War II. 11 DECE M BER • The garrison of Wake Island repulsed a 8 DECE M BER • Thirty-four Japanese Mitsubishi G3M2 Japanese attack. knocked out eight F4F-3 Wildcats of VMF-211. The 6th Marine Defense Battalion VP-101. 8 DECE M BER • The national emergency forced the Navy to dispatch reinforcements on board Saratoga (CV 3) during 10 DECE M BER • PBY-5 Catalinas of VP-52 initiated her voyage to the Hawaiian Islands. Wildcat pilot 2d Lt. Friendly fire 9 DECE M BER • The Secretary of the Navy authorized downed four of the Wildcats that attempted to land at Ford the Bureau of Ships to contract with RCA Manufacturing Island. BuNo approach. Strafing runs with bullets. and Elrod returned to Wake. I-70. Henry T. scouted the Hawaiian area during the attack on Oahu. Kliewer. Elrod. On 7 April 1945. Kwajalein. Buffaloes of VMF-221.

despite heavy 20 DECE M BER • Ten Japanese Army Kawasaki Ki-48-Is seas and determined resistance from the garrison. garrison on Wake Island. USAAF. On 17 December. pilot. for the diversion of 100 Tomahawk IIBs [P-40Bs] from a and doubt concerning the movements and number of British order. Before reaching Australia. however. Frank J. Chennault. Soerabaja and Ambon.000 times before she submerged. Pye. who had been Desert Storm in 1991. 16 DECE M BER • Task Force 14. (CV 2) en route to Midway on 7 December when the carrier Va. Wilson Brown Jr. 17 DECE M BER • The Naval Research Laboratory reported 12 DECE M BER • The Naval Air Transport Service was satisfactory flight test results in a PBY Catalina of radar using established under the Chief of Naval Operations to provide a duplexing antenna switch. spare parts. to NAS Alameda.1941 continued south of the island. Territory of Hawaii. Netherlands East Indies from Oahu. including of 17 SB2U-3 Vindicators of VMSB-231 at Midway Island Balikpapan. Eriksen Shilling.. the wing’s two patrol squadrons and four 17 DECE M BER • A PBY-3 Catalina of VP-21 led the arrival seaplane tenders operated from various bases. Curtiss P-40Bs of the Flying Tigers’ 1st Squadron downed 16 DECE M BER • The Secretary of the Navy approved an three of the bombers and damaged three of the surviving expansion of the pilot training program from 800 students to Ki-48-Is—one of which may have fallen—without combat 148  |  World War II . turned around. Gen. temporarily in command of the Pacific Fleet. overran of the 21st Hikōsentai (regiment) raided Kunming. marked the beginning of “blood chit” use. The Japanese. Wake Island on 23 December. and specialists to a single antenna for both transmission of the radar pulse the fleet. During the first battle of the American Volunteer Group. This development eliminated the cumbersome “yagi” antenna and contributed to the 14 DECE M BER • Patrol Wing 10 began its withdrawal reliability and effectiveness of World War II airborne radar. and reception of its echo. He strafed and bombed the boat three 2. VMSB-231 had been on board Lexington 15 DECE M BER • Patrol Wing 8 transferred from Norfolk. Wings 1 and 2 based in the Territory of Hawaii began sailed from Pearl Harbor. Calif. Saratoga and Tangier encountered Japanese over the China-Burma-India Theater. displaying the Stars and Stripes and William S. Americans’ flight jackets. (Maj. to avoid risking his carriers and order the retirement of the Blood chits in various forms continued in use into Operation Task Force 14 relief expedition. China.) On this date. longest mass flight by single-engine aircraft on record in 9 hours 45 minutes. from the Philippines when it departed Cavite Island. Chinese intelligence printed Japanese carriers. The action led to a production of 20. to relieve the scouting patrols from Johnston Island. who mistook him for a Japanese intended to launch a diversionary raid on Jaluit Island. some Enterprise (CV 6) supported the other two carriers at a of the group had naval aviation experience—to battle the distance. and Chinese mountaineers. Meanwhile. offering in several languages a reward for assisting the bearer. Revised intelligence. reports of the enemy landings on on silk the first blood chits to be stitched on the back of the Wake Island persuaded Commander Battle Force Vice Adm. refueling some of his destroyers. had formed the American attack Makin Island in the Gilberts and then divert to Wake. RO-66 sank pilots annually by mid-1943. Rear Adm. persuaded Brown to first Claire L. He arranged delays owing to the slower speed of oiler Neches (AO 5). The planes completed the (Indonesia). in a collision with RO-62. Vice Adm. Volunteer Group—nicknamed the Flying Tigers. Also. Embarked reinforcements included 18 F2A-2 and -3 Buffaloes of VMF-221 on board 18 DECE M BER • The operational loss of an American Saratoga and Marines on board seaplane tender Tangier Volunteer Group Curtiss P-40B Tomahawk and a (AV 8). which made it possible to use rapid air delivery of equipment. Fletcher. continued to do so and returned to Hawaiian waters. 18 DECE M BER • Two-plane detachments from Patrol Fletcher commanding and formed around Saratoga (CV 3).500 per month. confrontation between its flight leader. Hawaiian Islands. Task Force 11. commanding and formed around Lexington (CV 2).

Rector. and the ship listed to port. Australia. USNR. Lt. fleet carrier strength in the Pacific to three ships. which obscured the group along the same route and. water poured into three firerooms. 221 Group of the Royal Air Force. transfer of 50 destroyers and ten Lake-class cutters to the Frank O’Beirne commanding. Cmdr. The departure of Saratoga temporarily reduced Pacific. when the Japanese conquered Burma. arrived at extent of the enemy offensive. Roosevelt approved their efforts with British Brewster Buffalo Is (F2A-2s the expansion of naval aviation to 27. Ernest J. Cmdr. Edward F. shooting down a number of enemy planes.S. the Catalinas landed at Darwin. naval planes shepherded Darwin. Hawaii. Territory of until May 1942. The Flying Tigers at times coordinated 7 JA N UA RY • President Franklin D. U-123.000 U. reached Townsville. U. diversion O’Beirne led the first group from Pearl Harbor on this date of reinforcements to the Pacific. the lack of planes and escorts following the 3 JA N UA RY • Twelve PBY-5 Catalinas of VP-22. where her 25 DECE M BER • Two-plane detachments from various 8-inch guns were removed. 1942 U-boats sank a staggering total of 609 ships of 3.S. and led to the distribution of her air group among the other carriers. for these casualties included: the delay of the introduction Tyler commanding. 1942 loss. on 11 January.S. Doyle G. U. Through the winter.500 useful planes. on 8 January. Saratoga made for Oahu. N. U. Airship Patrol Group 1. planes from hunter-killer operations to convoys. and during this period. a principal staging base to the South armament. Fleet. in two groups of six planes British and Canadians. and then to Puget Sound Navy squadrons at Pearl Harbor and Kaneohe in the Territory of Yard at Bremerton. Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia). resistance to the deployment of from the central Pacific to reach Southwest Pacific forces. Japanese aircraft rudder striping to thirteen red and white horizontal stripes. Caribbean waters and convoyed about 157. the Allies planes operated in small detachments at Soerabaja. King assumed duties as Commander in Chief. of a network of interlocking coastal and transatlantic convoys. and Allied ULTRA signals to load on board seaplane tender Langley (AV 3). The reasons H. Through 31 August 1942. however. Ens. who had resigned 5 JA N UA RY • A change in regulations covering the display and transferred from VS-41 on board Ranger (CV 4) to of the national star insignia on aircraft returned the star to the Flying Tigers. an attack against Allied shipping off the East Coast of North America and in the West Indies. exported as B-339Es) of No. and U-125 commenced Operation Paukenschlag (Drumbeat). were established at NAS Lakehurst. World War II   |   149 . crash-landed his Tomahawk because the upper right and lower left wing surfaces and revised of fuel exhaustion. Squadron intelligence failure to decipher the German Triton (Shark) executive officer Lt. detected U-boats. Mills commanding. The deteriorating situation. Donaho led the second Enigma naval key in February 1942. George submarine attacks in the Battle of the Atlantic. Lt. precluded convoys. 13 JA N UA RY • German submarines U-66. Two days doctrinal and political reasons to naval control of aircraft later. and ZP-12. Wash. and the survivors of attacks. opposition by the Army for and. Australia. Raymond F.S. Six men died. Allied aircraft desperately running torpedo into the port side amidships of Saratoga strove to stem the enemy advance in repeated aerial battles (CV 3) about 500 miles southwest of Oahu. and began that operated from ashore. Following 11 JA N UA RY • Japanese submarine I-6 fired a deep- the Japanese capture of Rangoon. Java and extended a coastal convoy system across American and Ambon.1 million 2 JA N UA RY • The first organized naval lighter-than-air tons—one fourth of the Allied merchant ships lost to units of World War II. however. indiscriminately bombed and strafed the British colonial capital of Rangoon. troops to the British Isles. for repairs and modernization Hawaii began patrols across the Central and South Pacific that included improved watertight integrity and antiaircraft from Palmyra Island. 30 DECE M BER • Naval aviator Adm.J. and searched for VP-22’s deployment as a concentrated squadron. Cmdr. insufficient training and expertise joined Patrol Wing 10 as the first aviation reinforcements in antisubmarine warfare.

Makin. Wotje and Task Force 17 struck Jaluit. Fifty-two percent of the fuzes functioned satisfactorily by proximity to water at the end of a five-mile 16 JA N UA RY • To protect the advance of Task Force 8. damaged heavy cruiser Chester (CA 27) and killed eight In addition. and rainwater during conditioning conducted by pre-flight schools to be a 34-day journey in their raft to the Danger Islands on 19 established at universities. A Mitsubishi A5M4 Type 96 carrier fighter Filipino soldiers defeated the invaders at Longoskawayan.S. Frank J. launched the first carrier from the Atlantic Fleet and rendezvoused with and escorted counterattack against the Japanese occupied Gilbert and the convoy during part of its voyage. Through 1 February. Calif. The straight-line distance of their voyage measured Universities of North Carolina and Iowa in May.1942 continued 14 JA N UA RY • The formation of four carrier aircraft service stranded naval aviation sailors of the wing and ships and of units from four small service units that had been previously the 4th Marines. respectively. PBY-5 Catalinas of VP-23 began daily searches of the waters between their temporary base at 30 JA N UA RY • The Secretary of the Navy authorized a Canton Island and Suva in the Fiji Islands as the first combat glider program for the Marine Corps consisting of small patrols by aircraft in the South Pacific. commanding. including samples selected to simulate a production lot and the results Enterprise (CV 6). Enterprise (CV 6) Marshall Islands. Wilson Brown Jr. was approved. and at Del Monte. The attackers sank three the Bataan Peninsula in the Philippines to outflank U. in June. as the first naval aircraft to operate there during Fletcher commanding. A crashing land attack plane from the 2nd Battalion. and a Japanese reconnaissance flying boat of 150  |  World War II . William 14 arrived in Samoa with Marine reinforcements from San F. 23 JA N UA RY • During the Battle of the Points. Adm. commanding. William F. Mary’s College. but their estimated track was 1. A TBD-1 Devastator from VT-5 J. ABDA naval forces in addition to the Asiatic Fleet. the battalion sailors cleared the summit of Mt. The training began at the February. that all prospective naval aviators were to begin their Dixon and his two crewmen subsisted on occasional fish training with a three-month course emphasizing physical speared with a pocketknife. the 450 miles. Researchers obtained this performance with Vice Adm. Calif. in January 1943. Yorktown (CV 5) passed through the Panama Canal Yorktown (CV 5). Pucot of the enemy on the first 15 JA N UA RY • The American-British-Dutch-Australian day of action. Hart initially commanded the proximity fuzes were test fired at the Naval Proving Ground. 16 JA N UA RY • During a routine search from Enterprise (CV 6). a provisional naval battalion. 20th Regiment to Longoskawayan Point Japanese Chitose Kōkūtai (Air Group) narrowly missed on southwestern Bataan. Rear Adm. advanced from nearby Mariveles. supported the raid from the Japanese made amphibious landings on the west coast of vicinity of Christmas Island. U. Francis men and wounded 38.. consisting of disappeared.200 miles. Diego. Halsey Jr. for its strike against the Marshall and led to immediate small-scale production of the devices. and 17.. the including Lexington (CV 2). the Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia). and Enterprise. 23 JA N UA RY • OS2U-3 Kingfishers of VS-1 Detachment 1 FEBRUA RY • Task Forces 8. Va. received the Navy Cross for this epic of survival. The fighting for the observation post raged for Command (ABDA) was established at Batavia. and Mili. vessels and damaged 11 more including light cruiser Katori and Filipino troops. Despite established in the Hawaiian area.. Vice Adm. Dixon University of Georgia and St. One assault deployed men of the and submarine I-23. and large types in sufficient numbers for the training and transportation of two battalions of 900 men each. Thomas C. including Enterprise (CV 6) and the war. the lack of training in infantry tactics. Dixon of VT-6 crashed at sea in 1 FEBRUA RY • The Secretary of the Navy announced a Douglas TBD-1 Devastator because of fuel starvation.S. trajectory. Calif. two birds. Task Force 11. Gilbert Islands. Halsey commanding. Bridget of Patrol Wing 10 commanding. Java in days but the sailors and Marines regained the peak. Dahlgren. Vice Adm. Task Force 8 attacked Kwajalein and covered the ships during the final portion of their journey. pilot AMMC F. Cmdr. The command coordinated Allied defense across a huge area with limited 29 JA N UA RY • Five-inch projectiles containing radio- forces.

based out of Port Lyautey. Two F4F-3 Wildcats of VF-42 shot down the intruder. en approach system. and 11 dead. F4F-3 17 FEBRUA RY • Commander in Chief U. and Axis failure to concentrate their effort of Moorer’s crew and three of the 37 men on board Florence contained the menace in Caribbean waters. Despite supply problems. 10 FEBRUA RY • Japanese submarine I-69 shelled Midway Island. 20 FEBRUA RY • A Japanese Kawanishi H6K4 Type 97 Other blind-landing systems were in various phases of flying boat of the Yokohama Kōkūtai (Air Group) spotted development. commanding. wounded. a temporarily loss U-67. and U-502 wreaked havoc on of steering control. Brown landings at the East Boston (Commonwealth) Airport in cancelled the strike and two waves of 17 Japanese Mitsubishi Massachusetts. Vice Adm.S. BuNo 2306. and material to meet special 19 FEBRUA RY • One hundred eighty-nine aircraft from needs in any area. The ships in the harbor included USS William South America to North America by attacks on Dutch and B. Fleet Wildcats from VF-3 and SBD-3 Dauntlesses from VS-2. including work on the ground controlled Task Force 11. U-161. Allied aircraft. including U. and sailors had accomplished talk-down route to attack Japanese forces at Rabaul. U-156. Wasp The carrier avoided damage from bombs and from two (CV 7).S. off northern Australia. catapults from Yorktown (CV 5). concept of functional components that provided planners Morocco. Enterprise (CV 6). Solomon Islands. the Japanese carriers Akagi. William B. decryptions of Axis messages and high frequency direction- Freighter Florence D under charter with the Army rescued finder (Huff-Duff) receivers that detected U-boat radio the survivors. 16 FEBRUA RY • A Navy developed air-track blind landing system reached daily use in Iceland for landing flying boats. but Brewster F2A-3 Buffaloes of VMF-221 bombed and damaged the boat. World War II   |   151 . 1942 continued the Yokohama Kōkūtai unsuccessfully attacked destroyer Sims (DD 409) as she searched for the missing aircrew. two missing. 12 FEBRUA RY • The Chief of Naval Operations promulgated an advanced base program using the code names “Lion” and “Cub” to designate major and minor 700504 bases. only to be sunk by enemy carrier planes. Preston (AVD 7) after the seaplane tender’s escape Venezuelan oil ports. but Moorer survived to become the 18th Chief of Naval Operations and later Chairman of the Joint Chiefs. broke up the attackers. Despite damage. and Sōryū. Wilson Brown Jr. intelligence breakthroughs in ULTRA a PBY-5 Catalina. Hiryū. respectively. and 54 Mitsubishi G4M1 Type 1 land attack planes from 16 FEBRUA RY • The Germans began Operation Neuland the Kanoya and 1st Kōkūtais (groups) attacked Darwin. One transmissions. Kaga. (New Land) to cut the Allied flow of oil and bauxite from Australia. The move marked the beginning of a An amphibious PBY-5A Catalina of VP-63. and three poorly guarded ships and tankers sailing independently. Navy down Lt. Thomas H. equipment. submarines from the Philippines. but the searchers failed to locate the Devastator crew in the heavy seas. Moorer of VP-22 while he piloted PBY Catalinas. Preston defiantly reached the open Additional U-boats and Italian submarines subsequently sea. authorized the removal of athwartships hangar deck embarked on board Lexington (CV 2). carries antisubmarine retro-rockets while on patrol of the and commanders with a means of ordering standardized Strait of Gibraltar. New Britain. and Hornet (CV 8). units of people. D died. G4M1 Type 1 land attack planes of the 4th Kōkūtai attacked the Americans off Bougainville. and in July added “Oaks” and “Acorns” for aviation facilities. Nine Mitsubishi A6M Type 0 carrier fighters shot reinforced these boats. U-129.

operational training. Nine Thach shot down a bomber and assisted in downing a second Japanese two-engine naval land attack planes and six fighters one and a H6K4 Type 97 flying boat. the Allies dissolved the four-engine pilots. of VP-82. but on 2 March they were destroyed to program. on 1 March. at induction centers. and construction workers captured by the Japanese during the seizure of the island survived the raid unscathed. Wildcat pilot Lt. and spotted German submarine U-656 inbound to North 152  |  World War II . arrived at Nouméa. depending on the types of aircraft used. Halsey Jr. Newfoundland. Lt. and Sea Witch escaped. O’Hare of submarines. The curriculum consisted of three months American-British-Dutch-Australian Command. which became the basis for the wartime expansion prevent their capture. Two Wildcats fell to irreparably damaged Langley 74 miles from Tjilatjap. commanding. and TBD-1 Devastators from VT-6 launched from Enterprise (CV 6) bombed and strafed ships and installations. William F. the new program required 11 1/2 months for pilots 1 M A RCH • With the impending fall of Java in the of single. O’Hare claimed Langley ferried 32 of the Warhawks.or twin-engine aircraft. raided the Japanese garrison at Wake Island. Thirty-six SBD-2 and -3 Dauntlesses from VB-6 and VS-6. Australia. three and one-half months in intermediate. to begin operations endured the demise of another ship when Japanese Aichi from what developed into a principal Navy base in the South D3A1 Type 99 carrier bombers from carriers Akagi. VF-3 smiles from the cockpit of his F4F Wildcat for photographers during a publicity break at Kaneohe Naval Air Station on 10 April. Pacific. thus Langley and several ships made for Tjilatjap. Marines. some caused by Lexington’s guns. an exploit for rerouting the convoy to India. John S. three months in primary. USNR. New Caledonia. William Tepuni. Destroyer the enemy with the loss of Ens. but U. Lt. Planners considered four of the attackers and damaged two more. piloted a PBO-1 Hudson from Argentia. three flying boats. Java. Sixteen men from Langley died. and an freighters transporting 65 Curtiss P-40Es of the Army’s 35th Aichi E13A1 Type 0 floatplane failed to return. Edward H. Kaga. Some survivors 21 FEBRUA RY • Seaplane tender Curtiss (AV 4) and VP-14 were transferred to oiler Pecos (AO 6) and. and 12 1/2 months for Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia).S. The enemy shot down one Dauntless. In place of the existing seven-month course. and two or three months in 1 M A RCH • Ens. The raiders caused minimal damage and sank only two guardboats. supported by a bombardment from cruisers and destroyers. respectively. been shot down. Fifteen Japanese bombers. 26 FEBRUA RY • The Navy’s coordinator of Research 208-PU-14842 and Development requested the development by the National Defense Research Committee of an expendable Barely two months after he shot down four Japanese planes and radio sonobuoy for use by lighter-than-air craft to hunt damaged two others on 20 February 1942. Edward H. Vice Adm. possibility of renewed attacks compelled the flight of the survivors and they did not record her sinking. Wilson. Freighter Sea Witch delivered 27 crated 23 FEBRUA RY • BUAER outlined a comprehensive Warhawks to Tjilatjap. Hiryū. but the Dutch requested aid and which he received the Medal of Honor. most had and 51st Pursuit Groups embarked from Melbourne. and seven Whipple (DD 217) shelled and torpedoed the tender but the fighters received damage. of pilot training. sailors. He later received the Medal of Honor for his actions. 27 FEBRUA RY • Allied attempts to reinforce the Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia) included convoy MS-5 bombers that attempted taiatari (body-crashing) suicide among which was seaplane tender Langley (AV 3) and four dives. 1942 continued 24 FEBRUA RY • Task Force 16. and Sōryū sank Pecos south of Christmas Island. Cmdr. John W.

Asakaze. cruiser Yūbari. Cmdr. The planes flew over the Owen Stanley regularly scheduled operations with a Douglas R4D Skytrain Mountains and sank armed merchant cruiser Kongō Maru. attacked Japanese ships commanding.000 miles of Japan and just before sunrise and minesweeper No. World War II   |   153 . Va.S. The facility became known of its 45 planes during the first several months of the war as the Applied Physics Laboratory and proved one of several including 14 shot down. Cmdr. The Hudson sank U-656 with all K. duties of Commander in Chief U. and radio reception on board the blimp proved Spring. William D. Vice Adm. satisfactory up to five miles. Newfoundland. respectively. William F. Lexington (CV 2) and Yorktown (CV 5) launched groups for the carriers to which they were assigned. to Squantum. The command lost 41 contract to operate a laboratory.. Some of the other steps taken within the following six weeks included 7 M A RCH • Blimp K-5 and submarine S-20 (SS 125) the organizational transfer of Section T from the National demonstrated the practicability of using a radio sonobuoy Defense Research Committee directly to the Office of in aerial antisubmarine warfare during an exercise off Scientific Research and Development. SBD-3s of VB-5 and VS-2 and -5. and elements of Task Force 17. raided Marcus Island. Ernest J. from development to large-scale production. light 4 M A RCH • Task Force 16. Halsey Jr. New group in the Navy and the end of the practice of naming air Guinea. Mass. Yakaze. Va. commanding. Fletcher commanding. SBD-2 Dauntlesses of VB-2. A following raid by USAAF Boeing B-17 Dauntlesses of VB-6 and VS-6. One VS-2 Dauntless launched six F4F-3A Wildcats of VF-6 and 32 SBD-2 and -3 was shot down. Wildman commanding. Fleet and CNO. and TBD-1 Devastators 2 M A RCH • The Naval Air Transport Service inaugurated of VT-2 and -5. Va. was established as the first of hands—the first U-boat confirmed sunk by the United States 13 such squadrons created under the Naval Air Transport during World War II. 2 Tama Maru. flight from NAS Norfolk. Wilson Brown Jr. Md. The buoy detected the sound of the of most of the Section T staff from the Carnegie Institution submerged submarine’s propellers at distances of up to of Washington to the Applied Physics Laboratory at Silver three miles. Anderson Frank J. 7 M A RCH • Patrol Wing 10 completed its withdrawal from the Philippines and the Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia) 10 M A RCH • The Office of Scientific Research and and patrolled along the west coast of Australia from its newly Development at Johns Hopkins University signed a Navy established headquarters in Perth. moved to within 1. The raid helped fire shot down one of the Dauntlesses but both crewmen convince the Japanese of their need for additional carrier survived captivity. Conn. Vice Adm. 1 M A RCH • Carrier Replacement Air Group 9 was commanding. 1942 continued American waters on the surface about 60 miles southeast of 9 M A RCH • Air transport squadron VR-1. Harold R. The carrier’s Flying Fortresses and Royal Australian Air Force Lockheed radar directed the planes to their attack. 26 M A RCH • Naval aviator Adm. destroyers Asanagi. auxiliary minelayer Tenyō Maru. and the relocation New London. King relieved 8 M A RCH • VS-2 Detachment 14 inaugurated air Adm. Japanese antiaircraft Hudsons failed to inflict appreciable damage. Stark as Chief of Naval Operations under operations from the Society Islands. Cyril Cape Race. Rear Adm. minelayer Tsugaru. More than half of its men captured important steps in the transition of the radio-proximity fuze by the Japanese in the Philippines died in captivity. The squadron arrived at the provisions of an executive order that combined the Bora Bora on 17 February. Tepuni received the Distinguished Service during World War II at NAS Norfolk.. F4F-3 Wildcats of VF-3 and -42. and damaged seaplane carrier Kiyokama Maru. and transport Yokohama Maru. Oite. The action marked the first numbered air landing troops and supplies at Lae and Salamaua. Flying Cross. established at NAS Norfolk. and thus indirectly set the stage for the Battle of the Coral Sea. 10 M A RCH • Task Force 11. Enterprise (CV 6) and Yūnagi. transport Kokai Maru. support to complete their conquest of the region.

A bomb struck Japanese carrier view of the target obtained by a television camera mounted Ryūhō at Yokosuka but the strike inflicted negligible in the drone. Fla. Lt. Robert C. The Japanese retaliated with reprisals against the areas in China where people succored the aviators. James H. The next day. Moulton B. The next day. however. William F. Rear Adm. including Enterprise (CV 6). W. 13 A PR I L • German and Italian aerial attacks on Malta 26 M A RCH • Task Force 39. On 20 April the ship launched the at Efaté. Calif. R. Wilcox was lost S. during Operation convoys during the succeeding months. The Americans had intended to close the Japanese homeland to shorten the flying range 9 A PR I L • Control pilot Lt. On 1 April. Nimitz assumed additional duties as Commander in Chief Pacific Ocean Areas—the North. and Yokosuka. Scotland. Atlantic Fleet. The merger provided aviation maintenance sailors with of the Hawaiian Islands. Churchill appealed to President Franklin D. Calendar—the aerial reinforcement of Malta. New Hebrides (Vanuatu). Wasp sailed to rendezvous with British Force W and make 29 M A RCH • The forward echelon of VMF-212 arrived for the Mediterranean. Southwest Pacific Area. Douglas A. reduced the from which. and Patrol unity of command to the Navy for aircraft operating over the Wings. With the change. on 27 May.I. All the Mitchells were lost—15 crashed in China about 300 feet directly astern of the target. commanding. embarked 16 Mitchells at NAS Alameda. and guided the attack to release the torpedo damage. operational Spitfires to six in four days. Nagoya.g. Rear Adm. to construct an air strip Spitfires toward Malta. which necessitated a second operation the following month. and Prime Minister Winston convoys to aid the Soviets. the squadron initiated operations. Hornet set out the following day and subsequently 7 A PR I L • Aircraft Repair Units 1 and 2 merged to form rendezvoused with Task Force 16. Wasp 3 A PR I L • Commander in Chief Pacific Fleet Adm. Lt. was named as L. Wilcox Jr. embattled island without the arrival of reinforcements. sailed from Portland. including Wasp (CV 7). sea to protect shipping and hunt submarines. north Va. The attackers bombed military and a torpedo attack on destroyer Aaron Ward (DD 483) as she oil installations and factories at Kōbe. On this date. The weapon and one was interned at Vladivostok in the Soviet Union. William F. j. commanding. Vice Adm. John W. the titles VB-3 and SBD-2s of VB-6 flying from Enterprise coordinated of the aviation type commands became Aircraft Carriers. crews of the Army’s 17th Bombardment Group.1942 continued 26 M A RCH • The Navy and Army Air Forces agreed to vest Vice Adm. 23 Nitto Maru discovered the approach of the force advanced bases. captured eight 10 A PR I L • A reorganization of the Pacific Fleet abolished of the fliers. On this date. to reinforce the British Home Fleet at Scapa Flow The exigencies of the war temporarily deprived the in the Orkney Islands during the bitterly contested Arctic British of available carriers. Tōkyō. Doolittle. Col. On 26 April. steamed at 15 knots in Narragansett Bay. McCain commanding. was redesignated procedures at Eglin Field. Taylor of Project but the discovery compelled Halsey to launch the raid Fox directed a radio controlled Great Lakes TG-2 drone in earlier than planned. Taylor used a Yokohama. Halsey Jr. Central. USA. Wasp embarked seas. Halsey Jr. the Advanced Base Aviation Training Unit at NAS Norfolk. and South 18 A PR I L • The Doolittle Raid struck Japan. the Battle and Scouting Forces and set up new type F4F-3A Wildcats of VF-6 with SBD-3 Dauntlesses of commands for ships and aviation. John S. Wasp participated in the Arctic George Dock at Glasgow. commanding. MacArthur. and the command of the force devolved upon Rear 47 Royal Air Force Supermarine Spitfire Mk Vs at King Adm. Gen. threatened to overwhelm the British defenders of the commanding. Hornet (CV 8) Carriers. 668 miles from Tōkyō. with surface attacks and damaged armed merchant cruiser 154  |  World War II . Maine. Miller had trained the North American B-25B Mitchell Commander. Henry Pacific. USAAF. in carrier 6 A PR I L • Aircraft. Chester returned to Scapa Flow in the Orkney Islands. Roosevelt overboard from battleship Washington (BB 56) during heavy to provide Wasp (CV 7). passed beneath the destroyer as planned. Japanese guardboat the specialized training required to support air operations at No. Axis air raids. and later executed three of them. Atlantic Fleet. Giffen.

the fighters were flown in a series of Crain and M. F. Eddy. From Accra. copilot Lt. j. and aircrewmen 22 A PR I L • Ranger (CV 4) sailed from NAS Quonset AMMCs David W. Point. Deede.I. while primary Project Fox carried out the second successful test from trainers were to be finished glossy Orange Yellow with glossy a Civil Aeronautics Administration intermediate field at Aircraft Gray landing gear. and ARM2 H. Taylor 27 A PR I L • Operation Gridiron—the evacuation of flew a control plane 11 miles distant to direct the drone’s Americans including radio interception specialists from crash dive into a raft under tow at a speed of eight knots. ARM3 W. Bounds and Mario Ferrara. C. Moulton B. the psychological impact of an aerial threat to Japan and to the emperor ended debate within the Japanese high command concerning a decisive thrust against the U. Australia. India (Pakistan). four of which sank. the Philippines—began. World War II   |   155 . Edgar T. but the force escaped. wing and aileron surfaces visible from above. j.. AMM1s M. Neale. D. and P-40Es of the USAAF 33rd Pursuit Squadron. Reporters later queried President Franklin D.S. Leroy C. Donahue. Pacific Fleet. Kelley of Patrol Wing 10. (Ghana). On 10 May. Gold Coast Gough Jr. Despite the infinitesimal material damage inflicted. USAAF.I. and 16 Army B-25B Mitchells against the Project Affirm to avoid confusion Japanese homeland. using a television camera fitted to the XB2G-1 drone.. VJ-5 used visual direction to crash. to West African waters with 68 embarked Curtiss F. Lively. night fighter directors. Service aircraft remained aircraft as guided missiles were conducted in Chesapeake nonspecular Light Gray with nonspecular Blue Gray on Bay. to operate in the China. It was renamed Hornet (CV 8) launches Lt. R. Lt. pilot Lt. j. with the electronic element (Argus Unit) of an advanced base. AMM1 W. and hops to Karachi.g. The ship turned for Port of Spain in PBY-5s. but it also developed tactics and trained accomplishing the subsequent launches on 19 July 1942. 24 A PR I L • A new specification for the color of naval 19 A PR I L • Two tests of the feasibility of using drone aircraft went into effect. to view the target. naval aircraft. BuNo 9722. ARM1 L. Bedford. ARM1 Edward W. The Catalinas took off from Perth. The Japanese downed a Dauntless. H. manned two Burma-India Theater. Pollack. This event marked the first of four ferry trips that development and testing of night fighter equipment for Ranger made to deliver Army fighters across the Atlantic. Roosevelt for the location from which the bombers launched and he replied. R.g. William V.. 1942 continued Awata Maru and ten guardboats. Drexl. Pilot Lt. and officers and men for early night fighter squadrons and as 19 January and 24 February 1943. In one evaluation. Doolittle. copilot Lt. Gassett. Its official purpose was the Trinidad. Va. Col. F. Cmdr.” 18 A PR I L • A night fighter development unit named Project 1061486 Argus was established at NAS Quonset Point.g. Lohr. Advanced trainers were to be dive a Great Lakes BG-1 drone into the water beyond the finished in glossy Aircraft Gray with glossy Orange Yellow on wreck of target ship San Marcos (former battleship Texas). she launched the Warhawks 82 miles off Accra. 18 April 1942. aircrewmen AMMC W. James H. “Shangri-La. surfaces visible from above. Thomas F.

By 3 May the Maru. The few available U. Task Force 17. to approach the her retirement. Fletcher commanding. and damaged the evacuees including Cmdr. and Dauntlesses of Jacksonville. Fla. Goto Aritomo commanding. I-21 damaged oiler Neosho (AO 23). Churchill asked President Franklin D. The second continued on to Perth. Vice Adm. Rear Adm. massive explosions that led to her abandonment. Frank J. Although wounded.000 miles. on 29 April. and torpedoed Lexington and bombed Yorktown. They dropped off parts and medical supplies. Prime Task Force 17. and points in the Solomon Islands. including carriers Shōkaku and Zuikaku. VB-5 and VS-5 and Devastators of VT-5. 155°27ˇE. and TBD-1s from naval air stations and their satellite fields at Banana River. attacked the embarked passengers. Powers of VB-5 pressed an Solomon Islands undetected. and Miami. John J. embarked on board Lexington. and TBD-1 Devastators of VT-5 from Yorktown (CV 5). although some of auxiliary minesweepers Wa 1 and Wa 2. The Americans sustained heavy casualties including 4 M AY • The Battle of the Coral Sea began. Wasp and Eagle launched their planes to Malta. from Lexington and Yorktown damaged Shōkaku and forced Rear Adm. continuation of the use of Dauntlesses as an anti-torpedo Roosevelt to provide Wasp (CV 7) for “another good sting. Task Force 17. Catalinas returned to Perth after the completion of flights of Japanese transports sailed from Rabaul for Port almost 7.S. SBD-3 Dauntlesses of VB-5 and takeoff on 30 April. embarked on board Yorktown (CV 5). which embarked 17 Spitfires. the first Catalina struck a reef and could VS-5. Pilot Lt. Takagi Takeo established with headquarters at NAS Jacksonville. Hall Supermarine Spitfire Mk Vs and sailed with British Force returned in his damaged Dauntless after participating in W for the Mediterranean during Operation Bowery—the the destruction of at least three carrier attack planes and aerial reinforcement of Malta. Pilot Lt. vapors flowing through Lexington ignited and triggered Two days later the Prime Minister signaled the carrier. attack in an SBD-3 on Shōkaku but failed to recover from his dive. New Guinea. approximately 92 aircraft. Rear Adm. flying from Yorktown. Hall. Japanese planes sank destroyer Sims (DD 409) and bombed Japanese submarine I-21 in the Coral Sea. transport Azumasan remained behind and were later captured. Fletcher commanding. The Japanese bombed British carrier Eagle (D 94). the first was able to get airborne. Four commanding. He received the Medal of Honor posthumously. and all 14 Moresby. While being towed away from shore to attempt F4F-3 Wildcats of VF-42. SBD-3s of VS-2.” plane patrol. and “Who said a wasp couldn’t sting twice?” On 15 May. Gasoline On 9 May. availability of Shōkaku and Zuikaku. and returned to Lake Lanão on invading Japanese at Gavutu and Tulagi in the Solomons. the first naval the loss of at least 69 planes while the Japanese lost engagement fought without opposing ships making contact. of VS-2 in On this date. Sea. days later the new command assumed authority over the SBD-2s from VB-2. Rear Adm. Bridget of the wing destroyer Yuzuki. turned north to engage the 30 A PR I L • The Air Operational Training Command was Japanese Carrier Strike Force. not take off. minelayer Okinoshima. 3 M AY • After Axis aerial attacks on Malta nearly Japanese carrier bombers and attack planes struck annihilated the British fighters on the island. escaped and reported the attack but failed to identify the The battle concluded the following day. Island. landed off Caballo neutralization of Australia as an Allied bastion. After cursory sank destroyer Kikuzuki. Francis J. and cargo ship Kozui Maru. Key West. Frank J. arrived at Scapa Flow in the Orkneys. and the Ocean Islands—preparatory to the achieved a strategic victory by halting the push southward 156  |  World War II . USNR. William E. VT-2. The error enabled Task Force 17. minesweeper Tama Maru. Wasp destroyer Phelps (DD 360) scuttled the carrier at 15°12ˇS. Mindanão. which was later scuttled. The damage to Shōkaku and The Japanese launched Operation MO—the seizure of Port the aerial losses temporarily denied the Japanese the Moresby. fighters compelled the Minister Winston S. and repairs. On 7 May. Dauntlesses aircraft as carrier-based. including Lexington (CV 2). Aubrey W. Wasp embarked 47 British Royal Air Force an SBD-2 defended Lexington. Fitch commanding. which had been joined flight crewmembers received the Silver Star. sank light carrier Shōhō of the Close Support 2 M AY • SBD-3 Dauntlesses of VS-5 and TBD-1 Force. in the Coral Devastators of VT-5.1942 continued refueled en route and. The United States Nauru. by Task Force 11. Fla. The ships rendezvoused with later received the Medal of Honor. Gridiron saved 36 evacuees.

1942 continued SBD Dauntlesses from Yorktown (CV 5) attack Japanese carrier Shōkaku during the Battle of the Coral Sea on the morning of 8 May 1942.000 feet. William H. Philadelphia. VS-4 Detachment 14 embarked. and the discontinuance of the use of horizontal red and a twin-engine Douglas BD-1 (A-20A Havoc). and blunting the seaborne thrust toward Port Moresby. while serving in any capacity in or with the Army. 15 M AY • The Chief of Naval Operations ordered the establishment of an Assistant Chief of Naval Operations 10 M AY • A base construction and garrison convoy. Tongatabu. revised by the elimination of the red disc in the center of the Denbo piloted F4Fs attached to tow lines streamed behind star. Navy. Roosevelt ordered the Japanese deferred and then abandoned their occupation establishment of the Air Medal for award to any persons of Port Moresby by sea and shifted their advance overland who. with their engines off underwent tows for an hour at 180 knots at 7. demonstrated the possibility of increasing the range of small aircraft by operating them as towed 15 M AY • The design of the national star insignia was gliders. Lt. World War II   |   157 . arrived in the Tonga Islands and for the chief of BUAER to fill the new office as additional and set up facilities to conduct antisubmarine patrols from duty. with (Air) to deal with aviation matters directly under the VCNO. Pa. or Coast Guard after 8 September 1939. distinguished or had distinguished themselves by 10 M AY • An experiment at the Naval Aircraft Factory at meritorious achievement while participating in aerial flight. BuNo 4251. white rudder striping. The 11 M AY • President Franklin D. across the Owen Stanley Mountains. Marine Corps. and. McClure and Robert W. The VCNO subsequently concentrated the aviation Nukualofa Harbor. Cdrs.

with a flight from NAS Alameda. Chester W. Calif. Commander in Chief Pacific Fleet Adm. Fletcher commanding. the Japanese failed to lure strong U. The office was abolished in mid-June 1942. attacked Dutch Harbor in day. the raiders again achieved surprise and B-17 Flying Fortresses from Midway struck the Japanese shot down a Catalina and began bombing and strafing ships separately but suffered grim losses. Rear Adm. On 27 May. deciphered some enemy messages through ULTRA. a Nakajima B5N2 Type 97 carrier of Aviation. Kaga. C. The Japanese SBD-2 Dauntlesses and SB2U-3 Vindicators of inflicted light damage and destroyed a Catalina in the harbor. Thies of VP-41 in a PBY-5A spotted the 20 M AY • Rear Adm. five Aichi D3A1 attacks drew off the Japanese fighters and threw their 158  |  World War II . Yamamoto propellant rocket motors at NAS Anacostia.g. forces 15 M AY • VR-2. Alaska. and 26 M AY • Aircraft ferry Kitty Hawk (AVP 1) disembarked the Japanese also failed to deploy their submarines in time reinforcements for Marine Aircraft Group 22. Sōryū. the Eleventh Air Force. including Enterprise (CV 6) Kodiak. including Yorktown (CV 5). The Japanese lost virtually wiped-out all three squadrons. including carriers Akagi.. but the Japanese failed to suppress approaches. attack plane. VMSB-241. and Army Martin their fighters shot down three patrolling PBYs. seven F4F-3 Wildcats and 19 SBD-2 Dauntlesses. killing Koga. a new command This provided an example of the foremost Japanese naval established to direct the operations of tender and shore. TBF-1 Avengers—their introduction to They cancelled a second strike because of the weather. based aviation in the South Pacific area.S. William N. Despite this. including to discover the movements of the U.. The multiple a Mitsubishi A6M Type 0 carrier fighter. Pacific 26 M AY • Lt. raiders. Nimitz deployed Task Forces 16. Rear Adm. Alaska. John S. Kakuta Kikuji commanding. that emphasized surprise. Commander Air Force. Hawaiian Islands. j. PBY-5A Catalinas of VP-41 and -42 of Buffaloes and F4F-3 Wildcats of VMF-221 intercepted the Patrol Wing 4 supported by seaplane tenders Casco (AVP 12). cryptanalysts. 3 J U N E • The threat posed by the carriers of the U. at Midway Dai-ichi Kidō Butai (1st Mobile Striking Force). Japanese Brewster F2A-3 Buffalo using five British antiaircraft solid Commander in Chief Combined Fleet Adm. Patrol Wing 4 lost six Catalinas assailed the enemy carriers as fighters and antiaircraft fire and.S. A. -6. Spruance commanding. 27 M AY • The transfer of Patrol Wing 4 from Seattle. On 3 June.S. Fighters downed another Catalina separately and Devastators of VT-3. however. eluded discovery and surprised the defenders. and Williamson (AVD 2) patrolled the likely aside the Marines. and Hornet (CV 8). but combat—from a detachment of VT-8. five planes. fighter to the Allies for study. B-26 Marauders equipped with torpedoes and Boeing The next day. South Pacific. Rear Adm.C. McCain reported as wreckage. TBD-1 runs.S. and afterward led a party to retrieve the aircraft.1942 continued functions already performed in his office into a new Division Type 99 carrier bombers. Honolulu. and two Nakajima E8N2 Type 95 floatplanes. Nagumo thus decided upon a second raid. Raymond to the North Pacific began with the arrival of Commander. Wash. The ship returned to Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian Nagumo Chūichi commanding. Island. to from Hawaiian waters. D. On 10 July pilot Lt. Vice Adm. Fink Fischer demonstrated the Fleet convinced the Japanese to occupy Midway Island feasibility of rocket-assisted takeoff during a test flight in a to lure the Pacific Fleet into a decisive battle. carriers. U. Frank J. The takeoff Isoroku developed Operation MI—a comprehensive plan distance was reduced by 49 percent. The next including carriers Junyō and Ryūjō. and -8 gallantly but futilely a PBY-5A disappeared. and Hiryū sailed from Japanese waters. Harsh weather cloaked the raiders and they Midway. forced landing on Akutan Island. 3 J U N E • The Japanese Dai-ni Kidō Butai (2nd Mobile planes from Midway located the Japanese Second Fleet Striking Force). 108 Japanese aircraft attacked Midway and F2A-3 the Aleutians. Escort Force about 600 miles west of the island. initiated air transport service in Pilot PO Koga Tadayoshi flew the A6M from Ryūjō but the Pacific during the first transoceanic flight by planes of the ground fire damaged the plane and it nosed over during a Naval Air Transport Service. Islands on 1 June. and 17. Mitsubishi A6M Type 0 carrier fighters brushed Gillis (AVD 12).

” The on 4 June. victory accelerated the attrition that led to the demise of each received the Navy Cross for their separate actions in Japanese naval offensive power. thus caught the Japanese unprepared and resulted in the ensuing loss of Kaga and damage to Akagi. Dauntlesses from Enterprise and Hornet sank Mikuma and damaged destroyers Arashio and Asashio by near misses. Fletcher transferred his flag to heavy cruiser Astoria (CA 34) and turned over tactical command to Spruance. -42. The same day. embarked on board Enterprise. The Naval Ordnance a PBY-5A and spotted the enemy there. The loss of the carriers and the irretrievable failure to control the air compelled Yamamoto to retire. Chester W. Florida. VP-24 made the final rescue 360 miles north of Midway of a two-man crew from a VT-6 Devastator that ditched Japanese at Kiska in what was dubbed the “Kiska Blitz. Researchers 6 J U N E • The Japanese landed on Kiska in the Aleutians. after repairs from torpedo damage that she sustained on 11 January.” promising results of the early trials made with airships and From 11 to 14 June. Japanese destroyers scuttled Akagi and Hiryū. testing and associated work on magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) gear at NAS Quonset Point. on 18 June. at Nazan Bay. Enterprise and Hornet recovered their planes and turned around to refuel. R. and USAAF Consolidated B-24 Liberators and Boeing B-17 Flying Fortresses. January 1943. The arrival of Dauntlesses from VB-6 and VS-6. their decisive N. Dauntlesses of VB-3 operating from Enterprise in lieu of stricken Yorktown and from VS-6 damaged Hiryū. While gains until Gillis expended her supplies of bombs and fuel. Atka Island. Thies of VP-41 and Ens. Japanese submarine I-168 damaged Yorktown and sank destroyer Hammann (DD 412). The submarine escaped 417667 and Yorktown foundered the next day. Heavy cruisers Mikuma and Mogami collided. the fighting. Hildebrand Jr. Hiryū launched dive bombers that damaged Yorktown. a USAAF Douglas B-18 Bolo led to the procurement of 200 -43. supported by seaplane tender Gillis (AVD 12) sets of MAD gear. and an LB-30 of the Eleventh Air Force damaged Japanese destroyer Hibiki on 12 6 J U N E • Saratoga (CV 3) arrived at Pearl Harbor. On 11 June. Dauntlesses of VB-3 from Yorktown sank Sōryū. In addition. Laboratory and the National Defense Research Committee Commander in Chief Pacific Adm. The directed Patrol Wing 4 to “bomb the enemy out of Kiska. Lt. Litsey of VP-41 piloted induced in the earth’s magnetic field. the Japanese lost 258 strikes interfered with Japanese efforts to consolidate their aircraft plus experienced aircrew and mechanics. Lt.I. Territory June and sank fleet tanker Nissan Maru. 1942 continued ships’ formation into disarray. of VP-40. The ship thus missed participation 10 J U N E • Project Sail was established to conduct airborne in the Battles of Coral Sea and Midway. bombed the World War II   |   159 . and. James T. the Americans lost at least 92 carrier and 40 shore-based and failed to drive the invaders from the island. B-24s. On 5 June. In addition to the ships. and -51. Planes searched for downed aviators and on 21 June. about 20 Catalinas from VP-41. but torpedo bombers from Hiryū further damaged Yorktown during a second attack. intended this device to reveal submarines by the change they and the following day on Attu. on the 6th. a PBY-5A Catalina of TBF-1 Avengers in flight off Ft. Nimitz undertook the principal developmental efforts. William planes in addition to Yorktown and Hamman. B-17s. Lauderdale. of Hawaii.

Farrell high-altitude pressure suits with particular emphasis on commanding. Interest in early warning radar arose when navigation (LORAN for LOng RAnge Navigation Adm.. The Navy thus the Bogue class converted from Maritime Commission hulls. Four tests. Ernest J. began the development of the Pelican antisubmarine guided R. We were recommended their acquisition for antisubmarine convoy headed for the middle of the hangar. Sikorsky’s VS-300 helicopter. The device USAAF 57th Fighter Group. received directions to participate in the development of 15 J U N E • Copahee (AVG 12). The factory expanded its use of high-altitude equipment. and Lockheed airborne early warning radar including automatic airborne B-34 Venturas to meet the Navy’s requirement for long- relay and associated shipboard processing and display range landplanes. Capt. the 3 J U LY • In the first successful firing of an American rocket revision of an earlier order that had established an aviation from a plane in flight. Pierce issued instructions to the airship’s commanding officer that brought them over the shoreline 26 J U N E • Lt. The rocket 17 J U N E • A contract was awarded to Goodyear Aircraft had been designed at the California Institute of Technology Corporation for the design and construction of a prototype to be fired aft with a velocity equal to the forward velocity M-class scouting and patrol airship with 50 percent greater of the airplane and thus to fall vertically. operator Dr. James H. Frank A. B-25 Mitchells. Trinidad.000 cubic feet) than the K class. over various identifiable objects during a flight from NAS Lakehurst. John G.1942 continued 13 J U N E • The first airborne test of long-range radio equipment. 25 J U N E • The preliminary investigation of early warning radar had proceeded to the point that the coordinator for 7 J U LY • The Army agreed to deliver to the Navy a specified research and development requested the development of number of B-24 Liberators. USCG. A receiver mounted in airship K-2 Research and Development Dr. was commissioned at Puget Sound Navy Yard. Pacific Fleet Lt. 27 J U N E • The Naval Aircraft Factory. inspected near Lakehurst on a course that caused the skipper to Igor I. planes were shipped to the China-Burma-India Theater. Hean launched Aviation Division responsible directly to VCNO.J. Gold Coast (Ghana). The ship turned for Port of Spain. she launched the consisted of a glide bomb capable of automatically homing Warhawks to Accra. Philadelphia. J. 17 J U N E • Following the abolition of the newly created office of the Assistant Chief of Naval Operations (Air). a rearward-firing antisubmarine rocket (retrorocket ASR) from a PBY-5A Catalina at Goldstone Lake. The test culminated with the first LORAN 26 J U N E • VR-2 initiated scheduled Naval Air Transport homing from a distance 50 to 75 miles offshore during which Service operations between the West Coast and Alaska. to West Africa with 72 embarked Curtiss P-40Fs of the missile with Bureau of Ordnance sponsorship.I. and three days later. After successful range and volume (625. In February 1943. tests led to immediate action to obtain operational LORAN equipment.. construction of an altitude test chamber. from where the on a radar beam reflected from the target. VP-63 received the first service installation. Cmdr. Office of Scientific equipment) occurred. Vannevar Bush the accurately determined its position when the airship flew requirement of Navy ships to “see” beyond the line of sight. She was the first of ten escort carriers of the tailoring and fitting of them for flight use. The Navy was to relinquish its production 160  |  World War II . the retrorocket became a weapon complementary to M-class airships were built and served during World War II. Cmdr. Calif. Erickson. gunnery officer of Transition Training organization in the Office of CNO made the Director of the Squadron. magnetic anomaly detection gear. Wash. 16 J U N E • Congress authorized an increase in the Navy’s including the design of a pressure cabin airplane and airship strength to 200 lighter-than-air craft. Pa. A. remark. “We weren’t [just] headed for the hangar. joined the Army in its sponsorship of work on pressure suits.” The success of these and life-saving duty. 17 J U N E • The National Defense Research Committee 1 J U LY • Ranger (CV 4) sailed from NAS Quonset Point. King observed to Head. N. testing existing types and obtaining information to facilitate Bremerton. On 19 July.

Florida. Guard Squadron 212. McCain. Gen. Lofton R. in the Aleutian Islands. Each wing was assigned geographic areas of responsibility. a Japanese Fleet Marine Force. 7 AUGUST • Marine Aircraft Wings. Atka Island. of Coast Rear Adm. and USAAF planes flying from New Caledonia from Houma. USMC. 9 AUGUST • During the Battle of Savo Island. Leigh Noyes commanding. Maj. and off the passes of the Mississippi. and Wasp (CV 7). Enterprise (CV 6).879 officers and enlisted. Distinguished Flying Cross. The authorization of headquarters squadrons for each wing furnished administrative and maintenance services to the attached squadrons. Tanambogo. The station supported seaplane antishipping searches. Navy. Frank J. 61. force. John S. USMC. Boeing plant to the Army for expanded B-29 Superfortress production. The Marines wrestled a German submarine with the sinking of surfaced U-166 control of the neighboring islands from the Japanese.S. Guadalcanal. provided Navy. Mikawa Gunichi commanding. Fletcher commanding. 1942 continued cognizance of the Renton. Vice Adm. who had been shot down while leading Ross E.1. Quincy (CA 39). the Marines captured the unfinished Japanese airstrip and redesignated it Henderson Field in honor of Maj. and scored the first Coast Guard kill of and the New Hebrides (Vanuatu). Henry C. Cmdr. The next day. Rear Adm. and by 31 July 1945 Adm. Wash. 24 J U LY • BUAER issued a planning directive calling for the procurement of four Sikorsky helicopters for study and development by the Navy and Coast Guard. was organized at San VMSB-241 on an unsuccessful attack on Japanese carrier Diego. Calif. Mildred H. and to limit its orders for PBY Catalinas to avoid interference with the production of Liberators. John S. Pacific. McAfee assumed duties as the first the Solomon Islands during Operation Watchtower—the commandant. USCG. of Marine Corps aviation units assigned to the Pacific Fleet.S. Task Force 61.. Lt. Pacific. Henderson. on 2 August. for administrative control and logistic support Hiryū at the Battle of Midway. White. 19 J U LY • Seaplane tender Casco (AVP 12) established an advanced base in Nazan Bay. 236837 30 J U LY • The Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Vice Adm. commanding. Rowell. slipped undetected to the west of the island in the Solomons and 7 AUGUST • The Americans landed on Japanese-held inflicted a singularly devastating defeat upon the U. and the discontinuance of permanent squadron assignments facilitated requirements. By the end of the year the WAVES reached a first U. bombing of Japanese positions. land offensive of World War II. and cover for ship bombardments against Kiska.291 women. McCain commanding. In September 1944. 12 J U LY • Patrol wings were reorganized to increase the mobility and flexibility of patrol aviation. piloted a Grumman J4F-1 Widgeon Marine. included Task Group their numbers grew to 86. White received the simultaneously moved inland on Guadalcanal... Task Force 63. 1 AUGUST • Ens. with Saratoga (CV 3). Vincennes World War II   |   161 . La. Vice strength of 3. and Tulagi in Heavy cruisers Astoria (CA 34). Gavutu. this command was renamed Aircraft. Service (WAVES) was established and.

and Australian Canberra were sunk. The Greater Buffalo. 1942 continued 45345 Marine F4F Wildcats line Henderson Field during the battle for the control of Guadalcanal as a formation of Army Air Forces B-17 Flying Fortresses approaches. Cmdr. experimental and developmental squadron at NAS Anacostia. D. respectively. on board ships. and heavy fuzes against planes during simulated combat conditions by cruiser Chicago (CA 29) and destroyers Patterson (DD 392) destroying three radio-controlled drones with four proximity and Ralph Talbot (DD 390) sustained damage. May 1943—were Great Lakes excursion ships Seeandbee and and consequently failed to attack the nearby transports. Mikawa sought This ship and Sable (IX 81)—which was commissioned on 8 to escape aerial retaliation by clearing the area before sunrise. George R. commanding. 10 AUGUST • The headquarters of Patrol Wing 3 was 13 AUGUST • Commander in Chief U.C. The bursts from her 5-inch guns. was commissioned at Buffalo. enabled the deck crews received practical experience in handling aircraft Leathernecks to maintain their tenuous hold on Guadalcanal. carriers and the Sable and Wolverine operated for the remainder of World transports before they had unloaded all their cargoes. converted for aviation training. defeat prompted the withdrawal of the U. This squadron replaced the Fleet Air Tactical Unit to 12 AUGUST • Light cruiser Cleveland (CL 55) operating in conduct experiments with new aircraft and equipment to Chesapeake Bay tested the effectiveness of radio-proximity determine their practical application and tactical employment. August 1942.Y. Japanese mass production of the fuzes. gunfire set some of the SOC Seagulls embarked on board the cruisers alight. but the War II on Lake Michigan providing flight decks upon which limited amount of supplies. Fleet directed the shifted within the Panama Canal Zone from NAS Coco Solo establishment on about 30 September 1942 of an aircraft to Albrook Field for closer coordination with the Army. Despite the overwhelming victory. spotters.S. 162  |  World War II . and the ensuing conflagrations spread flaming 12 AUGUST • Wolverine (IX 64). gasoline that further illuminated the ships for enemy Fairlamb Jr. (CA 44). N.S. This demonstration led to the Americans lightly damaged four Japanese ships. which had been landed combined student naval aviators qualified for carrier landings and flight with those the Marines seized from the Japanese.

Fletcher commanding. losing 118 aircraft in battle and 30 operationally. her engines ceased operation. exceeded her pressure height. The lighter- than-air craft apparently drifted with the wind toward land. A Japanese flying boat attempt to recapture Guadalcanal and Tulagi. and crewmembers Lt. and planes.g. Despite adequate fuel. near Guadalcanal in earth. and damaged destroyer Uzuki. 1942 continued 15 AUGUST • Patrol Wing 11. but crashed several hours later in Dale City.R. Enterprise (CV 6). Five days later. planes from ashore sank armed merchant cruiser Kinryu while claiming the destruction of 427 enemy aircraft. and Zuikaku to cover a group of four transports. Bell P-400 Airacobras of the USAAF 67th diversionary force formed around light carrier Ryūjō. followed two days SBD-3 Dauntlesses of VB-3 and VS-3 and TBF-1 later by SBD-3s of VB-6 and VS-5 from Enterprise (CV 6). Avengers of VT-8 from Saratoga sank Ryūjō and damaged Marine planes carried the major air support burden during seaplane carrier Chitose. Charles E. but the deployed multiple forces including one of carriers Shōkaku ship retired beyond the range of enemy land-based aircraft. from Aircraft Escort Vessel (AVG) to Auxiliary Aircraft Carrier (ACV). the wing moved to operate within the Caribbean Sea Frontier from San Juan.. Ernest D. was commissioned at the Norfolk after the war returned the blimp to the company. Fighter Squadron joined the Marines. Task Force 61. P. Adams disappeared. the former advertising 24 AUGUST • Santee (ACV 29). Maru and destroyer Mitsuki. Calif. Navy Yard. 20 AUGUST • Long Island (ACV 1) launched the first including Saratoga (CV 3). was established at Norfolk. A Dauntless of VMSB-232 the campaign. Va.117 sorties against Japanese damaged light cruiser Jintsū north of Malaita Island. William D. turned back a Japanese SBD-1 Dauntlesses of VMSB-232. Va. Cody and Ens. foreground. and also flew 2. The enemy from the Shortland Islands sighted Long Island. 16 AUGUST • Blimp L-8 of ZP-32 departed Treasure Island for a routine patrol off the coast of San Francisco. Enterprise fought off Japanese torpedo bombers but enemy World War II   |   163 .” The Navy salvaged L-8. Capt. Local residents referred December 1942. j. and Wasp Marine planes to arrive at Henderson Field on Guadalcanal. Frank J. and deflated and returned to An SBD Dauntless flies over Enterprise (CV 6). airship Ranger of the Goodyear Aircraft Corporation. Stanley J. supported by Marine and USAAF planes from Solomon Islands—19 F4F-4 Wildcats of VMF-223 and 12 Henderson Field on Guadalcanal. and Saratoga (CV 3). Vice Adm. to the mysterious tragedy as the “Ghost Blimp. Santee was the first commissioned of four Sangamon-class auxiliary aircraft carriers converted from 20 AUGUST • The escort carrier designation was changed Cimarron-class fleet oilers. Michael commanding. 24 AUGUST • During the Battle of the Eastern Solomons. Cmdr. and a On 22 August. and Sample commanding. (CV 7).

dive bombers made three direct bomb hits and four near misses that killed 74 men and wounded 95. The establishment of the subordinate commands Fleet Air West Coast. Alaska. Capt. Solomons.. Rear Adm. Rear Adm. Hawaiian Islands. This move replaced Commander Carriers. ordered the ship abandoned. Wash. defeated a Japanese attempt to land reinforcements from Capt. Japanese submarine RO-61 16 SEPTE M BER • Patrol Wing 12. and her commanding officer. Australia. Naval aviator Sherman Allied forces within 250 miles of Japanese-occupied Kiska survived to become the 12th Chief of Naval Operations. Pacific. Shirakumo. based at NAS Alameda. in March 1943. Aubrey W. During September. occurred simultaneously. Hawaiian Islands. south of Hawaiian Islands. 7 SEPTE M BER • VR-2. The operation placed route to the United States for repairs. forcing the carrier to retire for repairs. 1942 continued 1 SEPTE M BER • Naval Air Forces.. Fleet Air Seattle. from where it conducted operations within the Gulf Sea subsequently salved. Two of the torpedoes 28 AUGUST • Marine and Navy SBD Dauntlesses from struck Wasp (CV 7) in her starboard side near aviation Henderson Field on Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands gasoline tanks and magazines. the flights extended briefly to Iceland and reached southward to the Panama Canal Zone and to Rio de Janeiro. Casco was beached and Fla. North Carolina (BB 55) and destroyer O’Brien (DD 415) also received damage but the battleship subsequently 30 AUGUST • The Americans landed on Adak. Samoa while en upon seaplane tender Teal (AVP 5). preliminary to establishing routes between San Francisco.. 31 AUGUST • Japanese submarine I-26 torpedoed Saratoga 19 SEPTE M BER • Commander. Territory of 405443 Hawaii. to direct the operations of patrol squadrons already in the 164  |  World War II . convoy from Espíritu Santo. Calif. and Brisbane. sinking destroyer Asagiri and Destroyer Lansdowne (DD 486) scuttled Wasp. Patrol Wing 1 departed (CV 3) about 260 miles southeast of Guadalcanal in the NAS Kaneohe Bay. and initiated a survey flight to the South Pacific A PBY-5A Catalina of VP-61 hunts for Japanese over the Aleutians near Adak. Calif. Force 18. 6 SEPTE M BER • The first Naval Air Transport Service flight to Argentia. Sherman. for the South Pacific Solomon Islands. Calif. Leigh Noyes commanding. established a detachment at Pearl Harbor. Frontier. Battleship damaging Amagiri. casualties of 20 planes.. marked the beginning of air transport expansion along the eastern seaboard of North America. destroyers onto the island. and Yugiri. Fitch commanding.S.. Pacific. On 19 established an advanced seaplane anchorage there based October. the landings from Nazan Bay. O’Brien sank northwest of Tutuila. and Fleet Air Alameda. Forrest P. torpedoed seaplane tender Casco (AVP 12) as she supported Tomlinson commanding. New Hebrides (Vanuatu). Newfoundland. Alaska. was established at NAS Key West. William G. and in a position to monitor enemy shipping lanes there and to Attu in the Aleutians. Pacific. Brazil. was established for the administrative control of all air and air service units under Commander in Chief Pacific Fleet. bound for Guadalcanal. and Commander Patrol Wings. The Japanese lost fewer than 90 aircraft San Cristobal Island while the force covered a reinforcement compared to U. and completed repairs at Pearl Harbor. Her crew 15 SEPTE M BER • Japanese submarine I-19 attacked Task controlled the fires and Enterprise made for Pearl Harbor.

During the ensuing Battle of Cape Esperance. The Japanese landed their reinforcements. serve as the administrative command for airship squadrons F4F-4 Wildcats of VF-5. This Hampton Roads. and Air Transport Azumasan Maru and cargo ship Kyushu Maru were Intermediate Training—were established with their run aground and fires destroyed both ships. off New Georgia. Solomon Islands. commands various naval aviation facilities that had become operational in the vicinity of the large air stations. but failed to inflict damage. planes from carrier Zuikaku eluded the Wildcats and sank destroyer Meredith (DD 434) off San Cristobal.. including Hornet (CV 8). force. Mikawa Gunichi commanding. in the Solomon Islands. Planes from commanding. Calif.. maneuvered into a blocking position against seaplane tender McFarland (AVD 14) as she unloaded cargo Goto.. and USAAF Boeing B-17s and Bell P-39/P- 1 OCTOBER • Three functional training commands— 400 Airacobras attacked the Japanese ships off Tassafaronga. William M. reinforcing elements of the 2nd Division for Japanese Murray commanding. personal “flag” plane of Commanding General 1st Marine Aircraft Wing. respectively. The crew cut the blazing vessel loose. and McFarland SBD-3s of VS-3 and -71 and VMSB-141. but the and evacuated wounded off Lunga Roads on Guadalcanal. a PBY Catalina that operated as the operating on the West Coast. Rear Adm. The wing reinforcements from reaching Guadalcanal. Rear Adm. was established at NAS Moffett Field. A surface force.. her. 11 OCTOBER • Japanese transports proceeded down New Georgia Sound amid the Solomon Islands to disembark 16 OCTOBER • Task Force 17. Solomon Islands. attacked the six ships of Argonne (AG 31) at Nouméa. 5 OCTOBER • Planes from Hornet (CV 8) attacked Japanese staging areas at Buin-Tonolei and Faisi on 15 OCTOBER • Patrol Wing 14.. Seattle. Halsey Jr. shelling Henderson Field. Air Primary Training. Goto Japanese troops on Guadalcanal and a seaplane base at Aritomo commanding. following morning planes struck the retiring enemy ships. Ghormley as Commander South 14 OCTOBER • SBD-3 Dauntlesses of VS-3 flying from Pacific Area and South Pacific Force on board auxiliary Guadalcanal. Destroyer Shirayuki scuttled Murakumo. Capt. Vice Adm. was to cover their movement by Rekata Bay. consolidated under single sea frontiers. Robert L. operated within the Western Sea Frontier to form. New toward Guadalcanal between Santa Isabel and Florida Hebrides (Vanuatu). Norman Scott 16 OCTOBER • Nine Japanese dive bombers damaged commanding.2. Air Technical Training. Scott E. and F4F-4 Wildcats was towed to Florida Island for temporary repairs before she of VMF-121. Rear Adm. establish. and facilitated the operations of squadrons engaged in coastal Hawaiian Islands.. The tender shot down one of the attackers. An SBD-3 Dauntless of VS-71 sank Japanese destroyer but the Japanese also hit a gasoline barge moored alongside Natsugumo off Savo Island. and sank Sasago Maru and damaged destroyer Samidare. Calif. Texas. and equip patrol squadrons. William F. 18 OCTOBER • Vice Adm. struck troops on Guadalcanal. The headquarters was initially established at Nouméa. Peck six destroyers and 11 transports to Tassafaronga. and on Guadalcanal and Munda in the Islands. Calif. Kansas City. Overnight a Japanese Solomons. bombarded Henderson Field on Guadalcanal to cover the movement of 1 OCTOBER • Airship Patrol Group 3. was established at San Diego. Ill. to Henderson Field including SBD-3s of VB-6 and VMSB-141.. antisubmarine reconnaissance and convoy duty within the Fla. New Caledonia. Mo. and Naval Air Training Centers Pensacola. Capt. relieved Vice Adm. and a TBF-1 Avenger of VT-8. San Diego. Japanese NAS Pensacola. McDade Bougainville in the Solomon Islands to disrupt enemy commanding. Santa Isabel. and subsequently at Espíritu Santo. Fla. George D. The strikes also headquarters initially at Chicago. -212. 17 OCTOBER • Inshore patrol squadrons (VS) were 12 OCTOBER • The establishment of Naval Air Centers transferred to patrol wings for administrative control. a Japanese convoy escorted by eight destroyers steaming New Caledonia. 1942 continued area. World War II   |   165 . Wash.. and -224 damaged destroyer Murakumo moved for additional work. Task Group 64. and Corpus Christi. Va.

John F. Boutte flying a Vought OS2U-3 Kingfisher of VS-1 Akigumo and Makigumo sank the carrier. Zuikaku. B-17D Flying Fortress. Solomon Islands. A patrol tactical naval victory. Capt. Eadie landed the Kingfisher. four bombs.” Mitsubishi A6M Type 0 carrier fighter “Zeke. William F. The remaining Guadalcanal.. Rickenbacker. Destroyers Kaczmarczyk. Sgt.S. The Japanese lost Detachment 14.” Mitsubishi Santa Isabel. crashed in a twice damaged Enterprise. Dauntlesses of VS-10 from 21 OCTOBER • Eight men including World War I ace Enterprise damaged Zuihō. 1 NOV E M BER • The War Department designated and Shiratsuyu sank tug Seminole (AT 65) and district patrol Japanese aircraft with human names to provide a uniform craft YP-284 off Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. respectively. rescued the sonobuoy for use in antisubmarine warfare began when three men. The began. USAAF. and TBF-1 Avengers of VT-6 that damaged heavy cruiser Chikuma. to procure 1. The Navy Commander in Chief U. design. Thomas C. off Nukufetau in the Ellice 28 OCTOBER • The procurement of an expendable radio Islands (Tuvalu). H.). 25 OCTOBER • Japanese destroyers Akatsuki.” Kawanishi E7K2 Type 94 reconnaissance floatplane Akizuki and Samidare. Woodward and ARM2 scuttle Hornet. Nagumo Chūichi commanding. fought Avengers and five SBD-3 Dauntlesses at NASs New York and Japanese forces. Hans C. and identification system. respectively. carrying Rickenbacker. Fleet directed the Bureau of Ships later rescued the other three survivors. but the following day Japanese destroyers L. USAAF.1942 continued 19 OCTOBER • BUAER reported the initial installation 26 OCTOBER • The Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands and deployment of the ASB-3 airborne search radar. E. and Pvt.g. Lt. but Marines and soldiers repulsed the torpedo boat rescued him. An SBD-3 Dauntless of VS-71 and “Alf . Planes from Shōkaku and Junyō Capt. Alexander crashing Aichi D3A1 Type 99 carrier bombers. thus conferring a and Boutte crewed the same Kingfisher and spotted the raft strategic victory to the Allies. F. initially with fighter types receiving damaged minesweeper Zane (DMS 14) in Sealark Channel.S. male names and all others female. At one point. Hornet launched SBD-3 sets of the initial contract for 25 were used for spare parts Dauntlesses of VB-8 and VS-8 that damaged Shōkaku and and training. destroyer Terutsuki. killing 44 men and wounding 75. Vice Adm. The based in the Pacific and those on the West Coast that flew move initiated the fabrication of the first jet engine of wholly the routes from the mainland United States to the Hawaiian U. including based aircraft and had installed the system in five TBF-1 Enterprise (CV 6) and Hornet (CV 8). Rear Adms. Destroyers Harusame and Yudachi scuttled Yura. Adamson. Cherry Jr. and Junyō left Hornet ablaze as a result of a navigational error while Rickenbacker toured from a total of three torpedoes. Murray commanding. established over the Naval Air Transport Service squadrons to construct two 19A axial-flow turbojet powerplants. Ikazuchi. in the Central Pacific Aircraft from Shōkaku.” Kawanishi H6K4 Type 97 flying boat “Mavis. The 16 major frontline Marine shore batteries and F4F-4 Wildcats of VMF-121 naval types identified to date: Aichi D3A1 Type 99 carrier damaged Akatsuki off Lunga Point and damaged Ikazuchi bomber “Val. Serial 40-3089. A5M4 Type 96 carrier fighter “Claude.” Mitsubishi F1M2 Type 0 166  |  World War II . On 12 November. Eadie enemy’s land offensive on Guadalcanal. spotted a life raft containing the pilot of the 99 planes and the Americans 80. USAAC (Ret. 22 OCTOBER • An amendment to a design study contract 31 OCTOBER • Air Transport Squadrons Pacific was authorized Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co.. and two Allied forces in the Pacific. USAAF. William T. Naval Research Laboratory developed the radar for carrier. Task Forces 16 and 17. Bartek. Capt. Hawaii.000 sonobuoys and 100 associated receivers. Islands. The next day. Edward V. One plane of each type was including carriers Shōkaku and Zuikaku and light carriers assigned to Air Group 11 on board Saratoga (CV 3) and the Junyō and Zuihō that supported an overland thrust on others were shipped to Pearl Harbor. j. The Japanese attained a Flying Fortress. USAAF. died and the castaways buried him Anderson (DD 411) and Mustin (DD 413) attempted to at sea.” Aichi E13A1 Type 0 reconnaissance floatplane while USAAF Bell P-39 Airacobras damaged destroyers “Jake.” USAAF aircraft damaged Japanese light cruiser Yura off Kawanishi H8K2 Type 2 flying boat “Emily. Calif. and taxied 40 miles to the nearest land. Kinkaid and George D. Lt. San Pedro.

2 NOV E M BER • Fleet Air Wing 6. Kinkaid commanding. Wildcats from VF-41 fought French Dewoitine land attack plane “Nell. Sangamon (AVG 26). The invaders then repulsed a second armored 1 NOV E M BER • Patrol wings were redesignated fleet air counterattack. McWhorter commanding. covered landings near Casablanca and Fedala prompted the postponement of landings. TBF-1 Avengers of VT-8 from Enterprise and of VMSB-131 and SBD-3 8 NOV E M BER • Task Group 34. and a destroyer. aerial attacks at the retiring Japanese. Contre-Amiral Raymond Gervais de Lafonde 130 and -141 and Avengers of VT-10 from Henderson Field commanding. Rear Adm. Planes damaged North Africa.078 combat sorties. Battleship Massachusetts (BB 59) Nakajima B6N1 carrier attack plane “Jill. including Enterprise (CV 6)—the last operational fleet Johnson commanding. Capt. Md.” Nakajima E8N2 and bombing and strafing runs by naval aircraft including Type 95 reconnaissance floatplane “Dave. D. and SBD-3s of in Morocco during Operation Torch. and as a Naval Air Transport Service base.” coastal emplacements. Wash. including Ranger (CV 4). estimated 168 French planes deployed to Morocco. the Allied invasion of VMSB-132 sank heavy cruiser Kinugasa. The United States suffered the World War II   |   167 . Dauntlesses from including F4F-4 Wildcats from VF-9 and -41 and SBD-3 VS-10 and VMSB-132 and Avengers of VT-10. Douglass P. Air attacks sank four submarines and damaged (DD 602). Gunfire from light cruiser additional names for succeeding Japanese aircraft. and one northern Guadalcanal. scout planes from wings.520s and Curtiss Hawk 75As of Groupes de Chasse I/5 plane “Betty.” and Yokosuka E14Y1 Type The next day.” Nakajima B5N2 Type 97 carrier attack plane “Kate.” Mitsubishi G3M3 Type 96 submarine. Type 2 carrier bomber “Judy. To permit the organization of patrol aviation on the Savannah bombed and strafed French light tanks. Guadalcanal’s Henderson Field. Planes spotted the fall of shot for ships against “Rufe. capitulation. attempted to disrupt the landings off sank seven transports/cargo ships and damaged a cargo Casablanca. together Dauntlesses from VS-41 from Ranger overwhelmed the with Marine and Army coastal guns and destroyer Meade French.S. Chenango task force principle. Rear Adm. Forty-four planes were lost but most of their crewmembers 1 NOV E M BER • Airship Patrol Group 1 was redesignated survived.” The Allies adopted along the road to Rabat. Naval spotting planes reported the French ship.” Nakajima A6M2-N Type 2 fighter seaplane and II/5. Thomas C. During a savage nocturnal action. Planes also damaged two destroyers.” Mitsubishi G4M1 Type 1 attack D. The next morning.J. Ernest Dauntlesses of VMSB-142 from Henderson sank Japanese D. 172 carrier aircraft flew 1.C. was established 12 NOV E M BER • The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal began to serve as a facility for testing experimental airplanes and when Japanese land attack planes assaulted ships of Task equipment. N. Task Force 16. sank four Japanese transports/cargo ships off light cruiser Primaguet. 2 NOV E M BER • NAS Patuxent River. Dauntlesses of VS-10 and VMSB- Squadron). 14 French light tanks counterattacked 0 small reconnaissance seaplane “Glen.2. and Santee On 14 November. heavy cruisers Chōkai and Maya.. U. light cruisers Isuzu and The French 2ème Escadre Légère (2nd Light Tenryu. three destroyers. the Americans repelled a Japanese force sortie and naval gunfire and bombing and strafing attacks off the island. ships flight testing and of the Naval Test Pilot School in place of repulsed the Japanese from an intended bombardment of NAS Anacostia. Through 11 November and the Vichy French wings to perform their missions. the practice of assigning a standard (ACV 28) accompanied the assault forces and launched number of squadrons to each of the wings shifted to provide 78 USAAF Curtiss P-40 Warhawks to operate from Port for the assignment of all types of aircraft required by the Lyautey. The Force 67 in Lunga Roads at Guadalcanal in the Solomon station eventually assumed the role of the Navy’s principal Islands. 1942 continued observation floatplane “Pete. Savannah (CL 42) and aerial runs defeated the armored thrust. These aircraft claimed the destruction of 20 of the Fleet Airship Group 1 at NAS Lakehurst. Overnight. was established for multi-engine carrier in the Pacific and still completing repairs—launched aircraft training at NAS Seattle. Suwannee (AVG 27). battleship Hiei. On 10 November.” Yokosuka D4Y1 Wildcats from VF-41 damaged French battleship Jean Bart. the failed Japanese bombardment (ACV 29). The following afternoon.

Ascension Island.32s Other squadrons that subsequently received the appellation over the Canary Islands and German Focke-Wulf Fw 200C included VP-11. and the merger of the Service Force Aviation Repair Unit and West Africa. was established at NAS Lakehurst. H. that provided trained civilian electronics specialists to the fleet throughout World War II and post-war. Santee became 16 NOV E M BER • Marine Night Fighter Squadron the first of 11 auxiliary aircraft carriers to wage free-roving (VMF[N])-531. commanding. Condors near Gibraltar. N. was commissioned at Norfolk. Morocco. 1 DECE M BER • Airship Patrol Group 3 was redesignated Fleet Airship Wing 31 at NAS Moffett Field. N. the Catalinas encountered Spanish Fiat CR. Donald B. Within a few months. Conn. respectively. to conduct 31 DECE M BER • Essex (CV 9). VP-12 became known as a “Black Cat” squadron. patrols. She was the first of 17 ships of her class commissioned during World War II. sailed from NOB Norfolk. Col. During these Islands. Capt.1942 continued greater loss of warships during this series of engagements. Morocco. hunter-killer antisubmarine and antiraider operations in the commanding. crew of his Catalina sank Vichy French boat Le Conquerant without sighting survivors. This SOSU was established on 1 January of the communications error. South Atlantic. and requested the continuance of 23 NOV E M BER • The VS-173 full-scale model of the the provision of people capable of assisting the fleet in the “Flying Flapjack” fighter with an almost circular wing made operation and maintenance of radar equipment until the its first flight at the Vought-Sikorsky plant. Va. In addition. Capt. Frank H. Capt. Brazil. to 13 NOV E M BER • Two PBY-5As of VP-92 spotted a form a scout observation service unit (SOSU) to maintain submarine on the surface that refused to answer recognition battleship and cruiser aircraft and indoctrinate pilots in their signals about 700 miles off Casablanca. George A. was established at MCAS Cherry Point. final attempt to dispatch large naval forces into the waters around Guadalcanal. Seaplane schemes of the PBY-5A Catalinas of VP-12 and the night- tender Barnegat (AVP 10) supported the squadron during time bombing operations conducted by the squadron from antisubmarine operations over the western Mediterranean Nandi in the Fiji Islands around Guadalcanal in the Solomon and the Strait of Gibraltar and its approaches. This first naval aviation night fighter squadron trained initially with SNJ Texans and SB2A4 Buccaneers. 27 DECE M BER • Santee (ACV 29). S.C.J. Ireland. 31 DECE M BER • The Japanese decided to evacuate Guadalcanal. Va. assembly of a specially trained group. Stratford. Va. was established at Norfolk. a detachment operated from Ben Sergao Field near Agadir. 1 DECE M BER • Fleet Airship Wing 30. Seitz commanding. The wing administered Atlantic Fleet airship groups and but the Japanese withdrew and the battle marked their their squadrons. George H. 168  |  World War II . Because specific operations. with Air Group 29 embarked. and Lyncham. England. and -91. Duncan operations within the Moroccan Sea Frontier. Calif. Mills commanding. Blake and the 1943 as the first of three created during World War II. pilot Lt. 1 DECE M BER • Fleet Air Wing 15. -51. VP-92 arrived at Les 26 DECE M BER • The Chief of Naval Operations approved Cazes at Port Lyautey via Cuba. from Iceland via 15 DECE M BER • As a result of the matte-black paint Bally Kelly. obviated the slower peacetime methods of procurement and fleet introduction. Schwable. and then 31 DECE M BER • The chief of BUAER noted to the Naval received twin-engine PV-1 Venturas equipped with British Research Laboratory the urgent need for airborne radar that Mark IV type radar. A subsequent military version of this aircraft designated this team evolved into the Airborne Coordination Group XF5U-1 never flew. USMC. Solomon Islands. Lt. Advanced Cruiser Aircraft Training Unit. 13 NOV E M BER • PBY-5 Catalinas of VP-73 arrived at Craw Field at Port Lyautey. which had been established in October 1941 and June 1942.

2 Fighter Training Unit. Thus Japanese planes counterattacked.. and tooling engaged in primary flight training were redesignated naval for two fighters to McDonnell Aircraft Corporation. Atlantic Fleet. Fairlamb Jr. introduced Service courses conducted by the Civil Aeronautics Grampaw Pettibone in the BUAER News Letter. half hour before the scheduled arrival of a flight of PBYs. which were and then returned to Norfolk.I. This recovery and numerals in three groups separated by dashes. she provided administrative. using the control tower as a relay station. destroyed a Japanese dive bomber with the second salvo from her 5-inch guns off the south coast of Guadalcanal. The first occurred nine days after the first successful experimental group provided a letter identification of the station. The same order established Fleet Air. students began their training at these schools with three months of academic work fundamental 15 JA N UA RY • Head of the Flight Statistics Desk of the to ground school subjects. D. Spencer H. development. and Carriers.. a snowstorm closed the field at NAS Quonset Point. Atlantic. French 1 JA N UA RY • The Navy recorded its first emergency use Morocco. Artist Lt. the demonstration of GCA. then to the pre-flight schools for three months from the Navy. light cruiser Helena (CL 50) No. Va. and on 1 September 1943.. Fleet Air Wings. 8 JA N UA RY • Ranger (CV 4) sailed from NOB Norfolk. Under light cruisers. Va. 14 JA N UA RY • Independence (CVL 22) was commissioned at Philadelphia. World War II   |   169 . and in the first combat use J2-F-22 identified a plane from NAS Jacksonville. After Osborn’s discharge instructors. Alva D. second a letter identifying the unit type. was engines and the aircraft received the designation XFD-1. for shipment to the North African Theater. R. and the third the number of the aircraft in the unit. abolished. 22. R. he contributed Pettibone to Naval Aviation of physical conditioning. aircraft No. to west African waters with 75 embarked Curtiss P-40Es Rear Adm.. “talked” under his command for identification purposes with letters one of the planes into position for a landing. Warner. George R. Gold Atlantic Fleet aviation in place of the separate commands Coast (Ghana). 1943 1943 7 JA N UA RY • The development of the first naval aircraft to be equipped with a turbojet engine began with the issuance 1 JA N UA RY • Naval Reserve aviation bases (NRAB) of a letter of intent for engineering.. the new program. was established. Quonset. Mass. The air stations (NAS) without a change of mission. abolished.. The 12 JA N UA RY • The chief of Naval Air Operational Training GCA crew located the incoming Catalinas on their search directed the marking of aircraft operating from stations radar and.C. redesignated as a naval air station. Fla. to direct patrol plane operations in the of ground-controlled approach (GCA) equipment when a Mediterranean and Strait of Gibraltar area. as a subordinate command. Administration at universities for two months’ training Robert Osborn drew the cartoon character as a safety feature in ground subjects and elementary flight under civilian to help reduce pilot-error accidents. There were agreements later specified two Westinghouse 19-B turbojet two exceptions. beginning at one of the primary training bases. Capt. operations of more than one unit on board the station. 7 JA N UA RY • The opening of flight preparatory schools commanding. was which became the prototypes for the FH-1 Phantom. Squantum. On 19 January. Bernhard commanding. 10 JA N UA RY • Fleet Air Wing 15 headquarters was transferred from Norfolk. NRAB Anacostia. The order also provided 5 JA N UA RY • Ships of Task Force 67 bombarded Japanese for the addition of a number to the station letter during the positions in Munda on New Georgia. Atlantic. and finally to Navy flight training News magazine. OTU of a proximity-fuzed projectile. The command of the USAAF 325th Fighter Group. On 7 July 1943. then proceeded to War Training Bureau of Aeronautics. Pa. to Port Lyautey.. material. and logistic services for launched the Warhawks from a position off Accra. Capt. She was the first of nine light carriers of her in 20 colleges and universities across the United States class constructed on the hulls of Cleveland (CL 55)-class implemented a change in the pilot training program. Solomon Islands.I. 1 JA N UA RY • Air Force.

Joseph C. Cmdr. Jefferson J. Absecon had undergone the unique fitting of a pilots flying F4U-1 Corsairs at NAS San Diego. Clifton reported that launches and sled net recoveries. Mitsubishi A6M Type 0 carrier fighters and three floatplanes 170  |  World War II . Robert S. Lauderdale and 24 JA N UA RY • Ships of Task Force 67 shelled Japanese Miami. ammunition and fuel dumps on Kolombangara. but DeBlanc shot down two was commissioned at Puget Sound Navy Yard at Bremerton. The Japanese Absecon (AVP 23). Purvis commanding. 1943 continued 41221 A carrier’s landing signal officer guides an F4U Corsair to land. 17 JA N UA RY • After tests conducted by six experienced Wash. Her embarked aviation unit antiblackout suits had raised pilot tolerance to accelerations consisted initially of one SO3C-1 Seamew and two OS2U-3 encountered in gunnery runs and other maneuvers by three Kingfishers. Calif. VF-12 catapult and two cranes to facilitate training in catapult commanding officer Cmdr.. intercepted the Marines. VMF-112 piloted an F4F-4 Wildcat as part of an escort for SBD Dauntlesses and TBF-1 Avengers that bombed 28 JA N UA RY • Barnegat (AVP 10)-class seaplane tender Japanese ships in Vella Gulf in the Solomons. Solomon Islands. aircraft operating from Guadalcanal’s 31 JA N UA RY • 1st Lt. of Henderson Field bombed the targets. Later that day. DeBlanc. and also operated as a mobile target for torpedo planes training from NASs Ft. Fla. during World War II. USMC. The ship completed 3.733 catapult launches to four Gs.

who had Japanese submarine I-18 in the Coral Sea. 12 FEBRUA RY • Vought F4U-1s flew their first combat mission when 12 Corsairs of VMF-124. USMC. 11 FEBRUA RY • The Navy issued a contract for the XFR-1 to Ryan Aeronautical Corp. A coastwatcher on Kolombangara coordinated attack with destroyer Fletcher (DD 445) to sink rescued DeBlanc and SSgt. Maj. and directed testing to determine their value when had directly supported the hard-pressed soldiers and Marines. 9 FEBRUA RY • Organized Japanese resistance ended on 15 FEBRUA RY • Commander in Chief. Although it was not the first Navy rescue downed pilots.S.. Gold Coast (Ghana). squadrons. The Japanese downed 10 aircraft. Rossmore D. was established at NAS Norfolk. camouflage color scheme for use on fleet aircraft was a pattern of four colors ranging from semigloss Sea Blue on 13 FEBRUA RY • The reorganization of the Naval Air surfaces viewed from above with intermediary blues to Transport Service took place and the Navy directed the nonspecular Insignia White on surfaces viewed from below. World War II   |   171 . 1943 continued over Kolombangara Island. Cmdr. embarked attacks. DeBlanc received the Medal of Honor. and offensive missions from sheltered coves and harbors. On 24 February. Va. operating from merchant ships to fight submarines. equipped PB2Y-2 Coronado to Vella Lavella in the Solomon Islands to with PV-1 Venturas. and marking of naval aircraft became effective. also parachuted. Thirteen days later a J2F-5 Duck returned both men. but XP2V-1 patrol planes to Vega Airplane Co. Lt. she launched the Warhawks 1 FEBRUA RY • The revision of regulations governing the from a position off Accra. Mitsubishi A6M Type 0 carrier fighters while escorting VP-51 PB4Y-1 Liberators on a daylight strike in the Kahili 1 FEBRUA RY • A new specification prescribing the color area of Bougainville. 1 FEBRUA RY • VB-127.. to west African waters with 75 embarked USAAF Curtiss P-40Ls. Gentner Gise. commanding. it was the first to receive the VB for Corsairs occurred when the squadron encountered designation. operated in a rare over the enemy-held island. rescue. 16 FEBRUA RY • Fleet Air Wing 16. Fla. and Navy patrol squadrons had flown search. Va. Capt. The basic including two Corsairs. James A. The ship returned to Hampton markings from the upper right and lower left wing surfaces. William E. 1942 for use on intermediate and primary trainers. Feliton. Lyon commanding. Fleet Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands after the evacuation of assigned the responsibility for the seagoing development their main forces. while losing three Zeros. USMC. based on Guadalcanal escorted a commanding. for shipment display of the national star insignia on aircraft removed those to the North African Theater. Trinidad. The development and production were to be handled on a crash basis to equip 19 FEBRUA RY • A letter of intent was issued for two escort carrier squadrons at the earliest possible date. and maximum performance flight. Allied aircraft operating from ashore Guard. but the aviator bailed out from his damaged Wildcat on board light cruiser Helena (CL 50). Two days later. was established at NAS Deland. The action design and production problems prevented the plane from initiated the development of the Lockheed Neptune. This fighter incorporated 17 FEBRUA RY • Airship K-17 of ZP-51 initiated lighter- a conventional reciprocating engine for use in normal than-air operations over the Caribbean from Edinburgh operations and a turbojet for use as a booster during takeoffs Field. His efforts disrupted the Japanese 11 FEBRUA RY • An SON-1 Seagull of VCS-9. the first combat action landplane patrol squadron. U. establishment of wings for the Atlantic and West Coast It also involved complex countershading paint application. The terms “basic non-camouflage” and “maximum visibility” were introduced for the color schemes described in April 14 FEBRUA RY • Ranger (CV 4) sailed from NOB Norfolk. In addition to the desperately waged carrier of helicopters and their operation in convoys to the Coast battles of the campaign. Va. entering battle. Roads. William K.

advance against the Japanese stronghold at Rabaul. Fla. and as a result.4 at Argentia. 24 FEBRUA RY • The Naval Photographic Science in the Solomon Islands. and the British covered the landings. and 18 from Guadalcanal’s Henderson Field in the Solomon torpedo bombers. At one point. to begin the 1 M A RCH • Air Transport Squadrons. and athwartships on the hangar deck. escort scouting squadrons (VGS) to composite squadrons (VC). On this date. John W. and Tarpon Is in the air and by sea enabled the Allies to reduce or bypass (Grumman TBF-1 Avengers) of 832 Squadron. The Japanese failure to defeat the counteroffensive F4F-4Bs) of 882. joined Task Group 24. Solomons. USAAF planes from Aircraft. Okla.1943 continued 21 FEBRUA RY • Marines and soldiers made unopposed carriers. HX-228. Guadalcanal. D. Central Pacific Forces. carriers in early 1943 reduced from Saratoga (CV 3) and Henderson Field. and Aircraft. 1 M A RCH • A revision of the squadron designation system 15 M A RCH • The headquarters of Fleet Air Wing 4 shifted changed inshore patrol squadrons to scouting squadrons westward on the Aleutian chain from Kodiak to Adak. except those that convoy escort. (VS). In spite of this change. 36 scout bombers.C. Marine. enemy garrisons piecemeal. carrier. On 8 May. South Pacific. (VF). Santee (ACV 29) was established at NAAS Oakland. outfitted. some of the Tarpons Laboratory was established at NAS Anacostia. and to develop equipment and techniques suitable for fleet use. and a second flight deck catapult in lieu of one through the central Solomon Islands. The ship embarked Martlet IVs (Grumman Britain. Bougainville. Newfoundland. Islands. The embarked briefly on board Saratoga in a rare instance during Bureau of Aeronautics oversaw the laboratory to provide World War II of British planes operating from a U. and trained special units for the authorized changes to the characteristics of Essex (CV 9)-class operational employment of assault drone aircraft. was established at NAS in the South Pacific. Walter E.S. 172  |  World War II . and 898 Squadrons. 5 M A RCH • Bogue (ACV 9). 896. the number available in the South Pacific. West Coast. she sailed for Nouméa. including Saratoga (CV 3). escort fighting squadrons (VGF) to fighting squadrons Alaska. the types of squadrons on board Essex (CV 9)-class carriers fell to three. New Caledonia. Capt. she reached Pearl Harbor. to mine Kahili Harbor.S. Sapp. A coordinated attack on the Kahili airfield by USAAF heavy bombers 1 M A RCH • Fleet Airship Group 2. including the installation of a combat information landings in the Russell Islands during Operation center and fighter director station. and patrol squadrons (VP) operating land 15 M A RCH • The Navy initiated a system of numbering type planes to bombing squadrons (VB). but Bogue became controlled all Naval Air Transport Service squadrons the center of the first of the hunter-killer groups assigned to operating west of the Mississippi River. escort of convoys to mid-ocean and return. the aircraft complement of their air groups remained at led 42 Navy and Marine TBF-1 Avengers on a night flight the previous level of 21 fighters. Calif. contributed to the success of this first aerial mining mission Zimmerman commanding. with VC-9 embarked. including those operating 4 M A RCH • Damage to U. and into the summer operated with Task Group 36. VC. photographic services to the Navy. The group oversaw lighter-than-air operations in the Gulf Sea Frontier.3. 20 M A RCH • Maj. 23 M A RCH • The Training Task Force Command was established with its headquarters at NAS Clinton. USMC. Richmond. The command previously operated on hunter-killer duty. New Hawaiian Islands. additional antiaircraft Cleanslate—the inaugural movement of Allied forces batteries. of VMTB-143. Through 14 March the ship supported convoy operated from the mainland to Honolulu. Navy. The revision also fleets with those in the Pacific receiving odd numbers and redesignated carrier scouting squadrons (VS) as VB and those in the Atlantic even numbers. The 4 M A RCH • Secretary of the Navy William F. The Allies leapfrogged across the responded to a request for reinforcements by dispatching their islands and established bases and airfields to support their carrier Victorious (38). Knox command formed. Hawaiian Islands.

I. The command supervised and directed the operations of Naval Air Transport Service squadrons based on the Atlantic seaboard. William J. Brazil. Cmdr. Bougainville. and he subsequently reported that during tests of an automatic flying device for became the 37th president of the United States. was established at NAS While in the South Pacific. Fleet. to 9 A PR I L • The Navy reestablished the rank of commodore. Cmdr. Naval Air Forces Pacific as officer in charge developed countermeasures equipment. j. Japanese transport Shinnan Maru blundered into one of the mines and sank. R. The change proved unpopular among antisubmarine operations.. naval aviator in the Bell XP-59A Airacomet at Evaluation of the Ship-Based Helicopter in Antisubmarine Muroc.I. and the British Admiralty 21 A PR I L • Capt. U. Richard M. and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. reported to training programs and techniques to make use of newly Commander..S. and afterward on the Green Islands and in Fleet Air Wing 8. 3 M AY • VR-1 extended the area of its operations with a flight from NAS Norfolk. 468849 1 A PR I L • Aircraft Antisubmarine Development Aviation ordnancemen mount 4. 16 A PR I L • The Navy changed the color of the working 4 M AY • To expedite the evaluation of helicopters in uniform to slate grey. the Bureau of Aeronautics. via Reykjavik. On 17 April. Atlantic. on 15 October 1946. Va. the War Shipping Administration.. maintenance of the aerial supply routes. to Natal. Va. 1943 continued 29 M A RCH • Testing of forward firing rocket projectiles from naval aircraft concluded with evaluation of an SB2A-4 Buccaneer at the Naval Proving Ground. Pa. Dahlgren. Nixon retired from the Naval Reserve. a Taylorcraft LNT-1 had been towed automatically without assistance from the safety pilot. The resulting Combined Board for the flight by a U. Aurelius B. was established at NAS Quonset Point. Solomon Islands.I. Trapnell made the first jet and Royal Air Force.g. On 1 June 1966. Prestwick. of the Commander in Chief. Nixon. he served in the development and Quonset Point. World War II   |   173 . search coverage beyond Attu toward the Kurile Islands. use on towed gliders. the Coast Guard. was established at NAS Norfolk. 14 A PR I L • Fleet Air Wing 16 was transferred from NAS Norfolk. as the first Navy night fighter squadron. USNR. of the South Pacific Combat Air Transport Command at Guadalcanal. Iceland. aviation indoctrination training at NAS Quonset Point. R. Calif. 30 M A RCH • TBF-1 Avengers laid mines near Buin. Philadelphia. Vosseller commanding. 29 M A RCH • Air Transport Squadrons. U. the service reinstated directed the formation of a joint board with representatives khakis. R. Commander in Chief. Widhelm commanding. Nixon had completed naval 1 A PR I L • Night Fighting Squadron (VF[N]) 75. Scotland.5-inch high-velocity rockets onto a plane. Warfare later underwent expansion to include representatives of the USAAF. to direct patrol plane 4 M AY • Fleet Air Wing 4 commenced regular aerial patrols antisubmarine operations within the Fourth Fleet in the from Amchitka in the Aleutian Islands that extended the South Atlantic. Cmdr.. Fleet officers and. in the Solomon Islands. 4 A PR I L • The Naval Aircraft Factory..S. Frederick M. Detachment.S. The event completed the first R5D-1 Skymaster operation of the Naval Air Transport Service. to develop tactical M AY • Lt. Va. Va.

Alaska. USA. whose team consisted of three officers and a radioman led by experienced Aleutian pilot 8 M AY • Navy and Marine aircraft sank destroyers Oyashio Col. N. PBY-5A the XR-4 helicopter on board merchant tanker Bunker Hill Catalinas of VP-43 and -62. R. Cape Farewell. O. The Maritime of a support air commander afloat on board battleship Commission sponsored the demonstration. Col. Bodinet of VP-84 piloted a PBY-5A Catalina that sank the German U-640 using a Mk 24 airborne 8 M AY • Sable (IX 81) was commissioned at Buffalo. The seizure of Attu was the debut returning to the platform on the ship’s deck. 1943 continued 41693 A PV-1 Ventura hunts for enemy submarines. W. and planes damaged destroyer Michisio in the strait. Pennsylvania (BB 38). and in some of these. 174  |  World War II . USAAF. made 15 Adak. Despite extensive naval gunfire and Kagero. F. Gregory. he landed on the water before operated from Amchitka. Schoech commanding. A. and escort carrier of amphibious operations. 14 M AY • Lt. Meanwhile. N. Planes from Fleet Air directed Lakehurst’s Experimental and Flight Test Department. 7 M AY • Navy representatives witnessed landing trials of Wing 4 also took part—PV-1 Venturas from VB-136.. Calif. struck a mine laid the previous day and sank in the Blackett Strait. and Venturas from VB-135 and PBY-5As of VP-61 flights.Y. acoustic homing torpedo dubbed “Fido” off Iceland. east of Capt. William A. P. after mines damaged both warships and air support the soldiers suffered disproportionately high off Rendova in the Solomons. 11 M AY • Task Forces 16 and 51 supported landings of the 15 M AY • The Naval Airship Training Command was Army’s 7th Division on Attu Island. and PBY-5s from VP-45 flew from in Long Island Sound. and directed lighter-than-air training programs at the naval marking the first use of this type of direct air support from an air centers at Lakehurst and NAS Moffett Field.J. 1943. Greenland. The command administered aircraft flew close air support missions from Nassau (ACV 16). destroyer Kuroshio casualties dislodging the tenacious Japanese defenders. respectively. Navy and Marine established at Lakehurst. Eareckson. c.

. 24 M AY • Special Project Unit Cast was organized at These had nearly double the velocity of those that had been Squantum. The next day. project for the airborne testing by Commander Fleet Air. C.S. National Defense Research Committee auspices and with Navy support. damaged German submarines U-228. West Coast of high velocity. The Germans maintained that the crew scuttled their Japanese territory in the Kurile Islands. direction) the services required to flight test electronic A rocket section led by Dr. embarked on board Bogue on the basis of reports of the effectiveness in service of a (ACV 9). to provide (under Bureau of Aeronautics tested earlier at the Dahlgren. sank U-569 U-848 during the submarine’s sinking on 5 November 1943. On 12 June.. 18 M AY • The cancellation of the program for the use of gliders as transports for Marine combat troops returned the Navy’s glider development to an experimental basis. U-603. auxiliary aircraft carriers on hunter-killer 1. Bogue claimed the destruction of 13 U-boats by her planes and escorts during the 7 J U N E • Commander in Chief. Va. 20 M AY • The Navy established the Tenth Fleet with its headquarters in Washington. On 14 July. and similar British rocket. U.C. boat. The and her Avengers sank U-118 near those islands. the first airborne firing U-641 in the mid-Atlantic. 22 M AY • During a running battle to protect convoy ON-184 44360 in the North Atlantic. TBF-1 Avengers of VC-9. Avengers from the from a TBF-1 Avenger of a British rocket was followed ship sank U-217 off the Canary Islands. Bogue on 20 August by launching of the CalTech round. D. nearly World War II by U.000 miles from the Alaskan mainland and 750 miles from patrols.S. Avengers also damaged U-305. to direct antisubmarine warfare efforts in the Atlantic. This test project was established in part 5 J U N E • TBF-1s of VC-9. “forward shooting” rockets. the capture of the island from the Japanese brought Fleet World War II   |   175 .. Cuba. Naval Proving Ground. to score the first U-boat sinking in Air Wing 4 bases to the tip of the Aleutian chain. Lauritsen developed the equipment under development at the Radiation and Radio rockets at the California Institute of Technology under Research Laboratories. C. favorable results of these evaluations led to the equipping of operational squadrons with forward firing rockets by the 7 J U N E • The establishment of NAF Attu within a week of end of the year. embarked on One of four PB4Y-1 Liberator bombers of VB-107 out of Ascension Island drops Mk 47 depth bombs on board Bogue (ACV 9). Mass. 1943 continued 15 M AY • OS2U-3 and OS2N-1 Kingfishers of VS-62 and Cuban submarine chaser SC-13 sank the German U-176 northeast of Havana. Fleet established a Battle of the Atlantic.

Wickham Anchorage. 28 J U N E • A change in the design of the national star insignia added white rectangles on the left and right sides 6 J U LY • Commanding officer and pilot Lt. The squadron reported that Van Voorhis flew “too low and too slow” on 29 J U N E • Elements of VP-101 arrived at Brisbane from the last run. Cmdr. The ensuing designation after completion of an instructor’s course. The Japanese. New Georgia Air Force provided the principal intrinsic air Lt. of Task Force 33. navigator Lt. Md.. W.S. The battle marked the second supported soldiers of the 43rd Division and Marines who combat use of Mk 24 Fido acoustic torpedoes. Aubrey W. the move of the 4th Marine Raider Battalion into Segi of the New Georgia Group in the Solomon Islands. proposed the beginning of a northward advance of patrol operations the development of helicopters for antisubmarine warfare. combat air patrols over the beachhead that protected the landings from continual Japanese aerial counterattacks. On 28 June 1963. Holmes maintenance of the only operating radar set on Rendova. Oscar Holmes was A6M Type 0 carrier fighters disrupted the landings. Bruce of the blue circular field to form a horizontal bar. Camden. The ship’s company included assistant echelon of the 2d Marine Aircraft Wing of Headquarters. Marine. and USAAF aircraft supported days later. was commissioned at New York Shipbuilding airfields on Guadalcanal and the Russell Islands. Mitscher held tactical 17 J U N E • Monterey (CVL 26). and a red A. Japanese repeatedly attacked the landing forces from the air. Fitch commanding. Fitch commanding. or the temporary documented man of color to receive Navy wings. and Woodlark. rather recriminations between the Army and Navy led to enhanced than the entire Navy flight syllabus. Three 21 J U N E • Navy.” To this end he recommended their equipping with 30 J U N E • Land-based Navy.. Marc A. The substitution of attack in a PB4Y-1 Liberator against Japanese installations on Insignia Blue for the red followed in September. Van 176  |  World War II . supported Operation Toenails—U. which operated primarily from commanding. Lester T. 20 J U N E • Lt. D. and that a bomb blast caught the Liberator and Perth. Aubrey W. Navy officials apparently were variously attributed to Japanese interception of Allied radio unaware of Holmes’ race and he thus became the first traffic that revealed retiring fighter cover. thereby extending the patrol coverage of the bomber crashed in the lagoon. Fleet Air Wing 10 to the east coast of Australia and marking claimed that their floatplanes downed the Liberator. 5 J U LY • The first Westinghouse l9A turbojet engine developed for the Navy completed its 100-hour endurance test. Fierce fighting occurred offshore when the afterward became the 38th president of the United States. stormed Viru and Zanana. The forward Corp. Ford Jr. however. USCG. Erickson. and USAAF aircraft of Catalina that sank German submarine U-388 and damaged Task Force 33. began functioning as station and several strafing passes against three Mitsubishi an aircraft test organization with the arrival of the flight test F1M2 Type 0 observation floatplanes (Petes) of the 902d unit from NAS Anacostia. This is designated a naval aviator. U-420 in Icelandic waters. and USAAF aircraft radar and dunking sonar. Islands. Marine. Australia. Cmdr. USNR. Capt. A flight of Japanese Mitsubishi G4M1 Type 1 attack planes escorted by 20 J U N E • African American Ens. Allied troops landed at Rice Anchorage. New Guinea. including Kiriwini.1943 continued 10 J U N E • Lt. Roosevelt approved a and other islands in the New Georgia area of the Solomon ceiling of 31. Van Voorhis of VB-102 made a daring solitary low-level border stripe around the entire design. Vice Adm. Vice Adm. N. landings on Rendova 15 J U N E • President Franklin D. Greenwich Island (Kapingamarangi).. Cmdr. Kōkūtai (Air Group) and vessels in the lagoon. Solomon Islands.C. Frank A. toward the Papuan Peninsula. and support ashore. The had attained experience as a civilian pilot and received the Bettys and Zeros killed 59 men and wounded 77. Van Voorhis made six bombing runs on a radio 29 J U N E • NAS Patuxent River. Onaivisi. Rear Adm. Gerald R. Wood of VP-84 piloted a PBY-5A 2 J U LY • Land-based Navy. E. After a flight of almost 700 miles. Hundt command of the planes. Marine.447 planes for the Navy.J. Ford was discharged from the Naval Reserve. “not as a killer craft but as the eyes and ears of the convoy escorts.

The U-boat shot down Lt. but ARM Edward J. Steven W. escorted by F4U- 1s. all posthumously. -211. World War II   |   177 . and Coast Guard carried out strafing run in a Wildcat. Fleet Airship Wings 30 and 31 were redesignated Fleet 12 J U LY • Light cruisers Birmingham (CL 62) and Brooklyn Airships. Ranger (CV 4). from VMF-122. Large) for the 45. and -221. Grinstead and AMM2 Melvin H. Navy. air station facilities of the former Naval Aircraft Factory organization at Philadelphia. USNR. Pilot Lt. Three a demonstration of helicopter operations on board Army days later. 14 Squadron. and Royal New successful assaults on U-boats during two of the carrier’s Zealand Air Force Curtiss Kittyhawks of No. began a month of P-39 Airacobras and Curtiss P-40 Warhawks. about 720 miles south-southwest of Fayal. and added CVB (Aircraft Messerschmitt Bf 109s shot down three of Savannah’s Carrier. The pilot of one. Enterprise (CV 6). 1943 continued Voorhis received the Medal of Honor. the Army’s 1st Division their symbol from ACV to CVE. and aircrewmen Herschel A. 10 J U LY • Light cruisers Philadelphia (CL 41) and Savannah (CL 42) operated with gunfire support ships 15 J U LY • The establishment of new designations for during Operation Husky—the Allied invasion of Sicily. airship patrol squadrons were of the left flank of the advance of American forces across redesignated blimp squadrons. and TBF-1 Avengers from VT-11 and -21. Airship patrol (CL 40) commenced coverage from off Porto Empédocle groups became airship wings. copilot Lt. along 13 J U LY • F4F-4 Wildcats and TBF-1 Avengers of VC-13. Williams. German to Essex (CV 9)-class carriers. and ARM1 Morris C.000-ton Midway (CVB 41)-class four scout planes. Through 7 July. Lt. The next day. C. Azores. Capt. USNR. tapering aft to 40 feet in width. killing him. A German minefield compelled the cruisers to more wings and the establishment of blimp headquarters maneuver out to sea but their scouting planes spotted the squadrons within each wing was authorized. and on 24 August sank U-84 and U-185 at two landed on a platform fitted to the ship that measured 60 feet different locations southwest of the Azores. was awarded the Navy Cross. Allied naval the hulls of Cleveland (CL 55)-class light cruisers. modification.000-ton Independence (CVL 22)-class ships built on plane and escaped before it sank. with USAAF Consolidated B-24 Liberators escorted by Bell embarked on board Core (ACV 13). including Corsairs. experimental. Atlantic. and and built as such. under construction and CVL (Aircraft Carrier. Oehlert Jr. and the Naval Auxiliary Air Station. This action commanding. Paden each of the other crewmembers received the Distinguished sank surfaced U-487 with depth charges from their Avenger Flying Cross. j. and while the ship forming the Naval Air Material Center. was commissioned at Astoria. afterward augmented by additional Allied ships. Avengers from Core (which was redesignated transport James Parker (AP 46) while she sailed from New CVE-13 the previous day) destroyed U-67 in the mid- York City to Virginia. during a 6 J U LY • The Army. and the addition of two Sicily.g. Callaway Station. Pa. including light cruiser 17 J U LY • SBD Dauntlesses from VB-11 and VMSB-132 Philadelphia (CL 41). the pilots completed 98 landings and takeoffs 14 J U LY • The Secretary of the Navy issued a General Order in winds ranging from 5 to 25 knots. fall of 6-inch supporting fire for more than a week. Anderson. Steiger. Two YR-4B (HNS-1) Hoverflys Atlantic. respectively. long by 50 feet wide forward.. carriers limited the previous broadly applied CV symbol Philadelphia and Savannah launched their SOC-3 and to Saratoga (CV 3). the Naval Aircraft Modification Unit. A. separate commands of the Naval Aircraft Factory. Earl H. Small) for the was killed.g. and -3A and SON-1 Seagulls to spot the fall of shot. Ore. The same gunfire destroyed 13 Axis tanks and continued support over directive reclassified escort carriers as warships and changed the succeeding days. the Naval Air Experimental 8 J U LY • Casablanca (ACV 55). and Pacific.” 15 J U LY • The Navy modified its airship organization. True landed the riddled nine 10. Robert P. consisting of the pitched up to 6½ degrees. thanked Savannah for “crushing three infantry attacks and silencing four artillery batteries. patrols. j. On 13 July. as the first became effective on 20 July and consolidated in distinct of her class and the first auxiliary aircraft carrier designed activities the production. BuNo 12112.

50-caliber machine gun and equipped with radio controls and a homing device. and three types of radar guidance 178  |  World War II . K-74 fired a . 18 J U LY • Lt. ramjet. In the face of heavy died from a shark attack before a J4F-2 Widgeon from ZP-21 fighter opposition. the only television. One man Solomon Islands into the following day. 1943 continued 301754 Two ships of Task Group 38. 15. The two types formed the basis for the fast carrier task forces at sea. October 1944. and rocket power. The unsuccessfully attempted to drop depth bombs.S. wreck remained afloat until 19 July but then sank. but the following month British bombers sank her in the Bay of Biscay. 19 J U LY • The Naval Aircraft Factory. Bougainville. Philadelphia. the attacks sank destroyer Hatsuyuki and directed destroyer Dahlgren (DD 187) to the area to rescue damaged destroyers Hatsukaze and Yūnagi. G. in the U.2. respectively) are seen from Enterprise (CV 6) around the time of the Battle of Leyte Gulf. and canard (tail first) air frames. N. attacked Japanese ships at Buin. Despite damage to her minesweeper W. heat-homing. pulsejet. ballast and diving tanks. airship lost to enemy action in World War II. K-74’s controls failed to respond. Grills of ZP-21 piloted airship K-74 on a patrol off southeastern Florida from NAS Richmond. U-134 escaped. and auxiliary Grills and the other eight survivors.. The airship’s radar detected a contact at a range of eight miles received authorization to develop the Gorgon aerial ram and ten minutes later the blimp discovered surfaced U-134 or air-to-air missile powered by a turbojet engine and off the port bow. The U-boat’s Gorgon program later underwent expansion embracing deck gun and machine gun fire hit the engine and the airship turbojet. Fla. and it fell tail first. Intrepid (CV 11) and Independence (CVL 22) (left and right. straight wing. bag. The swept wing. and visual. Pa.

completed the Arundel Island. landings on Vella Lavella that bypassed Japanese garrisons on Kolombangara in the Solomon Islands. Their arrival marked the initial U. and suggested their same day.” By other orders issued the subordinate commands of sea frontiers. sank German on Kiska in the Aleutian Islands marked the first use in submarine U-847 in the mid-Atlantic. Zimmerman Walsh. Roosevelt and key Allied leaders. and USAAF aircraft supported failed to demonstrate its operational value. Walter E. and surface-to-surface the opportunity to prove the soundness of the principle guided missiles. Buin. The Japanese squadron operations from the United Kingdom during counterattacked vigorously during more than 100 sorties. to NAS Patuxent River. and as target drones. Marine. was established at Maceio. embarked on board Card (CVE 11). King directed the use of fleet air wing commanders in the aeronautic operating forces. 1943 continued for use as air-to-air. Kenneth A. 4 AUGUST • The chief of Naval Air Intermediate Training 18 AUGUST • To provide naval aviation authority directed the establishment of aviation safety boards at each commensurate with its World War II responsibility. John S. Marine. Canada. the training center under his command. removal of arresting gear and related equipment for landing over the bow of aircraft carriers because experience had 15 AUGUST • Navy. including planes from Ranger (CV 4). It directed patrol plane Minister Winston S. readiness and logistic support of the naval J. raids against the enemy fields at Ballale. Secretary of the Navy established the Office of the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air) and charged it with “the 5 AUGUST • Commander in Chief. The ship had embarked British Prime established at Plymouth. to conduct so battered that it was stricken. England. John D. McCain assumed command as the first DCNO (Air). D. U-508 escaped during the Pacific of air liaison parties with forces ashore. The initial combat 23 J U LY • The first of 15 VP-63 PBY-5s reached Pembroke air patrol over the beaches included F4U-1 Corsairs of Dock. Vice Adm. Solomon Islands. Md. conference at Québec. Brazil. 27 AUGUST • F4F-4 Wildcats and TBF-1 Avengers from 15 AUGUST • The landing of Army and Canadian troops VC-1. with the English Channel. U. Fleet Adm. and Mitsubishi A6M Type 0 carrier fighter and two Aichi D3A1 Fleet Air Wing 5. piloting a Corsair of VMF-124 shot down a commanding. World War II. air-to-surface. and USAAF aircraft supported Development Squadron (later Tactical Test) from NAS landings of the Army’s 172nd Regimental Combat Team on Anacostia. Nova Scotia. and Kahili secured the success of the operation. Walsh antisubmarine and convoy patrols in the South Atlantic and repeated his exploit by downing four Japanese aircraft near the southern approaches to the Caribbean. Churchill for his participation in the operations against German submarines in the Bay of Biscay. The Catalinas supported the British in but continual air cover over the landings and bombing antisubmarine patrols over the Bay of Biscay. Capt. Cmdr. 9 AUGUST • Allied aircraft. Trinidad. Kahili.. After 2d Lt. Aeronautics to form the nucleus of the new office.S.. Fifteen days later. Japanese had deserted the island but the landing provided World War II   |   179 . Reppy commanding. five divisions were transferred from the Bureau of assignment as deputy chiefs of staff for air. covered the arrival of British liner Queen Mary at 21 AUGUST • The headquarters of Fleet Air Wing 7 was Halifax. USMC. 2 AUGUST • Fleet Air Wing 4. The a separate battle. 15 AUGUST • The arrival of Aircraft Experimental and 27 AUGUST • Navy. and demonstrated the operational application of rapid and reliable voice communications between frontline 22 J U LY • The Vice Chief of Naval Operations approved the commanders and the support air control unit afloat.S. codenamed Quadrant. he returned to Munda in a plane was established at Edinburgh Field. He later received the Medal of Honor. Ernest preparation. England. transfer of the Navy’s aircraft test activities. England.C. and the southwest approaches to President Franklin D. Type 99 carrier bombers. Navy VMF-123 and -124 operating from Munda.

Radford commanding. TBF-1 Thomas S.S. spotted the fall of shot from the 259064 cruisers’ 6-inch guns. SOC-3 and SON-1 Seagulls from VCS-8. Seagull operating from Philadelphia discovered 35 29 AUGUST • The formation of combat units for the German panzers (tanks) concealed in a thicket adjacent to employment of assault drone aircraft began within the Red Beach. Savannah silenced the first of three special task air groups. Philadelphia suffered 30 AUGUST • Task Force 15. Allied naval gunfire proved instrumental in halting German counterattacks. embarked on board light cruisers Philadelphia (CL 41) and Savannah (CL 42). Makin. Rear Adm. Fifth Army on the Gulf of Salerno. Va. Charles A. German Dornier Do 217E-5s damaged both ships with FX 1400 radio-controlled glide bombs. 15 SEPTE M BER • VFP-1 was established at NAS Norfolk. 1 SEPTE M BER • Task Group 11. and Navy patrol bombers from A. when 23 October. was established for Avengers from Independence sank three small Japanese operations in the Southwest Pacific Area from Brisbane. Salvoes from the cruiser knocked out seven tanks Training Task Force Command with the establishment of before the survivors dashed to the rear. The component a railway battery and broke up an enemy armored thrust. and Tarawa Atolls in the Gilbert Islands. 180  |  World War II . launched nine strike groups in a day-long attack on Japanese installations on 15 SEPTE M BER • Fleet Air Wing 17. This second raid against Marcus marked the first Australia. forces in the Atlantic. Rear Adm. (CV 10). squadrons were designated VK and began to establish on The cruisers covered the landings until 11 September. 1943 continued landing of occupation forces on Baker Island.and Independence-class carriers and the combat debut of the F6F-3 Hellcat. Pownall commanding. east of the Gilbert Islands. Yorktown for repairs at Malta. Charles and Princeton (CVL 23). Navy control manned the patrol airborne antisubmarine warfare by U. including Belleau Wood (CVL 24) 18 SEPTE M BER • Task Force 15. Free 1 SEPTE M BER • The Navy assumed full responsibility for French sailors under U. minor damage and continued the battle. attacked Japanese-occupied Canton Island. attack by Essex. Commodore Marcus Island in the prototype fast carrier strike.S. Rear Adm. but Savannah turned Pownall commanding. furnished day and night air cover for the Abemama. and Independence (CVL 22). Italy—began.S. Combs commanding. Arthur W. vessels. squadron with varying numbers of PBM-3S Mariners and PBY-5A Catalinas.2. 9 SEPTE M BER • Operation Avalanche—an assault by the Anglo- American troops of the U. A An F6F Hellcat laden with rockets and a droppable fuel tank launches from Hancock (CV 19). including Essex (CV 9). Through the remainder of the year.

was reorganized Orkney Islands. The ship had provided air cover over British and Fleet Air. and 18 torpedo bombers. Roosevelt 1 OCTOBER • The increase of the authorized complement and Allied leaders at Québec. The Atlantic began with the arrival of blimp K-84 of ZP-41 at authorized complement for CVL groups was established as Fortaleza. 19 SEPTE M BER • Ranger (CV 4) anchored in Scapa Flow. with President Franklin D.. were battlecruiser Renown while she returned Prime Minister established as additional subordinate commands. and remained at that level through the end of World War II. 30 SEPTE M BER • An advance detachment of was assigned a primary mission of training. Atlantic Fleet. revised the following month to 24 fighters and 9 torpedo bombers. Canada. Norfolk. a series of strategy meetings. 1943 continued 428465 A K-class airship protects a convoy of merchant ships from German submarines in the Atlantic. Churchill from the Quadrant conference. 18 SEPTE M BER • Fleet Air Wing 5 at NAS Norfolk. Atlantic. and Fleet Airships. Winston S. Brazil. 36 bombers. 1 OCTOBER • Air Force. 9 bombers. of fighters in Essex (CV 9)-class carrier air groups raised the number of planes normally embarked on board to 27 SEPTE M BER • Naval airship operations over the South 36 fighters. World War II   |   181 . 12 fighters. and 9 torpedo bombers. Island over the South Atlantic. Va. Fleet Air Wing 9 VB-107 PB4Y-1 Liberators joined USAAF planes flying assumed responsibility for all patrol plane operations within antisubmarine barrier patrols and sweeps from Ascension the Eastern Sea Frontier.

following a one-hour acceptance German U-264. launched six strike groups totaling 738 combat sorties and lost carrier operation in Northern European waters during 12 planes shot down and 14 from accidents. (Coastal Patrol Group) 406. Cmdr. Cmdr. CVG-4. discovered YR-4B (HNS-1) Hoverfly. The first of the Navy’s PB4Y Liberator bombers came from the U. the ships battleship Tirpitz. feared the strikes portended a damaged two tankers. On this date. British X-craft midget attacked Japanese installations during the second carrier raid submarines had temporarily immobilized German on Wake Island. Sherman on the basis of posed by Tirpitz. Conn.J. was established at Argentia. and sank U-422 and U-460. and a Heinkel He 115B of Küstenflieger Gruppe Training and Experimental Command. delivery rate of 300 per month.1943 continued Azores. as two coast from Alter Fjord to Kunna Head. was the second to join the Navy and became Yorktown (CV 10). The raiders tested World War II in Operation Leader—a raid against German ship handling techniques for a multicarrier force devised by forces in Norway made possible by the removal of the threat the staff of Rear Adm. Lexington (CV 16). and Norwegian steamer Vaagan.000 Pelican guided missiles at a training and newer aircraft. 41-23827. Newfoundland. F4F-4 Wildcats of groups of three. three steamers. and SBD-5 Dauntlesses of for some of the tactics that afterward characterized carrier VB-4 sank German steamers Kaguir. La Plata. Alfred E. damaged several aircraft. 4 OCTOBER • In September. A Wildcat crashed upon landing. Ranger launched a strike experience gained in the South Pacific. Erickson. Antiaircraft landing and ordered the execution of the remaining 98 U. a from VC-9. and U-455 while they rendezvoused test flight by Lt. 182  |  World War II . Army Air Forces and included the Army’s serial number. U-422. and a ferry. Frederick C. BuNo 31937. In the course of the two-day battle.. N. and civilians held captive on the island. and Cowpens (CVL 25). Ranger (CV 4) carried out the only U. The island’s Japanese commander. at with Milchkühe (milk cow) refueling boat U-460 north of the Bridgeport. D. USCG. and as three groups of two provided the basis VF-4. B. Wildcats shot down two German planes that approached the task force—a Junkers Ju 88D-1 6 OCTOBER • The Naval Airship Training Command at of Fernaufklarungs Gruppe (Long Range Reconnaissance NAS Lakehurst. was redesignated the Naval Airship Group) 22. including Essex (CV 9). and Rabat.S. TBF-1 Avengers of VT-4.S. and Adm. This B-24D. Frank A. commanding.S. Independence (CVL 22). embarked on board Card (CVE 11). The lessons learned against German ships at Bodø and a second raid along the from operating the carriers as a single group of six. USCG. 4 OCTOBER • F4F-4 Wildcats and TBF-1C Avengers 16 OCTOBER • The Navy accepted its first helicopter. 5 OCTOBER • Task Force 14. fire downed two Dauntlesses of VB-4 and an Avenger. task force operations. The Coast Guardsmen assumed rescue duties that had been performed by naval planes operating from Greenland and Labrador. Rear transport Skramstad. later requested additional production program for 3. Rear Adm. Montgomery commanding. 12 OCTOBER • The Bureau of Ordnance established a The Ranger air group. This action allowed convoy UGS-19 to pass through the vicinity unmolested by the enemy. 5 OCTOBER • Coast Guard Patrol Squadron 6. MacDiarmid. Belleau Wood (CVL 24). but British destroyer Scourge recovered the pilot. Sakaibara Shigematsu.

began operations from Fernando Noronha Island. covered by F4U-1 (CV 17). Bougainville. Rear Adm. Urakaze. This attack witnessed the introduction to combat counterattacks. was established for the research. 2 NOV E M BER • During the nighttime Battle of Empress covered the transport of Norwegian troops to Spitzbergen. Rear Adm. The Allies also embarked the survivors of the but the preliminary air strikes against enemy airfields in original garrison. Japanese planes September 1943 on the islands by battleships Tirpitz and attacked the task force during its retirement after dawn Scharnhorst.. and -233. Frederick C. their use. VMSB. -232. Task Force 38. Rear Adm. Bunker Hill 144. and VMTB-143. Chikuma. USMC. New Georgia. in the Research and Development. Sherman commanding. of Intermediate Training Command similar to those in the VMF(N)-531 provided ground-based fighter direction. P.R. Takagi an F4U-2 Corsair from Munda. a Japanese Mitsubishi G4M1 Type 1 Betty during a night attack off Vella Lavella. and Calif. strafed the Japanese defenders five minutes before the Planes sank destroyer Suzunami. Alfred Princeton (CVL 23). Marine. P. launched preliminary strikes against E. and 50. 1 NOV E M BER • Task Force 31 landed the I Marine propellants. SBD Dauntlesses and TBF-1 Avengers of VC-38. South Atlantic toward Ascension Island. testing of weapons.. USMC. Montgomery commanding. Rear Adm.3. extending Abbot required three months of repairs at the Pearl Harbor the area of Fleet Air Wing 16 antisubmarine patrols over the Navy Yard. USAAF. and rotated over the beaches and disrupted major Japanese aerial Wakatsuki. Gleason. O’Neil of VF(N)-75 piloted Fujinami of the Second Japanese Fleet. which developed and tested rockets. together with a divisionary landing by the 2d Marine Saratoga (CV 3) and Princeton (CVL 23) damaged heavy Parachute Battalion on the west coast of Choiseul Island.4. Sherman commanding. bombed and strike on the Japanese fortress of Rabaul. O’Neil thus scored the first kill by 8 NOV E M BER • The Chief of Naval Operations a radar-equipped night fighter of the Pacific Fleet. and Independence (CVL 22). launched the second Corsairs of VF-17 and VMF-215 and -221. Augusta Bay. Hugh D. and crashed 35 miles north of Cape Borinquen. Rear Adm. The facility initially supported the California Institute of Technology. and TSgt. and destroyers Amagiri and 31 OCTOBER • Lt. Frederick C. including Essex (CV 9). Mogami. and destroyers Naganami. of SB2C-1 Helldivers. including Saratoga (CV 3) Japanese airfields and installations in the Buka-Bonis area. and New Zealand aircraft from the South Pacific Air Force supported landings 5 NOV E M BER • Task Force 38. and damaged light cruisers Marines landed. 31 OCTOBER • Airship K-94 caught fire while en route 8 NOV E M BER • Naval Ordnance Test Station. of the 8th New Zealand Brigade Group on Mono and Sherman commanding. New Britain. directed the establishment of aviation safety boards in the Thomas E. surface Task Force 39 intercepted and turned Svarlbard Archipelago. from NS Guantánamo Bay. and launchers through the Office of Scientific Amphibious Corps at Cape Torokina. Planes from Islands. Solomon Islands. launched an aerial attack on the Stirling Islands in the Treasury Island Group of the Solomon Japanese fortress of Rabaul on New Britain. Cuba. 1943 continued 18 OCTOBER • Cowpens (CVL 25) and destroyer Abbot 1 NOV E M BER • A detachment of VB-145 PV-1 Venturas (DD 629) collided during maneuvers in Hawaiian waters. development. light cruisers Agano and Noshiro. Primary and Operational Training Commands. the Buka-Bonis area the previous day prevented a decisive counterattack. embarked with VB-17 on board World War II   |   183 . 19 OCTOBER • An Allied force. and to provide primary training in man crew was reported missing.R. including Saratoga (CV 3) and 11 NOV E M BER • Task Groups 50. Frederick C. cruisers Atago. Hicks. to reestablish bases destroyed by back a Japanese force en route to attack transports off the Germans during Operation Zitronella—a raid on 8 Bougainville in the Solomon Islands. and Takao. to San Juan. 27 OCTOBER • Navy. including Ranger (CV 4). A combat air patrol averaging 38 fighters Agano and Yūbari. and Princeton (CVL 23). Maya. Inyokern. Maj. and destroyed Takeo commanding. Its eight.

1R Mars flying boat at NAS Patuxent River.g. down a Japanese Mitsubishi A6M Type 0 carrier fighter Edward H. islands of the Ellice. the next day (CVL 22). Rear Adm. vicinity of enemy aircraft by the Enterprise fighter director. 1945. On 20 November. a Japanese aerial torpedo damaged Independence. Princeton (CVL 23). planes flew 2. and the landings on Abemama and Makin Atolls. flew an F6F-3 Hellcat and shot interception from carriers. Bogue’s Avengers damaged U-238 east of the (CV 3). Saratoga following day. 272 survived. Eight escort carriers covered the approach miles southwest of Fayal in the Azores. Once the Marines 469432 secured the islands. embarked Pownall commanding. and Monterey (CVL 26) comprised Canary Islands. Belleau Wood (CVL 24). Through 24 November. j. of VF-9. Air Group Commander Lt. Lexington (CV 16). Md. conducted later disrupted an enemy attack during the first air battle of long-range night bombing attacks through 19 November from its type. Essex (CV 9). Bunker Hill.4. Valencia. c. Task Group 50. miles east of Terceira. Enterprise (CV 6). Cmdr. attacked Nauru in support. Rear Adm. and Samoan groups and on Baker Island against Japanese bases in the Gilbert and Marshall 27 NOV E M BER • VR-8 received the first Martin XPB2M- Islands as a preliminary to the invasion of the Gilberts. sank German submarine U-86 about 385 Gilbert Islands. Yorktown (CV Azores.278 close support. 1943 continued of assault shipping and supported the V Amphibious Corps against bitter resistance on Tarawa. Rear Adm. Valencia scored 23 confirmed victories during TBF-1 of VT-6 from Enterprise for the purpose. Japanese submarine I-175 escaped after torpedoing and sinking Liscome Bay (CVE 56) 20 miles southwest of Butaritari Island. Azores. Charles A. Lt. 184  |  World War II . USNR. began a two-day air attack on the on board Bogue (CVE 9) during the ship’s eighth and most Japanese during Operation Galvanic—the occupation of the successful patrol. and on 21 December. O’Hare led two F6F-3s and one radar-equipped over Rabaul. Hoover commanding. Eugene A. The Sherman commanding. remained in the area for an additional week as a protective measure. The 13 NOV E M BER • Navy and USAAF planes of Task Force Hellcats failed to intercept on the first occasion but two days 57. killing 645 men. On 25 November. Bunker Hill (CV 17). sank U-850 some 530 the main force. 18 NOV E M BER • Task Force 50. took part in sinking U-172 660 miles west-southwest of the Cowpens (CVL 25). U-238 and U-764 escaped. 29 NOV E M BER • TBF-1C Avengers of VC-9. on 12 December damaged U-172 south-southwest of 10). F6F-3 Hellcats of VF-1 from Barnes (CVE 20) and Nassau (CVE 16) landed on the airstrip at Tarawa as the first planes of the garrison air force. The fighters World War II and his decorations include the Distinguished flew wing on the Avenger and after being vectored to the Flying Cross. Frederick C. one carrier group An SB2C Helldiver lands on board a carrier while flight deck crewmen race to free the bomber to clear the deck for an approaching plane. Phoenix. On 24 November. John H. Independence the Canary Islands despite the escape of U-219. relied on the Avenger’s radar to close to visual range. combat air patrol. Galvanic included the first attempts at night embarked on board Essex. and antisubmarine sorties.

Essex (CV 9). Hoover commanding. design of high-speed and high-altitude aircraft. 30 NOV E M BER • Lt. The operational assignment of the aircraft. Central Pacific for the operational control of of the Gilbert Islands. including Enterprise (CV 6). Pownall commanding. the Japanese at Kwajalein and Wotje Atolls in the Marshall John H.500 feet obliged World War II   |   185 . Yorktown (CV 10). Brazil. Md.. fall 1944. Central Pacific. The plane delivered command assumed the functions previously performed by 13. Cmdr.375 aircraft delivery units in ferrying new planes from contractor miles in 28 hours 25 minutes to Natal. Belleau Wood (CVL 24). the attackers and heavy antiaircraft fire at 8. during the first established as a wing of the Naval Air Transport Service. bombed 1 DECE M BER • Aircraft.000 pounds of cargo during a nonstop flight of 4. 30 NOV E M BER • The Navy authorized a department of aviation medicine and physiological research at the Naval Air 4 DECE M BER • Two groups of Task Force 50. and Cowpens (CVL 25). 1943 continued 1053796 Sailors haul torpedoes. toward a waiting SB2C Helldiver during strike preparations on Hornet (CV 12). plants and modification centers to embarkation points for ultimate delivery to the fleet. each weighing more than a ton. About 50 Japanese fighters intercepted defense forces and shore-based air forces in the area. Rear Adm. c. Lexington (CV 16). E. Rear Adm. Material Center to study physiological factors related to the Charles A. was established under Islands at the close of Operation Galvanic—the occupation Commander. W. Coney piloted the 1 DECE M BER • The Naval Air Ferry Command was Martin Mars from NAS Patuxent River.

as mission at VMF-214’s base on Espíritu Santo. the Chief of Naval Operations separated pilot training from test and development functions in the the U. On 9 August 1945. Willis A. Marine PBJ-1 Mitchells launched the final strike. USMC. strafed and photographed the area around the barracks when the ships ceased fire. against the Japanese naval fortress at Rabaul on New Britain. including and Nagara. the first of three observation fighter squadrons raised during World War II. coordinate and direct all naval aviation training in the 186  |  World War II . Solomons. Lee commanding. The Americans lost training program under the direction of the Deputy CNO five planes and claimed the destruction of 55 enemy (Air) at CGAS Floyd Bennett Field. escape beyond the range of Japanese shore-based bombers. aircraft. Intensive follow-up attacks through February 1944 assisted in the establishment of Allied bases that encircled the stronghold.S.J. Washington (BB 56). effective on 1 January with the garrison’s determined achievement at camouflage 1944. the Coast Guard was to conduct a helicopter pilot reduced the effectiveness of the raid. Gregory Boyington. a gale delayed of the Royal Air Force. 1 and oversaw the training and collier Asakaze Maru. 17 DECE M BER • Commander Aircraft.000 feet. Coast Guard Helicopter Pilot No. Rear Adm.S. Lt. 1943 continued 8 DECE M BER • A striking force. 11 members transports. attacked Japanese installations on Nauru to the west of the Gilberts. auxiliary submarine Erickson. The Japanese deployed few aircraft on the island and the raiders achieved meager results.. cargo ship Tateyama Maru. and New Zealand planes led by Maj. and the next night. demonstrates its search experimentation had indicated the practicability of ship- and rescue capabilities in Jamaica Bay on 25 August 1944. and three 96 Coast Guardsmen. two soldiers. N. 12 sailors. based helicopters. William F. and in combination helicopter program. Frank A. BuNo 39040—the Navy’s first helicopter type— from Coast Guard Air Station Brooklyn. During the U. dispatched a fighter sweep of Navy. The Allies bypassed the Japanese garrison at Rabaul but continually subjected the fortress to aerial attacks. including Bunker Hill (CV 17) and Monterey (CVL 26). OS2U-3 and OS2N-1 Kingfishers from VO-6 and -9. and four civilians. Marine. including an aerial torpedo that struck Lexington and killed under the Chief of Naval Operations.Y. Cmdr.Y. 7 Takunan Maru. guardboat No. Bringle Marine ace Maj. retaliatory strikes damaged three ships. 5 Mikuni Maru. retirement. was established to nine men and wounded 35. was established at NAS Atlantic City. an auxiliary vessel. South Dakota (BB 57). Boyington subsequently received the Medal of Honor and credit for shooting down 26 Japanese aircraft during the war. and damaged light cruisers Isuzu of a total of 125 helicopter pilots during the war. USCG. subsequently attained the designation of chaser No. N. He directed that. Cmdr. planes to drop to 5.. claiming the destruction of at least eight planes while losing four. and Alabama (BB 60). 1061487 15 DECE M BER • VOF-1. N. embarked on board battleships North Carolina (BB 55). Lt. a stores ship. 1061902 18 DECE M BER • On the basis of his belief that An HNS-1 Hoverfly. 20 DECE M BER • The Naval Air Training Command. Gregory Boyington briefs his pilots on an upcoming commanding.

interception of Axis blockade runners. 20 DECE M BER • Two VP-43 PBY-5A Catalinas flew the first Navy photoreconnaissance and bombing mission from Attu. and U. Fla. 1943 continued activities of the Primary. T26. a weight of 200 pounds in a stretcher suspended approximately four feet beneath the float landing gear. Joseph J. bomber and the crew spent several months interned in World War II   |   187 . Planes sank Japanese ship. Marine ace Capt. T25. N. and torpedo boats T22. Rear Adm. but flak downed one over British waters. and T27 in the Bay of Biscay. over the Japanese- held Kuriles. -105. T23. 20 DECE M BER • Cmdr. sighted German destroyers and W. a Hoverfly made landings at the steps of the dispensary with a stretcher attached to the side 35197 of the helicopter’s fuselage. VB-103. -110 participated in British Operation Stonewall—the including Bunker Hill (CV 17) and Monterey (CVL 26). During this period.21 station at Dunkeswell.22 and transport (ex-armed merchant cruiser) Z23. and Operational Training Commands at NAS Pensacola. reported to the Bureau of Aeronautics concerning experiments with a helicopter used as an airborne ambulance at CGAS Floyd Bennett Field. Z24. Erickson. Early the following year. Z32. Liberators dispatched—one from VB-103 and five from 27 DECE M BER • From 24 September to 6 November. A Liberator shot Navy gradually relieved the Army of antisubmarine patrols down a Focke-Wulf Fw 200C Condor. Z27. a VB-105 PB4Y-1 flying from a British transport Tenryu Maru.2. On this date.S. Frederick C. An HNS-1 Hoverfly made flights carrying. USCG. Aleutians. T24. USMC. Foss. Six of the 15 U. recounts one of his victories to his pilots. the attacked Japanese shipping at Kavieng on New Ireland as a Germans attempted to rendezvous with blockade runner covering operation for landings the following day by Marines Alsterufer. The next day. in addition to its normal crew of a pilot and a mechanic. the VB-105—found and attacked the Germans. and Z37. but a British Royal Air Force Liberator sank the in the Borgen Bay area of New Britain.S. England. 25 DECE M BER • Task Group 50. Intermediate.Y. Sherman commanding. Frank A. Kiyozumi Maru. and damaged minesweepers W.

107-B-9. G. and Glenbank. Weserland opened fire and knocked out the 4 JA N UA RY • An accidental gasoline fire damaged Tripoli (CVE 64) at Naval Repair Base. 107-B-12. died in these battles but Somers rescued 134 survivors. mid-1944. Japanese waters. Frederick enlisted men. it was redesignated NAF Dunkeswell. Brown of VP-203 piloted a PBM-3S that sighted German blockade runner Burgenland. on 23 following day. killing 15 officers and 123 1 JA N UA RY • Task Group 37. No. Five Germans Peninsula. The plane returned to Ascension Island. disguised as British freighter helicopter lifesaving operation through snow squalls. The following day. 595 miles south-southwest of Erickson and Bolton accomplished this first recorded Ascension Island. Walter C. was smuggling a load of crude rubber from winds reaching 20 to 25 knots that grounded all other aircraft. Taylor of VB-107 piloting Aircraft the floats of the Hoverfly. and T26.J. N. BuNo 32065. which experiences almost continuous action during World War II.2. Bolton took off in an HNS-1 from Kavieng. recovered 56 men from Burgenland. With the supplies lashed to 1 JA N UA RY • Lt. sleet. M. Lt. T25. blockade runner Weserland. Pilot Cmdr. N. 4 JA N UA RY • Light cruiser Omaha (CL 4) and destroyer Jouett (DD 396) intercepted German blockade runner Rio Grande about 55 miles northeast of the coast of Brazil. Rear Adm. it continued to Sandy Hook. Calif. carries a splinter (DD 359) and Davis (DD 395) camouflage scheme. Erickson. 3 JA N UA RY • During the early morning. These planes directed British light cruisers Enterprise bomber’s number three engine and wounded AOM2 Robert and Glasgow to the scene and they sank Z27. c. New Ireland. 1944 Spain.Y. and flew to Battery Park on Monterey (CVL 26) damaged light cruiser Noshiro. Manhattan Island to pick up an emergency delivery of two cases of 40 units of blood plasma.The blockade runner returned fire and damaged the aircraft. which ditched en route to 31 DECE M BER • Fleet Air Wing 17 departed Australia to Ascension and was lost with all its crew. light cruiser Marblehead (CL 12) rescued 72 survivors from 704377 Rio Grande. Destroyer Somers set up its headquarters at Samarai on the tip of the Papuan (DD 381) sank Weserland just after midnight. The The British subsequently transferred the station and. Stanley V. Sherman commanding. New Guinea. Gunfire and scuttling charges sank the smuggler. and destroyers Winslow Enterprise (CV 6). sighted and tracked German where responders administered the plasma to the survivors. Johnson attacked in Aircraft March 1944. Robert T. and C. E. Through 8 January. attacked a Japanese convoy off copilot Ens. The Mariner crew summoned Omaha and Jouett. MacGregor. Frank A.J. Planes from Bunker Hill (CV 17) and CGAS Floyd Bennett Field. San Diego. No.. USCG. but gunfire and scuttling charges sank Burgenland. The ship.. 188  |  World War II .. a PB4Y-1 Liberator. a series of internal explosions sank destroyer Turner (DD 648) while she lay 1944 anchored off Ambrose Light. pilot Lt. N.

Yorktown (CV 10). and their inaction enabled the German forces in complexity of amphibious operations necessitated the the area to counterattack vigorously to deter further landings use of command ships and the Marshalls marked their in Italy and France. Ginder commanding. The crew contained the conflagration within eight minutes but seven men died. Princeton (CVL 23). The increasing decisively. The harsh weather during the mid-winter commanding. On 31 January. and on 4 June 11 JA N UA RY • Two TBF-1Cs of VC-58. Belleau Wood (CVL 24). The Allies failed to advance inland force command ship Rocky Mount (AGC 3). John H. during an attack against German submarine U-758. Dunlap (DD 384) collided and both ships sustained minor directed the fall of the cruisers’ 6-inch shot at times. World War II   |   189 . made a the 15 who jumped overboard to escape the flames were lost. Rear Adm. 18 JA N UA RY • PBY-5As of VP-63. and Cabot (CVL 28). additional landings occurred on Kwajalein.3. 1944 continued 7 JA N UA RY • Belleau Wood (CVL 24) and destroyer light cruisers Brooklyn (CL 40) and Philadelphia (CL 41). Antiaircraft batteries in Spanish Morocco frequently three days of February. Rear Adm. Sherman commanding. embarked on board director on Sallada’s staff coordinated fighter direction. North Atlantic crossing permitted only two additional Essex (CV 9). linked up with troops that pierced German defensive lines inland. The bombardments. their patrols Japanese aircraft and airfields at Engebi Island at Eniwetok effectively closed the strait to the transit of U-boats during Atoll. the Allies broke out of the beachhead. Graham made his flight in spite of 20-knot winds and the ship rolling 29 JA N UA RY • Task Force 58. Land- the availability of models with improved performance. SOC-1. Rear Adm. USCG. VI Corps at Anzio and Commander Task Force 51 Rear Adm. who assumed control of target combat air proved essential in the efforts to hold the perimeter. and Wotje during Operation and recommended their confinement to coastal waters until Flintlock—the occupation of the Marshall Islands. Allied planes proved unable to prevent introduction to battle. Into the first to dusk. bombed three-mile limit but. supplemented Sherman. England. 30-minute flight in an R-4B (HNS-1) Hoverfly from a 60. Hoover commanding. two of 16 JA N UA RY • Lt. Sangamon made temporary repairs at 80-foot flight deck fitted to British freighter Daghestan while sea and took part in the fighting at the Marshalls. A force fighter -3. attacked the Japanese garrisons helicopters precluded their operations from ships in convoy. The sponsoring Combined Board for Evaluation Hill (CV 17).4. of Kwajalein. Maloelap. Frederick C. j.g. Enterprise (CV 6). The Avengers damaged the boat and compelled her barrier crash by a TBM-1C Avenger of VC-37 while the ship return to German-occupied St. daylight hours. based planes of Task Force 57. Langley (CVL decided that the marginal performance of the underpowered 27). and SON-1 Seagulls of VCS-8.S. en route from New York City to Liverpool. including Saratoga (CV 3). Stewart R. operating from NAS These raids destroyed the Japanese air strength on Port Lyautey—established on 12 January—in Morocco the islands. Monterey (CVL 26). use of forward-firing 25 JA N UA RY • A fire damaged Sangamon (CVE 26) after a rockets. but air power and naval gunfire support B. Marc A. Nettuno to outflank German defensive positions across the Turner led the joint expeditionary force from amphibious Italian peninsula—began.S. patrol—a task previously vested in carriers. Intrepid (CV 11). Aircraft from eight escort carriers flew cover began two-plane barrier patrols of the Strait of Gibraltar and and antisubmarine patrols. embarked on liberated Rome. Bunker flights. shot at the patrolling planes whenever they flew close to the Rear Adm. damage during exercises off Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands. planes from Task Group 58. also supported the landings. Marines and soldiers Catalinas typically flew at an altitude of 55 feet from dawn landed on islands at Kwajalein and Majuro. Graham. Richmond K. the ships offshore. Mitscher 10 to 20 degrees. of the Ship-based Helicopter in Antisubmarine Warfare Cowpens (CVL 25). made the first U. 22 JA N UA RY • Operation Shingle—landings by the Namur. Rocky Mount provided improved Luftwaffe (German air force) raids on the beachhead or on facilities for Commander Support Aircraft Capt. Sallada. Nazaire. sailed en route to the Marshall Islands.by and seven were injured. By May. and Roi. Anglo-American troops of the U. Task Group 58. Through 7 February. board Block Island (CVE 21). Samuel P. H. and scout planes assisted naval its approaches with magnetic anomaly detection gear. France. On 1 February. until the end of the war.

Price 4 FEBRUA RY • Blimp K-29 of ZP-31 made the first carrier considered the neutralization of Wake of such importance landing by a nonrigid airship during a test of refueling that he twice accompanied the bombers. Previous 3 FEBRUA RY • The Deputy Chief of Naval Operations raids on Wake had resulted in casualties because of poor (Air) and the Chief of BUAER jointly issued Flight Safety navigation and radio silence breaks that alerted the Japanese. which announced the intention to issue The strike marked the first employment of Coronados as consecutive numbered bulletins concerning the safe bombers.735 useful planes. 8. Bulletin No. 1. which bombing raid against the Japanese airfield and installations called for an increase to 37. on Wake Island to prevent the garrison of Wake from threatening U. John D. Commander Fleet Air Wing 2 Rear Adm. They repeated the raids on the nights of 4. 1944 continued 428460 A carrier’s fighter direction control team sends the planes of a combat air patrol against Japanese attackers.S.100 miles from Midway Island on a nocturnal the last of the World War II ceilings for Navy aircraft. Roosevelt approved more than 2. 30 JA N UA RY • PB2Y-3 Coronados of VP-13 and -102 flew 2 FEBRUA RY • President Franklin D. operations in the Marshall Islands. 9 February and completed 50 sorties without losing a plane. 190  |  World War II . and operation of naval aircraft. operations on board Altamaha (CVE 18) off San Diego. Calif.

bombed Japanese three downed Fifth Air Force bombers. 11421) piloted a PBY-5 of VP-34 and defied close-range Japanese fire during three full-stall landings in the harbor 10 FEBRUA RY • Planes from Task Group 58. and Marshall Islands. John H. Ginder commanding. Despite heavy swells. Nathan G. with survivors. j. The strikes Gordon took off each time but received another report of a raft continued to 12 February. Gilbert. New Ireland.4. The pilot swung the Catalina about and under intense fire brought six more men on board. and rescued nine survivors from Adm. 1944 continued 221248 The wreckage of at least four Japanese bombers litter the end a runway at Engebi in the Marshall Islands during an attack by U.g. installations on Eniwetok Atoll. Gordon (Naval Aviator subsequent carrier strike on 17 February. carrier planes in late 1943 or early 1944. Hoover commanding.S. controlled the operations of shore-based planes and ships Caroline Islands. Rear Adm. Solomon Islands. Rear of Kavieng. Marshall Islands. Cloud cover prevented complete coverage but the information acquired proved useful in planning a 15 FEBRUA RY • Lt. Samuel P. and escaped with 14 FEBRUA RY • Forward Area. Central Pacific was the 15 survivors to seaplane tender San Pablo (AVP 30) at established. No. during a 12-hour night flight from the assigned to the Ellice. 4 FEBRUA RY • Two PB4Y-1 Liberators of VMD-254 He broke his flag in seaplane tender Curtiss (AV 4) and made the first photographic reconnaissance of Truk Lagoon. World War II   |   191 .

supported landings on Engebi The vessels sunk included light cruiser Naka. and Cabot (CVL date. Rear Adm.250 combat sorties that dropped 400 (CV 3). aggregating 200. Gordon received the Medal of Honor 17 FEBRUA RY • The covering operations for the liberation and each of his crewmembers the Silver Star. Essex (CV 9). Monterey (CVL 26). Mitscher commanding. Oite. whose forces included Task Force forces capable of defending the atoll. respectively. These operations 58. Operation Catchpole—the seizure of Eniwetok. Belleau Wood (CVL 24). Island. Maikaze. the west of Eniwetok and neutralized Japanese air and naval Raymond A. New Guinea. Princeton (CVL 23).4 including Saratoga 28). Intrepid campaign earlier than the planned date of 10 May during (CV 11). and Langley (CVL 27). Marc A. with permitted the second phase of the Marshall Islands Enterprise (CV 6). On this Cowpens (CVL 25). and Chenango (CVE 28). Wewak. of the Marshall Islands included Operation Hailstone—a strike on the Japanese naval anchorage at Truk Lagoon. 192  |  World War II . Spruance. and Parry Islands. 4 December 1943. launched 1.000 tons and damaged installations. and on 19 and 22 February landings on Eniwetok training cruiser Katori. and tons of bombs and torpedoes and sank 37 Japanese ships 53. 17 FEBRUA RY • Two fast carrier groups had operated to Caroline Islands. and Tachikaze. During a two-day attack. Vice Adm. 1944 continued 201986 A Japanese Nakajima B6N carrier attack plane is hit by a 5-inch shell from Yorktown (CV 10) off Kwajalein. destroyers Fumizuki. Yorktown (CV 10).6 including Sangamon (CVE 26). armed merchant cruiser Akagi Maru. Suwannee (CVE 27). planes from Task Groups 58. Bunker Hill (CV 17).

fleet tankers Fujisan Maru. and Shinkoku Maru. Matsutani Maru. army cargo ships Nagano Maru and Yubai Maru. 17 FEBRUA RY • Navy SBD Dauntlesses and TBF Avengers Strait of Gibraltar. all World War II   |   193 . however. A modification of the basic 23 February. water carrier Nippo Maru. 3 Tonan Maru. and 1946 at the Mariana Islands for the dual purpose of reducing enemy 20. 22 FEBRUA RY • Two carrier groups of Task Force 58. Mitscher commanding. Kiyozumi Maru. Gosei Maru. Baker and Woolley joined Lt. Reeves Jr. submarine chasers Ch 24 and Ch 29. Catalinas separated from the main force and launched two air strikes damaged U-761 with retrorockets and the Ventura depth- on Jaluit. Hoyo Maru. No. New employment of MAD gear for tracking a submerged Britain. and motor torpedo boat Gyoraitei No. 202 Squadron in an attack on German Lagoon in the Caroline Islands. Rota. a small force. and semigloss Insignia White on surfaces visible detection (MAD) barrier patrol of the approaches to the from below. respectively. and Zukai Maru. camouflage scheme for use with fleet aircraft required nonspecular Sea Blue on upper fuselage surfaces. merchant cargo ship Taikichi Maru. Twelve radar-equipped TBF-1C Avengers from VT-10. A new basic non-camouflage color scheme. air strength and to gather photographic intelligence for the impending invasion. carrier-launched night bombing raid and scored several hits on ships in the lagoon. but despite steering problems she returned for repairs to Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian Islands. including Enterprise (CV 6) from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic. transports Aikoku Maru.000. carried out the first U. Momokawa Maru.S. The attackers claimed the destruction of 6 M A RCH • A new specification for the color of naval 67 Japanese aircraft in the air and 101 on the ground through aircraft went into effect. The Germans scuttled the submarine near Tangier. Marc A. aircraft transport Fujikawa Maru. charged the boat. Hanakawa Maru. Rear Adm. and Tinian in and fixed the total outputs for 1944. Amagisan Maru. Their patrol marked the first operational bombed Japanese shipping in Keravia Bay near Rabaul. submarine U-761 as it attempted to slip through the strait John W. 15. and 10. Woolley of retention of semigloss Sea Blue on airfoil surfaces visible VP-63 piloted two PBY-5A Catalinas on a magnetic anomaly from above. Seiko Maru. Howard Baker and T. Hokuyo Maru. submarine. R. Kensho Maru. Taihō Maru. Yamagiri Maru. Night fighter detachments of F6F-3 Hellcats and F4U-2 Corsairs fitted with AIA radar from VF(N)-76 and -101 operated from five carriers and on occasion were vectored against enemy night raiders. embarked on board Enterprise. auxiliary vessel Yamakisan Maru. the 24 FEBRUA RY • Lts. a Japanese aerial torpedo struck Intrepid. Holmes of VB-127 flying a PV-1 Ventura and a British Catalina of the 20 FEBRUA RY • Upon completion of the strike on Truk Royal Air Force’s No. launched raids against 4 M A RCH • The Navy reported a reduction in flight training the Japanese garrisons on Guam. P.S. 10. commanding. The U. Saipan. No. The first night. Mitscher. 1944 continued auxiliary submarine depot ship Heian Maru. 1945. L.500. Morocco. Vice Adm. Marc A.000 pilots. Rio de Janeiro Maru. Rear Adm. 6 Unkai Maru. San Francisco Maru. Reiyo Maru.

The maximum visibility color scheme used on continued until 1 April and claimed the destruction of primary trainers became glossy Orange Yellow overall. aircraft transport Goshu Maru. 15 M A RCH • PBJ-1 Mitchells received their baptism of damaged four ships. Netherlands attacks on Japanese garrisons and vessels at Palau. -2. Planners first operation in which the Pacific Fleet operated alongside intended these strikes to eliminate Japanese opposition to the British in offensive action in the Indian Ocean. New (VH) in the Pacific Fleet provided rescue and emergency Ireland. John H.Y. and Tinian in thus ensured that Allied aircraft carried out their subsequent preparation for the campaign to occupy the Mariana Islands. bombed and The 40-by-60–foot platform simulated landing conditions on shelled the Japanese garrison on Mili in the Marshall Islands. launched a series of (CV 3). Task Group 58. including British carrier 30 M A RCH • Task Force 58. Somerville.10. 1 A PR I L • The Coast Guard christened helicopter training 18 M A RCH • Task Group 50. rendezvoused with ships of the British the first mission by shore-based planes over the Marianas. Japanese garrison at Rabaul. Bunker Hill (CV 17). commanding. escorted USAAF B-25 Mitchells on a 360-mile bombing mission against the Japanese garrison on Ponape. approaches to the Palau Islands in the first U. established for administrative and operational control over escort carriers assigned to deliver planes. In the Woleai. TBF-1C and of Japanese ships in the area.000 miles south of Ceylon (Sri Lanka). large-scale and 17 Fairey Barracuda IIs of Nos. during Operation Cockpit. and 26 M A RCH • F4U-1 Corsairs of VMF-113 operating from naval aviation servicemembers in direct support of Pacific Engebi Island at Eniwetok Atoll in the Marshall Islands Fleet operations. Ulithi. and Yap in the Western Caroline Islands. struck Sabang off northern Sumatra. the landings at Hollandia on northern New Guinea and to gather Allies achieved poor results because of the limited number photographic intelligence for future battles. and nearby airfields in a covering action for the services as necessary in the forward areas. 810 and 847 Squadrons. and U. and Lexington TBF-1C and TBM-1C Avengers of VT-12. and denied the harbor to the enemy for fire in naval service during an attack by VMB-413 on the an estimated six weeks. spare parts. commanding. and 38 other vessels. 20 M A RCH • Planes from two escort carriers provided cover and air spotting for a battleship and destroyer 15 A PR I L • The formation of air-sea rescue squadrons bombardment of Japanese installations on Kavieng.S. 194  |  World War II .S. Vice Adm. regularly operating patrol squadrons performed rescue functions as an additional duty. Lee platform Mal de Mer (sea sickness) at CGAS Brooklyn. Rear Adm. N. East Indies (Indonesia). 22 M A RCH • A new specification for the color of fighter aircraft went into effect that directed they be painted glossy 16 A PR I L • Carrier Transport Squadron. Saipan. This operation marked commanding. sowed extensive minefields in the 13 British Corsair IIs of Nos. 1830 and 1833 Squadrons. applied for general use on aircraft not in combat daylight tactical use of mines by carrier aircraft. and -16. together with (CV 16). 19 A PR I L • The British Eastern Fleet. and 11 board Hornet (CV 12). Eastern Fleet for temporary operations in the Indian Ocean approximately 1. missions over the island unmolested. Twenty-four F6F-3 Hellcats TBM-1C Avengers from VT-8.1944 continued Aluminum. New Britain. USAAF B-24 Liberators escorted the image-gathering planes and bombed 27 M A RCH • Saratoga (CV 3). These raids theaters. respectively. 18 SBD-5 Dauntlesses from VB-12. Cassady the islands in a diversionary action. including Lexington (CV 16). sank destroyer Wakatake. embarked on from VF-12. was Sea Blue on all exposed surfaces. repair ship Akashi. Pacific. Willis A. Adm.5 with Saratoga commanding. Mitscher Illustrious (87). Marc A. occupation of Emirau. The 18 A PR I L • Photographic-equipped PB4Y-1 Liberators of Corsairs’ effectively destroyed the enemy interceptors and VD-3 obtained coverage of Aguijan. including 11 carriers. During the 13-hour flight from Eniwetok. RN. Capt. board ships by rolling five to ten degrees within a period of ten seconds. 157 Japanese aircraft. Before this. Sir James F.

Vice Adm. and March Field. Allied planes claimed from Sangamon (CVE 26). Calif. supported the assault of the Army’s I Corps at Aitape and Tanahmerah Bay (Operation Persecution) and 26 A PR I L • The headquarters of Fleet Air Wing 4 was at Humboldt Bay on Hollandia (Operation Reckless) on the established on Attu in the Aleutians of Alaska.. On this date. Coral Sea (CVE 57). Manila Bay (CVE 61). the Anglo-American force launched a similar strike against Soerabaja. Suwannee (CVE 27). Tanahmerah Bay. transport Kunitsu Maru. shot down a VF-12 Hellcat but British submarine Tactician flew cover and antisubmarine patrols over ships of the attack rescued the pilot. Japanese Mitsubishi G4M1 Type 1 group during the approach. and Humboldt Bay. D. 1944 continued 1053753 Escort carriers turn toward their stations to support an amphibious landing against the Japanese. Antiaircraft fire (CVE 58). Vice Adm. On 17 May 1944 Japanese planes in the air and 103 on the ground. and Natoma Bay (CVE 62). Mitscher launched a World War II   |   195 . assault at Aitape. Carrier aircraft claimed the destruction of 30 but Hellcats shot down three of the Bettys. and landings at Hollandia on New Guinea. and Wakde. 23 A PR I L • VR-3 operated the first regularly scheduled Naval Air Transport Service transcontinental hospital flight 21 A PR I L • Task Force 58. Sumatra.C. supported troop movements ashore. and supported the amphibious bombers counterattacked the ships during their retirement. north coast of New Guinea. the next day covered Mitscher commanding. Sawar. sank Japanese minelayer Hatsutaka. Santee (CVE 29). into 24 April. around Hollandia. Corregidor damaged oil storage tanks and installations. Planes and army transport Haruno Maru. Marc A. Chenango the destruction of 24 Japanese planes on the ground and (CVE 28). Mitscher between Washington. commanding. Marc A. returned to Majuro following landings at Aitape. five heavy and seven light carriers launched preliminary strikes on Japanese airfields 29 A PR I L • While Task Force 58.

15 M AY • Naval Air Transport Service planes made the Arthur W.S. and two missions had demonstrated the vulnerability of both types British Avengers crashed on take-off but their crewmembers to enemy fighters and antiaircraft fire. to collaborate in the installation of an automatic pilot in after specified combat tours. and the support of the aeronautical organization through the use of factors and 17 M AY • During Operation Transom. RN. Marshalls Sub-Area assumed its functions. respectively. Wash.5. located initially at NAAS San Commander. Twenty-four F6F-3 Hellcats 8 M AY • Commander. Frequent Japanese shipping and installations in the Netherlands appraisal by inspectors realistically maintained the program. Calif.. Eleven naval aviators during her eastward passage. Task Group 58. Illustrious (87) and U. was dissolved and Special Projects School for Air. and transport. 18 SBD-5 Dauntlesses from VB-12. pipelines. James commissioned as the first of four ships of the class at F. Cmdr. Clemente Island. Clark N. detached on the second day. to participate of casualties on these missions. 4 M AY • The eponymous board headed by Rear Adm. and 18 Avenger IIs of Nos. Squadrons. aircraft before maintenance became costly. Material and Supply for the D-Day landings in Normandy. for flight training and 1833 Squadrons. On 2 September the Navy directed all of these men E. embarked on aviators from VCS-8 to the 111th Tactical Reconnaissance board Saratoga. Rear Adm. The previous strike VH plus a mission letter (i.S. Adm. commanding.1. launched planes for protective cover of a cruiser bombardment of Satawan. the Allies attacked allowances for pools. Joseph J. including British carrier Tacoma. Naval Forces. Radford submitted a report that impacted aviation first of 16 transatlantic flights through 23 May to the United planning into the immediate post-war period. the return of aircraft 17 M AY • BUAER authorized CGAS Floyd Bennett Field. a predawn fighter sweep. Lyons commanding. strafing and bombing Japanese 196  |  World War II . but for training) and establishment of helicopters as a separate type on 30 April aircraft reported a paucity of vessels in the area H helped distinguish between fixed. The next day the ship detached. 1830 and Squadron. and 12 Waters approved the assignment of an initial nine naval TBF-1C and TBM-1C Avengers of VT-12. East Indies (Indonesia) timed to coincide with Operation Straightline—landings in the Wakde-Toem area of New 8 M AY • Seaplane tender Kenneth Whiting (AV 14) was Guinea.6. The previous mission letters became classes O. 832 and 845 combat operations in North American P-51C Mustangs. Twelfth Air Force. Wash. evolved from these recommendations and involved the assignment of new planes to combat units. attacked Marcus Island with to return to their ships. Montgomery commanding. eventually participated in combat operations in Mustangs in support of the fighting in Italy and the invasion of Southern 19 M AY • Planes from Task Group 58.. to the United States for reconditioning and reassignment N. training.. Rear Adm. Alfred France. the air cover and bombing and strafing runs.. VHO for observation and VHN on 17 February had wreaked havoc on the Japanese. Task Group 58. Raymond R. Northwest African from VF-12. enemy aircraft.000-pounds of minesweeping gear Aeronautic Program for Maintenance.1944 continued two-day attack on Japanese installations and supply dumps 13 M AY • The abolition of the helicopter class designation at Truk Lagoon in the Caroline Islands. and 16 British Corsair IIs of Nos. the retirement of second tour an HNS-1 helicopter with the Sperry Gyroscope Company. commanding. Central Pacific. Avenger was shot down and the crew captured. and reconditioning. Planners expected the survived. with Saratoga (CV 3). Planes from the British Eastern Fleet. France. The Integrated Kingdom to deliver 165. raided Soerabaja. Java. and R for observation. One Kingfishers used in aerial spotting and reconnaissance U. 13 M AY • To meet the needs of the fleet for people trained and on 1 May supported the bombardment of Ponape with in the use of electronic countermeasures equipment. Chief of Naval Operations directed the establishment on 1 June by the chief of Naval Air Technical Training of the 1 M AY • Aircraft.Y. Saratoga had delayed her departure for repairs at higher performance of the Mustangs to result in a reduction Puget Sound Navy Yard at Bremerton. operating from Illustrious. Somerville.e. sank Japanese transport Previous combat experience with SOC Seagulls and OS2U Shinrei Maru and damaged six vessels and oil stores.and rotary-wing heavier- and sank only two ships and claimed the destruction of 145 than-air craft.

29 M AY • Six days before. other airborne equipment. three torpedoes from German by nonrigid airships after lifting off from NAS South submarine U-549 struck the carrier in rapid succession Weymouth.. completing the first crossing of the Atlantic Islands. but destroyer escorts Ahrens (DE 575) 80 hours moved their area of operations across the ocean. Training Task Force was directed on the island. strafing. Block Island sank by the stern. and the Azores—in an acoustic torpedo. At 2013 on this date. installations for two consecutive days during the third raid 31 M AY • Commander. to relieve Bogue (CVE 9) during operations around Gibraltar reached NAS Port Lyautey. covered 3. Elmore (DE 686) sank the attacker. hunter-killer operations around Madeira and the Cape Verde Morocco. arrive at NAS Port Lyautey. Mass.145 nautical miles and—including time for The U-boat then damaged destroyer escort Barr (DE 576) with stopovers at Argentia. Montgomery shifted from Marcus to establish on 1 June. City. 1 June 1944.. Mich. Morocco. Mass. on 29 May. and Eugene E. Morocco. In 58 hours the blimps northwest of the Canary Islands. 1944 continued 232195 Airships of ZP-14 from NAS South Weymouth.. within his command at NAS Traverse to attack Wake Island with five composite bombing. World War II   |   197 . On 23 May. a detachment designated Special Weapons Test and rocket strikes during the third carrier raid on the atoll and Tactical Evaluation Unit to research special weapons and since the Japanese overran it. Block Island (CVE 21) had sailed 1 J U N E • Blimps of ZP-14 assigned to antisubmarine from Casablanca. Newfoundland.

Planners chose to use the Liberators as a diversion from the 15 J U N E • Carrier aircraft from Task Groups 58. This valuable intelligence was given to the Liberators repeated the sweeps the next day. a fighter sweep that destroyed one-third of the defending Japanese air force. Mitscher’s force prepared the way for the surface 150 miles off Cape Blanco. The pennants.1944 continued 1 J U N E • VR-9 was formed at NAS Patuxent River. Marc A. Carrier squadron operated with the British Fleet Air Arm and Royal planes destroyed a convoy of five small cargo vessels and Air Force. and 24 June. Clark and William K.g. 11 J U N E • Task Force 58. Md. to function as commanding. Pillsbury collided with U-505. Vice Adm.4. assured control of the air over the islands. including Essex established in one large command had reduced the fatal (CV 9) and small carriers Cowpens (CVL 25) and Langley accident rate by 47 percent during one quarter of operation. bombed Japanese installations on Chichi Jima and Haha Jima in the Bonin Islands and Iwo Jima in the Volcano Islands. Africa.4. successfully defended the landings against a Japanese counterattack during the Battle of the Philippine Sea. Harrill range planes in that region. Three and. France. Rear Adms. David led a boarding party from Pillsbury on 15. Joseph J.1 and carriers because the Japanese routinely sighted the long. The pilot parachuted into the sea off Red Beach Task Force 58. other commands outside advanced combat areas. Ill. but supported operations ashore with daily offensive missions Lt. Flaherty (DE 135). j. Marc A. Vice Adm. 58. commanding. Gallery and 12 from each small carrier. William I. observed that the Japanese to intercept and destroy Japanese planes in the path of had marked ranges to the reef offshore with red and white the carriers as they approached the Mariana Islands. flying a TBM-1C Avenger over 10 J U N E • PB4Y-1s of VB-108 and -109 swept ahead of Saipan. respectively. Martin. prior to his rescue. the planes 198  |  World War II . the Bonin and Volcano Islands. The Japanese shot down Cmdr. Daniel V. from each of the squadrons shot down a Japanese plane. launched additional strikes against the Normandy. Marc A.3. destroyed a Japanese convoy northwest of Saipan He thus directed the establishment of similar boards in en route from Tanapag. Mitscher commanding. 5 J U N E • The Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air) reported that aviation safety boards that had been 12 J U N E • Planes from Task Group 58. 12 J U N E • Elements of Special Task Air Group (STAG 1) arrived in the Russell Islands in the South Pacific in the first 6 J U N E • Seventeen naval aviators from aviation deployment of a guided missile unit into a combat theater. and destroyer escorts Pillsbury (DE 133). commanding officer of VT-10 embarked on board Enterprise (CV 6). Chatelain (DE 149). Capt. From D-Day through 26 June. Vice Adm. detachments on board battleships and cruisers served in bombardment duty with VCS-7 during Operation 13 J U N E • Task Force 58. the Japanese garrison on Saipan in the Mariana Islands. and 4 and 5 August. Mitscher and VR-12 at Honolulu. respectively. In bombing and Pope (DE 134). strafing attacks on shore installations and shipping over and Jenks (DE 665) forced German submarine U-505 to the succeeding days. accompanied by a TBF commanding.. Rio de Oro. 16. a hunter-killer group including Guadalcanal Avenger or SB2C Helldiver from each task group to lead (CVE 60). Territory of Hawaii. that saved the submarine despite the dangers posed by isolated the area with attacks on airfields and shipping in scuttling charges. The following day. Spitfires over the Normandy beaches. attained tactical surprise and VC-8 embarked. (CVL 27). flying gunfire-spotting missions in Supermarine sank other ships separately. 3 and 4 July. with FM-2 Wildcats and TBM-1C Avengers of and navigate for the fighters. the 15 June amphibious assault on Saipan. Mitscher Overlord—the Allied landings in German-occupied commanding. including seven heavy and eight light carriers headquarters and maintenance squadrons for their commands. opened the campaign to occupy the Mariana Islands with Naval Air Transport Service Atlantic and Pacific. Albert L. and on 19 and 20 June The U-boat is on display in Chicago. Sixteen F6F Hellcats from each carrier 4 J U N E • Task Group 22. One bomber approaching amphibious forces. Carrier planes During salvage operations. David later received the Medal of Honor. and the appointment of a flight safety officer to each squadron. Saipan to Japan.

and Zuihō. McCampbell is the Navy’s highest scoring ace with 34 kills. however. Zuikaku. Hiyō. Ozawa Jisaburō commanding. followed on 22 and 24 June by USAAF Republic P-47 (AVD 10) within range of Saipan’s guns. That night. narrowly missed Bunker Hill and Wasp. Planes from an initial force of 11 escort carriers and their main attacks passed through heavy U. Ryūhō. Bay (CVE 62) ferried aircraft to operate from captured On 17 June. Wasp (CV 18). and San Jacinto (CVL 30). respectively. which were to refuel and rearm on Guam. the Americans landed Marianas Turkey Shoot.S. victory in the Battle of the Philippine Sea. Japan. Japanese fuel shortages Cmdr. Task Force 58. and damaged Germans for technical information and war materials. Chiyōda. Throughout the day Thunderbolts and Northrop P-61 Black Widows. The Americans lost 130 intelligence. flew an F6F-3 Hellcat from Essex and shot down at least seven Japanese planes. These raids disrupted the staging areas for Japanese aircraft en route to the Mariana Islands and contributed to the U. Princeton (CVL 23). Belleau Wood (CVL 24). Submarines Albacore 24 J U N E • A TBM-1C Avenger from VC-69. Azores. Essex (CV 9). on 21 July. Cmdr.S. Vice Adm. The 258198 K-2178 enemy intended for its shore-based planes to cripple Mitscher’s air power to facilitate Ozawa’s strikes. and Junyō. S. five PBM-3D Mariners of VP-16 airfields. Yorktown (CV 10). 39°55ʹW. France. near 15°16ʹN. Marc A. Monterey (CVL 26). 1944 continued repeated the attack on Iwo Jima. thus saving Japanese boat prior to continuing to Lorient. despite the risk of I-52 rendezvoused with German submarine U-530 for the submarine attacks. The Japanese lost 395 carrier planes and an estimated on Japanese submarines that deprived the enemy of 50 land-based aircraft from Guam. David S. McCampbell. On 17 June OY-1 Sentinels of VMO-4 arrived commenced operations from seaplane tender Ballard ashore. and U. embarked (SS 218) and Cavalla (SS 244) sank Taihō and Shōkaku in on board Bogue (CVE 9).” Commander CVG-15. Cabot (CVL 28). Chitose. Vice Adm. Mitscher launched an carrying two tons of gold ingots valued at $25 million air attack at extreme range on the retreating Japanese as the balance of a payment owed by the Japanese to the ships that sank Hiyō and two fleet oilers. but World War II   |   199 . and three days later on Tinian. Lexington (CV 16). The Japanese 1st Mobile Fleet. Mitscher ordered his ships to show their transfer of three Germans and some radio equipment to the lights to guide returning aircraft low on fuel. David on Guam. and on 12 Task Force 58 repelled Japanese air attacks and destroyed at July by F4U-2 Corsairs of VMF(N)-532. and Japanese suicide planes about 800 miles southwest of Fayal. covered the landings. Bataan (CVL 29). Zuikaku. Chiyōda. disrupted Japanese aerial staging en route to the Marianas. Cowpens (CVL 25). organized least 300 planes in what Navy pilots called the “Great resistance ended on Saipan. signal decryption breakthroughs enabled attacks lives. Shōkaku. sank Japanese submarine I-52 separate attacks. Manila Bay (CVE 61) and Natoma antiaircraft fire to reach the carriers. raids on the Bonin and Volcano Islands planes and 76 pilots and aircrewmen. The submarine sailed from Kure. Hornet (CV 12). Bunker Hill (CV 17). reputedly The following afternoon. 15 J U N E • American landings on Saipan in the Mariana Islands during Operation Forager penetrated the inner defensive perimeter of the Japanese Empire and thus triggered A-Go—a Japanese counterattack that led to the Battle of the Philippine Sea. Langley (CVL 27). Junyō. and inadequate training bedeviled A-Go. included Taihō. included Enterprise (CV 6).S. On 9 July. Mitscher commanding.

and the Army’s 77th Division on Guam. Sorol. attacked Japanese installations on Chichi Jima and Haha Jima in the Bonin Islands and Iwo 24 J U N E • To reduce the pilot training program the Chief Jima in the Volcano Islands. Through subsequent Iwo Jima in the Volcano Islands and Pagan Island in the development and model redesignation these became the Marianas. Islands. Suwannee (CVE 9). This was prompted by Johnsville’s facilities 25 J U LY • Task Force 58. Joseph J. CVEG. prototypes for the AD Skyraider. Ngulu. Rear Adms. Richard L. escort carrier air group—Long Island (CVE 1). the chief of Naval Air Training against the United Kingdom. 14 J U LY • PB4Y-1 Liberators of VB-109 flying from Saipan in the Mariana Islands made the first strike by shore-based 29 J U N E • The standardization of carrier air groups took planes on the Japanese garrison on Iwo Jima. and the retention of enough people to counter German Vergeltungswaffen (retaliation weapons) maintain a course in pre-flight schools expanded to 25 attacks by V-1 flying bombs (and subsequently V-2 rockets) weeks. struck Japanese airfields and facilities on bombers. in the Western Caroline Islands at Fais. 21 J U LY • Task Force 53.1944 continued Allied intelligence had identified the meeting. Air Force. The Avenger 4 J U LY • Carrier-based aircraft and naval gunfire from dropped sonobuoys to assist in locating and destroying the two task groups. Bogue commanding. 24 J U N E • Aircraft from two carrier task groups. Vice Adm. including Sangamon (CVE 26). William A. Pa. supported Operation Stevedore— landings by the 3d Marine Division. Davison. and execute flight safety programs by coordinating all safety functions through 29 J U N E • The Parachute Experimental Division was a central organization. escort carrier air group—Sangamon (CVE 26) class. of Naval Operations promulgated plans that required the transfer of some students already in pre-flight and prior 6 J U LY • As part of USAAF and British attempts to stages of training. Pa. The resulting reductions with Cmdr. Rear Adm. Special Air Unit 1 withdrawal of surplus students.. Atlantic Fleet. 26 J U N E • Seaplane tender Currituck (AV 7) was 14 J U LY • Joint action by the Deputy Chief of Naval commissioned as the first of four ships of her class at Operations (Air) and the Chief of BUAER established the Philadelphia. Flight Safety Council to plan. Ulithi.. was relocated to Johnsville. Clark and Alfred E. coordinate. established for the research. Corregidor (CVE 58). Air strikes continued until 28 July and included photographic flights to obtain intelligence of enemy 200  |  World War II . the Navy experimented with instituted the program of “deselection” and voluntary drones in Project Anvil. Charger (CVE 30). attacked Japanese installations and shipping quantity modification of service aircraft. 1st Provisional Marine 30 J U N E • The Naval Aircraft Modification Unit of the Brigade. commanding. and Yap. and testing of parachutes and survival gear at NAS Lakehurst. James A. Mitscher for intensified efforts in guided missile development and commanding. officer in charge. Palau. large carrier air group. Smith. for transfer to War Training Service Program. Clark and Ralph E. Marc A. Chenango (CVE 28). Joseph J. blockade runner. and Casablanca (CVE 55) (CVE 27). and in September for the Commander Fleet Air Wing 7 in Europe to assail German closure of the flight preparatory schools and the release of V-weapon sites with PB4Y-1 Liberators converted to assault training stations. Capt. drones. jointly designed by both. Evans commanding. Conolly and VC. Rear 6 J U LY • BUAER authorized Douglas to proceed with the Adms. CVLG. N.J. Early the next month. Pa. Naval Air Material Center at Philadelphia. and classes. On this date. small carrier air group. was formed proved responsible in August for the discontinuance of the under Commander. development. Volcano place for all commands: CVBG. Coral Sea (CVE 57). medium carrier air group. Montgomery design and manufacture of 15 XBT2D dive and torpedo commanding. CVG.

24 bombers. respectively. Montgomery commanding. No cause World War II   |   201 . Admiralty Islands. and Lt. N. at Pearl Harbor. Wilford J. Bonin Islands. Hoverfly at Floyd Bennett Field. of control by two “mother” planes—one used as insurance against potential equipment failure in the primary—and 9 AUGUST • A PB4Y-1 Liberator of VB-116 crashed on were then to bail out over England.Y. into the First and Second Fast Carrier Task Forces. with the provision that four night fighters and two photographic planes were to be included 29 J U LY • A detachment of PB4Y-1 Liberators of VB-114 among the 54 fighters. the installation and 4 AUGUST • Task Group 58. was established under British command for antisubmarine operations at Lajes. By the time Guam was declared secured pool area. The weight of the Liberator— 7 AUGUST • Carrier Division 11 was established. and Ranger (CV 4) and comprised the first U. McCain Willy participated in a mission in a PB4Y-1 Liberator. flights conducted over Jamaica Bay redesignated Service Test and established as a separate demonstrated the feasibility of rescuing victims from the department at NAS Patuxent River. Rear Adm. Marshall Islands. the Training Command. At 1820. Longstreet 44 miles offshore of NAS New York. BuNo commanding. During the ensuing four- 31 J U LY • The Accelerated Field Service Test Unit was day test period. Matsu. groups of the fast carrier force retired in turn to advanced fleet bases for brief periods of rest 10 AUGUST • Naval air bases commands were established and replenishment. During this fighting. USNR. Six weeks later. Rear which carried 21. thus initiating a practice that continued within each Naval District. England.1. F. and 18 torpedo planes. shipping.3. F6F Hellcats. BuNo 39040. bombed a helicopter automatic pilot (cyclic pitch control) in a Japanese airfields on Iwo Jima. Kennedy Jr. and during all future extended fighting. a brief report of the trial installation and flight test of Rear Adm. Joseph J. Bates of the Sperry Gyroscope Company. The division consisted of Saratoga (CV 3) made the takeoff from Winfarthing (Fersfield). carrier aircraft claimed the destruction of primarily FM Wildcats. Vice Adms. resulting in the destruction of 106 aircraft— on 10 August. two of the four launched struck target ship James air groups underwent a revision to 54 fighters. Joseph P. Also on this date Dr. water and of transferring people and equipment to and from underway boats. N. temporarily assigned to Special Air Unit 1.Y. submitted a cargo ship. planes from Task Group 58. Meanwhile. against a German V-1 flying bomb launching site in German-occupied France. at CGAS Floyd Bennett Field. from NAS Port Lyautey. Md.. of aviation facilities in their respective areas. installed on an HNS-1 Hoverfly.170-pounds of high explosives—precluded Adm. Eniwetok. Clark successful testing of a hydraulic hoist led to the adoption commanding. carrier The men remained with the drone to ensure the assumption command specifically established for night operations. The ships then steamed north to attack the Bonin burned amid 340 planes in the carrier aircraft replacement and Volcano Islands. so Kennedy and Willy voluntarily Hawaiian Islands. savaged Japanese Convoy 4804 about 25 miles of the device for service use because it overcame the basic northwest of Muko Jima. 29 J U LY • In the first successful test of a Pelican guided 10 AUGUST • The operating aircraft complement of carrier missile. Volcano Islands. Morocco. 5 AUGUST • The Fast Carrier Task Force was reorganized 12 AUGUST • Lt.000 tons of TBM Avengers. Pacific. SB2C Helldivers. 32271. of VPB-110. the Liberator takeoff from Stickell Field. Mitscher and John S. Marc A. and suddenly exploded killing Kennedy and Willy. Alfred E. within Marine Corps bases. and 1. and M. a collier.223 Japanese aircraft and the sinking of 110. 11 AUGUST • An electric-powered rescue hoist was Azores Islands. Matthias B. 1944 continued defenses. These received authorization for the military direction and administrative coordination of 27 J U LY • The headquarters of Fleet Air Wing 17 was matters affecting the development and operational readiness moved to Manus. landing ship T 133. Gardner commanding. take off by remote control. four transports.S. sinking destroyer disadvantages of the electric hoist.

Liberator for a drone mission from Winfarthing (Fersfield). and F6F-5s of VOF-1 flying from radio station on Chichi Jima. Admiralty Islands. Ralph E. (D 98).1944 continued was ever determined. occupation of Morotai and Palau with three days of attacks on Chichi Jima in the Bonin Islands and Iwo Jima in the 15 AUGUST • Allied carriers of the Naval Attack Force. Off Iwo railway rolling stock during Operation Dragoon—landings Jima. Khedive (D 62). embarked on board During an attack on 2 September against a Japanese Kasaan Bay (CVE 69). R. Australia. j.500 sorties through 29 August. together with British planes from escort BuNo 46214. and wreaked havoc with lieutenant. 24 AUGUST • Fleet Air Wing 10 moved forward from Perth. (Naval Aviator No. Kennedy Jr. Bush (CVN 77) was named in miles around Remouline. Submarine Finback (SS 230) rescued the Rhône Valley. Lt. VI and Free French II Corps in southern France. Frederick the beginning of an investigation by a group of scientists N.g. George Pursuer (D 73). Lt. F6F-3N and F6F-5 Hellcats of VF-74. Bush attacked enemy concentrations and lines of communication. frequency search 202  |  World War II . White. however. component squadrons VF(N)-43 and VT(N)-43. W.. flew close air support missions. Calif. Bush. George H. The fuze endeavor thus fell completely within the Bureau of Ordnance. C5907). Hunter (D 80). commanding. On Tulagi’s last Flying Cross for the attack. Sir Thomas H. F6F Hellcats from Franklin (CV 13) sank an auxiliary by the U. minesweeper and cargo ship. snarling roads for United States. and landings in the Morotai. The two each received the Navy Cross 31 AUGUST • Task Group 38.g. along with its upon the guided missile phase of the antiaircraft problem. Spaulding Jr. of Special support the advance of Southwest Pacific forces on the Air Unit 1 assigned to Fleet Air Wing 7. lifted off in a PB4Y-1 Philippines. In December. continued his dive and scored damaging hits before the and assisted Allied troops during their advance up the Avenger crashed. manned the bomber. Hellcats from Kasaan Bay bombed and strafed pilot after he spent four hours in the water. Searcher (D 40). Klein commanding.S. vehicles. Delaney area.4. The airship remained on the flight deck for 32 the Chief of Naval Operations approved a developmental minutes during one evolution. to 3 SEPTE M BER • Pilot Lt. j. 1 SEPTE M BER • The Bureau of Ordnance reported 20 AUGUST • Nonrigid airship K-111.. flew defensive fighter cover over the shipping William G. carriers Attacker (D 02). posthumously and destroyer Joseph P. of a division of four Avengers from VT-51. embarked on board San Jacinto (CVL 30). crew was relieved every 12 hours and her engines operated the scientists completed their preliminary analysis and continuously. The airship’s subsequently was designated Bumblebee. motor transport. Troubridge. Stalker (D 91). USNR. White enemy positions. demonstrated the feasibility of from Section T of the Office of Scientific Research and refueling and replenishing airships from aircraft carriers Development (OSRD) into the practicability of developing during 72. Rear Adm. Lt.I. Despite the smoke and flames. 21 August. to Los Negros. and on 24 October 1955 resigned with the rank of down three German Junkers Ju 52s. and tanks. and Emperor H. USNR. and fighters along with navigational. Cmdr. her Hellcats shot 1945. Volcano Islands. RN. (DD 850) Davison commanding.5 hours of operations into 23 August with a guided jet-propelled antiaircraft weapon. Japanese installations as a diversion in advance of the devastated columns of German troops. The Allied carriers launched more his honor. and Philippine areas. The project Makassar Strait (CVE 91) off San Diego. Davison intended the raids to neutralize Rear Adm. Ralph D. England. He subsequently became the 41st President of the a German convoy retreating northward. opened the campaign for the was named in his honor. That month. the OSRD and the Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University completed their 24 AUGUST • CVLG(N)-43 was established as the first withdrawal from the proximity fuze program to concentrate night carrier air group at Charlestown. Palau. Bush received the Distinguished German planes over the invasion beaches. ground fire struck TBM-1C. and ARM2 John L. and shot down two and Delaney perished. than 1. was discharged on 18 September day to support the landings. The raid involved the drone. program. W. spotted naval gunfire. two control planes. Tulagi (CVE 72).

for development of the LBD-1 named Octagon of the Allied combined chiefs of staff at Gargoyle radio-controlled low-wing glide bomb fitted with a Québec. The section assumed responsibility for direction in the central Philippines corroborated by a lack of aerial and supervision of the program. carriers of Carrier Unit One. 1944 continued monitor. approved the advance of the date for the invasion of the dive bombers and torpedo planes against enemy ships. Roosevelt and 6 SEPTE M BER • A contract was awarded to McDonnell British Prime Minister Winston S. William D. including Monterey (CVL 26). had crashed Force 38. Marc A. Canada. strikes at airfields on Mindanão and in the Visayas. Rear Adm. 12 SEPTE M BER • Task Group 38. Philippines from 20 December to 20 October. and photo aircraft. Simpson lost momentary view of the plane in a rain shower during the final alignment. Churchill led a meeting Aircraft Corporation. and the shifting of the assault from southern Mindanão to Leyte. opposition—the Japanese preserved their forces to repel the landings. 11 SEPTE M BER • President Franklin D. Marc A. attacked Santo in the New Hebrides (Vanuatu) to Guam. inflicted by earlier raids. Meanwhile. Heligoland Island. Vice Adm. to direct the Japanese installations on Wake Island. Mitscher commanding. The chiefs cancelled a planned attack on rocket booster and designed for launching from carrier-based Yap. Vice Adm. and a fighter sweep over Yap and continued the neutralization Panay in the Visayas and Legaspi. began three days of preparatory aerial attacks Japanese airfields and port facilities on Mindanão. operated with the fast carriers. Davison commanding. Spaulding set the radio control Planes sank a transport in the Sulu Sea and two transports and on the torpex-laden Liberator and parachuted to safety. Rear Adm. This was the fourth operations of patrol squadrons in the Central Pacific. launched against Japanese airfields and ports on Cebu. Marc A. Their decision 6 SEPTE M BER • The establishment of a Flight Safety occurred in large part because of the recommendation of Section in the Office of the Deputy Chief of Naval Commander Third Fleet Adm. Luzon in the Philippines. of VF-2 from Carrier 6 SEPTE M BER • After wide-flung sweeps by Task Air Group 2 embarked on board Hornet (CV 12). and aircraft from Langley Ens. Halsey Jr. Vice Adm. Negros. who based Operations (Air) expanded the scope of the aviation safety his proposal on intelligence that indicated Japanese weakness program. aimed the plane the Schouten Islands to direct patrol plane operations into barracks near fuel dumps and shops on an airfield on supporting the occupation by Southwest Pacific forces of Dune Island. Philippines.4 and four escort 9 SEPTE M BER • Task Force 38. 1 based on seaplane tender Hamlin (AV 15) from Espíritu Smith commanding.4. Independence (CVL 22) commenced Octagon concluded on 16 September. of Palau while Mitscher moved against the Philippines with claiming the destruction of 26 enemy vessels. when flak apparently struck the camera in the nose of the drone and thus proved unable to assess the damage. 11 SEPTE M BER • The shift of the fighting in the South Pacific drove the transfer of Commander Fleet Air Wing 3 SEPTE M BER • Task Group 12. for the occupation of Peleliu. Tillar. James M. World War II   |   203 .. launched strikes into 14 September 38. sent two days of fighter sweeps against commanding. force arrived off Palau and began attacks against Japanese Filipino freedom fighters rescued him and revealed to the airfields and installations in the Western Caroline Islands.5. Rear Adm. marking the first time that a fully equipped night carrier 12 SEPTE M BER • Task Force 38. William F. carrier raid on the atoll since the Japanese overran it. Thomas C. pilot the vulnerable state of the Japanese defenses before his An unopposed fighter sweep disclosed extensive damage return via an SOC Seagull from heavy cruiser Wichita (CA 45). USNR. and relying 9 SEPTE M BER • Fleet Air Wing 17 moved forward to only upon the drone’s television picture. Allen E. Task Group Mitscher commanding. Simpson in a PV-1 Ventura controlled the (CVL 27) covered a surface group that decimated a Japanese Liberator’s flight and attacked German U-boat pens on coastal convoy off the west coast of Mindanão. the in an F6F-3 Hellcat near Apit Island off southwestern Leyte. a cargo ship in the Mindanão Sea. operations of an air group specifically trained for night work. Sample Mitscher commanding. The attackers lost reception just before impact Morotai in the Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia). Ens. Ralph E.

4 and four Peleliu to Ngesebus assisted by Marine planes from Peleliu. on 23 September at Ulithi. Rear Adm. The Army’s 81st Division later attack Mindanão. McCain commanding. and on 28 September a shore-to-shore movement from 15 SEPTE M BER • Aircraft of Task Group 38.1. Through 18 September. of ten escort carriers fought as Task Group 32. the final Trade Wind—landings the following day by the Army’s 41st Japanese forces surrendered. escort carriers of Carrier Unit One. defenders. Philippines. supported landings on Angaur. II—the landing of the 1st Marine Division on Peleliu.7. supported the landings and until the end of the month a total 204  |  World War II . 1944 continued USMC 97976 A Marine F4U Corsair drops napalm against determined Japanese forces defending Peleliu in fall. carriers also Division on Morotai. On 17 September. supported Operation Stalemate to arrive ashore. and technical problems. detached from the main forces to Ralph A. VMF(N)-541 became the first squadron D. and to support Operation reinforced the Marines and. John S. the fleet carriers logistic. Ofstie commanding. Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia). Rear Adm. The Japanese had prepared the main line of resistance inland 18 SEPTE M BER • The Navy terminated the Pelican guided from the beaches to escape naval bombardment. Vice Adm. and three missile production program and returned the project to days of preliminary carrier air attacks in combination developmental status. Despite some success during the with intense naval gunfire failed to suppress the tenacious preceding six weeks. on 1 February 1945. 14 SEPTE M BER • Task Group 38. William On 24 September. the decision stemmed from tactical. Sample commanding. 1944.

g. and rejoined the main body of fast carriers. the carriers launched a second the first Coast Guard demonstration of a helicopter rescue raid on northern Luzon. N. preferably with temporary paint. From 12 to 14 October the force then 30 SEPTE M BER • During September. Planes Gray on top and sides and Insignia White on bottom. during the first use of guided amphibian utility aircraft. Vice Adm. Marc A. Graham.000-pounds. planes struck airfields on northern TDR-1s struck the target ship. carrier planes attacked ships. On 14 October. military warfare identified two special camouflage schemes. stripped for pilotless flight. Insignia White all over (the selection depended upon the prevailing weather conditions and. in and lowered them safely to a 38. Chief for landings on Leyte. At least one combat aircraft. of BUAER Rear Adm. Luzon in preparation for raids on the Japanese bastion of Formosa (Taiwan). a kamikaze suicide plane crashed Franklin (CV 13). control operator in an accompanying TBM Avenger guided the pilotless aircraft by radio during attacks against heavily 10 OCTOBER • Task Force 38. and shipping in the central Philippines.1 carrier-based aircraft and seaplane transports. The basic nonspecular camouflage. These raids drew heavy Japanese aerial totaling 224. Orange Yellow on target-towing missiles in action in the Pacific.by 63-foot flight deck fitted combination with other battles. Provision allowed for the optional use by miles to the Northern Solomons. Graham. had 27 SEPTE M BER • Special Task Air Group (STAG) 1 been used by AirLant). but both ships continued. which provided seven different color schemes squadrons in the techniques of close air support operations. followed to helicopters. These strikes in total destroyed an estimated HNS-1 Hoverfly. j. in an Manila area. Overall Aluminum was to be applied began a combat demonstration of TDR-1 assault drones to landplane transports and trainers and landplane and from Stirling. on 13 October. and on a convoy off Luzon. two of four vessels. 1944 continued 21 SEPTE M BER • After the fighting at Morotai in the basic change concerned the use of overall glossy Sea Blue on Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia). tactical commanders of special identification markings on and armed with bombs of up to 2. Stewart R. defended targets and directed the final assault by means of Mitscher commanding. Fields on Luzon. In the initial assault against Japanese antiaircraft Leyte. USCG. The combined utility planes. and industrial plants on Formosa claimed the destruction of 893 Japanese aircraft and 67 ships and sank 22 vessels. Ships had delivered the planes and primary trainers. and glossy Insignia Red on drones to the Russell Islands and they were then flown 45 target drones. Ramsey observed and expressed his approval of the demonstration. and the next day. for aircraft depending upon their design and use. Task Group 38. Treasury Islands.000 tons. since 19 July 1943. bombing squadrons (VB) were redesignated patrol bombing The destruction of Japanese air power on Formosa paved squadrons (VPB). Pacific to form mobile air support 7 OCTOBER • A new BUAER color specification went training units to train carrier air groups and Marine into effect. trainers. Aircraft from 17 carriers bombed airfields guns emplaced in a beached freighter defending Kahili on Okinawa and other islands of the Ryūkyūs and sank 29 airstrip on South Bougainville in the Solomons. the way on 14 and 16 October for USAAF Boeing B-29 Superfortress raids on island aircraft plant and airfield 2 OCTOBER • Lt. hoisted aloft four men from two life rafts 438 Japanese aircraft in the air and 366 on the ground and. shipping around Manila and Subic Bays was to be applied to patrol and patrol bombing types and and Cavite Island. The most World War II   |   205 . 14 OCTOBER • The Navy directed Amphibious Forces Training Command. counterattacks and. and the next day Hancock (CV 1 OCTOBER • Patrol Squadrons (VP) and multi-engine 19) received damage from bombs. Philippines. made facilities. effectively cleared the skies to Coast Guard cutter Governor Cobb (WPG 181). The following day. struck Japanese reinforcement pictures received from the drones’ nose-mounted television staging areas in the opening blow of the campaign to liberate cameras. a sweep over the from the open sea off Manasquan Inlet. aerodromes. semigloss force launched two days of strikes on Clark and Nichols Sea Blue above and nonspecular Insignia White below. Gull installations. The prescription regarding antisubmarine on 24 September by additional raids on airfields.J. or sank 39 Japanese vessels including destroyer Satsuki. DeWitt C.

The Suluan garrison transmitted near Simpson Harbor. of VMSB-244 and -341. Vice Adm. Rear Adm. Thomas on Dinagat and Suluan Islands at the entrance to Leyte Gulf C. Ralph E. 26 October 1944. in the Philippines. landed four divisions of the 206  |  World War II . The plan called 17 OCTOBER • Task Group 38. 1944 continued 47012 Navy SB2C Helldivers from Hancock (CV 19) attack Kumano in Tablas Strait. Kinkaid commanding. attack. Philippine waters on board seaplane tender Currituck (AVP 7) to direct patrol plane operations in support of 19 OCTOBER • President Franklin D. off Mindoro Island. a plan providing for the acceptance of African American women in the women’s Navy Reserves. Roosevelt approved landings on Leyte. New Britain. and SBD-5 Dauntlesses bring about the Battle of Leyte Gulf. The drones took an alert that prompted Japanese Commander in Chief part in a coordinated attack by aircraft from Green Island Combined Fleet Adm. 19 OCTOBER • Commander Fleet Air Wing 17 moved to Morotai in the Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia) to 17 OCTOBER • Commander Fleet Air Wing 10 arrived in support operations against Japanese forces in the Philippines. attacked Japanese installations at black women as administrative officers. 17 OCTOBER • The Army’s 6th Ranger Battalion landed 20 OCTOBER • The Seventh Fleet.4. Luzon. for the immediate commissioning of a limited number of Davison commanding. Toyoda Soemu to order SHO-1—an including PBJ-1D Mitchells of VMB-423. The raid thus helped to Corsairs of VMF-218 and -222. 15 OCTOBER • Special Task Air Group (STAG) 1 to destroy Japanese installations capable of providing early launched four TDR-1 assault drones against Matupi Bridge warning of a U. The raid failed to hit the targets because of poor picture reception and pilot error. F4U-1 and FG-1 operation to defend the Philippines. enlistment of additional African American women. during the Battle of Leyte Gulf. and the subsequent Legaspi and Clark Field.S. The Japanese cruiser escaped despite three hits. Rabaul.

assistance of cruiser gunfire. Halsey Jr. flew F6F-3 Mindanão. two destroyers and a destroyer escort. Chiyōda. respectively. and broke up a formation of 3 to the north off Samar. and Zuihō.g. and destroyers Japanese fuel shortages compelled the dispersal of its fleet Hatsuzuki (by gunfire) Hayashimo. 77. Noshiro.3. and Nagato. and Tone. Lo and damaged Kalinin Bay.4. Aircraft damaged battleships Bogan commanding. Tama (also from submarine Jallao [SS 368]). Rear Adm. 2. Japanese gunfire sank Gambier Bay (CVE 73). and White Plains. Chōkai. a bomb from 20 OCTOBER • Special Task Air Group (STAG) 1 a Yokosuka D4Y1 Type 2 Judy struck Princeton (CVL 23) launched three TDR-1 assault drones against Japanese gun and she was later scuttled. to direct the a destroyer escort. and Kitkun Bay (CVE 71).4. aircraft sank all four Japanese carriers.1.4. rearguard efforts threw Kurita’s ships into disarray and compelled his retirement despite the Japanese superiority 21 OCTOBER • Task Group 38. 77. Four were to be assigned to ships and the remaining by submarine I-56—and missed Sangamon (CVE 26). Ozawa Jisaburō commanding. and destroyers Fujinami. damaged Kalinin 21 OCTOBER • Marine Carrier Air Groups was established Bay (CVE 68). as Taffy 1. and sank destroyer Wakaba and organized in Task Units 77. in the Solomon Fleet turned back the Southern Force before daylight in the Islands. U.4. and the next day. Attrition had cruisers Kumano. Kiyoshimo. In the Sibuyan Sea. Japanese planes counterattacked an estimated 60 Japanese aircraft. but crashed before striking a beached Japanese freighter— The Central Force made a night passage through San christened by the men involved “Kahili Maru”—equipped Bernardino Strait and at daylight off Samar attacked Taffy with antiaircraft guns off the airstrip at Kahili. scuttled by the Japanese) heavy cruisers Chikuma. Negros.2. j. led nine fleet and eight light carriers. Lo (CVE 63). planes sank (some William F. Commander Seventh Fleet Vice Adm. Myōkō. Masbate. Rear Adm. Vice Adm. of six such groups. heavy that converged separately on Leyte Gulf. Eighteen escort carriers through the Sulu Sea. The Northern Force decoyed Halsey’s Third Fleet 23 OCTOBER • The Battle of Leyte Gulf began when beyond range to protect Taffy 3 but off Cape Engaño Japanese Operation SHO-1 attempted to disrupt U. Kinkaid Mogami. near Cebu. White formation and training of Marine squadrons earmarked to Plains (CVE 66). one made a hit with its bomb Battle of Surigao Strait. Commander Third Fleet Adm.S.4. a destroyer and under Aircraft. and the final 3. and sank battleship Musashi south of Luzon. Gerald F.3 but known damaged battleships Fusō and Yamashiro. Allied Aircraft also attacked the Southern Force as it proceeded aircraft from Tacloban assumed direct air support missions World War II   |   207 .2. McCampbell carriers by operations. and Panay in the Philippines. each composed of a fighter and a torpedo Suwannee (CVE 27). Plans called for the formation planes sank St. and Okinami. and Chitose with the landings in the gulf.2. In addition. reduced the Northern Force’s 1st Mobile Force. and into the Northern (decoy). airfields on commanding.S. One drone was lost. Thomas C. downing nine (claiming the ships and a bomb damaged Sangamon (CVE 26) but she 15). and Uranami. Taffy 1 sailed southward off northern and his wingman. and 77. Lt. light cruisers Abukuma (by USAAF led 18 escort carriers organized in Task Units 77. and 3. Roy Rushing. and Suzuya.3 and known as Taffy 1. and straddled St. and Southern Forces damaged battleships Yamato. respectively. On 27 October. Kitkun Bay. On 25 October.1. Fleet Marine Force. attacked Japanese ships and installations Yamato and Kongō and heavy cruisers Chikuma. Philippines. Sprague commanding.4. David S. Bougainville. Chōkai. Vice Adm. Taffy 2 off the entrance to Leyte Gulf. Haruna. Pacific. and Santee (CVE 29)—also torpedoed squadron. to carrier Zuikaku and light On 27 and 28 October. light cruiser Yahagi. 2. ships planes attacked the Central Force. Fanshaw Bay (CVE 70). McCampbell subsequently received the Medal continued the fight. Central. supplemented the fast Commander CVG-15 Cmdr. and 3. Luzon and vessels in Manila Bay. During a Japanese counterattack on Task Group 38. the Seventh positions west of Ballale. aircraft from the heavy carriers Chitose. carriers attacked airfields on Luzon and the Visayas. Valiant drone bombed and crashed the freighter. Clifton A. and Taffy Hellcats from Essex (CV 9). Petrof Bay (CVE 80). B-24 Liberators) Kinu. in weight and firepower. Kamikaze operate from escort carriers. Kurita Takeo near Cebu on 28 October. F. 1944 continued Sixth Army on Leyte. Nowaki (by gunfire) and and 77. and Suzuya. two to function as replacement and training groups. of Honor for this and the action on 19 June.

046 Japanese planes another suicide aircraft as it plunged toward Ticonderoga and warships totaling more than 300. engines. Philippines. of Leyte Gulf effectively finished the Japanese surface fleet. 208  |  World War II . The first two damaged the ship. Franklin proceeded to Puget Sound Navy Yard at Bremerton. nine attacked antiaircraft guns on beached ships and achieved six direct hits and two near misses. carrier aircraft service units and to request a study by the Naval Air Material Center of the patrol aircraft service units operating at advanced bases requirements for a laboratory to develop and test such were redesignated combat aircraft service units (forward). Task Force 38. three kamikazes attacked Franklin (CV 13) off Samar. Vice Adm. Lexington (CV 16). Lexington underwent repairs at Ulithi. and 18 attacked other targets in the Shortlands and Rabaul areas and made 11 hits. cruiser Nachi. The following day.J. N. Trenton. A suicide plane damaged the ship. carrier but the ship controlled the blaze and her guns shot down aircraft claimed the destruction of 1. Rear Adm. McCain 700580 commanding. (CV 9). Intrepid (CV 11) launched a strike against Clark Field on Luzon. making one hit that demolished the structure. 238363 Bogan commanding. Later.2. 18 June 1944. Gerald F. began two days of carrier raids on airfields A Japanese suicide plane narrowly misses Sangamon (CVE 26) during and shipping around Luzon and Mindoro. and the requirement for continued carrier air support influenced the cancellation of a fast carrier strike on Tōkyō. John S. which was sunk on 5 November. Japanese retaliatory over Leyte and Samar. Planes damaged heavy torpedo bomber attacking a carrier aft of her off Saipan. George.000 tons. In addition to the success against the lighthouse. Twenty-nine of the 46 drones expended during the demonstration reached their target areas. attacked Japanese airfields and shipping Kitkun Bay’s (CVE 71) 5-inch gun makes a direct hit on a Japanese in the Manila area. 5 NOV E M BER • Appalling weather and difficult terrain that delayed the development of airfields on Leyte. Calif. During October. 1944 continued 26 OCTOBER • Special Task Air Group (STAG) 1 concluded a month-long demonstration of the first use of guided missiles in the Pacific with a final attack of two TDR-1 assault drones against a lighthouse on Cape St. and Belleau Wood to Hunters Point. while the third missed and crashed Belleau Wood (CVL 24). New Ireland. 29 OCTOBER • Task Group 38. Planes from Essex the Battle of Leyte Gulf. retirement of the escort carriers. 6 NOV E M BER • The recognition of the future importance 25 OCTOBER • In recognition of the difference in the of turbojet and turboprop powerplants prompted BUAER functions performed. but Intrepid continued in action. Philippines. Wash. Hawaiian Islands retained the original title. 25 October 1944. and Langley (CVL 27) sank heavy cruiser Nachi and smaller vessels. which two days later enabled the air strikes included a kamikaze that crashed Lexington. This decision initiated action that consequently led while those commands in the continental United States and to the establishment of the Naval Air Turbine Test Station. The Battle (CV 14). Both ships completed temporary repairs at Ulithi..

In Dasol Bay. This island. program subsequently developed the Loon. Hellcats. Rear Adms. Philippines. a group of escort carriers protected convoys Ticonderoga (CV 14) sank heavy cruiser Kumano. Aircraft from technical studies to determine the feasibility of launching Essex. SB2C Helldivers. McCain shifted his strikes to the Manila area and central Luzon and sank light Gerald F. Ticonderoga. Sherman commanding. and first of her class built from the last U. Akishimo. an adaptation of the USAAF JB-2 version of German V-l Japanese suicide planes damaged Essex. Intrepid (CV 11). Vice Adm. cruiser Kiso. World War II   |   209 . people. destroyers Akebono. convoy about 15 miles southwest of Santa Cruz off western Luzon and sank coast defense ship Yasojima (former Chinese 17 NOV E M BER • BUAER reported the continuation of light cruiser Ping Hai) and three landing ships. and Cabot (CVL 28). Hancock Buzz Bombs from escort carriers for attacks on enemy ships (CV 19). was commissioned as the Command enabled the relocation of its facilities. 1944 continued 10 NOV E M BER • An estimated 3. Bogan and Frederick C.000-pound bomb on a TDR-1 assault drone in preparation for an attack. and Langley sank additional vessels. Wash. sinking all but 25 NOV E M BER • Task Groups 38. All these ships continued in action. Bowman commanding. escort carrier design equipment to other commands. and TBM-1C Avengers from and from 14 to 23 November another group protected Essex (CV 9). launched strikes against Japanese ships off Okinami. Capt. 27 NOV E M BER • Commencement Bay (CVE 105). McCain commanding. attacked a Japanese reinforcement convoy of four 1053775 transports and five destroyers in Ormoc Bay. which suffered minor damage to their exteriors. Leyte. A plane embarked on board and shore targets. planes from 28 November. one destroyer. Hatsuharu. The crew of Saginaw Bay helped care for the wounded. Intrepid.S. and 20 merchant and auxiliary ships. and Langley (CVL 27) attacked a convoys from Ulithi. 23 NOV E M BER • The dissolution of Training Task Force Roscoe L. F6F from the Admiralty Islands against air and submarine attacks.3.000 tons of explosives on board ammunition ship Mount Hood (AE 11) exploded in Seeadler Harbor. On 13 and 14 November. Manus. Admiralty Islands. The blast damaged 36 nearby ships and landing craft including Petrof Bay (CVE 80) and Saginaw Bay (CVE 82). and respectively. in the Sailors mount a 2. 11 NOV E M BER • Task Force 38. During 19 to central Luzon in the Philippines.2 and 38. at Tacoma. The modifications envisioned included Independence (CVL 22) accidentally crashed into the ship’s the installation of radio controls and a radar beacon. John S.

The planes continued with successive of Essex (CV 9)–class carrier air groups to 73 fighters. blimp operations over the southern approaches. Durgin commanding.619 Allied 7 DECE M BER • Chourre (ARV 1). Pacific. supported the landings. 1944 continued 12 DECE M BER • Three Evacuation Squadrons (VE) were established in the Pacific Fleet from air-sea rescue squadron elements already providing evacuation services. following the Airship Wing 5 was disestablished at Trinidad. Bergeson commanding. and 15 torpedo planes reflected the changing to effectively pin down Japanese aircraft on the island. Mitscher pins the Distinguished Flying Cross on near Marcus Island (CVE 77). Adms. Task Force the Navy’s second highest scoring ace. On 27 December first purpose-built aviation repair ship of the Navy at 1944 and 9 January 1945. Bridget of Patrol Wing 10. Md. Philippines. 1 DECE M BER • Electronics Tactical Training Unit was 14 DECE M BER • The rank of fleet admiral was established.1. Adm. the survivors endured additional Baltimore. On the night of D-day. Halsey Jr. antiaircraft fire shot down two Japanese suicide planes that crashed 297413 Vice Adm. Andrew prisoners under shipment to Japan. combined with Marine shore-based aircraft to support Army landings on the southwest coast of Mindoro. established at NAS Willow Grove. During the morning watch on 15 December. Calvin T. Japan.12. The unit trained The next day. and 16 DECE M BER • Planes from Task Force 38 sank Japanese ordnance radar. Philippines. and. Philippines. attacks by U. Destroyers Hull (DD 350). and only 497 prisoners reached Moji. Rear shifted to Jinamoc Island. and Fleet Adm. Fighters consisted of two squadrons of accounted for a major share of the estimated 341 enemy 36 planes each plus one for the carrier air group commander. The men killed included H. 30 NOV E M BER • The headquarters of Fleet Air Wing 10 13 DECE M BER • Escort Carrier Force. refueling of some of the ships. was commissioned as the Cmdr. Leahy. duties. Lt. identification. 15 combat air patrols that spread an aerial blanket over the area bombers. Task Force 38 the Pacific. Nimitz received promotions to the rank. On 14 December. Formosa (Taiwan). 38. Monaghan (DD 354). Harris. and people of the Airborne Coordinating Group as instructors Chester W. William F. Felix B. Stump commanding.S. John S. in the operation of all newer types of airborne electronics apparatus including search. and Spence (DD 512) capsized in the 210  |  World War II . navigation. aircraft destroyed. including seven heavy and six light carriers. seaplanes also joined with operations from Mangarin Bay. was established for the administrative control of all escort carriers operating in 30 NOV E M BER • During November. From 12 to 14 December. freighter Oryoku Maru in Subic Bay. King. Cecil E. Mark A. 12 DECE M BER • Six escort carriers of Task Unit 77. Ernest J. William D. commanding. McCain commanding. Vice Adm. Francis J. and character of the war. planes at Takao. from 15 to 18 December. Pilots attacked unaware that the ship carried at least 1. Capt. except those assigned to training and transport claimed the destruction of 770 Japanese planes. Pa. 11 DECE M BER • During the year a steady decline in U-boat attacks in the Caribbean permitted a reduction of 18 DECE M BER • A typhoon roared into the Third Fleet. Rear Adm. planes covered the passage of transports and assault shipping through the Visayas. began fighter sweeps over 29 NOV E M BER • A revision of the aircraft complement airfields on Luzon.

and Kiyoshimo. apparently (CVL 28). high seas northeast of Samar. 1944 continued 428461 A tender hoists a PBM on board to service the Mariner. PT-77 received damage. planes. Cape Esperance Kiyoshimo off San Jose south of Manila.S. and San Jacinto (CVL 30) of Task Force 38. battleships. and PT-223 sank Altamaha (CVE 18). Philippines. Monterey (CVL 26). Their arrival marked the first Marine aircraft torn lose from the carriers. and destroyer escorts Kashi. Philippines. The World War II   |   211 . and Kaya. Nehenta Bay (CVE 74). light cruiser Oyodo. and Kwajalein (CVE 98) of the replenishment group sustained damage. patrol bombing landplanes similar to that of carrier based Republic P-47 Thunderbolts. and from misidentification by U. Sea Blue on other tail surfaces and the fuselage. and cruisers. and 146 planes were swept or 28 DECE M BER • VMF-124 and -213 reported on board blown overboard. Kasumi. airplanes—semigloss Sea Blue on top and bottom surfaces and North American B-25 Mitchells damaged heavy cruiser of wings and on all horizontal tail surfaces. Lockheed P-38 Lightnings. 26 DECE M BER • A Japanese “Intrusion Force” attacked the 30 DECE M BER • An amendment to the specification U. (CVE 88). jettisoned. Cabot intercepted the intruders. or crushed by debris or other Essex (CV 9) at Ulithi.S. destroyers Asashimo. fighter squadrons to operate from fast carriers in combat. and nonspecular Ashigara. and 21 other ships Japanese bombarded the beachhead but motor torpedo boats including Cowpens (CVL 25). beachhead at Mindoro. PB4Y Liberators and on aircraft color proscribed a color scheme for patrol and PBM Mariners. together with USAAF Curtiss P-40 Warhawks.

strikes shifted to airfields and shipping at adjust their composition to changing combat requirements Luzon in response to Japanese suicide attacks. the carriers launched 2 JA N UA RY • In spite of almost continuous harsh weather strikes along 420 miles of the Indochina coast. and 212  |  World War II . January. 1945 western Luzon in the Philippines. The Japanese reacted vigorously and their planes attacked the invasion forces 1 JA N UA RY • Carrier Training Squadron. The replenishment group passed through Balintang Channel. Hornet (CV 12). Calif. Two carrier. On 12 January. China Sea. a night group of one heavy and one light Pearl Harbor. planes 2 JA N UA RY • Eighteen fighter bomber squadrons (VBF) bombed Japanese airfields and ships at Formosa (Taiwan).000 2 JA N UA RY • The headquarters of Fleet Air Wing 17. based tons of merchant and small warships. on seaplane tender Tangier (AV 8). began to direct patrol During the night of 9–10 January. Yorktown (CV 10). established in the Pacific Fleet to provide operational control John S. McCain commanding. the Pescadores and Ryūkyū Islands. Territory of Hawaii. Task Force 38 made plane support of operations in Lingayen Gulf from San Pedro a high-speed run through Luzon Strait into the South Bay. 10 tankers. Planes sank during the month. Vice Adm. and on 9 in the Pacific. Philippines. Pacific was during the transit from Leyte Gulf. claiming the destruction of more than 100 Japanese aircraft and 40. including seven heavy and over carriers employed in training carrier air groups out of four light carriers. On 3 January. 1945 294129 The carriers (from front) Wasp (CV 18). 8 December 1944. were established within the existing carrier air groups to On 6 January. and seven escort carriers. and San Diego. and Ticonderoga (CV 14) form a powerful centerpiece amid an array of naval power at Ulithi. 14 small warships. Hancock (CV 19). the Allies invaded Lingayen Gulf on training cruiser Kashii. Task Force 38. and a replenishment group with one hunter-killer carrier divisions composed the squadron. concentrated on the destruction of enemy air power and air installations.

World War II   |   213 . but the next day (CVE 96). 1945.4. and a bomb passed over seaplane 15 January. bombed Japanese targets at Hong Kong. and Formosa.000 tons 7–9 January. for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES) arrived in the Seventeen escort carriers of Task Group 77. Inclement weather persisted. aerial attacks damaged Kitkun Bay (CVE 71) and Kadashan the Pescadores. 1945 continued 313866 Antiaircraft fire shoots down a Japanese bomber over an Essex (CV 9)-class carrier. supported the inland advance of troops. From losses in the face of robust resistance. On 5 the Chinese coast. the force claimed the destruction of more than 600 Japanese 6 JA N UA RY • The first detachment of Women Accepted aircraft and 325. and on 13 January. and through left the South China Sea. and Okinawa. Japanese planes damaged Bay (CVE 76) on 8 January. of the escort carrier. On United States to which the Navy permanently assigned 4 January. along tender Half Moon (AVP 26) but failed to explode. a kamikaze crashed Ommaney Bay (CVE 79) in women during World War II. aircraft raided the Ryūkyūs. During three weeks of action.000 tons. igniting fueled aircraft on the flight raiders also sank French colonial cruiser Lamotte-Picquet deck that resulted in the deaths of 95 men and the scuttling and surveying vessel Octant near the Japanese ships. additional kamikaze and aerial attacks damaged concentrated on Hong Kong. 4. Another kamikaze narrowly missed The force moved northward to evade a typhoon and. The Americans suffered heavy Manila Bay (CVE 61) and Savo Island (CVE 78).009 women Adm. The the Northern Sulu Sea.000 tons of shipping. Calvin T. covered the landings. Durgin commanding. By the end of the war. they made a night. Rear Territory of Hawaii. 16 transports and cargo vessels totaling 126. protected the served in the islands in the only post outside the continental approach of the Luzon attack force to Lingayen Gulf. and the attackers assault area. Further time run through Balintang Channel to strike Formosa. and the next day January. but sank 62. on 9 January. Hainan. on Lunga Point (CVE 94). On 20 January. planes conducted preliminary strikes in the of shipping. 17 January. Salamaua Ticonderoga (CV 14) and Langley (CVL 27).

and then retired to the equipment of VPB-109. later augmented by one night heavy 15 FEBRUA RY • The disestablishment of the West Coast carrier and two additional escort carriers. Laboratory. A Japanese aircraft glide. commanding. William A. Task Group 52. the carriers embarked 144 first task on Project Bumblebee to the Applied Physics F4U-1D and FG-1 Corsairs from VMF-112.2. Planes also protected ships from Japanese submarine Mitscher commanding. ahead of the ships to prevent their discovery.558 bombs and to the bay. carriers and a night group of two heavy carriers launched the On 26 February. Col. -213. William D. supported the landings included a flight of 24 F6F Hellcats returned to Ulithi.4. and Japanese fighters east of the and Okinawa in the Ryūkyūs. -123. Iwo Jima. FM-2 Wildcats and TBM-1C Avengers. Operation Detachment—landings on Iwo Jima in the Kazan sank submarines I-368 (transporting a kaiten) and RO-43 Rettō (Volcano Islands) by the 4th and 5th Marine Divisions. and the following day at Nasugbu. in preparation for embarked on board Anzio (CVE 57) and Tulagi (CVE 72). south of the 104 napalm tanks. and ships around the 21 JA N UA RY • Task Force 38. and Tartar missiles Marianas augmented carrier air patrols that swept the seas eventually emerged. Mark A. On 20 April.000 tons of merchant (SWOD) Mark 9—glide bombs in combat following a shipping. USMC. and Sakishima Gunto major dogfight between U. first carrier attack against Honshū. Rear Adm. guided antiaircraft Privateers and USAAF B-29 Superfortresses from the weapon from which the Talos. Rear Adm. dropped 1. and 24 Marine Corsairs. Vice Adm. snow. and the garrison (CV 14) and their attacks cost the ship 36 planes. airfields. 143 killed prepared extensive defenses using the island’s caves. During the two-day raid. -124. and starboard. bombed Langley (CVL 27).254 rockets. From 16–18 Wing of the Naval Air Transport Service facilitated the February. and -451. Terrier. Two suicide planes crashed Ticonderoga but warned the Japanese defenders. -217. Ticonderoga made for Ulithi for temporary hits against these positions and the Marines sustained repairs and then to Puget Sound Navy Yard at Bremerton. entrance to Manila Bay. that attacked the Japanese in double- 29 JA N UA RY • Planes from six escort carriers of Task column approaches. flew neutralization strikes against the Bonin Islands. McCain Tōkyō area. On 19 February. and rain squalls impeded commanding. and 202 wounded including her skipper. leaving in his wake the destruction of an estimated Wing 2 to employ Bat—Special Weapons Ordnance Device 648 Japanese aircraft and 30. and -124 of Fleet Air Ulithi. led by Lt. foul weather persuaded Mitscher to planes sank a guardboat and 22 merchantmen and fishing cancel attacks and return to support the landings. On 25 February. Aircraft of Task Group 50. Sample commanding. 16 FEBRUA RY • Task Force 58. followed. Durgin dispatched preliminary air strikes against reassignment of its squadrons to the Pacific and Atlantic Wings. -221. -123.5 operating 214  |  World War II . appalling casualties. and covered Army landings at San Antonio near Subic Bay. with 6 FEBRUA RY • The Chief of Naval Operations directed raids on Okinawa and the Ryūkyūs. and fired 2. including nine heavy and five light attacks including kaiten human-guided suicide torpedoes. Capt.S. Japan. made subsequent rocketing and strafing passes. capital.1945 continued 11 JA N UA RY • The Bureau of Ordnance assigned the In addition to Navy aircraft. Planes also vessels and damaged installations. Heavy clouds. Durgin period of training at NAS Kaneohe Bay. The or missing. volcanic terrain limited the effectiveness of all but direct Dixie Kiefer. On this Philippines. Calvin T. and an accidental explosion Previous carrier raids and USAAF B-24 Liberator and of bombs carried by a TBM-1C Avenger of VT-7 damaged Superfortress missions from the Marianas had weakened Hancock (CV 19). Hawaiian Islands. Planes bombed Japanese aircraft factories. Mitscher returned for a second strike on Tōkyō during harsh weather. on 1 March. Vice Adm. On 17 February. 606 planes flew 765 sorties. Millington. these planes supported the Marines and attacked Bonin Islands airstrips. commenced the Iwo Jima campaign with nine escort carriers. The planes broke by division to port Group 77. the Pescadores. on 22 May. and from 19 February – 11 March. she completed repairs and. The action established the program for the -216. naval aircraft that Wash. PB4Y-1 Liberators and PB4Y-2 development of a ram-jet powered. in separate attacks. on 30 January on Grande Island at the entrance date. attacked Japanese airfields and ships at operations. John S. but a momentary break in the weather enabled a Formosa (Taiwan). dropped napalm on their initial runs.

Another bomber first of more than 2. Cmdr. Randolph completed repairs at the atoll. Another suicide plane damaged planes flew from Kanoya. One Frances crashed Randolph (CV 15) On 4 March. the balance of the squadrons began to operate from 7 M A RCH • The commanding officer of CGAS Floyd airstrips while under artillery and mortar fire. ten heavy and six light carriers launched raids against Japanese 26 FEBRUA RY • The headquarters of Fleet Air Wing 17 airfields and shipping at Kyūshū and Honshū. ships at their Lunga Point (CVE 94).Y. to action. to attack U. Philippines. Japanese planes lashed the ships and 3 M A RCH • The Naval Air Transport Service was a Mitsubishi G4M1 Type 1 Betty crashed close aboard reorganized and established as a fleet command with its Intrepid (CV 11). Type 2 ( Judy) dive bombers attacked Yorktown (CV 10) during which a bomb from the third plane damaged the ship. the destruction of 482 enemy aircraft by aerial attack and 46 by antiaircraft fire. and commanding. Pa. 1945 continued from the Marianas conducted shipping reconnaissance and 3 M A RCH • The Naval Air Training Command air-sea rescue between Japan and Iwo Jima. and a firefighting.. reported to BUAER the successful test of USAAF North American P-51 Mustangs and Northrop a dunking sonar suspended from an XHOS-1 helicopter. Bennett Field. and a bomb struck Langley (CVL 27). The next day..251 Superfortress emergency landings slammed into Sorlen Island. Sharon Hill. killing two men and wounding 43. and offensive incorporated the Naval Air Technical Training Command. -5 flew ashore from Wake Island (CVE 65). Japan. The aircraft on which she arrived took On 26 February. and never returned Taylor directed the experiment off NAS Cape May. Ulithi anchorage. transport helicopter at P-V Engineering Forum. These aircraft flew day and night 7 M A RCH • Pilot Frank N. P-61 Black Widows arrived from Saipan. Three Yokosuka D4Y1 and Chief of Naval Operations. Through 22 March. Lt. Jima. patrol planes of Fleet Air Wing 1 6 M A RCH • Ens. Sound Navy Yard at Bremerton. Salvage vessel Current (ARS 22) on Iwo Jima by the end of the war. The campaign included sustained damage during a collision with the carrier while the use of altitude-determining radar on board LSTs. claiming deployed to Clark Field on Luzon. a crippled B-29 named Dinah Might made the and killed 25 men and wounded 106. screens for carrier raids and expeditionary forces. She Gorgon air-to-air missile that achieved an estimated speed of made for Eniwetok for temporary repairs and then to Puget 550 mph in its first powered test flight. A kamikaze crashed Bismarck Sea (CVE 95) and triggered fires and ammunition explosions that led to the 11 M A RCH • Yokosuka P1Y Ginga (Frances) land attack loss of the ship and 318 men. From 28 February – 8 March. 19 FEBRUA RY • Commander Fleet Air Wing 1 went to sea on board seaplane tender Hamlin (AV 15) to direct 18 M A RCH • Task Force 58. Volcano Islands. N.S. combat air patrols and provided all air support upon the 11 Towson made the first flight of the tandem rotor XHRP-X March departure of the escort carriers. followed two days later by VMTB-242. Wash. The service operated bomb inflicted minor damage on Enterprise (CV 6) and the under the immediate direction of the Commander in Chief ship later sailed to Ulithi for repairs. A dud headquarters at NAAS Oakland. Marc A. Calif. Iwo Jima was declared secured. supported Operation Iceberg—the invasion remained in the area until the island was secure. two OY-1 Sentinels of VMO-4 and Japanese mortar fire during its landing. N. night fighter director in the organization of the air support commander. 17 M A RCH • The Naval Air Transport Service received responsibility for evacuating wounded sailors and Marines. and two days later. Vice Adm. On 16 March. Japan. Moulton B.J. Japanese aerial counterattacks included five suicide planes and a bomber that damaged Saratoga (CV 3) on 8 M A RCH • A PBY-5A Catalina launched a rocket-powered 21 February with a loss of 123 men killed or missing. Piasecki and copilot George N. carrier planes attacked targets from Kure to World War II   |   215 . Jane Kendeigh became the first Navy carried out similar operations from tenders anchored in the flight nurse to serve in a combat zone when she reached Iwo lee of Iwo Jima. Mitscher patrol squadrons in support of the fighting on Iwo Jima. of Okinawa in the Ryūkyū Islands. On 6 March.

and on 25 and 26 March. the Japanese launched the first of a series of Fleet. Calvin Yahagi. two kamikazes damaged Wake Island (CVE 65) sailed to Puget Sound for repairs. defensive patrols and close air support missions.g. Simms. Kamikazes took advantage of the diversion and a support. Lt. and named Kikusui (Floating Chrysanthemum) No. led a combat air patrol and shot down at least six attackers. Mitscher shifted his flag to Enterprise 1. RN. fought south of Okinawa. and damaged 14 warships. carriers from the island own power to New York. USNR. On 3 Mitscher shifted his flag to Randolph (CV 15) and Enterprise April. On 16 April. USNR. Block Island (CVE 106) and Gilbert plane crashed into Hancock (CV 19). On 26 March. OY-1 Sentinels of next day the ship departed for repairs at San Francisco. including 18 escort carriers. fighter crashed on for repairs. supported ground operations. kamikazes attacked Sangamon (CVE 26) and the ship sailed Indomitable (92). Franklin sailed under her Sea toward Okinawa to lure U. without casualties. The British carriers’ armored flight Mitsubishi A6M Type 0 and a Judy crashed flagship Bunker decks enabled their survival against kamikazes. intercepted forcing them to prematurely release their Ohkas. A kamikaze crashed Enterprise (Yomitan). The carrrier left the area two days later. from which six days later aircraft began on 14 May.S. a kamikaze crashed Intrepid. Wash. Eugene A. L. and carrier aircraft neutralized airfields on the and assisted in guiding aircraft toward them. surrounding islands. Calif. and -7 periodically operated ashore. R. Young. Sir H. Hill (CV 17). -6. Bernard Rawlings. VMO-2. VF-9 F6F-3 Hellcat embarked on board Yorktown (CV 10).S. and T. and carriers launched 386 planes that sank Yamato. of VMF-511 and VMTB-233. Despite 724 men killed or missing and Force. a change in command from the Fifth On 6 April. Va. and although the crew escaped Natoma Bay (CVE 62) and she made for San Diego. part in the preliminary strikes. of VPB-21 Two days later. took Kasumi. arrived at and Bunker Hill made for repairs to Puget Sound Navy Kerama Rettō to direct patrol squadron operations. in his From 26 March – 20 April and from 3 – 25 May. which suffered 353 men killed. 43 missing. USNR. and Victorious (38) launched strikes at for repairs to Norfolk. On 4 May. and Yukikaze.Y.1945 continued Kōbe and Osaka. the commander of Fleet Air Wing and 264 wounded. light cruiser intercepted air raids. and Lt. and damaged destroyers Fuyuzuki. On 27 May. Antiaircraft fire downed ten U. On 13 and 14 May. On 6 June. Task Force 58 began pre-assault strikes on piloted two PBM-3D Mariners that shadowed the ships Okinawa. interspersed with smaller raids drydock. Task Force 57. Beginning on 3 April. Japanese planes damaged Enterprise and 143. Calif. At times British He subsequently received the Navy Cross. Valencia. supported landings on Kerama Rettō and provided close air planes. In late April. Indefatigable (10). and the support carriers.465 aircraft through 28 May. James R. The second of two kamikazes several days the ship continued in action before retiring damaged San Jacinto (CVL 30). A Japanese bomber dropped two 550-pound board Chenango (CVE 28) and started fires among the aircraft bombs on Franklin (CV 13) that ignited fires and exploded spotted for a strike. she departed for repairs. Task Group 52. Bremerton. after brief tows. N. Illustrious (87). Vice Adm. commanding. Rear Adm. and of VMF-512 and VMTB. The next day. but for 1. across the East China 265 wounded. two kamikazes tentatively identified as a intercepted air raids. 1. respectively. a suicide plane and a bomber damaged Allied ships operating off Okinawa. Marines and soldiers established a beachhead attempted to blunt these counterattacks by raiding airfields on western Okinawa and captured an airfield at Yontan on Kyūshū and Shikoku. based on seaplane tender Hamlin (AV 15). two carriers Formidable (67). ordnance and fuel among aircraft spotted on the flight deck The Japanese dispatched the First Diversion Attack or parked below. On 11 April. -3. killing 101 men and wounding 269. but she continued the Islands (CVE 107) arrived with MCVG-1 and -2. against Off Shikoku. to the 216  |  World War II . A U. including battleship Yamato. but fighters (CV 9) sighted and reported the enemy ships. marking the combat debut of Marine air Essex. carrier aircraft 1 April. On Yard. Hatsushimo. On 17 April. and to facilitate kamikaze attacks. Adm. Submarines Hackleback On 21 March. Lt.S. These attacks involved Wasp (CV 18). On 7 April. a Zeke crashed southeast of Okinawa. Durgin commanding. Isokaze. Suzutsuki. and destroyers Asashimo. airfields on Formosa (Taiwan) and Sakishima Gunto and On 11 May. consisting fight despite t