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The Praxis® Study Companion

English to Speakers of
Other Languages
5362

www.ets.org/praxis

Welcome to the Praxis® Study Companion

Welcome to The Praxis®Study Companion
Prepare to Show What You Know
You have been working to acquire the knowledge and skills you need for your teaching career. Now you are
ready to demonstrate your abilities by taking a Praxis® test.

Using the Praxis Study Companion is a smart way to prepare for the test so you can do your best on test day. This
guide can help keep you on track and make the most efficient use of your study time.

The Study Companion contains practical information and helpful tools, including:

• An overview of the Praxis tests
• Specific information on the Praxis test you are taking
• A template study plan
• Study topics
• Practice questions and explanations of correct answers
• Test-taking tips and strategies
• Frequently asked questions
• Links to more detailed information

So where should you start? Begin by reviewing this guide in its entirety and note those sections that you need
to revisit. Then you can create your own personalized study plan and schedule based on your individual needs
and how much time you have before test day.

Keep in mind that study habits are individual. There are many different ways to successfully prepare for your
test. Some people study better on their own, while others prefer a group dynamic. You may have more energy
early in the day, but another test taker may concentrate better in the evening. So use this guide to develop the
approach that works best for you.

Your teaching career begins with preparation. Good luck!

Know What to Expect

Which tests should I take?
Each state or agency that uses the Praxis tests sets its own requirements for which test or tests you must take for
the teaching area you wish to pursue.

Before you register for a test, confirm your state or agency’s testing requirements at www.ets.org/praxis/states.

How are the Praxis tests given?
Praxis tests are given on computer. Other formats are available for test takers approved for accommodations (see
page 43).

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Welcome to the Praxis® Study Companion

What should I expect when taking the test on computer?
When taking the test on computer, you can expect to be asked to provide proper identification at the test
center. Once admitted, you will be given the opportunity to learn how the computer interface works (how to
answer questions, how to skip questions, how to go back to questions you skipped, etc.) before the testing time
begins. Watch the What to Expect on Test Day video to see what the experience is like.

Where and when are the Praxis tests offered?
You can select the test center that is most convenient for you. The Praxis tests are administered through an
international network of test centers, which includes Prometric® Testing Centers, some universities, and other
locations throughout the world.

Testing schedules may differ, so see the Praxis Web site for more detailed test registration information at www.
ets.org/praxis/register.

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents
The Praxis® Study Companion guides you through the steps to success

1. Learn About Your Test.....................................................................................................5
Learn about the specific test you will be taking

2. F
 amiliarize Yourself with Test Questions.......................................................................9
Become comfortable with the types of questions you’ll find on the Praxis tests

3. Practice with Sample Test Questions.......................................................................... 13
Answer practice questions and find explanations for correct answers

4. Determine Your Strategy for Success.......................................................................... 21
Set clear goals and deadlines so your test preparation is focused and efficient

5. Develop Your Study Plan.............................................................................................. 24
Develop a personalized study plan and schedule

6. Review Study Topics..................................................................................................... 28
Review study topics with questions for discussion

7. Review Smart Tips for Success..................................................................................... 41
Follow test-taking tips developed by experts

8. Check on Testing Accommodations............................................................................ 43
See if you qualify for accommodations that may make it easier to take the Praxis test

9. Do Your Best on Test Day.............................................................................................. 44
Get ready for test day so you will be calm and confident

10. Understand Your Scores............................................................................................. 46
Understand how tests are scored and how to interpret your test scores

Appendix: Other Questions You May Have .................................................................... 48

The Praxis® Study Companion 4

Step 1: Learn About Your Test

1. Learn About Your Test
Learn about the specific test you will be taking

English to Speakers of Other Languages (5362)

Test at a Glance
Test Name English to Speakers of Other Languages
Test Code 5362
Time 120 minutes
Number of Questions 120 selected-response questions
Format Selected-response questions
Test Delivery
Computer delivered
Approximate Approximate
Content Categories Number of Percentage of
Questions Examination

I. Foundations of Linguistics 22 18%
VI I
V II. Foundations of Language Learning 26 22%
III. Planning and Implementing Instruction 28 23%
IV II
IV. Assessment and Evaluation 18 15%
III
V. Culture 13 11%
VI. Professionalism and Advocacy 13 11%

About This Test
The English to Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) test is designed to measure basic linguistic and pedagogical
knowledge for those interested in working in the context of teaching ESOL in elementary or secondary schools.
Candidates usually come from a variety of backgrounds. Some are preservice teachers who are recent graduates
of an ESOL degree program, some may be experienced ESOL teachers moving from a different state, while
others are current teachers who have changed from their content area of education to ESOL.

The Praxis ESOL test is categorized into six content categories of expertise, as shown in the pie chart above.
Candidates are expected to demonstrate the knowledge and skills required of a beginner-level K-12 ESOL
teacher. The six content categories were identified, via rigorous content analyses, by nationally recognized
thought leaders in the field of TESOL and applied linguistics. Having basic knowledge in each category was
deemed critical for the beginning-level ESOL teacher.

ETS works in collaboration with teacher educators, higher-education content specialists, and accomplished
teachers to keep the test updated and representative of current and relevant standards.

ETS has aligned the questions on this test with the TESOL/NCATE Standards for the Recognition of Initial TESOL
Programs in P-12 ESL Teacher Education developed by the international organization, TESOL, in collaboration with
the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP), formerly known as the National Council for
Accreditation of Teacher Education.

Test takers have two hours to complete 120 multiple-choice questions, which have listening questions
embedded throughout the test. For the listening questions, test takers have an opportunity to listen to

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Understands phonetics. language production and reception Test Specifications C. Knows a variety of instructional delivery I. Knows the concept of World Englishes measureable objectives that align to language and content standards K. Planning and Implementing Instruction F. Knows the implication of dialect variation combinations of words convey meaning for the instruction of English learners G. Understands the rhetorical patterns and learning objectives for ELs range of genres used in written English F. second-language learning process E.. Knows that languages differ from or are B. and the effects of F. Understands the distinction between ask candidates to choose more than one answer. and how to select the most appropriate pragmatics methods for the context H. Understands the concepts of pragmatics C. Understands communicative competence assessments that connect to learning N. Understands the relationship between I. differences between first and second This test may contain some questions that will not language acquisition. and functional characteristics III. Foundations of Language Learning account time considerations. Understands semantics and how A. Understands that.g. semantics. physical. Some of the questions A. Understands the concepts of models specific for ELs sociolinguistics D. taking into II. Understands the literacy development of phonetic environment on pronunciation ELs B. E. emotional) including their structural. Know about the inconsistencies and objectives for ELs irregularities of the English language G. Is familiar with ways to collaborate with other educators in designing classroom activities appropriate to the proficiency levels of English learners The Praxis® Study Companion 6 . Understands the processes of second- language acquisition including research- Test specifications in this chapter describe the based models knowledge and skills measured by the test. Understands the usage of English syntax affected by various factors (e. student performance may be D. Is familiar with IPA (the International G. Knows how to identify appropriate and J..Step 1: Learn About Your Test a recorded prompt multiple times. in addition to word formation language. Understands the parts of speech socioeconomic. Foundations of Linguistics English phonemes and graphemes and A. Understands the various types of literacy morphemes and how they are used in H. syntax. stress and the rules of phonics intonation patterns. Study D. Understands the conventions of written English (i. and how learners’ first language can affect their second- count toward the test taker’s total score. Understands how first-language literacy Phonetic Alphabet) influences the development of English C. Knows how to design appropriate M. approaches in teaching ELs and knows morphology. Knows how to design appropriate classroom activities that connect to L. Review Study Topics” on page 28. Understands various methods and similar to each other in their phonology. social and academic language functions which helps to capture the breadth of a candidate’s B. Understands the similarities and knowledge.e. mechanics) E. Knows the different types of affective topics to help you prepare to answer test questions factors and their implications for the can be found in “6. semantic.

Is familiar with strategies for U. Knows how to develop and administer opportunities to use language formative and summative classroom N. Assessment and Evaluation metacognitive strategies with ELs A. D. Understands how to differentiate I. H. Familiar with the role of assessment in L. Understands the importance of language J. and linguistically accessible accommodations for state-mandated teaching materials and resources to content-area testing for ELs support EL’s learning styles and needs E. age. between planning for ELs with learning listening. Knows how to create a language-. Knows the difference between norm- and print-rich environment at a linguistic referenced and criterion-referenced and an age. and writing) into disabilities Is aware that instruction will instruction need to be adapted for ELs receiving I. F. Knows that some ELs may be eligible for instruction and learning special education and/or gifted and Q. and how they are used with promotes academic growth ELs T. placement. Knows how to promote autonomous learning through cognitive and IV. and/ or create culturally responsive.e. inform instruction. and culturally respectful to provide feedback and input about learning environment for ELs assessment data R. Is familiar with assessment-related feedback to facilitate English-language issues such as validity. Understands how to create a secure. text-. and document student growth O. Understands that there are differences four domains of language (i. and scaffolding for English contextually or targeting them discretely language learning K. Knows how to organize instruction that and productive language skills provides students with meaningful C. speaking. Knows how and when to apply a variety modeling. Knows how to interpret assessment data instruction for ELs based on individual and use it to assist in planning and student needs and language proficiency differentiating instruction for ELs levels J. Understands effective practices for assessments to determine ELs’ language teaching literacy to English learners skills. talented services and is familiar with how supportive. modify.appropriate level that assessments. Understands techniques that activate the identification. and exit students’ prior knowledge and that build from language-support programs new knowledge to support acquisition of B. Knows how to promote ELs’ acquisition special education or gifted services of receptive and productive skills W.Step 1: Learn About Your Test H. Is familiar with how technologies can be assessments for ELs used to support language development. comprehensible input and of strategies for teaching language skills output. Knows how and when to use constructive G. Knows how to effectively integrate the V. reliability. Knows how to recognize and be communicating assessment data to instructionally responsive to Students English learners and their guardians with Interrupted Formal Education (SIFEs) The Praxis® Study Companion 7 . Understands how to select. Understands a variety of formal and content and language informal methods to assess receptive M.. Knows ways to adapt classroom P. reading. and learning language and cultural bias S. Knows there are a variety of appropriate.

Knows how to identify appropriate G. services. Knows the possible differences between between language and culture disabilities and typical language proficiency development B. their families. Culture VI. Professionalism and Advocacy A.g. social. Understands that the teacher’s personal characteristics and emotional. Is familiar with ways that ELs and their families may benefit from a variety of outside resources (e. Knows a variety of strategies for consulting with guardians and communicating with them about each student’s progress and needs J. cultural bias. and cultural bullying in the school setting D. and school and community members G. Understands ways to collaborate with other school personnel regarding the academic needs of ELs H.Step 1: Learn About Your Test V. disposition.. Understands the need to communicate with school personnel about the F. and learning E. Understands the implications of cultural of ELs stereotyping. Understands the ways cultural variables affect second-language acquisition and B. Understands the ways students’ identities and learning styles will vary C. Understands the need to serve as a professional resource and advocate for E. and and cultural experiences influence physical needs of ELs teaching style F. Knows that cultural experiences ELs and families influence student language development. Understands the legal provisions and widely across and within cultures ethical implications of laws and federal court decisions related to the education D. networks. organizations) I. Understands the difference between strategies for planning and collaborating acculturation and assimilation with ELs. Understands the interrelationship A. Knows the importance of engaging in professional development by continually researching relevant and reliable resources and organizations in the field of teaching ESOL The Praxis® Study Companion 8 . Knows how to value and incorporate teaching diverse cultures of students into instruction C.

You may be familiar with these question formats from taking other standardized tests. When the answer is a number.g. Remember that with every question you will get clear instructions. you may be asked to choose your answers by clicking on a sentence (or sentences) within the reading passage.g. familiarize yourself with them so you don’t spend time during the test figuring out how to answer them. where the test taker can choose the correct answer among four choices. as opposed to choosing your answer from a list. Some questions may have more than one place to enter a response. keeping in mind time considerations.. by clicking on a sentence in a text or by clicking on part of a graphic). selected response. • Selecting options from a drop-down menu. You may be asked to choose answers by selecting options from a drop-down menu (e.Step 2: Familiarize Yourself with Test Questions 2. Familiarize Yourself with Test Questions Become comfortable with the types of questions you’ll find on the Praxis tests The Praxis assessments include a variety of question types: constructed response (for which you write a response of your own). Answer choices are presented on the same page. for which you enter a numeric value in an answer field. you may be asked to enter a numerical answer. • Clicking on specific icons to play an audio file. You may be asked to select answers from a list of options and drag your answers to the appropriate location in a table. interactive question types may also ask you to respond by: • Clicking more than one oval to select answers from a list of options. make sure your headphones are in good working order before starting the test.. you are asked to click on an icon to listen to a student speak as many times as necessary. If not. and numeric entry. You may be asked to click check boxes instead of an oval when more than one choice within a set of answers can be selected. Perhaps the best way to understand computer-delivered questions is to view the Computer-delivered Testing Demonstration on the Praxis Web site to learn how a computer-delivered test works and see examples of some types of questions you may encounter. paragraph of text or graphic. In some questions. For listening questions. to complete a sentence). read the directions carefully. However. • Clicking parts of a graphic. If you see a format you are not familiar with. • Clicking on sentences. • Typing in an entry box. At the time of the test administration. The Praxis® Study Companion 9 . For most questions. you respond by clicking an oval to select a single answer from a list of options. for which you select one or more answers from a list of choices or make another kind of selection (e. The directions always give clear instructions on how you are expected to respond. In questions with reading passages. • Clicking check boxes. which are embedded within the test. Understanding Computer-Delivered Questions Questions on computer-delivered tests are interactive in the sense that you answer by selecting an option or entering text on the screen. you will select your answers by clicking on a location (or locations) on a graphic such as a map or chart. • Dragging and dropping answer choices into targets on the screen.

3) Verify your answer. Here. If you’re still uncertain. but they are not listed. You may know that strawberry and cherry flavors are made from fruit and that mint flavor is made from a plant.” This phrase helps you determine that your answer will be a “relationship of ideas” from the choices provided. Try a more challenging example The vanilla bean question is pretty straightforward. Rather than thinking of other possible answers. That leaves vanilla as the only possible answer. you could paraphrase the question in this way: “How are outlines usually organized?” Since the ideas in outlines usually appear as main ideas and subordinate ideas. focus only on the choices given (“which of the following”). Your job is to decide which of the flavors is the one made from beans. Sometimes it helps to put the question in your own words. Try following these steps to select the correct answer. The Praxis® Study Companion 10 . You are supposed to find the choice that describes how entries. You may want to use this technique as you answer selected-response questions on the practice tests. try substituting the other choices to see if they make sense. but you’ll find that more challenging questions have a similar structure. 1) L  imit your answer to the choices given. or ideas. 2) Eliminate incorrect answers. in outlines are related.” This will help you be sure that your answer is correct. You can substitute “vanilla” for the phrase “which of the following” and turn the question into this statement: “Vanilla is a flavor made from beans. You may know that chocolate and coffee are also flavors made from beans.Step 2: Familiarize Yourself with Test Questions Understanding Selected-Response Questions Many selected-response questions begin with the phrase “which of the following. For example: Entries in outlines are generally arranged according to which of the following relationships of ideas? (A) Literal and inferential (B) C  oncrete and abstract (C) L inear and recursive (D) M  ain and subordinate You’ll notice that this example also contains the phrase “which of the following. the answer is (D).” Take a look at this example: Which of the following is a flavor made from beans? (A) Strawberry (B) C  herry (C) Vanilla (D) Mint How would you answer this question? All of the answer choices are flavors.

An outline is something you are probably familiar with and expect to teach to your students. such as a movie clip or animation. provide only the information that the questions ask for. Again. tables. So slow down. but also a clearly wrong way. Essays and short-answer questions are types of constructed-response questions. If you see a format you are not familiar with. Don’t read for hidden meanings or tricks. the important thing is to be sure you answer the questions as they refer to the material presented. They have become too pervasive. These questions take advantage of technology to assess knowledge and skills in ways that standard selected-response questions cannot. Take a look at a few sample essay topics: • “ Celebrities have a tremendous influence on the young. Other tests may allow you to zoom in on details in a graphic or picture. and use what you know. straightforward tests of your knowledge. Tests may also include interactive questions. tables. The directions always give clear instructions on how you are expected to respond. How to approach unfamiliar formats New question formats are developed from time to time to find new ways of assessing knowledge. For example. in newspapers and magazines. and then look at the map or graph.” Read carefully to understand the question and look for an answer that fits. you might want to go ahead and read the passage first. This question type is used in situations in which there are several good solutions or ways to approach something. or reading passages When answering questions about graphs. You must support your position with specific reasons and examples from your own experience.” The Praxis® Study Companion 11 . How to approach questions about graphs. and then answer the questions. read the directions carefully. There are no trick questions on Praxis tests. and for that reason.” and “EXCEPT” This type of question asks you to select the choice that does not fit. observations. or reading passages. and the sides of buses.Step 2: Familiarize Yourself with Test Questions QUICK TIP: Don’t be intimidated by words you may not understand. instead of a map or reading passage. So read the questions carefully. It’s time to put limits on advertising. on highway signs. Tests may include audio and video components.” • “Advances in computer technology have made the classroom unnecessary. They are intended to be serious. they have a responsibility to act as role models. In the case of a map or graph. It might be easy to be thrown by words like “recursive” or “inferential.” “LEAST.” • “ We are constantly bombarded by advertisements—on television and radio. QUICK TIP: Don’t make the questions more difficult than they are. you might want to read the questions first. since students and teachers are able to communicate with one another from computer terminals at home or at work. noting places you think are important. Watch out for selected-response questions containing “NOT. You must be very careful because it is easy to forget that you are selecting the negative. Understanding Constructed-Response Questions Constructed-response questions require you to demonstrate your knowledge in a subject area by creating your own response to particular topics. an essay question might present you with a topic and ask you to discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion stated. In the case of a long reading passage. or reading.

your response should be straightforward and not filled with unnecessary information. for example. more detailed information can be found on page 5. Analyze what each part of the question is asking you to do. You must demonstrate that you have a thorough understanding of the subject matter. 3) A  nswer the question that is asked. The Praxis® Study Companion 12 . If the question asks you to describe or discuss. Check that you have written what you thought you wrote. that there is no possible answer. However. you should cover all three things for the best score. You will receive no credit or a low score if you answer another question or if you state. you should provide more than just a list. Then you’ll be sure to have all the information you need to answer the question. you will not be awarded full credit.Step 2: Familiarize Yourself with Test Questions Keep these things in mind when you respond to a constructed-response question 1) A  nswer the question accurately. no matter how well you write. If a question asks you to do three distinct things in your response. Do not change the question or challenge the basis of the question. 4) G  ive a thorough and detailed response. Otherwise. Be sure not to leave sentences unfinished or omit clarifying information. 2) A  nswer the question completely. QUICK TIP: You may find that it helps to take notes on scratch paper so that you don’t miss any details. For tests that have constructed-response questions. 5) R  eread your response.

representative of the entire scope of the test in either content or difficulty. Lewis. do not exhibit any cultural bias. (C) Affective filter • The National Association for Bilingual Education may be referred to as NABE. Which of the following terms refers to how the • English as a Foreign Language may be referred to level of a language learner’s negative feelings as EFL and motivation correlates to his or her ability • An English-language learner may be referred to as to acquire new language skills? an ELL (A) Deductive reasoning • Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (B) Extrinsic reinforce may be referred to as TESOL. language? • A second language may be referred to as the L2. (D) Self-regulated learning • The Center for Applied Linguistics may be referred to 3.” The ELL’s this chapter. Mr. The sample questions that follow illustrate the kinds of Select the one that is best in each case. (D) conjugation • English as a Second Language may be referred to as ESL. Which of the • The Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach following is the most appropriate question for may be referred to as CALLA. (C) Are the scores that students received on • Second Language Acquisition may be referred to as the assessments in the past reliable? SLA. (A) Was the ESL teacher who designed the assessments fluent in more than one • A first language may be referred to as the L1. Because of the diverse • Basic interpersonal communication skills may be referred to as BICS. Mr. several assessments that were used by the previous ESL teacher. (B) Will the students need a high level of • Total Physical Response may be referred to as TPR. 2. They are not. utterance is best characterized as an error in Terminology: In this test. sociopragmatic competence to complete • A parent or legal guardian may be referred to as the assessments? a parent.Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions 3. Lewis wants to ensure that the assessments • Cognitive academic language proficiency may be he chooses to incorporate into the curriculum referred to as CALP. Mr. (B) word order • English to Speakers of Other Languages may be (C) register referred to as ESOL. 1. however. (D) Do the assessments separate content- area learning from language learning? The Praxis® Study Companion 13 . the following terminology (A) article usage may appear as described. questions on the test. is evaluating as CAL. cultural backgrounds of his students. “Give me a piece of paper. a new ESL teacher. An ELL approaches the ESOL teacher and The answers and their explanations are provided later in says. Lewis to use as a guideline when screening the assessments for cultural bias? • The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol Model may be referred to as the SIOP Model. Practice with Sample Test Questions Answer practice questions and find explanations for correct answers Sample Test Questions Directions: Each of the questions or statements below is followed by four suggested answers or completions.

presentation rubrics. (A) Lau v. Subtractive bilingualism is most likely to occur the following work sheet. The following is based on an excerpt from an ELL’s essay about a summer job. Which of the following court cases resulted in a ruling that district-implemented programs for ELLs must be evaluated for effectiveness? 9. including gestures and (B) stress body movement? (A) Grammar Translation (C) intonation (B) Total Physical Response (D) syllabication (C) Suggestopedia (D) The Direct Method 5. essays. Nichols (B) Brown v. in second-language learners who (A) have difficulty understanding content- area vocabulary (B) have little opportunity to continue using their first language (C) work to maintain the customs of their home cultures (D) had limited formal schooling in their The primary purpose of the work sheet is to home countries provide instruction on 8. Doe (D) Castañeda v. Listen to an ESOL student read the following (B) Report card grades and comments from sentence aloud. Which of the following will (A) word choice most accurately assist the teacher in assessing the students’ English-language (B) word structure development? (C) word order (A) Standardized test scores that (D) word spelling demonstrate ESL students’ academic performance in specific content areas 10. Pickard 6. Board of Education (C) Plyler v.Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions 4. all content area classroom teachers (Recorded excerpt) (C) Individualized portfolios that include all He finally went to bed. An ESL teacher plans to evaluate the The errors in the second sentence primarily students’ midyear progress by referencing involve various examples of their work taken from the current semester. Which of the following makes the greatest use (A) morphology of active participation. A high school ESOL teacher gives students 7. and tests (D) A norm-referenced midterm exam that (Student pronounces “bed” as [bt]) was recently administered to ESL The error in pronunciation in the word “bed” students indicates a problem with (A) final intonation patterns (B) places of articulation (C) voiced and voiceless sounds (D) word stress patterns The Praxis® Study Companion 14 .

Next. is having trouble taking notes on motivation to learn about certain topics. Mr. Which of the following behaviors is most following day. Based on Sandra’s needs. Finally. and transcriptions and has students work in film clips to present content-area topics. ELL can most accurately be described as (C) Optimal language acquisition occurs when learners are exposed to the L2 for (A) metalinguistic feedback at least 50 percent of their day. The following conversation takes place between an ELL and an ESOL teacher. Mr. Jenkins asks the class to consistent with culture shock? recount their trip to the museum as he transcribes their dictated speech. 16. An ESL teacher is conducting a lesson on the students have not been doing classwork or woolly mammoth. critical period hypothesis? (A) Assimilation to a new culture usually Teacher: Oh. the ESL intrinsic motivation to learn by teacher should provide her with a (A) offering them verbal praise after they (A) graphic organizer with a word bank complete an assignment properly about the woolly mammoth (B) rewarding them with a small prize after (B) collection of photographs of the woolly they successfully complete a certain mammoth number of assignments (C) multiple-choice work sheet about the (C) determining their interests and woolly mammoth incorporating those interests into (D) textbook passage on the woolly classroom lessons mammoth from a lower grade level (D) calling their parents to inform them of the missing assignments 15. including (D) Phonics approach gestures. Sandra. recently took his students on a field trip to a museum. Jenkins. The 12. Abbott notices that a few of his ESL 14. facial expressions. what sections of the (B) The ease with which one acquires native. newspaper? So. 13. Which of the following country. Mr. (B) Multisensory approach (D) An ELL appears to emphasize the (C) Natural approach context of a conversation. and tone of voice. graphic organizers. groups to find and correct errors. the characteristics of the animal during the Abbott can best increase his students’ lesson. he frequently reads the occurs during a small window of time. The Praxis® Study Companion 15 . an ESL teacher. when communicating. he (B) An ELL appears nervous and frustrated has the students expand the corrected in his or her new surroundings and transcriptions into a narrative essay as a expresses a desire to return to the home homework assignment. Which of the following best summarizes the Student: He read frequently the newspaper.Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions 11. Mr. Mr. (B) positive feedback (D) L2 grammar is taught most effectively (C) an elicitation when learners participate in a series of translation activities for the first six (D) a recast months of study. Jenkins? feature bodily movement and (A) Language experience approach manipulatives that reinforce academic content. an intermediate- homework assignments because they lack level ELL. (A) An ELL prefers learning activities that Jenkins distributes copies of the feature pictures. best describes the instructional approach (C) An ELL prefers learning activities that being utilized by Mr. newspaper does he prefer? like proficiency correlates to a biological The response that the teacher gives to the timetable that is connected to age.

” exposure to English classes in his home country and is currently functioning at the (D) An ELL wants to say “Watch out for the beginning level of English-language curb” but produces the sentence “Watch proficiency. the ESL teacher (C) Gaining knowledge of students’ should advise the English teacher to closely individual learning styles examine the passage for which of the following? (D) Becoming familiar with students’ prior knowledge (A) Statistics that may be too complex for the ELLs with a limited math background 18. where the ELL was born.” 20. and the ELL Hassan’s records show that he had limited responds “I am come from Europe. To best address the participation to encourage speaking English teacher’s concern. Which THREE of the following strategies can 19. (D) Abundant usage of figurative language (B) An ELL doesn’t know the word for that the ELLs may not recognize “highway” and describes it as “the big road where there are a lot of cars. A first grade teacher recently welcomed a new (C) A native English speaker asks an ELL ELL named Hassan into the classroom. (A) Reflecting on the influence that their The English teacher is worried that the ELLs in personal bias has on student the class may have difficulty reading and expectations understanding the passage and consults the (B) Devising ways to reward student ESL teacher for feedback. and create a culturally responsive classroom? importance of baseball in the United States for an upcoming reading comprehension test.Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions 17. rules. Which of the following out for the curve.” instructional strategies would most appropriately assist Hassan in increasing his communication skills? (A) Providing Hassan with a study guide that includes all topics discussed in class (B) Supplying Hassan with an English dictionary and a thesaurus to use during activities (C) Having Hassan use pictures and gestures when interacting with others (D) Setting the expectation that Hassan must respond in English when called on in class The Praxis® Study Companion 16 . Which of the following is the best example of (B) Cultural content that may bias the test an error in sociolinguistic competence? against the ELLs (A) An ELL wants to borrow a pen from the (C) Changes in verb tense that may cause teacher’s desk and says. “I need this” confusion for the ELLs while taking it. A middle school English teacher has selected an ESOL teacher use to most effectively a reading passage on the history.

including “soda. result of brainstorming.” difficult experience in my life . . A social studies teacher plans to administer a cultures are more likely to chapter test that includes multiple-choice and short-answer questions. Yamamoto (B) The ELL exhibits an English-language can use to benefit the ELLs in the class during pattern that is highly unusual compared the brainstorming process? to that of others who speak the same L1. the ELLs’ version of the test (Recorded excerpt) When I arrive in the United States. In contrast to collectivist cultures. flavored three months for me here were the most carbonated beverages. (A) Encouraging ELLs to use their first (C) The ELL’s ability to communicate simple languages and cultural knowledge in ideas in English is impeded by a heavy brainstorming discussions accent.Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions 21. Ms. and end of future discussions. indicates that an ELL may require testing for Her primary objective is to encourage her special education services? students to brainstorm ideas on a given topic (A) The ELL often shifts from one language and develop their English writing skills as a to another when speaking.” Which of the following The verb “arrive” in the first line is incorrect best identifies this occurrence? with respect to (A) Code-switching (A) tense (B) Dialect variation (B) gender (C) Language register (C) person (D) Jargon (D) number 26. individualist 24. “pop. the first 25. People across the United States use a variety of terms to refer to sugary. essays during brainstorming discussions (C) Asking ELLs to consult an English dictionary for all necessary words during brainstorming discussions (D) Advising the ELLs to look for relevant outside references prior to their brainstorming discussions The Praxis® Study Companion 17 . Which of the following situations most likely variety of cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Which of the (A) emphasize the importance of learning a following testing accommodations would be second language most appropriate for the intermediate-level (B) maintain their traditional customs as ELLs in the class? globalization becomes more pervasive (A) Permitting the ELLs to use the test study (C) prioritize the needs of social institutions guide during the test in their society (B) Allowing the ELLs to take the test in their (D) regard personal ambition and initiative native languages favorably (C) Allotting the ELLs more time to complete the test 22. (B) Providing ELLs with a detailed outline (D) The ELL is hesitant to speak and does where they can summarize the not participate in most classroom beginning. Listen to an ESOL student talk about her (D) Reducing the number of questions on experience upon arriving in the United States.” and “soft drink. Which of the following is the most effective strategy Ms. middle. . Yamamoto teaches an introductory writing class composed of learners from a 23.

Which of the following best describes the primary focus of the activity? (A) It introduces the concept of onomatopoeia. 29. (B) It connects phonemes and graphemes.” and he moves on to the next picture on the work sheet. Finally. 28. Which of the following activities most Questions 28–29 refer to the following visual effectively helps beginning-level ELLs develop decoding skills? Mr. Mr. Lambert. (C) It develops phonemic awareness. “bee. (D) It improves translation skills. Mr. Lambert asks the class to share which sounds they recognize in the word “bee. The activity is most appropriate for students in which of the following stages of second language acquisition? (A) Early production (B) Speech emergence (C) Intermediate fluency (D) Advanced fluency The Praxis® Study Companion 18 .” Then. he instructs students to quietly repeat the word to themselves and segment the word into its distinct sounds. Once the students have identified the distinct sounds in the word. an elementary ESOL teacher.Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions 27. Lambert says the word that names paper the first picture on the work sheet. they move one token for each sound into a box above the picture. provides his students with the following work (A) Presenting predictable spelling patterns sheet and a handful of plastic tokens in word families to the ELLs (B) Asking the ELLs to describe the events of a story after the teacher has read it aloud (C) Directing the ELLs to select their own reading materials from the school’s library (D) Having the ELLs work in small groups to categorize nouns and verbs on chart First.

making it an error in the have the same place of articulation. The language experience development.  The correct answer is (B). contains instances of incorrect lexical collocations.  The correct answer is (C). and (D). If students need a high they are learning and develop a sense of personal.  The correct answer is (C).  The correct answer is (D). that some ELLs may experience upon arrival in the United States. voiceless sound and [d] is a voiced sound.  The correct answer is (B). behavior is influenced by culture. Culture shock is a stage assessments. The critical period a sentence are emphasized can influence the meaning hypothesis states that there is a period of time in of the sentence. According to the hypothesis. 14. A recast focuses on the of a second language who no longer have or have meaning. Castañeda v.  The correct answer is (A). As a result. the teacher will affect language learning positively or negatively.  The correct answer is (B). The teacher casts back the learner’s utterance fewer opportunities to use their first language in a new in the correct form but continues with a focus on environment. 2. The work sheet asks shock may feel overwhelmed by his or her new students to identify which part of the sentence they environment and experience homesickness. meaning.  The correct answer is (C).  The correct answer is (C). this coordination of speech and action.  The correct answer is (B). For (C) and (D). language becomes increasingly more difficult to learn after the onset of 5. they may begin to enjoy what 3.  The correct answers are (A). Based on her needs and proficiency work completed over the semester and includes a wide level. Pickard ruled puberty. the ELL 10. Hence. The second sentence behavior is influenced by culture. attrition occurs in learners as a result of acquiring a new language. (C). [t] is a appropriate use of register (formal vs. This phenomenon typically occurs in learners 16. both strategies guide teachers to understand that student 9. it means that there could be a heavy degree of culturally-specific material on the 12. would emphasize when answering a series of questions. 8. A portfolio that spans the class discussions.Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions Answers to Sample Questions 1. The student is having trouble taking notes on the woolly mammoth during 6. modes of language learning would be the best tool to use when evaluating ESL students’ English-language 15. an ELL going through culture 4. Total Physical Response (TPR) is a language-teaching method built around the 17. Stress and intonation do has addressed the teacher in a manner that is too not determine final consonant forms. informal). Subtractive bilingualism approach incorporates students’ oral language refers to the phenomenon in which first-language proficiency levels and personal experiences. This illustrates how the way certain words in 13. In this example. it attempts to teach approach guides teachers to understand that student language through physical (motor) activity. For (A). the work sheet is primarily childhood when language can be easily acquired. level of sociopragmatic competence to understand the intrinsic motivation to continue learning. approach uses students’ spoken language to develop materials for reading and writing instruction.  The correct answer is (B). Thus. That is. that district programs for ELLs must be evaluated for effectiveness using a set of established criteria. assessments. providing instruction on stress. Typically.  The correct answer is (B). However. which could lead to cultural bias.  The correct answer is (A). By incorporating the affective filter hypothesis as a critical factor that can students’ interests into future lessons.  The correct answer is (A). help students gain a sense of personal value from doing schoolwork. This 7. errors in word choice were made. The Praxis® Study Companion 19 .  The correct answer is (C). certain words in English cannot idiomatically and customarily be used to modify certain other words even though the overall meaning is decipherable (to speak a language fluently versus to speak a language greatly). Recast is defined as the reformulation of a learner’s utterance minus the error(s). Krashen refers to the 11. a graphic organizer with a word bank would most representation of assessment that addresses all four likely assist the student while taking notes on the topic. and [t] and [d] informal for their relationship.  The correct answer is (D).

recognizable chunks.  The correct answer is (B). It is an individual’s knowledge of ways of culture are rich sources of knowledge for the speaking and interacting through language. are used in any given act of communication. children learn to use these chunks to increase the student’s communication skills. Children learn that words often contain these which is unrelated to their language proficiency. which language is used: the role of the participants. In the transcription of the stage of second language acquisition. Individualist cultures into Elkonin boxes. themselves. element.  The correct answer is (A). The instructional goal is words. a whole. The cracking of this code provides predictable patterns and is a help in decoding new 20. e.  The correct answer is (A). 23. etc. 29. it is primarily building individual over those of a group or social institution as phonemic awareness. etc.  The correct answer is (B). In the early production 22. including the cultural content embedded especially if they are at the beginning level of language in any given test. which might signal a need for further investigation..  The correct answer is (A). This does not ask to use the pen before taking it. the information they share. the verb “arrive” is in the present build prereading skills that will assist them with future tense. Bias in testing may stem spelling patterns in word families will most effectively from any one of three characteristics of the tests assist the ELLs in developing their decoding skills. a more polite knowledge. Sociolinguistic 25. students to determine the individual sounds in the words that the teacher says aloud by moving tokens 21.  The correct answer is (A). “Arrive” should be in the past tense different English words is most appropriate for students (“arrived”). Allotting more time is a politeness and register contribute to a learner’s commonly used accommodation with ELLs on high- sociolinguistic competence. The terms presented in the question are requires an understanding of the social context in indicative of dialect variation.  The correct answer is (A).g. 27. taboos.  The correct answer is (B). choice of words would typically be used. The Praxis® Study Companion 20 . This could contribute to a lower test score.Step 3: Practice with Sample Test Questions 18. rules. The context is the student’s experience. The appropriate level of 24. the ELL stakes achievement tests and content-area exams.  The correct answer is (C). in this stage. students should recorded excerpt. Teaching predictable 19.  The correct answer is (C). The teacher is asking the educational background. A phonemic awareness activity rest of the sentence is in the past (“the first three that focuses on building knowledge of the sounds in months were”). ELLs’ first language and interaction. associated family is a group of words sharing a common phonetic with it. In this example. Because the activity focuses on the typically emphasize the needs and wants of the sounds that make up each word.  The correct answer is (C). In addition. brainstorming process and will help facilitate the L1-L2 politeness. A unique pattern of usage is a common indicator that a student may have different cognitive abilities from his peers. and the literacy development. These different competences connection. A dialect is a form of competence is the knowledge of the sociocultural rules language that is specific to a particular region or social of language and of discourse. This type of competence group. Baseball is considered a sport that is proficiency and are unfamiliar with English spelling highly specific to American culture and the ELLs may conventions/sound/symbol relationships. A word be unfamiliar with the vocabulary. and the function of the 26. visuals and gestures will help the student communicate given his current level of language proficiency and his 28.  The correct answer is (D). accommodation will not compromise learning because the ELL is taking the pen from a teacher standards and will help the ELLs display their (someone of a different power structure). With practice. Using instead of sounding out one letter at a time.

org/praxis/testprep. • Work backward from that date to figure out how much time you will need for review. 4) Plan and organize your time. make a concerted effort to prepare. Research shows that test takers tend to overestimate their preparedness—this is why some test takers assume they did well and then find out they did not pass. You’ll want to set clear goals and deadlines for yourself along the way. the more preparation you will most likely need. You’ll find specific information on the test you’re taking on page 5. The Praxis tests are demanding enough to require serious review of likely content. Otherwise. 3) Collect study materials. Here are a few tips: • Choose a test date far enough in the future to leave you plenty of preparation time. Gathering and organizing your materials for review are critical steps in preparing for the Praxis tests. The Praxis® Study Companion 21 .org/praxis/register/centers_dates. You may have heard that there are several different versions of the same test. Each test has different questions covering the same subject area. If it has been longer than a few months since you’ve studied your content area. Consider the following reference sources as you plan your study: • Did you take a course in which the content area was covered? If yes. 1) Learn what the test covers. It’s true. but both versions of the test measure the same skills and content knowledge. You may take one version of the test and your friend may take a different version a few months later. 2) Assess how well you know the content. Test dates can be found at www. which outlines the content categories that the test measures and what percentage of the test covers each topic.ets. • Set a realistic schedule—and stick to it. and the longer you’ve been away from the content.Step 4: Determine Your Strategy for Success 4.org/praxis/ testprep for information on other Praxis tests. You can begin to plan and organize your time while you are still collecting materials.ets. Test preparation materials include sample questions and answers with explanations. Allow yourself plenty of review time to avoid cramming new material at the end. do you still have your books or your notes? • Does your local library have a high school-level textbook in this area? Does your college library have a good introductory college-level textbook in this area? Practice materials are available for purchase for many Praxis tests at www. Visit www. Determine Your Strategy for Success Set clear goals and deadlines so your test preparation is focused and efficient Effective Praxis test preparation doesn’t just happen.ets. you may not feel ready and confident on test day.

In the sixth column (“Dates I will study the content”). Use the topic headings and subheadings in the Test at a Glance table on page 5 to select topics. Write two or three original questions to pose to the group. you’ll need to be able to explain concepts and processes to students in a clear. members study in a more disciplined fashion. What are the major concepts you will be required to teach? Can you explain them in your own words accurately. and clearly? Practice explaining these concepts to test your ability to effectively explain what you know. Study groups give members opportunities to ask questions and get detailed answers. and then select practice questions. the group should decide what specific topics will be covered at the next meeting and who will present each topic. beginning on page 13. some members usually have a better understanding of certain topics. Practicing writing actual questions can help you better understand the topics covered on the test as well as the types of questions you will encounter on the test. Use the study plan template on page 26 to organize your efforts. beginning on page 26. 6) Understand how questions will be scored. 7) Develop a study plan.Step 4: Determine Your Strategy for Success 5) Practice explaining the key concepts. The group should be large enough so that multiple people can contribute different kinds of knowledge. everyone builds self-confidence. Here are some ways to use this guide as part of a study group: • Plan the group’s study program. It will also give other members of the group extra practice at answering questions. At the end of each session. • Plan individual group sessions. A study plan provides a road map to prepare for the Praxis tests. They also gain emotional support. the group can go to a teacher or other expert and get answers efficiently. As a teacher. everyone will learn more about your group’s mix of abilities and about the resources. The Praxis® Study Companion 22 . can help to structure your group’s study program. but small enough so that it stays focused. • Prepare your presentation for the group. prepare something that is more than a lecture. And most important—get started! Would a Study Group Work for You? Using this guide as part of a study group People who have a lot of studying to do sometimes find it helpful to form a study group with others who are working toward the same goal. In a group. Because study groups schedule regular meetings. Scoring information can be found on page 46. When it’s your turn to present. understandable way. three to six members is a good size. If the group encounters a question that none of the members can answer well. Parts of the study plan template. such as textbooks. As members take turns explaining concepts to one another. that members can share with the group. Often. By filling out the first five columns and sharing the worksheets. Praxis tests with constructed-response questions assess your ability to explain material effectively. you can create an overall schedule for your group’s study program. completely. It can help you understand what skills and knowledge are covered on the test and where to focus your attention. while others in the group may be better at other topics.

Then try to follow the same guidelines that the test scorers use. Indicate where and how your study partner(s) are doing an inadequate job of answering the question. which also contain sample responses to those questions and shows how they were scored. For tests that contain constructed- response questions. • Learn from the results of the practice test. Writing notes in the margins of the answer sheet may also help. remember that the best way to prepare is to have an organized plan. Review the results of the practice test. complete the practice test using only the time that will be allotted for that test on your administration day. • Be as critical as you can. The idea of a practice test is to simulate an actual administration of the test. each group member might be responsible for rewriting one paragraph of a response in which someone else did an inadequate job. Write comments that are as detailed as the comments about the sample responses. You’re not doing your study partner(s) any favors by letting them get away with an answer that does not cover all parts of the question adequately. Include comments that point out what your study partner(s) got right.Step 4: Determine Your Strategy for Success • Take a practice test together. For example. Whether you decide to study alone or with a group. so scheduling a test session with the group will add to the realism and may also help boost everyone’s confidence. • Be specific. look at the Sample Test Questions section. Remember. The plan should set goals based on specific topics and skills that you need to learn. and it should commit you to a realistic set of deadlines for meeting those goals. The Praxis® Study Companion 23 . Then plan one or more study sessions based on aspects of the questions on which group members performed poorly. including the number of questions answered correctly in each content category. Then you need to discipline yourself to stick with your plan and accomplish your goals on schedule. • Be supportive.

paraphrases of the main Determining Ideas 3 English middle school 7/17/15 7/17/15 idea or primary purpose textbook teacher of a reading selection Identify summaries Middle and College library. Praxis Test Name (Test Code): Core Academic Skills for Educators: Reading (5712) Test Date: 9/15/15 How well do What Where can I Dates I will Description I know the resources do I find the Date Content covered study the of content content? have/need for resources I completed content (scale 1–5) the content? need? Key Ideas and Details Draw inferences and Middle school College library. and Language Skills Determine the author’s Middle and College library. or course notes. textbook. 2. Identify Resources: Identify the books. college notes problem/solution. Determine Strengths and Weaknesses: Identify your strengths and weaknesses in each content area. reference. professor Determine the role that College library. High school an idea. how they are used teachers dictionary Identify how a reading College library. It shows a plan for the Core Academic Skills for Educators: Reading test. 3. Following that is a study plan template that you can fill out to create your own plan. and other resources you plan to use for each content area. Use the “Learn about Your Test” and “Test Specifications" information beginning on page 5 to help complete it. Analysis of textbook. Author’s purpose piece of information 5 high school 8/1/15 8/1/15 college course plays in an author’s teacher. or paraphrases of the high school middle and Determining Ideas supporting ideas and 3 7/20/15 7/21/15 English high school specific details in a textbook teachers reading selection Craft. 4. implications from the Close reading 3 English middle school 7/15/15 7/15/15 directly stated content textbook teacher of a reading selection Identify summaries or Middle school College library. etc. high school Analysis of words and phrases in a middle and 3 English 7/25/15 7/27/15 structure reading selection and high school textbook. 5 high school 8/1/15 8/1/15 structure college course compare/contrast. Develop Your Study Plan Develop a personalized study plan and schedule Planning your study time is important because it will help ensure that you review all content areas covered on the test. Use this worksheet to: 1. Study: Create and commit to a schedule that provides for regular study periods. teacher. in terms of cause/effect. courses. High school selection is organized course notes. college notes discussion or argument professor (continued on next page) The Praxis® Study Companion 24 .Step 5: Develop Your Study Plan 5. attitude toward material high school middle and Interpreting tone 4 7/25/15 7/26/15 discussed in a reading English high school selection textbook teachers Middle and Identify key transition College library. Define Content Areas: List the most important content areas for your test as defined in chapter 1. Structure. Use the sample study plan below as a guide.

High school of words and phrases course notes. textbook. Comparison of textbook. Determine the logical High school course notes. college notes professor The Praxis® Study Companion 25 . college notes professor Determine whether College library. in a reading selection 4 high school 8/1/15 8/1/15 different contexts college course is presented as fact or teacher.Step 5: Develop Your Study Plan How well do What Where can I Dates Description I know the resources do I find the I will Date Content covered of content content? have/need for resources I study the completed (scale 1–5) the content? need? content Determine whether College library. in a reading selection to 2 high school 9/5/15 9/6/15 texts college course other situations teacher. 5 high school 8/28/15 8/30/15 arguments which an argument or college course teacher. 4 high school 9/3/15 9/4/15 texts similar to what has been college course teacher. Evaluation of assumptions upon textbook. material presented in a 5 high school 8/30/15 8/31/15 arguments college course reading selection teacher. textbook. or is relevant 3 high school 8/27/15 8/27/15 arguments college course to the arguments in a teacher. among ideas presented 4 high school 8/24/15 8/24/15 arguments college course in a reading selection teacher. as well as notes professor in words College library. High school Identify the relationship course notes. college presented in a reading notes professor selection College library. course notes. High school evidence strengthens. language and nuances in 2 high school 8/8/15 8/8/15 Language college course word meanings teacher. Evaluation of textbook. college conclusion is based notes professor College library. college quantitatively. college notes reading selection professor College library. 2 high school 8/22/15 8/24/15 formats including visually and college course teacher. ideas or situations that High school course notes. presented in diverse High school course notes. Identify the meanings of High school course notes. Comparison of are extensions of or textbook. 2 high school 8/1/15 8/1/15 meaning the context of a reading college course teacher. Contextual words as they are used in textbook. Evaluation of textbook. college notes professor Recognize or predict College library. college notes opinion professor College library. Evaluation of textbook. college notes readiness level professor Integration of Knowledge and Ideas Analyze content College library. Figurative textbook. Language in textbook. Diverse media and media and formats. High school Understand figurative course notes. High school Apply ideas presented course notes. High school information presented course notes. High school Draw conclusions from course notes. weakens. college selection notes professor College library. college notes professor Understand a range College library. Vocabulary range sufficient for reading at 2 high school 8/15/15 8/17/15 college course the college and career teacher.

Determine Strengths and Weaknesses: Identify your strengths and weaknesses in each content area. 3.Step 5: Develop Your Study Plan My Study Plan Use this worksheet to: 1. Praxis Test Name (Test Code): ____________________________________________________________ Test Date: _____________ How well do What Where can I Dates I will Description I know the resources do I find the Date Content covered study this of content content? have/need for resources I completed content (scale 1–5) this content? need? (continued on next page) The Praxis® Study Companion 26 . Define Content Areas: List the most important content areas for your test as defined in chapter 1. 2. and other resources you plan to use for each content area. 4. Study: Create and commit to a schedule that provides for regular study periods. Identify Resources: Identify the books. courses.

Step 5: Develop Your Study Plan How well do What Where can I Dates I will Description I know the resources do I find the Date Content covered study the of content content? have/need for resources I completed content (scale 1–5) the content? need? The Praxis® Study Companion 27 .

You should be able to match up specific topics and subtopics with what you have covered in your courses. If you spend time on these areas. including lecture and laboratory notes. you are not expected to be an expert on all aspects of the topics that follow. you will gain increased understanding and facility with the subject matter covered on the test. You are likely to find that the topics that follow are covered by most introductory textbooks. The Praxis® Study Companion 28 . Although a specific term may not seem familiar as you see it here. however. Many of the questions on the actual test will provide you with a context to apply to these topics or terms. Discussion Areas Interspersed throughout the study topics are discussion areas. Try not to be overwhelmed by the volume and scope of content knowledge in this guide. Note that this study companion does not provide answers for the discussion area questions. Review Study Topics Review study topics with questions for discussion Using the Study Topics That Follow The English to Speakers of Other Languages test is designed to measure the knowledge and skills necessary for a beginning teacher. presented as open-ended questions or statements. Most of the areas require you to combine several pieces of knowledge to formulate an integrated understanding and response. You may want to discuss these areas and your answers with a teacher or mentor. Virtually all accredited programs address the topics covered by the test. you might find you can understand it when applied to a real-life situation. These discussion areas are intended to help test your knowledge of fundamental concepts and your ability to apply those concepts to situations in the classroom or the real world. from all your coursework. but thinking about the answers to them will help improve your understanding of fundamental concepts and will probably help you answer a broad range of questions on the test. This chapter is intended to help you organize your preparation for the test and to give you a clear indication of the depth and breadth of the knowledge required for success on the test. Consult materials and resources.Step 6: Review Study Topics 6.

Understands the concepts of sociolinguistics An overview of the areas covered on the test. Knows that languages differ from or are in a reduced form in natural speech? similar to each other in their phonology. and • What types of utterances have a rising pragmatics intonation pattern? 1. intended meaning The Praxis® Study Companion 29 . Schumann’s social distance. capitalization B. negations. Identifies a definition of World English A. sociolinguistic failure. minimal pairs. Identifies irregular verbs. Understands the parts of speech. mechanics) phonetic environment on pronunciation 1. follows.. Is familiar with IPA (the International d. pragmatic failure d. Understands semantics and how • What are two ways that spoken English combinations of words convey meaning differs syntactically from written English? 1. Understands the rhetorical patterns and 1. and irregular spelling E. with their subareas. Correctly identifies derivational morphemes. Discussion Areas: Foundations of including their structural. Understands the concepts of pragmatics identify word stress patterns in English? 1. implications correct the error? c. stress and K. questions. along 1. and social functions of language J. Knows the concept of World Englishes I. Correctly identifies. Identifies the following • What are common phonetic transcriptions of a. Understands the usage of English syntax N. and a. Identifies sociolinguistic competence. definitions of pragmatics how can a teacher help the student learn to b. metaphor. etc. Identifies correct genre and rhetorical devices morphemes and how they are used in (e. punctuation c. Understands communicative competence 1. and the effects of English (i. alliteration. Understands phonetics. Understands the conventions of written intonation patterns. homophones Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)? d. discourse morphemes competence. syntax. spelling intonation patterns b. and strategic competence D. Correctly identifies correct and incorrect syntax in statements. 1. morphology.e. semantics.Step 6: Review Study Topics Study Topics I.) word formation M. Foundations of Linguistics 1. Correctly identifies and transcribes phonetic range of genres used in written English symbols C. Identifies cognates • What is an activity that could help ELLs H. formation of paragraph Phonetic Alphabet) L. Identifies the definition of sociolinguistics. a.g. synonyms American English using the International c. rising and falling intonation. and distinguishes 1. inflectional morphemes. idioms • What kinds of words most frequently occur G. Identifies the following • If an ELL consistently pronounces [z] as [s]. semantic.. Understands the various types of 1. and Linguistics functional characteristics • What is communicative competence? 1. Identifies parts of speech F. irregular nouns and converts active sentences to passive voice (plurals). simile. Knows about the inconsistencies and irregularities of the English language 1. collocations the vowel and consonant sounds in Standard b. stressed syllables. Identifies errors in the 1. between derivational and inflection grammatical competence.

and ELs Mandarin). and structural patterns The Praxis® Study Companion 30 . Understands the literacy development of following languages? (Arabic. Foundations of Language Learning students how to change an adjective to an A. Understands the processes of second- special treat. Identifies various types of research and following sentence? theories on how receptive skills precede I would like an apple.Step 6: Review Study Topics • Which suffix is best to teach when showing II. Spanish. including research- based models • Why is an indefinite article used in the 1. Understands the similarities and • How are declarative and interrogative differences between first and second sentences formed in English? language acquisition. Identifies the following a. second-language learning process 1. external and environmental factors differently in the following sentences? Let me treat you to dinner versus Ice cream is a C. purposes of reading. positive/negative transfer c. Identifies appropriate decoding skills and invented spelling • What is one sound in English that is typically problematic for speakers of each of the F. 1. Identifies influence of anxiety of SLA and • What kind of lesson could help ELLs learn various types of motivation common phrasal verbs? E. transfer from • How does word order in English compare L1 literacy to L2 literacy. and how learners’ first language can affect their second- • How is the following sentence transformed language production and reception into the passive voice? (The boy broke the dish. Identifies stages of reading development. Identifies the features of first language literacy. with word order in a language other than and difference between simple decoding and English that you know? comprehension G. language acquisition. Understands how first-language literacy influences the development of English literacy 1. Identifies the following a. which verb tense is used for interlanguage actions that started in the past and continue up to the present? D. code-switching • What is an example of a tag question? b. rhetoric patterns. Understands the distinction between adverb? social and academic language functions • What is the root of the word “unbelievable”? 1. productive skills. simultaneous/sequential bilingualism • How does the word “treat” function d. Understands the relationship between • What are three ways that intermediate-level English phonemes and graphemes and ELLs could expand their repertoire of the rules of phonics adjectives? 1. registers • What five words could a teacher use in a b. rate of acquisition of BICS and CALP school ESOL class? B. orthographic systems. and on the definition of • In English. positive and negative transfer. Knows the different types of affective factors and their implications for the • What is an idiom? Give some examples. BICS and CALP as concepts lesson on Greek or Latin roots in a secondary c.) 1. stages of writing development. on the characteristics of interlanguage.

Can identify the impact of poverty and interlanguage. to ask for motivation for learning? information about an unclear assignment. Learning • What is one key finding of the L2 research on • What are the differences between basic the order of morpheme acquisition in interpersonal communication skills (BICS) English? and cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP)? • What is one classroom practice that could foster intrinsic motivation for reading? • What is an activity that could help ELLs become aware of appropriate register use in • Why is portfolio assessment likely to have common social interactions? positive effects on student motivation? • What is one lesson that could teach ELLs • How does strategy training enhance polite ways to refuse an invitation. or to offer a critical comment? • What is an ideal classroom environment for ELLs? Give at least three features and explain • What is the function of English in a why they are important. physical. socioeconomic.Step 6: Review Study Topics H. student performance may be development relate to L2 learning? affected by various factors (e.. multilingual society? Give a specific example of its use in one such society. in addition to • How does Vygotsky’s zone of proximal language.language acquisition? • What is a likely explanation for a student’s pronunciation of the word “people” as • What advice could an ESOL teacher give to “beople”? the parents of primary-grade-level ELLs to improve their literacy development? • What is code-switching? • What are the principal features of the constructivist model of second-language acquisition? The Praxis® Study Companion 31 . ESOL student’s native language affect second.g. characteristics of at-risk students and formulaic utterance? Discussion Areas: Foundations of Language John no come. morpheme acquisition order. emotional) • What are the notable features of the following utterances in terms of 1. Understands that. • What is phonemic awareness? • How could a teacher explain to a colleague • What are three ways to spell the English why a student from Jamaica was not placed phoneme /i/ ? in the ESOL program at their school? • What is one lesson that could help • How is a classroom practice designed to beginning-level ELLs learn a word-decoding foster communicative competence different skill? from one used in another approach to language learning? • What are the stages of literacy development? • What is one example of an utterance that • Why is oral language skill crucial for literacy shows evidence of language transfer? development in English? • What psycholinguistic concept is associated • What are sight words? with the following student utterance? • How does the amount of schooling in an I writed a letter yesterday.

Understands balanced literacy and best 1. Understands acquisition of receptive skills and learners acquisition of productive skills 1. Understands graphic organizers or best scaffolded texts contextual technique to promote a skill C. pull-out activate prior knowledge d. Understands scenarios that portray 1. four domains of language (i. age- assessments that connect to learning appropriate. Is familiar with ways to collaborate with other educators in designing classroom P. Understands techniques that activate models specific for ELs students’ prior knowledge and that build 1.Step 6: Review Study Topics III. Understands activities and lesson literacy practices for emerging learner development O. and b. reading. modify. and culturally respectful listening. Understands how to select. and confusion about meanings contextually or targeting them discretely B. push-in strategy that demonstrate constructivism and c. Understands various methods and 1. Knows the implication of dialect variation for the instruction of English 1. Planning and Implementing Instruction I. and learning 1. Understands learning objectives and appropriate assessments 1. Understands scenario. Understands colloquial language and different J.. Knows how to organize instruction that D. and writing) into learning environment for ELs instruction 1. Understands the most effective use of appropriate activities language domains The Praxis® Study Companion 32 . and/ F. Understands effective ways to collaborate on 1. Knows how to design appropriate or create culturally responsive. and linguistically accessible objectives for ELs teaching materials and resources to support EL’s learning styles and needs 1. Knows how to effectively integrate the Q. supportive. Understands scenarios that portray appropriate activities G. Understands effective practices for classroom activities that connect to teaching literacy to English learners learning objectives for ELs 1. TPR 1. levels of English learners instruction.e. Understands the following different delivery new knowledge to support acquisition of models content and language a. Understands how to create a secure. Knows how to promote autonomous how to select the most appropriate learning through cognitive and methods for the context metacognitive strategies with ELs 1. Knows a variety of instructional delivery L. Understands scenarios that portray formal/informal communication appropriate activities H. Understands prescriptive methods versus 1. Knows how to identify appropriate and provides students with meaningful measureable objectives that align to opportunities to use language language and content standards 1. Knows teaching strategies: grouping and 1. Is familiar with how technologies can be activities appropriate to the proficiency used to support language development. speaking. Understands lesson plans previewing E. learning theory. inclusion M. Knows how and when to apply a variety language pronunciation of North American of strategies for teaching language skills dialects. Knows how to design appropriate N. Knows how to promote ELs’ acquisition of receptive and productive skills A. Understands lists of scaffolding techniques approaches in teaching ELs and knows K.

and how can the S. with Interrupted Formal Education and what types of ESOL students are most (SIFEs) likely to benefit from such a design? 1. Knows how to recognize and be instructionally responsive to Students • What is English for Specific Purposes (ESP). Understands print-rich environment that stage? classrooms T. Understands that there are differences model? between planning for ELs with learning disabilities and is aware that instruction • What is Total Physical Response? will need to be adapted for ELs receiving • How does Krashen’s input hypothesis special education or gifted services support the Total Physical Response 1. Knows how and when to use • How do the significant aspects of Krashen’s constructive feedback to facilitate Natural Approach apply to second-language English-language learning acquisition? 1. and scaffolding for English acquisition? language learning 1. text-. Understands CALP versus BICS • What different supplementary materials are appropriate for each proficiency level of ESL? Discussion Areas: Planning and Implementing Instruction • How does the Direct Method of language • What are strategies that ESOL and general instruction differ from the Audiolingual education teachers can use to adapt Method? instruction for ELLs at different proficiency • What is one lesson that could teach levels? beginning-level ELLs about the different • What can teachers do to select the most sounds that the letter combination “th” can appropriate materials for their students? have? • What is the relationship between Chamot • What is a lesson for beginning-level ELLs that and O’Malley’s CALLA (Cognitive Academic could foster interaction in English with Language Learning Approach) and Cummins’ English-speaking peers? CALP? The Praxis® Study Companion 33 . concept be used to guide learning? and print-rich environment at a linguistic and age-appropriate level that promotes • What is a silent period in an ESOL student’s academic growth language development. Understands scenario or list of instructional technique with beginning ELLs? adaptive strategies that are appropriate for ELLs that are gifted as opposed to those with • What kinds of activities are best suited for learning disabilities kinesthetic learning? W. Understands how to differentiate • What is sheltered instruction? instruction for ELs based on individual student needs and language proficiency • What are the characteristics of a sheltered levels ESL class? 1. Understands the importance of language • What instructional approaches reflect the modeling. and what are some activities that accommodate a student in 1. Knows how to create a language-. Matches SIFE with the definition • What are the core components of the SIOP V.Step 6: Review Study Topics R. Understands possible responses to student • Which theorist is associated with the zone of output proximal development. Understands scenarios of different student • What are the benefits of dual-immersion supports programs? U. comprehensible input and behaviorist theory of second-language output.

sentence structure. students who are almost ready to transition level ELLs? into mainstream English classes? • What types of activities help ESOL students • What is an activity that incorporates task- monitor and improve their proficiency in based learning? English pronunciation? • How is a jigsaw activity implemented? The Praxis® Study Companion 34 .Step 6: Review Study Topics • What is one lesson that could teach an • What types of activities best assist ESOL aspect of CALP to intermediate-level middle students in their development of English school ELLs? syntax? • What are the advantages and disadvantages • What types of activities are most effective in of ESL pull-out and push-in programs? teaching receptive skills and productive skills? • What are some appropriate language- learning resources that could be included in • What are the elements of the following kinds a classroom to create a print-rich of essays? Compare/contrast and environment? classification definition. improve their reading fluency? spelling. such as improving their pronunciation on colonial life in the United States more or grammatical accuracy? accessible to beginning-level ELLs? • What are some strategies for strengthening • What are appropriate materials for making a students’ oral comprehension? unit on the American Revolution more accessible to ELLs? • What kinds of activities help students use their knowledge of words to understand • What are various pre. • What are the common genres of writing in based instruction? English? • What is the role of English-language skill • What are the components of a successful development in content-area classes? literacy program? • What are some ways to adapt grade-level • How can morphological knowledge be used content-area teaching materials for different to build students’ vocabulary level? proficiency levels? • What are strategies that teachers could use • What modifications can ESOL and general to help students focus on specific language educators use to make a fourth-grade lesson needs. and pronunciation between English and their native languages? • What is an activity or series of activities that could help intermediate-level ELLs • What is one lesson that could teach students understand a guest speaker’s talk on the rain how to monitor their own understanding as forest? they read? • What specific activities help ELLs activate • What kinds of activities help students their prior knowledge? comprehend nonfiction texts? • What is one practice that a high school ESOL • What kinds of skills are most beneficial for a teacher could introduce to improve the teacher to focus on with a group of ESOL written composition abilities of advanced.and postactivities that unfamiliar vocabulary? could be incorporated into effective content- area instruction for ELLs? • How might a lesson on prefixes and suffixes help improve a student’s ability to derive • How can content and language standards be meaning from newly encountered words? incorporated into a lesson? • What are some ways in which a teacher • What is an ongoing classroom activity that could lead students to analyze differences or could help intermediate-level ELLs learn to similarities in vocabulary. • What are the basic principles of content.

allow use of word-for-word language dictionaries. Uses the United States Department of their native language? Education (DOE) compliance guidelines for identification. etc. Formal methods—statewide standardized routines help ELLs learn both language and assessments. etc. Informal methods—running records. portfolios. this includes teacher-made or commercially produced summative unit tests and/or daily worksheets. EOCs. SOLOM. Through field placement experiences. inventories. unit test. placement. subject area interest and attitude why is it important that students respect inventories. Knows how to develop and administer formative and summative classroom • What are some strategies that teachers could assessments to determine ELs’ language use to help students become independent skills. • How does the establishment of classroom 2. placement. Is familiar with the role of assessment in • What are the differences in techniques for the identification. worksheets. (re)write and/or translate exams/assignments for students. Identifies tests that can be used for formative and summative assessments 3. Knows there are a variety of accommodations for state-mandated content-area testing for ELs 1. Knows that teachers can read exam questions aloud to a student. Assessment and Evaluation student interaction? A. anecdotal notes. and make sure that these questions are not state specific The Praxis® Study Companion 35 . vary when a teacher is dealing with beginner teachers working with ELs would need to ESOL students compared with advanced document daily and/or weekly student ESOL students? performance on selected skills and be able to take that information to inform subsequent lessons and reteach as needed. 2. Takes information from instruction/objectives to inform additional planning D. checklists. use DOE compliance guidelines. Understands a variety of formal and • What are some specific guidelines for informal methods to assess receptive student interaction and appropriate behavior and productive language skills in the classroom? 1. rubrics. projects) • What is the value of collaborative learning? C. textbook assignments. and document learners? student growth • How do appropriate methods of correction 1. inform instruction. use of translation for test directions (in student’s native language). reading inventory.Step 6: Review Study Topics • How do different techniques maximize IV. homework differences among their peers? assignments. reading • From a classroom management perspective. provides extended time. and exit criteria of • What types of instructional techniques are ELs most effective with newcomers? B. teacher-generated formal proper school behaviors? assessments (portfolio. and exit teaching a second language to students who from language-support programs are literate and students who are illiterate in 1.

regular or effective tool to evaluate ELLs’ progress? advanced class as well as possibly failing • What criteria should be taken into account classes when selecting the appropriate assessment 2.g. Can use graphics to convey test data. Knows how to interpret assessment data assessments for ELs and use it to assist in planning and differentiating instruction for ELs 1. uses interpreters to help data and posing the question “What data is convey test data. provide assessment data specific examples from the ELs’ work samples.. Is familiar with assessment-related of each? issues such as validity. providing a scenario with pieces of parents of ELs.Step 6: Review Study Topics E. fewer test questions. reliability. and scaffolding the what group with similar challenges the content-area testing student can be placed into. thereby skewing test results • What kinds of assessments best focus on H. can illustrating. Considers rewriting for clarification: knows Discussion Areas: Assessment and that some ELs may be eligible for additional Evaluation services (e. oral response. Knows ways to adapt classroom I. and language and cultural bias • What are national requirements for exit from 1. identify skills not mastered and determine different formatting. placement remedial. for modify “teacher jargon” when speaking with example. such as 1. a language-support program? recognizes how validity and reliability can be • When and how is a home-language survey compromised and have most likely been field used? tested with proficient English speakers. Can identify cultural bias in test questions. Knows the difference between norm. Knows that some ELs may be eligible for J. uses DOE compliance guidelines 2. and reteach F. Recognizes that norm-referenced tests knowledge and/or skills? compare ELs with proficient English speakers (and that population of test takers may not • What is one test task that could be used to reflect ELs’ level of English proficiency) and assess productive language skills? how that has consequences for ELs in terms of teacher perceptions of ELs’ level of intelligence • How can a portfolio assessment be an and grading. Recognizes that criterion-referenced tests instrument for ELL skills? provide teachers with specific information about whether an EL has mastered particular • What is the difference between a needs skills tested and whether teachers can group assessment and a diagnostic assessment? students accordingly and reteach specific skills • What different means of evaluation can teachers use to measure their students’ progress toward meeting state and national standards? The Praxis® Study Companion 36 . Documentation can be laws such as OCR. Is familiar with strategies for special education and/or gifted and communicating assessment data to talented services and is familiar with English learners and their guardians how to provide feedback and input about 1. 1. ESOL students’ comprehension skills in all referenced and criterion-referenced four domains of language acquisition? assessments and how they are used with ELs • What types of formative and summative assessments are effective for measuring ELLs’ 1. special education and gifted and talented) and is familiar with how to provide • What are the primary uses of individual and feedback and input about assessment data of group literacy assessments? said services • What are the advantages and disadvantages G. if sending information missing/not evident?” home. Appropriately adapts assessments by giving ELs alternatives in responding. If given a student profile with data.

Nativists.) assessments used? D. identities and learning styles will vary referenced assessment? widely across and within cultures 1. and rhetorical/logical patterns of • How can cultural bias affect the scores of thought ESOL students on standardized tests? C. ELs’ usage of nonstandard English(es) in the by the same ESOL student on the same test school setting and its implications on their material be explained? academic performance. ethnicity. participation (or lack of ELL might be a candidate for a gifted participation) based on cultural backgrounds. decision to the outcome of an assessment of cognitive use native language or not in the classroom. culture of gender/ethnicity/ students to accurately measure their socioeconomic background. regional. Culture A. grouping linguistic and academic proficiencies? students who communicate differently based • How do special education needs factor into on their cultural backgrounds. Partnering students together based on • For what purposes are norm-referenced identities (gender. Understands the implications of cultural • How can assessment results be used to stereotyping. Understands the ways cultural variables indicate that an ELL has cognitive difficulties affect second-language acquisition and in addition to language-learning difficulties? teaching • How might vastly different scores achieved 1. inductive versus deductive. Understands the ways students’ • What are the characteristics of a criterion. identifying cultural mistakes and scenarios. • What accommodations can be given to ESOL eye contact. cultural bias. achievement? oral traditions. program? and topics that could be offensive in the classroom • What are examples of concrete evidence that B. Understands the interrelationship • What is the value of peer assessment? between language and culture • How can language-proficiency skills affect 1. how language affects behavior. and cultural modify classroom instruction to meet bullying in the school setting students’ needs? 1. variationist decisions about ESOL student placement? perspective on sociolinguistics. nature versus nurture. miscommunications/misconceptions based • What kind of evidence can indicate that an on culture. Dangers of ethnocentric mentalities • What are some factors that determine a student’s candidacy for an ESOL program? The Praxis® Study Companion 37 . etc.Step 6: Review Study Topics • How do state and national requirements • What criteria should be used to determine affect the reporting of ESOL students’ scores whether an ESOL student is ready to be on standardized tests? exited from an ESOL program? • What are some formal and informal • What important factors contribute to the techniques that could be used to assess how decision to advance an ESOL student to the well students are progressing in content-area next level of instruction or retain the student learning? for further instruction at the current level? • What is one assessment on the Industrial • How can assessment results be Revolution that is appropriate for an communicated to parents who are not intermediate-level ELL? proficient in English? • Why is it important for teachers to model techniques for self-assessment? V.

Understands that the teacher’s personal and cultural experiences influence • What are some potential effects of teaching style stereotyping on students? 1. exposure to community. and learning into a lesson? 1. Knows that cultural experiences • What are some ways in which a teacher influence student language development. Understands the difference between effects of stereotyping? acculturation and assimilation • Why is it important for ESOL teachers to 1.Step 6: Review Study Topics E. relationships between students from and culture shock different cultural backgrounds? F. and Adequate • What is one example of a cultural Yearly Progress (AYP)? expectation that explains why teachers may approach teaching differently in two • What are some school and community different cultures? resources that could be of assistance to ELLs and their families? • What is one way that a student’s behavior varies from one culture to another? • What are some different ways that an ESL teacher could advocate for ELLs within the school community? The Praxis® Study Companion 38 . and how might that affect language that affect communication? acquisition? • Why is it important for language learners to • How can a teacher effectively work with a also learn the cultural norms associated with newly arrived ELL who does not view formal a language? education as a priority? • How do cultures vary in terms of norms • What is one strategy a teacher could use to concerning eye contact? work with ELLs whose views on gender roles in their culture heavily affect their • How does the student-teacher relationship educational experiences? vary between cultures. exit criteria. and what kinds of misunderstandings might the differences • What is ethnocentrism? create? • What are several strategies that could appeal • What are the primary differences between to learners from diverse cultural individualist cultures and collectivist backgrounds? cultures? • How have changes to immigration patterns • What is one example of nonverbal behavior in the United States affected ESOL that differs from one culture to another education? related to demonstrations of respect? • What constitutes an effective program • What are some approaches to learning that model for ESOL students based on may vary from one culture to another? evaluation criteria from the United States Department of Education? • How might different experiences with prior schooling affect an ELL’s academic success in • What is the legal basis for initial identification a new country? for an ESL program. Neighborhoods/communities that students • How could a teacher help build positive are coming from. Understands that the teacher’s personal and • What are some ways that a teacher could cultural experiences influence teaching style introduce a discussion about the negative G. advancement through the program. could incorporate aspects of diverse cultures disposition. Understands the varied origins of ELs in serve as role models for other teachers schools in the United States regarding their interaction with ELLs? Discussion Areas: Culture • How does the role of family vary between • What are some examples of cultural norms cultures.

. their families. ACTFL. CAL. relevant developments in their field? and physical needs of their students • What kind of information can various organization offer ESOL teachers (e. TOEFL. Can identify various acronyms/initialisms by their names and functions (e. Is familiar with ways that ELs and their demonstrating typical development in families may benefit from a variety of language proficiency outside resources (e. etc. B. and school and community members • What is one situation in which an ESOL 1. their order in importance) in relation to a and school staff? particular stakeholder (e. TESOL. Able to identify a scenario in which a student of the ELs might have a possibly disability. Knows a variety of strategies for population base is diverse consulting with guardians and communicating with them about each C.g. Castañeda v.. services. Pickard) professional development by continually D. organizations) diverse cultures of students into 1. social.) benefit ELLs with specific career goals? G. Understands a variety of ways to consult and of ELs communicate with students’ progress and needs 1. Understands possible roles of ELL teacher 1. Understands the need to communicate NIEA.g. Understands ways to collaborate with other school personnel regarding the VI. Knows how to identify appropriate might be useful to a general education strategies for planning and collaborating teacher who is teaching ESOL students? with ELs. as opposed to H. Discussion Areas: Professionalism and and physical needs of ELs Advocacy 1.g. Knows the possible differences between successful collaboration occurs between disabilities and typical language school personnel (e. TESOL.g. Has knowledge of various relevant laws (e. and NABE)? • What are some relevant and reliable resources that report on current research pertaining to the education of ELLs. Can identify optimum scenarios in which A. social..g. SIOP) with school personnel about the characteristics and emotional. NABE. teachers and guidance proficiency development counselor) with regard to the academic needs 1. relative of student. Can identify scenarios in which appropriate teacher could facilitate effective strategies can be matched or ranked (e.g. Able to apply knowledge of culturally relevant families thrive in their community pedagogy to scenarios in which the student I. Can identify a variety of resources outside of instruction the school context that can help ELs and their 1.. Knows the importance of engaging in Plyler v. and where can they be found? The Praxis® Study Companion 39 .. ESL. by communication between ELLs. Knows how to value and incorporate networks.Step 6: Review Study Topics • What information about cultural differences F. Understands the need to serve as a researching relevant and reliable professional resource and advocate for resources and organizations in the field ELs and families of teaching ESOL 1. J. Doe. Professionalism and Advocacy academic needs of ELs 1. E. Can identify a scenario in which ELL teachers • How can ESL teachers stay up-to-date on appropriately respond to emotional. • What types of curricula are most likely to community member. their families.. EFL.. Understands the legal provisions and student’s progress and needs ethical implications of laws and federal court decisions related to the education 1.g.

Step 6: Review Study Topics • What is TESOL. such as family separation or life as a refugee? • What are some ways that paraprofessionals contribute to the ESL classroom? • What are the integral factors for ESL and content-area teachers to consider when collaborating on planning instruction for ELLs? • How can an ESL teacher effectively provide information about available community resources to ELLs and their families? The Praxis® Study Companion 40 . and what types of • What are some reasons that ELLs and their requirements are included in the TESOL families might have a need for resources standards for ESOL students? provided by the community? • Why is it important for ESOL teachers to • Why is it important to provide feedback to pursue opportunities for growth in their parents/caregivers regarding their children’s field? linguistic and academic progress? • What is one way that ESOL teachers in a • What are several factors that could influence district could collaborate on professional instructional planning based on feedback development activities? from ELLs’ parents/caregivers? • What are some strategies for including • What are some ways in which teachers could various members of the school community communicate with parents of ELLs? in meeting with ELLs and their families? • What are some factors that might hinder the • What are some examples of supplementary parent of an ELL from being more involved in materials that could provide parents of ELLs a child’s education? with important information about their children? • What might a teacher do to ensure that a student from a country at war feels • How can an ESL teacher effectively integrate supported in the classroom? community resources into instruction? • What is one type of extra support that could • How might a teacher help an ELL who assist ELLs who have experienced previous becomes frustrated when learning English? traumatic events in their lives.

Are there answer patterns on the test? No. Can I write on the scratch paper I am given? Yes. Take advantage of the following answers to questions you may have and practical tips to help you navigate the Praxis test and make the best use of your time. You can work out problems on the scratch paper. so it is to your advantage to answer every question. There are no hidden meanings or trick questions. Review Smart Tips for Success Follow test-taking tips developed by experts Learn from the experts. Your score is based on the number of right answers. with no penalty or subtraction for an incorrect answer. Remember that questions left unanswered are treated the same as questions answered incorrectly. If you skip a question. see if you can narrow down the possible answers. But make sure to select or enter your answers on the computer. Pay attention to the time as you answer the rest of the questions on the test. and then guess. Your scratch paper will be destroyed after you are finished with it.Step 7: Review Smart Tips for Success 7. and try to finish with 10 or 15 minutes remaining so that you can go back over the questions you left blank. Try to pace yourself so that you have enough time to carefully consider every question. or write anything at all. Select the answer you think is correct based on your knowledge of the subject. you can also mark it so that you can remember to return and answer it later. Even if you don’t know the answer the second time you read the questions. try to eliminate any obviously wrong answers and then guess at the correct one. Smart Tips for Taking the Test 1. Are there trick questions on the test? No. so it is to your advantage to answer every question. make notes to yourself. You might have heard this myth: the answers on tests follow patterns. Rather than trying to answer these on your first pass through the test. All of the questions on the test ask about subject matter knowledge in a straightforward manner. Skip the questions you find extremely difficult. Can I answer the questions in any order? You can answer the questions in order or skip questions and come back to them later. Should I guess? Yes. Your score is based on the number of questions you answer correctly. so use it in any way that is helpful to you. The Praxis® Study Companion 41 . Neither myth is true. you may want to leave them blank and mark them so that you can return to them later. When you don’t know the answer to a question. Another myth is that there will never be more than two questions in a row with the correct answer in the same position among the choices.

Highly qualified educators and test development professionals.ets. Use your energy to take the test. Your state painstakingly reviewed the test before adopting it as a licensure requirement. C  heck your answers. Many test takers make careless mistakes that they could have corrected if they had checked their answers. If you have extra time left over at the end of the test. The on-screen clock will tell you how much time you have left. 4. look over each question and make sure that you have answered it as you intended. what matters is meeting the minimum passing score. 3. Read all of the possible answers before selecting one. For questions that require you to select more than one answer. Keep track of the time. a question that contains a phrase such as “Which of the following does NOT …” is asking for the one answer that is NOT a correct statement or conclusion. worked diligently to make the test a fair and valid measure of your knowledge and skills. The best thing to do is concentrate on answering the questions. You will probably have plenty of time to answer all of the questions. but if you find yourself becoming bogged down. 5. not to get frustrated by it. you will receive a license. Your score on this test is not analogous to your score on the GRE® or other tests. The Praxis® Study Companion 42 . or to make another kind of selection. In other words.org/s/praxis/pdf/passing_scores. No one is expected to answer all of the questions correctly.Step 7: Review Smart Tips for Success 2. You can find passing scores for all states that use the Praxis tests at http://www. 6. Then reread the question to be sure the answer(s) you have given really answer the question. all with backgrounds in teaching. It doesn’t matter on the Praxis tests whether you score very high or barely pass. consider the most likely answers given what the question is asking.pdf or on the Web site of the state for which you are seeking certification/licensure. Don’t worry about your score when you are taking the test. Remember. Getting frustrated only increases stress and decreases the likelihood that you will do your best. If you meet the minimum passing scores for your state and you meet the state’s other requirements for obtaining a teaching license. you might decide to move on and come back to any unanswered questions later.

pdf.ets.org/praxis/register/disabilities. You can find additional information on available resources for test takers with disabilities or health-related needs at www. Note: Test takers who have health-related needs requiring them to bring equipment. What if I have a disability or other health-related need? The following accommodations are available for Praxis test takers who meet the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Amendments Act disability requirements: • Extended testing time • Additional rest breaks • Separate testing room • Writer/recorder of answers • Test reader • Sign language interpreter for spoken directions only • Perkins Brailler • Braille slate and stylus • Printed copy of spoken directions • Oral interpreter • Audio test • Braille test • Large print test book • Large print answer sheet • Listening section omitted For more information on these accommodations.org/s/disabilities/pdf/bulletin_supplement_test_takers_with_ disabilities_health_needs. which can be found at http://www.Step 8: Check on Testing Accommodations 8. beverages. visit www. For more details. you may be eligible for extended testing time.ets. If your primary language is not English (PLNE).ets. The Praxis® Study Companion 43 . visit www. Check on Testing Accommodations See if you qualify for accommodations that may make it easier to take the Praxis test What if English is not my primary language? Praxis tests are given only in English.org/praxis/register/accommodations/plne. or snacks into the testing room or to take extra or extended breaks must request these accommodations by following the procedures described in the Bulletin Supplement for Test Takers with Disabilities or Health-Related Needs (PDF).org/disabilities.ets.

Once you’ve trained. You can think of preparing for this test as training for an athletic event. Some centers do not have secure storage space available. pencils. Stay calm. but don’t let it bother you if the test doesn’t start exactly on time. and rested. traffic conditions. Do Your Best on Test Day Get ready for test day so you will be calm and confident You followed your study plan. Now it’s time to prepare for test day. Most of all. you want to eliminate any unexpected factors that could distract you from your ultimate goal—passing the Praxis test! On the day of the test. but you can control yourself. Take a dry run to the test center so you’re sure of the route. you should: • be well rested • wear comfortable clothes and dress in layers • eat before you take the test • bring an acceptable and valid photo identification with you • bring an approved calculator only if one is specifically permitted for the test you are taking (see Calculator Use. prepared.Step 9: Do Your Best on Test Day 9. you will be assigned a space to store your belongings. and parking. at http://www. Plan to end your review a day or two before the actual test date so you avoid cramming.org/praxis/test_day/policies/calculators) • be prepared to stand in line to check in or to wait while other test takers check in You can’t control the testing situation. knapsacks. At some centers. The Praxis® Study Companion 44 . You will have the allotted amount of time once it does start. or briefcases • water bottles or canned or bottled beverages • study materials. so please plan accordingly.ets. photographic.org/praxis/test_day/policies/calculators) • any electronic. recording. or notes • pens. give it everything you’ve got. scrap paper. or calculators. What items am I restricted from bringing into the test center? You cannot bring into the test center personal items such as: • handbags. The supervisors are well trained and make every effort to provide uniform testing conditions. You prepared for the test. unless specifically permitted for the test you are taking (see Calculator Use. at http://www. You may also be asked to empty your pockets. or listening devices Personal items are not allowed in the testing room and will not be available to you during the test or during breaks.ets. such as handbags and study materials. books. Test centers assume no responsibility for your personal items.

your test scores will be canceled.g. do your best.Step 9: Do Your Best on Test Day If you have health-related needs requiring you to bring equipment.org/praxis/test_day/bring. do you understand the scoring criteria for these questions? ❒ If you are repeating a Praxis test.. beverages or snacks into the testing room or to take extra or extended breaks. class notes.ets.). pass it—and begin your teaching career! The Praxis® Study Companion 45 . visit www. photographic. your preparation has paid off. and other electronic. recording. the device will be confiscated and inspected. and course readings that relate to the topics covered? ❒ Do you know how long the test will take and the number of questions it contains? ❒ Have you considered how you will pace your work? ❒ Are you familiar with the types of questions for your test? ❒ Are you familiar with the recommended test-taking strategies? ❒ Have you practiced by working through the practice questions in this study companion or in a study guide or practice test? ❒ If constructed-response questions are part of your test. iPhones®. Android® devices. If you are seen with such a device. smart phones (e. For more information on what you can bring to the test center. you will be dismissed from the test. you need to request accommodations in advance. Procedures for requesting accommodations are described in the Bulletin Supplement for Test Takers with Disabilities or Health-related Needs (PDF). or listening devices are strictly prohibited from the test center. Note: All cell phones. ❒ Do you know the testing requirements for the license or certification you are seeking in the state(s) where you plan to teach? ❒ Have you followed all of the test registration procedures? ❒ Do you know the topics that will be covered in each test you plan to take? ❒ Have you reviewed any textbooks. Now take the Praxis test. etc. and you will forfeit your test fees. have you analyzed your previous score report to determine areas where additional study and test preparation could be useful? If you answered “yes” to the questions above. Are You Ready? Complete this checklist to determine whether you are ready to take your test. If you are seen using such a device.

ets. visit www.org/praxis/states for the most up-to-date information.org/praxis/states.org/praxis/states. and associations that require the tests set their own passing scores.ets. you can transfer your scores. Put your scores in perspective Your score report indicates: • Your score and whether you passed • The range of possible scores • The raw points available in each content category • The range of the middle 50 percent of scores on the test If you have taken the same test or other Praxis tests over the last 10 years. a document that provides additional information on how to read your score report. If I move to another state. How do I know whether I passed the test? Your score report will include information on passing scores for the states you identified as recipients of your test results.org/s/praxis/pdf/sample_score_report. If you test in a state with automatic score reporting.org/praxis/scores/understand. The advantage of a national program is that if you move to another state that also requires Praxis tests. What are the score requirements for my state? States. your score report also lists the highest score you earned on each test taken. which you can find at www. institutions.ets.ets. meaning that they are required in many states for licensure. passing the Praxis test is important to you so you need to understand what your scores mean and what your state requirements are. A list of states and their passing scores for each test are available online at www. Visit http://www.pdf to see a sample score report.Step 10: Understand Your Scores 10. Each state has specific test requirements and passing scores. To access Understanding Your Praxis Scores. The Praxis® Study Companion 46 . Understand Your Scores Understand how tests are scored and how to interpret your test scores Of course.ets. What your Praxis scores mean You received your score report. you will also receive passing score information for that state. Visit www. Now what does it mean? It’s important to interpret your score report correctly and to know what to do if you have questions about your scores. will my new state accept my scores? The Praxis tests are part of a national testing program.

To help you in future study or in preparing to retake the test.org/praxis/scores/understand • State requirements. discontinued tests are valid and reportable for 10 years. The greater the difference. found at www. Compare your “raw points earned” with the maximum points you could have earned (“raw points available”). All scores for previous. Score scale changes E T S updates Praxis tests on a regular basis to ensure they accurately measure the knowledge and skills that are required for licensure. provided that your state or licensing agency still accepts them.org/praxis/states The Praxis® Study Companion 47 . found at www. These resources may also help you interpret your scores: • Understanding Your Praxis Scores (PDF).ets. When tests are updated.org/praxis/scores/understand • The Praxis Series Passing Scores (PDF). found at www.ets. so requirements may vary between the new and previous versions. your score report shows how many raw points you earned in each content category.ets.Step 10: Understand Your Scores Content category scores and score interpretation Questions on the Praxis tests are categorized by content. the greater the opportunity to improve your score by further study. the meaning of the score scale may change.

in all cases. Because a license makes such a serious claim about its holder. which contain selected- response questions or constructed-response questions. The tests do not measure an individual’s disposition toward teaching or potential for success. In addition. law. Individuals entering the teaching profession take the Praxis content and pedagogy tests as part of the teacher licensing and certification process required by many states. Writing. Many states also require Core Academic Skills test scores as part of their teacher licensing process.Appendix: Other Questions You May Have Appendix: Other Questions You May Have Here is some supplemental information that can give you a better understanding of the Praxis tests.ets. Do all states require these tests? The Praxis tests are currently required for teacher licensure in approximately 40 states and United States territories. including classroom observation. others study alone. video recordings. licensure tests have more than one part and last for more than one day. Why does my state require the Praxis tests? Your state chose the Praxis tests because they assess the breadth and depth of content—called the “domain”— that your state wants its teachers to possess before they begin to teach. Teaching requires many complex skills that are typically measured in other ways. These tests are also used by several professional licensing agencies and by several hundred colleges and universities. and sustained effort. Who takes the tests and why? Some colleges and universities use the Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educators tests (Reading. Ranging from Agriculture to World Languages. cosmetology—is an assurance to the public that the person holding the license possesses sufficient knowledge and skills to perform important occupational activities safely and effectively. and portfolios. or a combination of both. The assessments are designed to be comprehensive and inclusive but are limited to what can be covered in a finite number of questions and question types. What is licensure/certification? Licensure in any area—medicine. there are more than 80 Praxis tests. But preparing to take a licensure test is. Teacher candidates can test in one state and submit their scores in any other state that requires Praxis testing for licensure. discipline. The assessments are generally taken early in your college career. reflected in the passing score.org/praxis/states. The level of content knowledge. accounting. is based on recommendations of panels of teachers and teacher educators in The Praxis® Study Companion 48 . In some fields. a professional activity. You can find details at www. a license tells the public that the individual has met predefined competency standards for beginning teaching practice. Some join study groups. Because a licensure exam surveys a broad body of knowledge. preparing for a licensure exam takes planning. some professional associations and organizations require the Praxis Subject Assessments for professional licensing. In the case of teacher licensing. architecture. licensure tests are usually quite demanding. and Mathematics) to evaluate individuals for entry into teacher education programs. Candidates for licensure in all fields plan intensive study as part of their professional preparation. nor do they measure your actual teaching ability. What do the Praxis tests measure? The Praxis tests measure the specific knowledge and skills that beginning teachers need.

J.). you must create one to view your scores. National advisory committees may also be convened to review and revise existing test specifications and to evaluate test forms for alignment with the specifications. During the first phase of review. the American Psychological Association.* When your state adopted the research-based Praxis tests. How long will it take to receive my scores? Scores for tests that do not include constructed-response questions are available on screen immediately after the test. E T S conducts an analysis of relevant state and association standards and of the current test content. teachers and professional test developers created test questions that met content requirements and E T S Standards for Quality and Fairness. local panels of teachers and teacher educators evaluated each question for its relevance to beginning teachers in your state. This online access replaces the mailing of a paper score report. or two to three weeks after the testing window closes for other tests.org/praxis and click on your score report. Washington. Princeton. and the National Council on Measurement in Education (2014. During this “validity study. you are proving that you have the knowledge and skills you need to begin your teaching career. D. The state licensing agency and. After the results were analyzed and consensus was reached. for the selected- response and constructed-response tests were developed by teachers and teacher educators. guidelines. Your state’s licensing agency determined the final passing-score requirement. Revised test questions are then produced following the standard test development methodology. How are the tests updated to ensure the content remains current? Praxis tests are reviewed regularly. The Praxis® Study Companion 49 . *E T S Standards for Quality and Fairness (2014. Official score reports are available to you and your designated score recipients approximately two to three weeks after the test date for tests delivered continuously. E T S asked them what knowledge and skills a beginning teacher needs to be effective. State licensure titles and the results of relevant job analyses are also considered. even if you registered by mail or phone.Appendix: Other Questions You May Have each subject area.) are consistent with the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing.ets. E T S follows well-established industry procedures and standards designed to ensure that the tests measure what they are intended to measure. How were the tests developed? E T S consulted with practicing teachers and teacher educators around the country during every step of the Praxis test development process.C. Note: You must create a Praxis account to access your scores. If you do not already have a Praxis account. First.org/praxis/register/centers_dates for exact score reporting dates. N. The process is easy—simply log into My Praxis Account at www. Following these guidelines. the state legislature ratify the passing scores that have been recommended by panels of teachers. See the test dates and deadlines calendar at www. Scores for tests that contain constructed-response questions or essays aren’t available immediately after the test because of the scoring process involved. Their responses were then ranked in order of importance and reviewed by hundreds of teachers. industry standards issued jointly by the American Educational Research Association. When you pass the Praxis tests your state requires.” the panel also provided a passing-score recommendation based on how many of the test questions a beginning teacher in your state would be able to answer correctly. or specifications. Can I access my scores on the Web? All test takers can access their test scores via My Praxis Account free of charge for one year from the posting date. in some states. ets.

ets. and PRAXIS are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service (E T S). so start today! Let the Praxis® Study Companion guide you. GRE. . visit the E T S Store: www. To search for the Praxis test prep resources that meet your specific needs. All other trademarks are property of their respective owners.ets. the E T S logo.Your teaching career is worth preparing for.org/praxis/store Copyright © 2016 by Educational Testing Service.org/praxis/testprep To purchase official test prep made by the creators of the Praxis tests. E T S. visit: www. MEASURING THE POWER OF LEARNING is a trademark of ETS. All rights reserved.