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Chapter 2

Transverse Ising Chain (Pure System)

2.1 Symmetries and the Critical Point

2.1.1 Duality Symmetry of the Transverse Ising Model

Following the duality of the two dimensional Ising model on square lattice [237],
one can show [231] the self-duality, and thereby make exact estimate of the critical
tunnelling (transverse) field of the one-dimensional spin-1/2 transverse Ising model.
Before considering the exact solution of the one dimensional quantum mechanical
Hamiltonian, we shall study the duality symmetry hidden in the model, and identify
the critical value of the transverse field, for which there exists a second order zero-
temperature phase transition from a ferromagnetic phase to a paramagnetic phase.
Let us first consider the quantum Hamiltonian of the transverse Ising chain
 
z  z 
H =− Γ Six + J Siz Si+1 =− Six + λSiz Si+1 (2.1.1)
i i

where S α s are the usual the Pauli spin matrices, λ = J /Γ , and the Hamiltonian
is scaled with the transverse field (Γ = 1). The spin operators satisfy the usual
commutation relations given by (with  = 1)
 α β γ
Si , Sj = 2iδij αβγ Si ; α, β, γ = x, y, z. (2.1.2)
It may be noted that the Pauli operators commute on different sites and satisfy the
anti-commutation relation
 α β β β
Si , Si + = Siα Si + Si Siα = 0, (2.1.3)
and
 2
Siα =1 (2.1.4)
on the same site.
To investigate the duality symmetry involved in the model we associate a dual
lattice with our original spatial lattice (chain) such that sites in the original chain

S. Suzuki et al., Quantum Ising Phases and Transitions in Transverse Ising Models, 13
Lecture Notes in Physics 862, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-33039-1_2,
© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

14 2 Transverse Ising Chain (Pure System)

are associated with the bonds of the dual chain and vice versa. The operators on the
dual lattice are defined as
τjx = Sjz Sjz+1 and (2.1.5a)

τjz = Skx . (2.1.5b)
k≤j

The non-local mapping (2.1.5a), (2.1.5b) represents the “duality” transformation. As
mentioned earlier, the new operators are defined on links of the original chain which
has one-to-one correspondence with the sites of the “dual” lattice. From (2.1.5a),
(2.1.5b) we can easily see that senses whether spins on the original lattice are aligned
or not; whereas flips all the spins left to the site i. One can now easily check that the
operators τiα ’s satisfy the same set of commutation relation as the operator i.e., they
commute on different sites and anti-commute on the same site
 x z  
τi , τi = 0 for i = j and τix , τz + = 0. (2.1.6)
One can thus readily rewrite the original transverse Ising Hamiltonian in terms of
the dual operators τ α
 
H =− τiz τi+1
z
+ λτix
i
  
−1
=λ − τi − (λ)
x z z
τi τi+1 (2.1.7)
i i
which immediately suggests the (duality) scaling property of the Hamiltonian:
 −1 
H (S; λ) = λH τ ; λ . (2.1.8)
Since both S and τ operators satisfy the same algebra, the above symmetry
implies, for the equivalent classical two dimensional Ising model (where Γ cor-
responds to inverse temperature), one-to-one correspondence of the high and low
temperature phases. Here for the quantum model, it implies that each eigenvalue E
of H satisfies the relation,
E(λ) = λE(1/λ). (2.1.9)
Equation (2.1.9) has important significance from the point of quantum phase transi-
tion in the model. For the quantum phase transition, at the critical point the mass gap
(the gap between the ground state and the first excited state of the quantum Hamilto-
nian) vanishes and the correlation length ξ(λ) (which is the inverse of the mass gap
Δ(λ)) diverges. For the present model, if the mass gap vanishes for some nonzero
value of then (2.1.9) suggests that it will also have to vanish at. If one assumes that
is unique, the self-duality of the model implies that
λc = 1, or Γc = J (2.1.10)
and, as we will show in the next subsection,
ξ(λ) ∼ Δ−1 = 2|1 − λ|−1 . (2.1.11)

2.1 Symmetries and the Critical Point 15

The self-duality of the model thus yields the exact critical value if we assume that
the critical value is unique (valid for simple Ising model, but is not true in general).

2.1.2 Perturbative Approach

In this section we shall try to estimate the mass gap associated with the above
quantum Hamiltonian (1.2.1) for the transverse Ising chain, using a perturbative
approach. We first rewrite the transverse Ising Hamiltonian in the following form
  
H = H0 + V = 1 − Six − λ Siz Si+1
z
, (2.1.12)
i i
with
 
H0 = 1 − Six (2.1.13a)
i

V =− Siz Si+1
z
, (2.1.13b)
i
and write a perturbation series in powers of for any eigenvalue of the total Hamilto-
nian:
E(λ) = E (0) + λE (1) + (λ)2 E (2) + · · · . (2.1.14)
The Hamiltonian H0 represents a one dimensional chain of non-interacting spins
in a magnetic field, and one can now trivially show that the lowest eigenvalue E0 of
H0 is zero:
(0)
H0 |0 = E0 |0 = 0. (2.1.15)
The corresponding bare vacuum |0 is given by

N
|0 = |+i (2.1.16)
i=1
where |+i is the eigenstate of the operator Six with eigenvalue = +1. Similarly,
one can easily see that the first excited state of the Hamiltonian H0 consists of
just one flipped spin |0 at the site i. But it is clearly seen that this state is N -
fold degenerate, since the flipped spin can occur on any site of the one-dimensional
lattice. Keeping in mind the translational invariance of the model (any eigenstate
has to have a definite momentum) we can choose an appropriate linear combination
for the first excited state of the Hamiltonian H0 given by

|1 = N 1/2 Siz |0, (2.1.17)
i
the corresponding eigenvalue equation can be written as
(0)
H0 |1 = E1 |1 = 2|1. (2.1.18)

As the mass gap also satisfies the duality condition (cf. We have just seen that the mass gap of the elementary excitations vanishes as λ approaches 1 from below.23) we get ξ(λ) = (1/2)|1 − λ|−1 .1.9))  −1  Δ(λ) = λΔ λ .1. which is found to be unity here from the first order perturbation theory. (2. Although this perturbative estimate is valid for λ < 1. one can always extend it for λ > 1 using the duality symmetry of the Hamiltonian. the perturbation series does not truncate in the first order.14) we get  (0) (1)   (0) (1)  Δ(λ) ≡ E1 (λ) − E0 (λ) = E1 + λE1 − E0 + λE0 = 2(1 − λ).1.1.23) This suggests that the gap vanishes both from below and above the critical point λ = λc = 1. us- ing Raleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. This also gives the estimate of correlation length ξ(λ) ∼ |λ − λc |−ν ∼ Δ−1 (λ) where ν represents correlation length exponent. (2. (2. (2. Note that “+1” in the dimension comes from the imaginary-time Trotter direction.20a) (1) E1 = 1|V |1 = −2.1. (2.1. we get the mass gap (at the zeroth order) of the system.1. To do this we must recall that the operator acts as a spin-flip operator on state |0 or for that matter. But Kogut [231].22) we can write the general form for mass gap as Δ(λ) = 2|1 − λ|.20a). all higher order con- tributions to the mass gap are expected to become relevant. estimated the higher order corrections in λ to the mass gap Δ(λ) and found that all the higher order contributions vanish identically in (1 + 1)-dimension. |1. We can thus immediately get for the first order corrections E0(1) = 0|V |0 = 0. however.19) We shall now incorporate the effect of V in a perturbative manner. (2. .21) suggests that as λ increases from zero.21) up to first order in λ. given by (0) (0) Δ0 ≡ E1 − E0 = 2. (2.1. Near the critical point. From (2. the mass gap decreases and vanishes at the critical value λc . (2. We shall discuss in the next chapter the equiva- lence between a d-dimensional transverse Ising model and a (d + 1)-dimensional Ising model. In dimensions higher than d = 1.24) giving ν = 1 for the transverse Ising chain.1.1.1. Equation (2. of course.1. all the beneficial properties of the perturbation scheme are lost. (2.16 2 Transverse Ising Chain (Pure System) Hence considering the unperturbed Hamiltonian (λ = 0).1.20b) in the (2.20b) Putting (2.

commute on different sites and satisfy the fermionic anti-commutation relations on the same site:  − +  + − Si . The last condition implies that if an arbitrary state |F  is not annihilated by . i = j and   Si− . This is the hard-sphere condition. .1. although the operator Si+ creates a bosonic exci- tation at the site i.1) as   H =− Siz − λ Six Si+1 x .2. it is impossible to have two such excitations at the same site. i.2. and the entire eigenvalue spectrum and eigenfunctions can be obtained by em- ploying Jordan-Wigner transformation of the spin operators to spinless fermions [245.2 Eigenvalue Spectrum: Fermionic Representation 17 We now conclude this section with the note that the hidden duality symmetry makes our task simpler in the case of the spin-1/2 transverse Ising system in 1 + 1- dimension. Si+ + = 1  − −   Si . we rewrite the Hamiltonian (2. this symmetry does not hold for higher dimensional models. then it is annihilated by (Si+ )2 (a spin can be flipped only once):    + 2 Si+ Si+ |F  = 0. we consider again the Hamiltonian (2. The above equation implies that.1. and the raising and lowering operators should appropriately be treated as hard-core bosons. Si . Si = 0. Using a canonical transfor- mation Sx → Sz. S z → −S x . Sj = 0.e. 2. Unfortunately. (2.1) i i We can now express the Hamiltonian H in terms of the raising and lowering opera- tors Si+ and Si− at every site.2 Eigenvalue Spectrum: Fermionic Representation The above spin-1/2 transverse Ising chain Hamiltonian can be exactly diagonalised. Si+ + = 0.1). where  y Si+ = (1/2) Six + iSi  y Si− = (1/2) Six − iSi which satisfy a mixed set of commutation relations. For this. Employing duality and perturbation technique we can extract a number of information about the associated quantum phase transition. 312] (see also [216]). Sj = 0.. Si + = Si+ .

To write the Hamiltonian (2.1)  †  †  †  H =N −2 ci ci − λ ci − ci ci+1 + ci+1 .. defined on a one dimensional lattice. . the fermion operators anti-commute even at different sites and this is due to the presence of the non-local factor i−1  + − Ki = exp iπ Sj Sj (i = 2. This term is a unitary operator which rotates (up to a phase factor) the spin configuration of all sites left to the i-th site by an angle π about the z-axis. .2. α = x. . (2.A. N ).1) the operators ci and ci† are fermionic operators satisfying   ci .1). [ci . .2.2a) j =1  i−1   c1† = S1+ .2.3) Unlike the spin operators. z (2. y. (2. . ci ]+ = 0.e. ci = exp iπSj+ Sj− Si− (i = 2. . 2.4) j =1 which is called the disorder or “soliton” term which provides an extra minus sign to convert a commutator to an anti-commutator at different sites. . . . This term is called the disorder term since it cannot have a nonzero expectation value in a state having a long-range order. If the spin chain has a periodic boundary condition.2.5) then we can recast the transverse Ising Hamiltonian in the following form (see Sect.6) i i where we have neglected the correction term [(c1† + c1 )(cN † − cN ){exp(iπL) + 1}].2. i. N ) (2. . S1α = SN α +1 .2. We can therefore transform the spin system into a system of spinless fermions with chemical potential zero. N ). it may have a nonzero expectation value in a state having no long- range order. (2. .A.2. in terms of Jordan-Wigner fermions. we need to worry about the boundary condition. cj† + = δij . On the other hand. ci† = Si+ exp −iπSj+ Sj− (i = 2. . (2.18 2 Transverse Ising Chain (Pure System) The standard procedure to treat one dimensional hard-core bosons is to transform the spin operators into fermions by using the Jordan-Wigner transformation  i−1   c1 = S1− . 2. .2b) j =1 One can easily check that (see Sect.

N † where L = i=1 ci ci . arising from the periodic boundary condition of spins for .

The correction term . One must note here that although the number of fermions i ci† ci is not a constant of motion. the fermion problem must have an anti-periodic boundary condition if there is an even number of fermions and peri- odic boundary condition if there is an odd number of fermions. large systems. its parity is conserved and hence exp(iπL) is a constant of motion having the value +1 or −1. Hence.

. 1/2.2. it is convenient to sum over modes with q > 0 and include the others by simply writing them out. . . . −1/2.9) iλ sin q −1 − λ cos q † c−q .7b) j =1 where the complete set of wavevector is q = 2πm/N . For this. . we employ the Bogoliubov transformation in which new fermion creation operators ηq† are formed as a linear combination of cq† and cq in order to remove terms in Hamiltonian which do not conserve the particle number. (2. . .2. Then above Hamiltonian (2. . (N − 1)/2 (for N even) m = N/2. . m = −(N − 1)/2.2 Eigenvalue Spectrum: Fermionic Representation 19 can be neglected for a thermodynamically large system in which case we call it the “c-cyclic” problem (the original problem being the “a-cyclic” one). 0.8) becomes   †    †  H = −2 (1 + λ cos q) cq† cq − c−q c−q + 2iλ sin q cq† c−q − c−q cq q>0 q>0     1 + λ cos q −iλ sin q cq = −2 cq† c−q . . To do so.8) q q To diagonalise the Hamiltonian.2.7a) j =1  N cq† = (1/N) 1/2 cj† exp(−iqRj ) (2. (2.2. N/2 (for N odd) and the final form of the transverse Ising chain Hamiltonian becomes    H =N −2 (1 + λ cos q)cq† cq − λ e−iq cq† c−q † − eiq cq c−q . . . . . . The above trans- formed Hamiltonian is already quadratic in the fermion operators and it is obviously diagonalisable. . let us consider fermions in momentum space  N cq = (1/N)1/2 cj exp(iqRj ) (2.2.2.

2. where the constant N in (2. We wish to write the Hamiltonian in the form  H= ωq ηq† ηq + const. cq† to the operators ηq .8) is cancelled by 2 q>0 1.11) η−q ivq uq c−q ivq cq + uq c−q . This is achieved by making a canonical transformation from the op- erators cq .2.10) q so that the single particle excitations are identifiable above the vacuum state (ηq |0 = 0). Note that the vacuum of H is not the vacuum of the operator cq because of the presence of the off-diagonal term (cq† c−q † + cq c−q ) in the Hamiltonian. ηq† (Bogoliubov transformations)      †  ηq uq ivq cq uq cq + ivq c−q † = † = † (2. (2.2.

q . vq are real.15) iλ sin q −1 − λ cos q −ivq −ivq This 2 × 2 eigenvalue problem is easily solved to yield  2 1/2 ωq = 1 + 2λ cos q + λ . (2.16) and λ sin q ωq + 1 + λ cos q uq =  . (2. vq are determined by two criteria: (1) These new set of operators ηq . The choice of the transformation is made in the way such that uq . [ηq . ηq ]+ = 0 = ηq† .12) Using now the inverse transformation of (2. −ivq )T is an eigenvector of the Hamiltonian matrix    1 + λ cos q −iλ sin q uq uq = −ωq .2. (2.2. (2. (2. are fermionic operators.2.2. vq =  . leads to the relation u2q + vq2 = 1. The first criterion     ηq .13) † c−q −ivq uq † η−q we can rewrite the Hamiltonian H in terms of the Bogoliubov fermions  H= Hq q>0    uq ivq  1 + λ cos q −iλ sin q Hq = −2 η−q ηq† ivq uq iλ sin q −1 − λ cos q   uq −ivq ηq × . Having obtained the eigenvalue ωq .17) 2ωq (ωq + 1 + λ cos q) 2ωq (ωq + 1 + λ cos q) where we have chosen the sign of uq and vq such that uq > 0 for 0 < q < π .14) −ivq uq † η−q To recast the Hamiltonian in the diagonal form we demand that (uq .2.9) is diagonalised when written in terms of these operators. (2.2.18) q>0 q The zero-point (ground-state) energy of the spinless fermion system is given by  E0 = − ωq . ηq† .2. one can write the Hamiltonian in a diagonal form   †   H =2 ωq ηq† ηq − η−q η−q =2 ωq ηq† ηq + E0 . (2.11)     cq uq −ivq ηq = .2. (2) The Hamilto- nian (2. (2. ηq† + . The functions uq .2. ηq† + = δq .19) q .2.20 2 Transverse Ising Chain (Pure System) where q > 0 everywhere.

One should mention at this point that the critical value of the transverse (tunnelling) field. 2. q ≤ 0 (2.2 Eigenvalue Spectrum: Fermionic Representation 21 Fig. 312] are given by 1/2 2 φq. ψqj = ±N −1/2 . 2.2. q > 0 (2. φqj = N −1/2 .22) One can thus transform the spin Hamiltonian into a non-interacting set of fermions obeying the dispersion relation given by (2.23) indicating the divergence of the correlation length and a quantum phase transition at λ = λc = 1 from an ordered state (S x  = 1) to a disordered state (S x  = 0).1. .20) 2 2 i where for λ = 1 the normal modes [245.21c) For λ = 1 and m = −1/2 (i. The energy of the elementary excitations as a function of wave vector q = π − q for different values of λ is shown in Fig.2.21a) N 1/2 2 = cos(qRj ).21b) N   ψqj = −ωq−1 (1 + λ cos q)φqj + (λ sin q)φ−qj . ωq = 0.e.2.2. (2. There is an energy gap in the excitation spectrum of the system which goes to zero at q = 0 for λ ≡ λc = 1 as Δ(λ) ≡ E1 − E0 = 2|1 − λ|..j = sin(qRj ).2. q = −π ). (2. (2. (2.2.16).2.1 Elementary excitation energy as a function of q /π for different λ [312] The Bogoliubov fermion operators are written as the linear combination of the original Jordan-Wigner fermions  φqi + ψqi  φqi − ψqi †  ηq = ci + ci .2.

is Γc = J .2.1 The Ground State Energy. in all states with even number of excitations.2. At this point we remark on the simplification resulting from the consideration of the “c-cyclic” problem rather than the “a-cyclic” problem.2.2). 2. given by the expression (2. overestimates for the one-dimensional nearest neighbour chain and yields Γc = 2J .22 2 Transverse Ising Chain (Pure System) obtained from the exact solution of the one-dimensional chain. (2. The Hamiltonian for the “a-cyclic” problem is complicated by the presence of the term  †  †   c 1 + c1 cN − cN exp(iπL) + 1 .2). θ2 = .. As mentioned earlier. Strictly speaking the elementary excitations are not independent in the “a-cyclic” problems [245]. 1.2. giving an additional term in the Hamiltonian. on the other hand. whereas the mean field theory employed by Brout et al. (see Sect. Correlations and Exponents The ground state energy of the fermion system. θ . can be reduced to the elliptic integral of second kind  E0 2 π 4λ − = (1 + λ)E . The longitudinal magnetisation S x  (the order parameter . One must note that the above method of diagonalising a spin Hamiltonian in terms of free fermions is exact only in the case of pure transverse Ising chain in absence of any longitudinal field. If one defines the variation of the energy gap as Δ(λ) ∼ (λc −λ)s . that although L is not a constant of motion. For random interac- tion and transverse field Ising chain (see Chap. one can readily obtain from (2.24) NJ π 2 (1 + iλ)2 The ground state energy decreases monotonically with the transverse field and is non-analytic at the point λ = 1 (see Fig. which one can ignore for a thermodynamically large system. This has the effect of making changes of the order of 1/N in the q’s. 4) and hence can not be diagonalised exactly. the additional term gives zero acting on such states and they remain eigenstates of the “a-cyclic” problem. States with odd number of excitation. There- fore. exp(iπL) is. φq ’s etc. one can map the problem to free fermion problem but as both Ji ’s and Γi ’s are random one has to adopt numerical diagonalisation technique. To evaluate the other exponents of the transition one has to calculate magnetisations and the different correlation func- tions using “Wick’s Theorem” to evaluate the vacuum expectation value of many fermion operators [312]. except that q = π but not q = −π is occupied).19). For spin chains incorporating frustrations the resulting fermions are inter- acting (see Chap. 2. the number of fermions is odd (the q’s are assumed to be occupied symmetrically around q = 0. Defining the divergence of correlation length (ξ(λ) = Δ−1 ) in the neighbour- hood of the critical point λc = 1 as ξ(λ) ∼ (λc − λ)−ν . 5). the same equation yields s = 1. Now in the ground state of the “c-cyclic” problem. One cannot generalise it to higher dimensional systems.23) the value of exponent ν = 1. have L even.

3).3) mz = G0 = ψ0 |Siz |ψ0    1 π 1 π = dq ωq−1 + dq ωq−1 cos q. 312] . and is non-analytic at λ = λc = 1.2.3). The correlation functions given in Sect. Gr is non-analytic for λ = 1 and so are the correlation functions.A. The criti- cal case λ = 1 can be studied more easily because of the simple form of Gr (see Sect.A. 2.2. (2. As a function of λ.3 Variation of the transverse magnetisation mz = S z  with Γ /2J . We get the correlation functions given as [265. (Fig.25) π 0 π 0 which gives an elliptic integral of the first kind.2 Eigenvalue Spectrum: Fermionic Representation 23 Fig. 2. Dashed curve is the mean field result [312] in the present problem) cannot be evaluated directly because of the up-down sym- metry of the Hamiltonian unless one applies a symmetry breaking longitudinal field. 2. 2.2 Ground state energy as a function of Γ /2J [312] Fig.A.3 depend only on Gr . 2. The transverse magnetisation can be written as [312] (see Sect. 2.

In the context of the statistical physics.. . (2..2. The entanglement entropy Sl of this block is obtained by considering the matrix [12. All the other exponents can be obtained in a similar fashion and it is readily observed that the value of these exponents are identically same with the exponents associated with the thermal phase transition in classical two-dimensional Ising model.. λ ≤ 1. 312]  −2 1/4 lim Crx = 1 − λ . one considers a partition of a system into subsystems A and B. . To define the entanglement entropy. One should mention that these correlation functions can be derived alternatively using “bosonisation” technique [367]. (2. The spin-spin correlation in the longitudinal direction Crx vanishes for large r (limr→∞ Crx = 0) when λ ≤ 1. One can readily see that the entangle- ment entropy vanishes if the subsystem A is decoupled from B such that ρ = ρA ρB and the rank of ρA is 1. It has been known in general that the entanglement increases when the system approaches the quantum phase transition.27a)  −2 1/8 = 1−λ λ > 1. The entanglement is basically measured by the entanglement entropy. 410] ⎛ ⎞ Π0 Π1 · · · Πl−1 ⎜ Π−1 Π0 · · · Πl−2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ Λ=⎜ . (2. Cr and Crz behave in the analogous way and all the correlations at λ = 1 go to zero as r → ∞.2.2. indicating the absence of any long-range correlation in the disordered phase.27b) Equation (2. The entanglement entropy between A and B is defined by the von Neumann entropy of ρA as S(ρA ) = TrA (−ρA log ρA ).27b) gives the value of the magnetisation exponent β = 1/8. . the quantum entanglement has drawn increasing attention [295]. Let ρA = TrB (ρ) be the density matrix of the subsystem A. ⎟ .24 2 Transverse Ising Chain (Pure System) 4 1 Crz = ψ0 |Siz Si+r z |ψ0  = π 4r − 1 2 2 r 2 H (r)4 Crx = ψ0 |Six Si+r x |ψ0  = 22r(r−1) π H (2r) y where H (r) = 1r−1 2r−1 · · · (r − 1).2. .2. the behaviour of the entanglement near a quan- tum critical point has been often discussed. Let us now consider an infinite transverse Ising chain and focus on a subsystem of size l.26) r→∞ and hence the longitudinal magnetisation (as r → ∞) can be written as mx = ψ0 |Six |ψ0  = 0. Following the development in the study of quantum computation and quantum information. whereas it has the maximum when all the eigenvalues of ρA are equivalent. ⎠ Π−l+1 Π−l+2 ··· Π0 . For λ > 1 [265. (2. ..28) ⎝ . . which is given by the trace of the density matrix of the whole system ρ with respect to the subsys- tem B.

29) has been studied numerically [410] and analytically [54. the entanglement entropy Sl=∞ diverges at the critical point λ = 1. Sl scales as Sl ∼ 16 log l [410]. at λ = 1.r ρ˜i. in general. Sl is given by l  1 + λn Sl = h . the entanglement entropy of a one-dimensional quantum critical system with the central charge c behaves as Sl ∼ 3c log l [54. As shown in this figure. namely. . gn = e . y y We define the time-reversal of ρi.2. (After Calabrese and Cardy [54]) with   0 gn 2π dφ −inφ e−iφ − λ Πn = .2.28) and defining h(x) = −x log(x) − (1 − x) log(1 − x). We consider a density matrix with respect to sites i and i + r.29) 2 n=1 The behaviour of (2. Note that S∞ = log 2 when Γ = 0. We fix k such that λ1 ≥ · · · ≥ λ4 . .r ∗ (S y S y ). (2. −gn 0 0 2π |e−iφ − λ| Letting λn ’s denote positive eigenvalues of the matrix (2. Figure 2. .r = (Si Si+r )ρi.r . 4) be the eigenvalues of ρi.r . .r the complex conjugate of ρi. Note that λk is a non-negative number.r as ρ˜i. Another measure of the entanglement is the concurrence [425]. 310]. Then . This comes from doubly degenerated ground states of the Ising chain. 200. where ρ ∗ is i i+r i.2. It has been known from the conformal field theory that. Focusing on the critical point. 2. Let λk (k = 1.2 Eigenvalue Spectrum: Fermionic Representation 25 Fig. This logarithmic scaling of the entanglement entropy is universal in one-dimensional quantum critical systems. where Tr stands for the partial trace with respect to the degree of freedom on sites except i and i + r. ρi.4 shows λ dependence of Sl=∞ [54].2. Sl=∞ has a singularity at Γ = J . The prefactor 16 in Sl of the transverse Ising chain λ = 1 is consistent with c = 12 of the same system.4 Entanglement entropy Sl=∞ versus J /Γ . 176].r = Tr (ρ).

The concurrence in the transverse Ising chain has been studied in Refs. It has been shown that C(r) vanishes for r ≥ 3 even at the critical point λ = 1. [303. λ1 − λ2 − λ3 − λ4 }. the subtlety for the condition of exact solubility is very unique. (After Osterloh et al. or in higher dimensions etc. and thus can be regarded itself as an entanglement measure [425]. The dip of dC(1)/dλ at the critical point λ = 1 becomes deeper with increasing size. [303]) √ √ √ √ the concurrence is defined by C(r) = max{0. It has been shown that this quantity gives the so-called entanglement of formation. which can be (and has been) utilised .3 Diagonalisation Techniques for Finite Transverse Ising Chain Although. the above tricks fail and one requires accu- rate approximate methods. Osterloh et al. [303] have shown that. The singularity at the critical point is clearer in the first derivative of C(1). One such method.e. 2. With slight- est change in the conditions (like presence of next nearest neighbour interaction or disorder. classical Ising system on a square lattice) is exactly solvable. The main panel shows the first deriva- tive dC(1)/dλ for several sizes. dC(1)dλ behaves as (8/3π 2 ) ln |λ − 1| + const and diverges at λ = 1. while the inset shows C(1) of the infinite size system. the spin-1/2 transverse Ising chain (and its classical analogue i.. Figure 2.). as discussed in the previous section. as λ approaches its critical point λc = 1. 392]. 2.5 shows C(1) and dC(1)/dλ as functions of λ [303].26 2 Transverse Ising Chain (Pure System) Fig. Confining our attention to the concurrence between the nearest neighbour C(1). it has a peak near the critical point and is a smooth function of λ. dC(1)/dλ behaves as dC(1)/dλ = (8/3π 2 ) ln |λ − 1| + const in the infinite size system.5 Nearest neighbour concurrence versus λ = J /Γ . which is an elementary measure of the entanglement. In the infinite size system.

then ψ(λ.3. This λc (L) approaches the true critical value as L → ∞.2) when L → ∞. Since the effective λc (L) is the point where ξ(λc (L)) ∼ L. 4 and 6). Δλ = → 0. (2. one immediately gets λc (L) = λc + AL−1/ν (2. L + 1). where g(x) ∼ x ν as x → 0. is exact diago- nalisation of finite-size quantum systems and employment of finite size scaling.3 Diagonalisation Techniques for Finite Transverse Ising Chain 27 to extract accurate information in such cases (see Chaps. the inverse of the mass gap of the quantum Hamiltonian gives the correlation length. then the finite size variation there is precisely given by ψ(λc . Let ψ(λ) be some quantity which diverges in the thermodynamic limit at a critical value (λc ) (λ − λc ) ψ(λ) ∼ A|Δ|−ψ . (2) If the critical point for the infinite system is not ex- actly known. It has been analytically established by Hamer and Barber [167] that finite size scaling is exact for the mass gap of the transverse Ising chain in the limit L → ∞ and λ → 1 with (1 − λ)L of the order of unity.3) Using thus the data of finite systems one can estimate the exponent relations for the transition in infinite system. as x → ∞.1) λc where the correlation length ξ ∼ |Δλ|−ν also diverges with the correlation length exponent λ. At the transition point.3. L) = Lψ/L f L/ξ(λ) (2.2. For a finite system of linear dimension L. (2. For a quantum phase transition.3.1 Finite-Size Scaling The idea of finite-size scaling was introduced by Fisher and Barber [143] to explain the effect of the thermodynamic singularities on finite size variations.3. we can employ it here for a spin-1/2 transverse Ising chain (where we can compare with the exact results). the behaviour of ψ(λ.5) Using the above relation one can estimate the critical point for an infinite system from the mass gap obtained from the diagonalisation of finite systems.3.3.3. The above ansatz (2. (2.1) from (2.4) (where A is a constant) and can extract the value of ν.3. In order to test the accuracy of such methods. L) = Lψ/ν .2) is helpful in the following ways: (1) If the critical point λc is exactly known. L) = (L + 1)Δ(λc .2) where the scaling function f (x) is asymptotically defined with a power law: f (x) ∼ x −ψ/ν . . L) is given by the finite size scaling ansatz   ψ(λ. L) is evaluated at the effective λc (L) (at which the effective order parameter vanishes). One thus recovers (2.3. Hence at the critical point LΔ(λc . L) ∼ L−1 g ΔλL1/μ . the mass gap Δ(λ) vanishes inversely as the correlation length and for finite sizes the mass gap variation is given by   Δ(λ. 2.

. .1 Strong Coupling Eigenstate Method The idea of strong coupling eigenstate method was introduced by Hamer and Bar- ber [167] to estimate approximately (in a very small subspace) the mass gap of a quantum Hamiltonian. . . N  = p |1 . . . we can divide the entire 2N -dimensional Hilbert space into two 2N−1 -dimensional subspaces: one having basis vectors with even number of up spins and the other with basis vectors with odd number of up spins. We rewrite the quantum Hamiltonian in the form HN = H0 + V (2. In the present case. N  where p is given by Spx |1 .3. Here. At this point one can separately diagonalise the Hamiltonian in two subspaces and reduce a 2N - dimensional problem into two 2N−1 problems. 2. . We can write the 2N basis vectors. Hence. . . The .3. .28 2 Transverse Ising Chain (Pure System) 2. p . Let us now consider here a spin-1/2 transverse Ising system on an open chain of N spins  N−1  N HN = − Siz Si+1 z −λ Six .2. the difference of the two gives us the required mass gap of the quantum Hamiltonian. . We can now easily check that the Hamil- tonian HN acting on a basis vector does not change the parity of total number of (+) and (−) spins.8)  N−1 V =− Siz Si+1 z i=1  N H0 = −λ Six . spanning the Hilbert space associated with the Hamiltonian. . . . We choose a set of basis vectors in which is diagonal. N . p . .3. . (2. .7) Clearly.6) i=1 i=1 The above Hamiltonian has discrete spin-flip symmetry. (2. . in the form |1 .3. the ground state of the Hamiltonian in the first subspace gives the ground state in the entire space whereas the ground state in the second subspace gives the first excited state. p can take two values +1 and −1. i=1 The essential idea is to generate a set of (strong coupling) eigenstate of H0 by the successive application of the operator V to an unperturbed eigenstate of H0 .2 The Diagonalisation Techniques One considers here a system of finite size N and diagonalises 2N × 2N dimensional Hamiltonian matrix. . . .3. the observation of the symmetries of HN can help in reducing the size of the matrix. . for a finite size N . . p . . Also the interest in some very specific states (like the ground state and the low lying excited states) may not need the search in the entire Hilbert space and one can restrict to very specific subspace.

6). Using the above four basis vectors we can write the Hamiltonian in the truncated 4-dimensional Hilbert space and now diagonalisation is much easier. indicating the absence of phase transition in a finite size system.3.10) (L − 1)Δ(λ. . a lattice of 5 spins with periodic boundary condi- tion. We have thus effectively generated a complete set of strongly coupled eigenstates of the operator H0 .3 Diagonalisation Techniques for Finite Transverse Ising Chain 29 advantage of using this scheme is that the number of strongly coupled eigenstates is much smaller than the total number of basis vectors. whereas in the case of Hamiltonians with continuous symmetry the series does not terminate but converges very rapidly. but for a finite chain the mass gap vanishes only in the limit of asymptotic value of λ. i = 1. (2. For example. Using the notation introduced in the previous section we can write the ground state in the form |0 = |+ + + + +. To evaluate the first excited one has to repeat the same procedure starting from the state with a single spin flipped.9) Considering the translational invariance of the model we simply write the state |1 = |−−. in the case of transverse Ising system. and hence the effective Hamil- tonian matrix is of much reduced dimension. the curve approaches the exact variation of mass gap with λ for an infinite chain (Δ(λ) ∼ |1 − λ|). The ground state of the Hamiltonian H0 is Six |0 = 1|0. L) with λ of the transverse Ising chain (of size 3 < L < 50) is shown be- low (Fig. . We now give some typical numerical results. To estimate numerically the critical coupling of an infinite system.3. Applying the operator V on the ground state we get a state  |1 = (1/5)1/2 |− − + + + + |+ − − + + + |+ + − − + + |+ + + − −  + |− + + + − .9985 [143. one gets. L) RL = (2. We call these states |− + − + + = |2 and |− − − − + = |3. Applying V on this state |1 gives   V |−− = 2 |− + − + + + |− − − − + + 5|0 .2. Application of V on this states does not generate any new state. Let us consider. the value of effective critical coupling λc (L = 9) = 0. In the present case the series terminates because the unperturbed Hamiltonian has a finite number of states. 167] which converges to the . 2. for example. 5. one has to consider the “scaled mass gap ratio” RL given by LΔ(λ. 2. using finite size results. . This method gives the exact value of the mass gap for transverse Ising system and is also effective for estimating the phase diagram of other quantum Hamiltonians. L − 1) and calculate the effective critical coupling λc (L) from the equation RL (λc ) = 1. The variation of the mass gap Δ(λ. . As the size of the system increases. with L = 9.

To calculate the susceptibility exponent γ one applies a magnetic field h in the longitudinal direction and the zero field susceptibility χ = −(∂ 2 E0 /∂h2 )h=0 shows a peak for a finite system at the point λc (L). as L increases. with the extrapolated approximate value of the coupling constant to estimate the value of γ for an infinite system. and from the slope of the logarithmic plot of the above curve one can estimate the value of γ for a finite system: for transverse Ising chain of size L = 9. For a transverse Ising system. to the problem of the spin-1/2 transverse Ising chain. One can also use (2. [113] and extended by Jullien et al. where one develops various schemes for generating (rescaling) the ground state and the low-lying excited states of the quantum Hamiltonians at various levels of scaling. . thus obtained. This peak becomes sharper in the limit of large L (Fig. Using the extrapolated value of critical coupling for an infinite system. The full curve denotes the exact result [167] critical value (λc = 1) for an infinite system. for a transverse Ising chain) estimation for the infinite system results.3).3. [209]).30 2 Transverse Ising Chain (Pure System) Fig. 2.75. In this section.6 The mass gap Δ(λ) plotted against λ for various chain size L. The approximate value of γ . These techniques have also been extended to study quantum systems at T = 0 [113. These demonstrate the strength of diagonalisation technique. γ = 1. introduced by Drell et al.758.005. 2. we can estimate the value of the correlation length exponent ν using the scaling relation (2.75 ± 0. compared to the ex- act value 1. we shall discuss block renormalisation group method. This diagonalisation technique has also been applied to other quantum systems with appreciable amount of success [143]. 208] (see also Ref. [208]. 2.4). when implemented along with finite size scaling.995. as ob- tained above. is 1.4 Real-Space Renormalisation Real-space renormalisation group (RSRG) techniques have been frequently used to study the phase transition in classical systems.3. using L = 9. one gets ν = 0. which again extrapolates to the exact value (ν = 1) in the infinite chain limit. One can thus extrapo- late finite size results to make a very good approximate (exact.7).

1). the starting point is to divide the entire one dimensional chain of N sites into N/b blocks each having b spins (i. 2.1) i i (n) where Ii is the 2 × 2 identity matrix.4.1) in the nth iteration  z(n) z(n) x(n)   (n) H (n) = − J (n) Si Si+1 + Γ (n) Si + c(n) Ii (2.1) as H = HB + HIB where HB is the intra-block part and HIB is the inter-block part of the Hamiltonian  N/b  N/b−1 HB = Hp .4.e.2) p=1 p=1 with . HIB = Hp.4 Real-Space Renormalisation 31 Fig.2. The idea is to generate an iterative procedure which yields for the Hamiltonian (2. To generate an iterative scheme as shown in (2.p+1 (2.1. changing the length scale of the problem by a factor b) and rewrite the Hamiltonian (2.1.1.7 A semi-logarithmic plot of the finite lattice susceptibility against λ [167] 2.4.1 Block Renormalisation Group Method We shall illustrate the essential idea of the block RSRG method by applying the above to the spin-1/2 transverse Ising Hamiltonian (2.1) on an open chain.4..

.p+1 = −J Sn. p refers to the ith spin in the pth block. 2 . Using the same notations we can write the eigenvectors corresponding to the ground state energy E0 and first excited state energy E1 as +  |0 = λ+ 1 . 2.4a) −  |1 = λ− 1 .2. b  (2. .4. The next task is to diagonalise the Block Hamiltonian Hp using the same tricks as discussed in Sect.b |1 .4.32 2 Transverse Ising Chain (Pure System)  b−1  b Hp = − z J Si.p+1 .p (2. . .p +Γ x Si. .3...3a) i=1 i=1 Hp..b |1 .p z Si+1. ..4. (2. 2 .p z z S1. .. . b (2...3b) where indices i..4.4b) .

+ .

7) constitute the recursion relation of J and Γ in the first iteration.4..b λ−1 .p+1 = −J (1) Spz(1) Sp+1 p where  + 2  (0) 2 J (1) = λ+ − 1 ..4... Hp(1) = −Γ (1) Spx(1) + c(1) Ip(1) .5) where Γ (1) = (1/2)(E1 − E0 ).. To the zeroth order H (1) = Hp . (2.7) Equations (2. Thus..4.8b) 1  (n+1) (n+1)  c(n + 1) = bc(n) + E1 + E0 .4..p .p .6) To rewrite the renormalised form of the total Hamiltonian. (2. c(1) = (1/2)(E1 + E0 ).p+1 takes the form (1)  z(1) Hp...4.4.8a) 2 1  (n) 2 (n) J (n + 1) = η1 J (2.. To perform the renormalisation procedure we just retain the ground state and the first excited state of the block Hamiltonian and introduce a new set of spin operator α(1) x(1) Sp associated with each block p. (2.. Hp.4.4..b J ≡ η1 J. To the first order in perturbation. we include the interblock (1) part of the Hamiltonian in a perturbative way.p between the new block states |0 and |1.− where ( ) is summation restricted to the Hilbert space consisting of the basis vectors with even (odd) number of down spins. obtained by taking the matrix element of old spin z operators Si. (2. such that the eigenstates of Sp are precisely the states |0 and |1.8c) 2 .6) and (2... Thus one obtains for (n + 1)th iteration 1  (n) (n)  Γ (n + 1) = E − E0 (2.. we can rewrite the block Hamiltonian in a renormalised form (in the first iteration) in terms of the new block spins..

and the respective eigenenergies given by E0 . and  x  Hp = −Γ S1. The block Hamiltonian Hp can be diagonalised exactly.2.p x x S2.1.p + S2. using block size b = 2 [183.4.p+1 = −J S2. 208].4.4. which can be readily exploited to estimate the critical point and exponents for the Hamiltonian (2.1). the inter-block interaction can be written as x(1) −J (1) Spx(1) Sp+1 where (1 + a)2 J (1) = J . Let us start from the canonically transformed Hamiltonian (2. (2.4 Real-Space Renormalisation 33 The above recursion relations along with the initial conditions J (0) = J. (2. with the eigenstates given by 1   |0 = |++ + a|−− (1 + a ) 2 1/2 1   |1 = √ |+− + |−+ 2 1   |2 = √ |+− − |−+ 2 1   |3 = a|++ − |−− (1 + a 2 )1/2 where a = (1/J )[(4Γ 2 + J 2 )1/2 − 2Γ ].10) Retaining now the two lowest energy states |0 and |1 and treating them as the renormalised block spin state S z(1) .p x − J S1.2) with N sites of the chain divided into N/2 blocks (b = 2). Γ (0) = Γ and c(0) = 0.11a) 2(1 + a 2 ) . where  E0 = − 4Γ 2 + J 2 and E1 = −J. E1 . We now apply the scheme to the transverse Ising chain.4.p and Hp.1)   H = −Γ Siz − J Six Si+1 x (2. 184.p x x S1. −E1 and −E0 .2.9) i i and write in the form of (2. define a renormalisation group transformation.p+1 .

8 Schematic phase diagram for renormalisation group flow for transverse Ising chain This is because. 208].4. and linearising the recursion relation (2. 184.4.4. we get √ E 1 − E0 4Γ 2 + J 2 − J Γ = (1) = (2.11b) 2 √ 2 E 1 + E0 4Γ 2 + J 2 + J c(1) = = . one gets z = 0.55.34 2 Transverse Ising Chain (Pure System) Fig. one gets (apart from the trivial fixed points at λ∗ = 0 or ∞) λ∗ = 1. compared to the exact value λ∗ = λc = 1 and ν = 1. whereas if started from a point λ ≤ (γ /J )c the system is iterated towards the point λ = 0 (classical Ising phase). This singular behaviour approaches the exact behaviour as larger block size is considered.13) which gives the correlation length exponent λ = ln Ω/ ln 2  1. One can now write the recursion relation for the variable λ = γ /J as √ [ 4λ2 + 1 − 1](1 + a 2 ) λ = (1) (2. 2. Since 2Γ (1) equals the energy difference of states |0 and |1.4.4. 2.4. (2) The value of λc approaches the exact value (λc = 1) as one considers larger and larger block size.1)). 0|S x |1 = (1 + a)/[2(1 + a 2 )]1/2 . The schematic flow diagram of transverse Ising chain. The results improve considerably with larger block size [183. then s = νz.11c) 2 2 with the last term as the additive constant appearing due to renormalisation (see (2. (3) Ground state energy per site is given by   (E0 /N)N→∞ = lim c(n) /b(n) .8. 2.47 (with b = 2 here). one gets   λ − λ = Ω λ − λ∗ . It may be noted here if the mass gap Δ(λ) ∼ |λ − λc |s .4. Also. . compared to the exact value z = 1. If one starts from a point λ ≥ λc . (2. writing J (1) /J = Γ (1)/Γ ∼ b−z near the fixed point. Solving numerically (2. shows a non- analytic behaviour at the point λc (Fig.12) in the neighbourhood of the fixed point.4. (2. as obtained from the above block real-space renormalisation group technique. The in- formation we derive is the following: (1) There exists an unstable (critical) fixed point in the one parameter space γ /J = λ at a point λc . is as shown in Fig. −∂ 2 (E0 /N)/∂Γ 2 .277. (2.12) (1 + a)2 √ where a = 4λ2 + 1 − 2λ.12) for the fixed point λ∗ . the system is iterated towards the trivial fixed point at λ = ∞ (the disordered phase).14) n→∞ The second derivative of E0 with respect to Γ .9).

Since the model is one- dimensional.16). although we have restricted our discussion to the transverse Ising chain. (2. 2. The exact result is represented by the dashed line [208] As mentioned before. the values of these exponents. spin-1/2 XY and Heisenberg Chain. we shall discuss the finite temperature behaviour of the spin-1/2 transverse Ising chain. one can readily write out the free energy of the system   π  1 1 F = −N kB T ln 2 + dq ln cosh βωq . even when the transverse field is absent. We shall conclude this section with the note that.1) 0 2 k B T from which all the thermodynamic quantities can be obtained. XY chain in 2 and 3 dimension [208] etc. can be made more accurate by using larger block [208]. Hirsch and Mazenko [175]. the long range order and the . Recently trans- verse Ising system has also been studied using density matrix renormalisation group techniques [114]. obtained better results for the mass gap and the critical exponents considering the next order in perturbation. this model has also been applied to interact- ing fermions. β = . Better results can also be derived by increasing the number of energy states of the block Hamiltonian. retained in each iteration [207]. 2.5 Finite Temperature Behaviour of the Transverse Ising Chain In this section.2.5 Finite Temperature Behaviour of the Transverse Ising Chain 35 Fig. Using the dispersion relation of the elementary excitations (2. The free energy does not show any singularity at any finite temperature.5. One should note that the block renormalisation group technique has been extended to study quantum spin systems at finite temperature [377].2.9 Variation of specific heat (= −∂ 2 (E0 /N)/∂Γ 2 ) for different b. thus obtained.

339] (see Sect. 2. Due to an interchain cou- pling. 2. On the other hand. The finite temperature phase is divided into three phases.A. Hence. Coldea et al. (After Sachdev [339]) correlations of the system are destroyed with the introduction of infinitesimal ther- mal fluctuations (Tc = 0). Coldea et al. the elementary excitations from the ordered ground state is a kink and anti-kink.10. we are restricted by dimensionality and the Ising anisotropy. the finite temperature phase di- agram is divided into three phases by crossover lines T ∼ Δ(λ) = 2|1 − λ|. In the classical disordered phase. each Ising-spin chain in this material undergoes a ferromagnetic transition with a critical temperature T = 2. The results of experiment [81] clearly show the change of excitation spec- trum between two regimes (Fig. 2. The present system is represented effectively by an Ising chain with a weak longitudinal mean field induced by interchain couplings. when the transverse field is sufficiently high (λ < 1 and T  Δ(λ)). This picture is corroborated by analysis of finite temperature correlation functions [338.11). . On the other hand. the excitation consists of a flip of a single spin from the ground state polarised along the transverse axis. CoNb2 O6 has been perhaps the best candidate so far that provides us with a quasi-one-dimensional spin system with strong Ising anisotropy. in this ma- terial. 2. They form a continuum in the excitation spectrum.2). Dashed lines stand for crossovers. there is no finite temperature transition for the one-dimensional model. [81] performed neutron scattering experiments for this material in the presence of a transverse field and obtained distinct excitation spectra.10 Schematic phase diagram of the transverse Ising chain. 2. the thermal fluctuation destroys the long-range order as the classical Ising chain at finite temper- ature is. 2. In the quantum critical region. There exists a quantum critical phase between these phases where T > Δ(λ). detected a nature of quantum criticality. In addition to this observation.3). This excitation is signified by a single branch in the excitation spectrum. For T < Δ(λ) with λ < 1 and with λ > 1 one has the classical disordered phase and the quantum disordered phase respectively.e. In spite of the absence of the long range order.6 Experimental Studies of the Transverse Ising Chain In realisation of a transverse Ising chain. It is remarkable that a nature of quantum criticality may be observed even at finite temperatures in the quantum critical region. At sufficiently low fields and low tempera- ture (i..95 K. We show the schematic phase diagram in Fig. which is described as follows. λ > 1 and T  Δ(λ)). the quantum fluctuation is responsible for the quantum disordered state. This model in the presence of the transverse field cannot be mapped to a free fermion model (see Sect.36 2 Transverse Ising Chain (Pure System) Fig. the system is governed by the quan- tum criticality.

The panel D is the result near the quantum critical point. [81]) .6 Experimental Studies of the Transverse Ising Chain 37 Fig. where one finds a continuum formed by scattering states of kink-antikink pair. D is a plot of the ratio m1 /m2 as a function of the transverse field.11 (upper panels) Excitation spectra of a quasi-one-dimensional transverse Ising chain observed in CoNb2 O6 by neutron scattering.2. The left two panels B and C show spectra in the low field regime. (lower panels) A and B show spectral intensities below and near the critical field respectively. the spectrum consists of a single branch which is attributed to the excitation by a single-spin flip from the polarised ground state along the transverse axis. m1 and m2 denotes the lowest and the second lowest excitation energies. 2. One finds that the ratio approaches the golden ratio with increasing the field toward to the critical value. In the rightmost panel E. (After Coldea et al.

Appendix 2. (2.3b) j =1 Using (2. ck† ]+ = 0. without loss of generality we assume k < i. for k = i.A. Coldea et al.3a) and (2. Zamolodchikov [442] showed that the system possesses the E8 symmetry of the exceptional Lie group and eight elementary excitations with dif- ferent masses should exist.A.4) To prove [ci . (2.A. the Jordan-Wigner transformation (2.A. one can derive the other anti-commutation relations.5) vanishes identically. .1 Jordan-Wigner Fermions To check that the operators ci and ci† satisfy fermionic anti-commutation relations     ci .A. exp Si = iSiz .2) 2 2 2 So that. (2.A.11).2. one can immediately check that ci ci† + ci† ci = Si− Si+ + Si+ Si− = 1. [81] confirmed that the √ ratio of the low- est two excitation energies approaches the golden ratio (1 + 5)/2 as one shifts the transverse field to the critical point (Fig.A.38 2 Transverse Ising Chain (Pure System) However. at the critical transverse field. ck† + = 0.2b) can be rewritten as  i−1   ci = −Sjz Si− (2. Similarly.5) j =k j =k If one now uses the fact − z z − Sm Sm = −Sm Sm the right hand side of (2.3b).A. Si+ Si− = 1 + Siz .A.2a).2. Now  i−1    i−1   ck ci† + ci† ck = Sk− −Sjz Si+ + Si+ −Sjz Sk− . The golden ratio is nothing but what Zamolodchikov predicted. (2. [ci . This experimental result reveals that the transverse Ising chain is not only a mathematical model but a realisable system which contains essences of quantum critical phenomena. (2. ci† + = δik .A.1) one uses the simple relations obeyed by Pauli spin operators  1  1  iπ z Si− Si+ = 1 − Siz . (2.A 2. ck ]+ = 0 and ci† . the system is described by an integrable field theory [289]. 2.3a) j =1  i−1   ci† = Si+ −Sjz .

the technique is directly applicable for quite general nearest neighbour interactions.9c) − − ci ci+1 = −Si Si+1 . (2. Now from (2. The coupling term   + −  Six Si+1 x = Si+ + Si− Si+1 + Si+1 (2. (2.2. Collecting all the terms in (2. (2.2). (2.c. A and B are both N × N matrices. 2.9d).A.9b). In particular.9b) ci† ci+1 † = Si+ Si+1 + .6) which can be easily derived using (2.A.3b).A. (2. the resulting fermion Hamiltonian includes four- fermion term. Both can be chosen to be real.7) is now to be rewritten in terms of fermions. (2.A 39 To express the spin Hamiltonian in terms of the fermion operators. (2.A.A.A. This result is a consequence of the Ising char- acter Si2 = +1 of the original degrees of freedom.5) and (2.3b) . which can be checked using (2.3a). One should note here that if the original spin Hamiltonian incorporates next-nearest neighbour interaction.10) is most effectively diagonalised by Bogoliubov transformation employed for fermion operators by Lieb et al.3b). Hermiticity of H demands A to be a Hermitian matrix and anti-commutation of fermion operators demands B to be antisymmetric.8) But Si+ Siz = −Si+ .A.A. For system size N .A.A.A. (2.A.A.Appendix 2.A. Equation (2. (2. Consider the product   −   ci† ci+1 = Si+ −Siz Si+1 from (2. (2.3a). (2.A.3a) and (2.9c).6). (2. we use the relation. so we get ci† ci+1 = Si+ Si+1 − .A.A.10) 2 ij ij where ci and ci† are fermion annihilation and creation operators respectively.A.A. we get Siz = 2Si+ Si− − 1 = 2ci† ci − 1.9a).A. one can arrive at the Hamilto- nian (2. including for . [245].2 To Diagonalise a General Hamiltonian Quadratic in Fermions We wish to diagonalise a general quadratic Hamiltonian of the form  † 1 † H= ci Aij cj + ci Bij cj† + h.9d) The coupling term can be written in terms of fermion operators which are also only coupled to nearest neighbours.9a) Similarly one can derive the following relations † ci ci+1 = −Si− Si+1 + .A.A.

One makes a linear transformation of the form [245]   ηq = gqi ci + hqi ci† (2.17a) (Ψq )i = gqi − hqi .A. One wants to rewrite the Hamiltonian in a diagonal form using variables ηq and ηq† as  H= ωq ηq† ηq + const.A.A. For ηq ’s to satisfy fermionic anti- commutation relations we require  (gqi gq i + hqi hq i ) = δqq (2.18a) or (2. then we must have [ηq .12b) in (2.A.A.A.12a).A.A. (2. For ωq = 0 these vectors are determined .40 2 Transverse Ising Chain (Pure System) example quasiperiodic and random ones [77].A.A.18b) is solved for Φq or Ψq and the other vector is obtained from (2.A.17b).13a) i  (gqi hq i − gq i hqi ) = 0. H ]+ − ωq ηq = 0.A. (2.A. (2.18b) For ωq = 0.A.16b) where the components of the 2N vectors Φ and Ψ are obtained from the matrices g and h as (Φq )i = gqi + hqi (2.16a) Ψq (A + B) = ωq Φq (2.A.A. (2.11) q ωq are one fermion energies.12a) i   ηq† = gqi ci† + hqi ci (2. (2. (2.A.17b) One fermion energies ωq are obtained from the eigenvalues of a N × N matrix (A + B)(A − B)Φq = ωq2 Φq (2.14) one finds  ωq gqi = (gqj Aj i − hqj Bj i ) (2. either (2.A.18a) Ψq (A + B)(A − B) = ωq2 Ψq .11) holds.15a) j  ωq hqi = (gqj Bj i − hqj Aj i ).17a) or (2.14) Using (2.A.15b) j The above coupled equations can be written in the following form Φq (A − B) = ωq Ψq (2.13b) i If (2.12b) i where gqi and hqi can be chosen to be real.A. (2.A.A.

A. (2. γ = 1 corresponds to the transverse Ising chain. 10.A.A.21) is written in terms of Jordan-Wigner fermions as     † 1 1  † N † † †  H = −2 ci c i − + λ ci ci+1 + ci ci+1 + γ ci ci + γ ci ci+1 . for example. (2. Ψq ’s are automatically normalised.A. 245]. numerical studies can be made for large systems. If Φq ’s are normalised.Appendix 2. The Hamilto- nian (2. The constant is thus  1   Aii − ωq . γ = 0 corresponds to the isotropic XY chain in a transverse field. The problem of diagonalising a 2N × 2N matrix has been reduced to the eigenvalue problem of a N × N matrix [77. in one dimensional nearest-neighbour model with random transverse field (see Sect.10) is therefore written as    1  H= ω q η q ηq + † Aii − ωq . (2. The price to pay is that one only obtains the one particle energies directly. Since A is symmetric and B is antisymmetric both (A − B)(A + B) and (A + B)(A − B) are symmetric and at least positive semi-definite.A.18a).A. Multiparticle states have to be built up by linear superposition of the one particle ones. To evaluate the constant in (2. 2 2 i i=1 (2.19) 2 q i The complete diagonalised form of the Hamiltonian (2.22) .17a).17b).A.A 41 by (2.11) we use the trace invariance of the Hamiltonian under the canonical transformation to the variables η.A.3).A.11). Thus all the λq ’s are real and all the Φq ’s and Ψq ’s can be chosen to be real as well as or- thogonal.A.A. (2. their relative sign being arbitrary. 5. Even when the eigenvalues of M = (A + B)(A − B) = (A − B)(A + B)T cannot be found analytically.A.A.1. The achievement of the method is obvious.10)  TrH = 2N−1 Aii .20) q 2 q i We illustrate the above diagonalisation procedure using the example of the one dimensional anisotropic XY chain in a transverse field described by the Hamiltonian (see Sect.21) 2 i i where γ is the measure of anisotropy.2) J  y y   H =− (1 + γ )Six Si+1 x + (1 − γ )Si Si+1 − Γ Siz (2. i Again  TrH = 2N−1 ωq + 2N × const. q from (2.18b) or more simply by (2. From (2.

Ai i+1 = − γ λ = Ai+1 i .18a). Bi+1 i = γ λ.A.23) 2 ij ij where 1 1 1 Aii = −1.24) The eigenvalue problem (2.22) can be put in the general form   † 1  † †  H= ci Aij cj + ci Bij cj + h.A. Equation (2.A. + N. (2.42 2 Transverse Ising Chain (Pure System) where λ = J /Γ . 2 2 2 (2.18b) is solved considering an ansatz wave function exp(iq · R j ) and the excitation spectrum is given as  ωq = (γ λ)2 sin2 q + (1 − λ cos q)2 .A.A.A.25) . (2. (2. Bi i+1 = − γ λ.c.

3 Calculation of Correlation Functions Longitudinal spin-spin correlation function is defined as Cijx = ψ0 |Six Sjx |ψ0     = ψ0 | Si+ + Si− Sj+ + Sj− |ψ0 . One can now verify using a representation in which cl† cl is diagonal.A.29) The complicated expression can be simplified using Wick’s theorem.A. so that the diagonalised form of the Hamiltonian (with i Aii = −N ) is given by   H =2 (γ λ sin q)2 + (1 − λ cos q)2 ηq† ηq − ωq (2.27) In terms of Jordan-Wigner fermions (with j > i)  j −1   †     Cij = ψ0 | ci + ci exp −iπ x cl cl cj† + cj |ψ0  † (2.2. 2.A. (2. (2. that      exp −iπcl† cl = − cl† − cl cl† + cl    = cl† + cl cl† − cl .18) for γ = 1. we have Cijx = ψ0 |Bi (Ai+1 Bi+1 · · · Aj −1 Bj −1 )Aj |ψ0 .A.26) q q which reduces to the transverse Ising Hamiltonian (2. Defining Al = cl† + cl and Bl = cl† − cl and noting that A2l = 1.A.28) i=0 where the averages are calculated over the ground state. and following relations   ψ0 |Ai Aj |ψ0  = ψ0 | δij − cj† ci + ci† cj |ψ0  = δij .30) .A. (2.

Appendix 2.7b) and (2.36) N q so that we get  1  iqRi  ci† + ci = e uq ηq† + e−iqRi uq ηq − ie−iqRi vq η−q † + ieiqRi vq η−q N q (2. the correlation function is given by a determinant ⎛ ⎞ Gi i+1 Gi i+2 · · · Gi i+r ⎜ Gi+1 i+1 Gi+1 i+2 · · · Gi+1 i+r ⎟ Cixi+r = det ⎜ ⎝··· ⎟ ⎠ ··· ··· ··· Gi+r−1 i+1 Gi+r−1 i+2 · · · Gi+r−1 i+r ⎛ ⎞ G−1 G−2 · · · G−r ⎜ G0 G−1 · · · G−r+1 ⎟ = det ⎜ ⎝··· ⎟ ⎠ (2.2.A 43 and ψ0 |Bi Bj |ψ0  = −δij .13)) given by  † 1  iqRi   ci = e uq ηq† + ivq η−q (2. Defining Bi Ai+r  = −Ai+r Bi  = Gi i+r = Gr = G−r . (2. mz = ψ0 |Siz |ψ0  = ψ0 |2ci† ci − 1|ψ0  = 2ψ0 |ci† ci |ψ0  − 1 = Gii = G0 (2.A.A.A.31) Only nonzero contractions are Aj Bi  and Bi Aj .A. (2. (2.A. Similarly one can evaluate the transverse correlation function defined as  2 Cizi+r = ψ0 |Siz Si+r z |ψ0  − mz = ψ0 |Ai Bi Ai+r Bi+r |ψ0   2 = (Gi i Gi+r i+r − Gi i+r Gi+r i ) − mz .2.A. (2.34) so that Cizi+r = −Gi i+r Gi+r i . since Ai Aj  and Bi Bj  never occur.2.37a) and .A.7a).32) ··· ··· ··· Gr−2 Gr−3 · · · G−1 which is of size r.33) One can now check that.35) To evaluate Gi i+r we consider the inverse Fourier-Bogoliubov transformation (see (2.

(2. In the ground state. 1  −iqr  2     †  Gr (β) = e uq + iuq vq ηq† ηq + vq2 − iuq vq η−q η−q N q      †  − eiqr u2q − iuq vq ηq ηq† + vq2 + iuq vq η−q η−q . In order to evaluate the determinant (2.A.17). (2. ⎧ ⎪ 2 (−1)r ⎨ π 2r+1 for λ = 1 Gr = δr. At a finite temperature T .2. 1  iqr   Gr (β) = e 1 − 2u2q + 2iuq vq tanh(βωq ) N q   N →∞ π dq iqr 1 + λeiq 1/2 → e tanh(βωq ).41) −π 2π 1 + λ eiq .A.A. we have  π  dq iqr 1 + λeiq 1/2 Gr = e .37b) Note that uq and vq are given by (2.A.−1 for λ = ∞ ⎪ ⎩ δr.39) −π 2π 1 + λe−iq For ground state tanh(βωq /2) = 1.A. (2. Thus.40) −π 2π 1 + λe−iq One can now evaluate the following values Gr for some special values of λ.. let us define Dp = Gi i−1+p = Gp−1  π  dq iq(p−1) 1 + λeiq 1/2 = e tanh(βωq ) −π 2π 1 + λe−iq  π −1  dq iqp 1 + λ e−iq 1/2 = e −1 tanh(βωq ). e.0 for λ = 0 etc.44 2 Transverse Ising Chain (Pure System)  1  iqRi  ci† − ci = e uq ηq† − e−iqRi uq ηq + ie−iqRi vq η−q † + ieiqRi vq η−q . Gr = Gi i+r = ψ0 |Bi Ai+r |ψ0 . (2. N q (2.32). Gr = Gi i+r = Bi Ai+r β .A.g.38) The average fermion occupation at temperature T  †   †   −1 ηq ηq β = η−q η−q β = exp(β · 2ωq ) + 1 so that. where Bi Aj β denotes an average over the canonical ensemble at temperature kB T = 1/β.

when λ < 1. See Ref. (2. −π 2π −π 2π The Toeplitz determinant ⎛ ⎞ D0 D−1 ··· D−r+1 ⎜ D1 D0 ··· D−r+2 ⎟ Δr = det ⎜ ⎝··· ⎟ ⎠ ··· ··· ··· Dr−1 Dr−2 ··· D0 is given by ∞ Δr  lim = exp pd−p dp . one needs additional algebras because ln D(e with respect to q. which stated as follows. [265].A 45 In terms of this.A. (2.A.42). Szegö’s Theorem Assume that D(e ˆ iq ) and ln D(e ˆ iq ) are continuous cyclic func- tions of q for q ∈ [−π.A. (2.41) and (2.45) ξ ⎩ $ π/a dq 2 0 π ln coth βΓ 1 + 2λ cos qa + λ − 1 a ln λ for λ < 1 .A.44) as ⎧$  ⎨ π/a dq 2 1 π ln coth βΓ 1 + 2λ cos qa + λ for λ > 1 = 0  . [144]). Let  π  π dq ˆ  iq  −iqp dq   Dp = D e e .42) ··· ··· ··· Dr−1 Dr−2 ··· D0 This Toeplitz determinant can be evaluated by using the Szegö’s theorem [393] (see also Ref.A. [268] for the proof.2.16) for ωq and recovering the lattice constant a and scale of energy Γ .Appendix 2.A.A. one can write (2. Applying this theorem to (2.A. π].43) converges.43) r→∞ erd0 p=1 whenever the sum in (2. (2. dp = ln Dˆ eiq e−iqp . one finds that the longitudinal correlation function behaves as Cixi+r ≈ Ae−r/ξ for r  1 and the correlation length ξ is given by  −1   π 1 π dq 1 1 + λ e−iq dq = −d0 = − ln −1 − ln tanh(βωq ) ξ −π 2π 2 1 + λ eiq −π 2π # $ π dq ln coth(βωq ) for λ > 1 = $−π π 2π dq .) Substituting (2.44) −π 2π ln coth(βωq ) − ln λ for λ < 1 ˆ iq ) is not cyclic (Note that. ⎠ (2. We refer to Ref.32) is rewritten as ⎛ ⎞ D0 D−1 ··· D−r+1 ⎜ D1 D0 ··· D−r+2 ⎟ Ci i+r = det ⎜ x ⎝··· ⎟.A.

(2. we reach an expression for the continuous limit [338] 1 1   = f βΔc2 . (2. and defining a new variable of integral y = βcq.A. We show a schematic phase diagram in Fig. (2.49) implies that the low temperature phase of the transverse Ising chain is divided into three phases by crossover lines T ≈ |λ − 1|. In special cases. The result (2.49) ξ ⎪ ⎪  ⎪ ⎩ 1−λ + 1 T (1 − λ)e−2(1−λ)/T (λ < 1.48) ⎪ ⎪ 4 √ ⎩ −|s| −x + 2|x|πe (x → −∞) Substituting this in (2. By making a → 0 with fixing β.46) ξ βc where ⎧$ √ ⎨ ∞ dy ln coth y 2 +x 2 for x > 0 f (x) = 0 π √ 2 .A.A. so that the exponent ν turns out to be 1.A. 2.47) ⎩$ ∞ dy y 2 +x 2 0 π ln coth 2 −x for x < 0 One can easily show that the function f (x) is not only continuous but also smooth at x = 0. This fact shows that the transverse Ising chain has no singularity at finite temperatures. T → 0) 1 T 1 ⎨π T = 4 2a (λ = 1) .46 2 Transverse Ising Chain (Pure System) Let us now define Δ = |1 − λ|/2Γ a 2 and c = 2Γ a.A. T → 0) a a π At the zero temperature.A.10. one obtains ⎧  ⎪ ⎪ −2(λ−1)/T ⎪ a π (λ − 1)e (λ > 1. f (x) takes following forms: ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ 2x −x (x → ∞) ⎨ πe f (x) = π (x = 0) . .46) and recovering the original parameters. Δ and c. (2. one finds ξ = a/(1 − λ) for λ < 1.

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