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before failure by the corona probe tech- of voids and imperfect impregnation of the creasing slightly the gap

length across the
nique. coils of the old machines B and C. No cor- outside turns resulted in only the inside
responding probe tests were made. Because gaps sparking over. While this determina-
of the low working voltage of the coil failing tion of the linearity of turn voltages may
H. C. Marcroft: The author wishes to in machine E, the evidence is good that lack precision, it is believed that the method
thank the discussers of this paper for the mechanical forces were the cause of coil of stressing the turn insulation as described
constructive additional comments and in- failure. Internal corona damage was non- using the circuit of Figure 3 is a reasonably
formation which they have given toward the existent on adjacent coils. The ionization close approach to uniform application of
over-all problem of evaluating the condition probe tester apparently is quite reliable in turn potential.
of armature coil insulation by field tests. detecting (where it can be used) voids be- The test circuit is operated without any
This problem of coil evaluation has been ap- tween conductors and iron, but it will not connected grounds in the coil circuit. The
proached from a number of directions in the detect necessarily the approaching contact coil in the core is effectively at low potential
past few years so that now the mystery of of two conductors within a coil where there at the high frequencies because of coil capac-
the causes of coil failures is yielding to per- is no void between conductor and iron to itance. It was believed that an additional
sistent attack by measurements of various cause ionization. It was for this reason that ground would destroy the coil balance to
kinds. direct measurement of turn-to-turn strength ground.
In reply to the comments of Mr. Cameron, was used. E. H. Povey presents conclusions sup-
with respect to length of time used for C. M. Foust has shown by the data he pre- porting the statement that d-c high poten-
charging the insulation on the absorption sents from tests made years ago on a ma- tial tests are not always nondestructive.
runs, our practice has been to terminate chine of similar coil insulation that substan- The art will benefit from the experience of
these runs at 10 minutes' time. Theoret- tial agreement with our tests was obtained others contributing evidence to show the
ically, the current decreases to infinite with respect to the d-c toa-c breakdown ratio. behavior of generator insulation under high
time and a practical limit of 10 minutes was His Table I of this ratio for various wave direct potentials.
set some years ago with the establishment shapes of applied potential is of particular The possibility of detecting the impending
of the Polarization Index indicator which interest in demonstrating that steady d-c failures of the coils in generators A and D
is the ratio of resistance at 10 minutes' time potentials will break down old coil insulation by corona probe detector is raised by MIr.
to that at 1-minute time. Polarization In- at approximately the same value as com- Povey. This test was not applied to any of
dex was one of the quantities of this machine mercial a-c peak value. the generators, so we can not say what the
we wished to investigate, so the established Mr. Foust raises the question of the in- results of such tests might have been. How-
procedure was retained. Investigation of dividual turns of a multiturn coil sustaining ever, judging from the general absence of
the effect of longer charging times will be equal shares of the applied high-frequency voids in the ground insulation of machines
made on future tests if possible. Data for potential from the circuit used for the turn- A and D, it is believed that little definite
specific absorption were obtained during the to-turn tests. Theory and practice gener- corona indication would have been obtained.
runs, though they do not appear in the ally indicate that the outside turns are sub- There was definitely no visible corona dam-
paper. ject to greater voltages on steep waves. This age inside the ground insulation of similar
The current fluctuations on d-c tests were question was studied by connecting an os- coils. The insufficient turn spacing and turn
caused by the subject insulation under test, cilloscope across separate turns of a simu- insulation thickness could easily account for
as careful observance was made of the a-c lated coil under test for visual study. The the failure of generator A, as was shown on
supply voltage which was supplied to the magnitudes were very unsteady so that this the turn breakdown tests. The failure of
rectifier test set through a constant voltage method proved to be unsatisfactory. In- generators D and E soon after starting gives
transformer. Other tests were free of dis- dividual spark gaps then were attached to us a clue that thermal cycles were a con-
turbances for the same supply conditions. each turn of a 4-turn coil, all set at equal tributing factor to the turn failures of the
Mr. Cameron has shown in a paper' that gaps. The coil was energized from the high- coils involved. It would seem to be sound
the ionization probe test has revealed serious frequency circuit of Figure 3 of the paper, procedure to make both the corona probe
destruction of copper conductors of a coil; noting, on many applications, which gap tests and turn dielectric tests where possible.
however, no such destruction was found in sparked over first. The conclusion was that
any of the coils of the machines subject to one of the inside turn gaps sparked over REFERENCE
our tests, though there was a good amount first as often as the outside gaps did. In- 1. See reference 1 of the paper.

New Large Short-Circuit Testing Generator Requirements
Short-circuit testing generators differ
Generators from all other generators in several re-
spects. They operate for very brief
periods of time, usually of the order of
C. E. KILBOURNE Paper 52-221, recommended by the AIEE Rotating
Machinery Committee and approved by the AIEE
FELLOW AIEE
Technical Program Committee for presentation at
the AIEE Summer General Meeting, Minneapolis,
Minn., June 23-27, 1952. Manuscript submitted
THE phenomenal growth and exten- March 24, 1952; made available for printing May
are short-circuit generators in which are 13, 1952.
sive interconnection of American created the voltages and currents used C. E. KILBOURNE is with the General Electric Com-
power systems has made necessary ex- either directly or through transformers, to pany, Schenectady, N. Y.
panded testing facilities for the develop- provide the conditions necessary for The author wishes to acknowledge the fine work of
many of his associates in the General Electric Com-
ment of large circuit interruptors. As- switchgear testing. A number of such pany who contributed so ably to the solution of the
sociated with this growth, the continual generators have been built in this country problems involved in the design and construction of
these machines, thus making this paper possible.
search for knowledge of the various factors and abroad, and this paper describes two He is particularly indebted to G. B. Warren, E. E.
influencing the design of switchgear de- new additions to the family. These ma- Parker, H. D. Taylor, M. F. Kent, R. Patterson,
D. B. Harrington, D. M. Willyoung, W. L. Dor-
vices has emphasized the need for many chines were put in service at the Philadel- mandy, W. Scidmore, J. P. Keller, L. E. Newman,
A. Martinson, A. J. Hart, now or formerly of the
refinements in previously existing testing phia Switchgear Testing Laboratory of the Turbine Division, and to P. L. Alger, Consulting
equipments. Among the essential com- General Electric Company during the Engineer, and R L. Williams, Switchgear Depart-
ment, without whose support and encouragement
ponents of a switchgear testing laboratory past winter. this project could not have been accomplished.

OCTOIBER 1 952 Kilbourne-New Large Short- Circuit Testing Generators sc9

seemed to be the they perform no electrical service. 1/4 cycle after the application of a cycle full-power short circuits per hour. duties. then remain quiescent until any of the 3-phase connections may be that found in other machines as the rms called upon once again.500/7.. together with The physical size of these generators. at These 15 short circuits constitute 3 duty e least 1. n -- deliver. kilovolt-ampere test- ing generators at the Philadelphia Switch. Curve A-Calculated capable of driving the generators at any tion is productive of heavy ground shocks Curve B-Test results. would support these forces. ARMATURE CURRENT ENVELOPE FULL VOLTAGE. Their copper cross section is less than when used. They are driven by 3. 4 poles. in the mechanical design of these sets to metrical short-circuit minimize these objectionable features. The generators may be short. making a total time of full excita- they are believed to be the largest such tion about 15 minutes out of an hour. the maebines were required to be symmetrical 3-phase short-circuit armature horsepower wound rotor induction motors good neighbors in a possible future resi. two generators connected in parallel will Full field excitation is needed during these z CI deliver 3. brought out to separate ter. 15. were im- best indicated by the assignment of a portant factors in determining the phys.5 kv. and minimhiz. can be obtained.000-sym. One of age noises. 60 CYCLE TERMINAL SHORT CIRCUIT the Philadelphia switchgear testing labo. with mechanical design to with. Each generator will capable of 15 3-phase or single-phase 5. these gener- fluenced by these requirements. a reduced value of field excita- In addition to their size they possess a tion is required for a 4-hour period to sup. is circuit current characteristics. the large current to be handled is obvious from the rating. Like a cannon they speak with great force 4. 60 cycles. which are dential area.500 amperes rms. Then they cycles when simulating current build-up be sustained at as nearly their initial have relatively long rest periods when for testing d-c equiipment.. corrected for bus re- frequency from very low values up to 60 and large high-speed rotors produce wind. The duty cycle required. stressing speed. current equipped with slip regulators.000 kva at the several test cycles and for preparation prior to the cells in the laboratory.800 rpm. a ___ 3-phase short circuit at its terminals. tions.625. minals so that. 30. may be short-circuited at any frequency circuit period.000 kva symmetrical when cycles. a choice of four 3-phase voltages. Wvhen operat.000 kva rms symmet- rical at 15. only about 60 per cent of normal depth.625. The second values and under the most severe me. The machines are 00 1. At this rating.950/. during the past winter. The first.475 volts delta.000. ical size of the units. each one of which consists of 5 short circuits at intervals of 0.500 volts the machine current is 60. are quite wide. necessitated insulating these wind. At 1.500 volts. particu- voltage. novel features were introduced two 1 . which on the 15. cycles. actance 830 Kilbourne-New Large Short-Circuit Testing Generators OCTOBER 1952 . and for a-c tests values as possible over the 5-cycle short- they are required to perform only moder. Their armnature windings have ators differ considerably from the elec- the ability to produce large short-circuit two circuits. and even longer periods when ing at less than 60 cycles they will deliver larly in the rotor circuits. at initial voltages proportional to the Because of these things. circuited in the general range of 8 to 12 requirement was that these high currents chanical forces and stresses. + . A very long time constant ate service. as a very low decrement rate of the short- compared with commercial generators.2.750 volts Y or 8. together with a low resistance. such as the generation of between 25 and 60 cycles. their duty cycle which makes them quite As well as perforning their electrical Figure 2. The armature slots are relatively stand the associated forces. and when one takes into account the magnitude of the instantaneous values of fully offset cur- rents. complete design of these machines is in. operated single phase with one terminal Figure 1 is a station view of the first grounded. at extremely high kilovolt-ampere cycles. at few in number. 60 cycles 15.000 kva.625. Also. Such currents create very large magnetic forces and the electrical design had to be adapted to mechanical construction which cycles. chines. the current in the individual bars of the winding under some conditions of excitation can be over 100.000 amperes. Calculated and test envelopes of versatile. w 0 nominal rating of 125. Figure 1. and are ing the continuous load carrying ability.200.5-kv connec- of these machines to be put in service at tion. 3 PHASE. 2'. In units presently in operation. The essentially constant short-circuit current way to meet this situation. with Y and delta connec. Electrical Design gear Testing Labora- S ~~~tory Two major electrical requirements dominated the design. addition. On this same basis. the and 60 seconds between short circuits. rIM2 IN CYCLES range of operation and a flexibility in ply exciting current to the transformers. trical proportions of conventional ma- currents.t initially excited to an open circuit voltage 3 of 15. Since short-circuit opera. ings for an equivalent 3-phase voltage of 16 __ _ = ratory of the General Electric Company 26.

2. 3 obtaining large currents for the first 1 or Traces B. the bars should be com- can be seen. acts in a The first current peak of curve B shows 182. The heavy clamp. line 3 pletely offset single-phase short circuit. as their heating duty is lower than normal. one Figure 3(B). but new end supporting ing the top coil side to prevent its expul. lines 1. 3 in one phase. therefore. The excitation windings are. ated in a single short-circuit generator. the transformer excitation requirement again prevented taking the full advantage of this reduction which would otherwise have been pos- sible. The flux densities in the armature are somewhat higher than normal. C. and the other of a com. lines 1.500 volts) 3-phase short circuit which is nearly symmetrical Trace A-generator volts. are limited be- cause of the requirement that the gener- ators provide excitation to the transform- ers for a 4-hour period. sure on the punchings to hold them firmly encased in iron. it became apparent that the methods of mounting. unsupported sections of bars simulating tion can be seen in Figure 4. reduced in copper cross section. The rotors are equipped with heavy low-resistance amortisseur windings which provide paths for the flow of the large currents that are necessary to meet the rotor magnetomotive force requirements whlen the arnratures are short-circuited. Because of the OCTOBER 1952 Kilbourne-New Large Short-Circuit Testing Generators 831 . B and Figure 3 shows two oscillograms. Each slot has two wedges. When 3-phase short mounting for the end winding supporting voltage connection current so far gener. the bars carry currents flowing in the same The problem of end winding support direction and reaching their peak values was given much thought and a new The Stator simultaneously encounter very large method of accomplishing this function de- forces pushing the bars against the bottom vised. which will be independently wedged bars give better to withstand the thousands of short-cir- discussed later. 2. the extensions of the coils beyond the core were made cylindrical. Also extensive A studies of the effect of saturation on the Figure 3(A). However. Three-phase 60-cycle 1 5. it tends to hasten the decay of Traces E. in place and also serves as a mechanical structures were required. Figure 3(A). cuit shocks to be expected in the life of part of the end mechanical construction ment of the bars under short-circuit forces this winding. lessening the move. circuits are applied. The slot portions were already bottom half of the slot and another hold. pletely supported throughout their entire one holding the bottom coil side in the ing ring at the end of the core puts pres.heating cycle is small. to lessen the maximum insulation crush. After making a number of tests in An end view of the unwound armature of the slot and this double wedging serves which large currents were forced through showing many of the details of construc.500-volt short circuit short-circuit current decrements indi- cated that while saturation is beneficial in Trace A-generator volts. All of these factors contribute to low armature reactance and hence high currents. Aside from ing force on the bottom coil side. Also the end windings. like the arm- ature windings. as the insulation ages. instead of in the usual flared back conical arrangement. Eo-generator field current and reference these currents and. Single-phase 60-cycle 1 5.000 amperes. sion into the air gap. completely offset current wave of a full voltage (15. D-generator current. 2. and this arrangement contributed to short end extensions which were of help both in simplifying the supporting prob- lems and in contributing to low reactance. however. Co-generator field current and reference The first current peak of curve B. shows a current of 182.000 amperes instantdneous current manner unfavorable to sustaining the initial current values. Their maximum values.500-volt short circuit. Trace B-generdtor current. 3 2 cycles. those slots in which structure. length. the details of the slots and support to each bar. Figure 2 shows the calculated and test envelopes of the full voltage 3-phase sym- metrical armature current characteristic. Traces C. For mechanical support of the armature end windings. lines 1. which is believed to be the largest high.

The second view shows the outer layer framework having insulated clamping ting arrangement and two pairs of bars. in turn lead to the station bus work. necessity for these extra flexible connec- tions between the frame and the stator bus work will become apparent when the mechanical movements of the frame are described. Frame. during a short circuit is very high be- sembly of end wind.000 to 300. which is free to adjust itself in axial posi. The requirements of very low decrement rates for the armature cur- rents. frame where they are supported by a steel amination of the figure will show the slot. and currents ranging in magnitude from ture are bolted firmly together and to the tensions. brought out at the connection end of the in the inner surface of the other. An ex. nonmagnetic rings with long tapped bolts. and also single-phase testing dic- tated. Test as. Figures 6 and 7. as has been said. are laminate. of windings in place and a partial as. also are solidly blocked and supported by was used to prove the adequacy of the lated nonmagnetic steel binding ring brackets which fasten firmly to the end selected structure. trunnions. The structure A good view of the finished end winding segments of insulating material slotted in withstood these tests and then higher is shown in Figure 8. each of a heavy section of an impregnated tion by sliding on keyed supporting also of solid copper cross section. as can be seen. taken at the Switch- their inner surfaces with tapered slots currents were applied until the structure gear Plant at Philadelphia during installa- similar to the arrangement of the slots on was destroyed. and spring feet Figure 6 (right). structure of the frame. Only the loops and phase connec- half of an internal herringbone gear. The circuit rings. tion. this end supporting structure 100. The barrel the main frame. could be provided in the form of circular peatedly applied to them. In addi- tion. members. Slightly below the bottom of one pair in the inner set of rings and sembly of the inner layer. The first view shows the ture. During tests flare-back of the end windings can be seen. The Rotor Two features of the rotor are of par- ticular interest. The the ends of these bars were firmly braced The two layers of the supporting struc. Outer diameter layer of end winding support- ing structure as- sembled on the stator frame cylindrical shape selected for the coil ex. cause of the power losses during these ing supporting struc. End view of un- wound stator frame showing armature core. This rapid change ture in speed creates inertia forces tending to 832 Kilbourne-New Large Short-Circuit Testing Generators OCTOBER 1952 . brief periods of time. a very rugged low- resistance amortisseur winding. and The application of this development to tions which are short solid sections of cop- these slots used to contain the coil end the machine end windings is shown in per extend beyond the supporting struc- extension fitted and wedged in place. the rate of deceleration of the rotor Figure S. Figure 5 is a view of the test setup which outer rings in place in a split and insu.000 amperes per bar re. Figure 4 (left). The stator leads. It shows four arcs. the solid copper bus bars one pair in the outer set protruding from shape instead of the conventional conical connect to extra flexible cable leads which the slots in the structure. tract under changes in thermal loading. arranged with one pair nesting brackets as the windings expand or con.

The radial pins shown in the illustration are temporary dowels and were removed before assembling the re- rotate the end portions of the field wind. into the rotor slots. prevent amortisseur winding in the slot portion is amortisseur circuit. The four lugs which project into these recesses. In the lem of holding these end parts in their per strips. The arcs of the end any possible rotation of the retaining ring composed of trapezoidal alloy copper bars. Lowering the stator of the number 1 unit to its final assembly position in the testing laboratory Figure 10 (right). winding are free to expand and contract during high rates of acceleration or de- which in combination with steel wedges. slots but also over the pole center. Figure 8 (below). lying in the top of the rotor pole center shown in the figure will be relative positions on the rotor is some. and lowering its resistance. do double duty as both current carrying taining rings. and between the retaining Figure 9 shows these features. The prob. The amortisseur winding is ing and the retaining rings with respect members and wedges. Figure 7 (left). cut into arcs with these lugs. Partial winding assembly show- ingo details of the end blocking ar- rangement Figure 9 (right). and hence to consider end connecting straps of the winding are and the dowels shown in the picture lock in the design the relative coefficients of made of sheets of copper. slots and providing both an addition to noted a rectangular recess with rounded what augmented by the necessity to use the current-carrying capacity of the corners. Beneath these complete. At high speeds. not only in the normal rotor to the rest of the rotor body. as speed and temperature conditions may celeration of the rotor. The rectangular bars and completing the ring and the end centering ring.3 . and together with shrink thermal expansion of the magnetic and and with projecting fingers which extend fits between the retaining ring and the nonmagnetic parts. sections are also several rectangular cop. End view of the rotor. reactance reasons. showing amortis- seur winding construction demand. The retaining rings each have nonmagnetic retaining rings for loss and winding. connecting with the main body.Circuit Testing Generators 83. Scale model used for predetermining the vibrational characteristics of the generator spring mounts OCTOBIER 1 952 Kilbourne-New Large Short. retaining ring removed.

had a total weight of about 420. A number of possible spring systems which would answer this problem were studied. an en- and at low speeds heavy blocking in the which was chosen. The conventional helic? spring assembly so successfully used on single- frequency isolation problems proved dif- ficult to apply and obtain both the soft- ness of mounting and the maintenance of alignment necessary in this application. The very sembled in the base. and the stator in the under single-phase operation is clearly in- low frequency used to simulate d-c testing condition shown in Figure 12 was lowered dicated in the shape of the vibrograph complicated the problems of design for onto the springs. two of which are shown in Figure 12. stator being placed Finally a new system was devised. the stator trunnions. the presence of second harmonic torques centerline accurately in space. The system of 45-degree radial spring feet possesses very favorable characteris- tics for this type of application.000 pounds. The springs are relatively soft to circumferen- tial rotation of the frame.000 pound feet. and finally a separate solution bolted together.000. it should be noted that the same succeeding shocks will not amplify its dis- indicated a very soft mounting capable of spring leaves are shown attached to the placement. windings against displacement. characteristics and finally stressed to de. and the two assemblies reading on that short circuit. on a car 834 8Kilbourne-New Large Short-Circuit Testing Generators OCTOBER 1952 . It is interest- ing to note that when the stator is low- ered on the feet the dead weight stresses in the springs permit an initial displace- ment of only 0. Second. and at its date of shipment was the heaviest single piece ever shipped from the Schenectady Tur- bine Generator Factory of the General Electric Company. Base and spring mounting assembly in place in the testing laboratory of about 11/4 inches and the associated angular rotation of the frame is about 0. the large movement of the plus the pulsating torques present during spring leaves attached to the stator. The necessity to operate at Philadelphia. from another viewpoint in that the stator short circuits are so consistently related The dead weight of the stator which any shown. thus providing considerable cushioning for short-circuit operation of all kinds.75 degree.loaded on the car. core of the big generator also shows the records. The model was exten. Figure 13 shows two vibrographs of the struction to determine the maximum motion of the trunnion with respect to the The Mounting torque it would withstand. and frame which leads to effective cushioning single-phase operation. portion of the stator and spring system within 30 mils of its rest position. required a means Figure 11 shows a clearer view of these of the shocks is combined with a high of absorption which would minimize these same spring leaves in place in the base at damping characteristic which brings the phenomena. During this motion the spring centrifugal forces lock the remainder of Figure 10 shows a 1/8-scale model of a feet hold the axial centerline of the frame the end structure to the retaining ring. Under the most severe conditions of 25-cycle short circuit.000 pounds and the maximum torque under the most severe short circuit is about 8. The leaf spring system arranged in axial distribution under the normal position of generator feet required so much material Figure 12. the mounting is yielding to circumferential motion of the stator and attached to the base in both very sensitive to the applied torque and frame. In fact. tirely negligible motion with the large air field winding end portion holds those sively tested to determine its vibration gap present in these machines. when completely among themselves in predicting the antic- spring system must handle is slightly over 400.35 mil. Sev- well as showing details of the armature eral things of interest are apparent in these The foundation shock of short circuit. and yet are very rigid to gravity deflections. the a-c testing. boxed for shipment. move a total distance Figure 11. Com- to accomplish the objectives that a very pletely wound bulky assembly would have resulted. Figure 12 is interesting vibrograph readings taken of a number of for this type of operation had to be found. and yet able to hold the frame figures For shipment the leaves were as. In connection with Figures frame to vibrational rest quickly so that any frequency between 60 and 25 cyeles 4 and 11. Figure 4 as base under 25-cycle short circuits. First.

The critical frequency of the augmented by the possibility of small means of increasing permissible rotor sur- spring feet being somewhat less than half magnetic unbalances due to the axial face currents that arise during certain the lowest a-c operating frequency of 25 magnetic centering of the rotor at the in. The driving motor. a 3. caps were placed on sulating the bearings to prevent circulat. forces present can be appreciated. preventing bearing pitting. whose advantages have and their supports provide an answer for cause the shaft to carry axial fluxes as long been recognized. For sound-deadening purposes all ventional units. ing currents tending to loop the stator is Furthermore. and shown in Figure 1. internal sheet metal surfaces of the hous. the amplification possible due to the cated by the sum of transient characteristic of the applied the first two peaks is A 0. short circuit. the size of these inertia corded in stator dis. which. stant of short circuit. losses. have incorporated some of these features the trunnion to permit the motions indi. after erection each trunnion is encased in sound isolating compound. Rectified pling between. Such a wound rotor induction motorwith slip reg. Bearings. Figure 13. each unit is en.9 inch torques combinedwith the shaft reactions. circuit. Thus it was felt necessary not only ther development their use may be ex- blocked in their supports.000-horsepower carrying conventional loads.the motor and generator motional vibrographs rotors to withstand the short-circuit of the generator trun. (B) Single-phase 25. are used to remove heat from windings jectionable. and Other Equipment to full speed in 10 minutes and will ac. This was similar to the problem voltage 25-cycle encountered in the generator rotor ends short circuit. top of these blocks to complete the en. such windings offer a closure. have advantages which can with it have gradually rising faces and provisions have so far been successful in be exploited when proper cooling methods their effect on foundation shock is not ob. frequency the shock waves associated of nonmagnetic material. to incorporate adequate self-ventilating usual problem in the construction of -this Finally the problems encountered in features in their rotors. types of system short circuits which occur cycles makes them too "soft" for opera. The familiar problem of in. placement Also connected to the main shaft. semicircular portion of the structure. Since such operation is at low insulation by making the bearing shells ods. a number of circuit current. Driving ulator control will bring its generator up stand short-circuit shocks. thus effectively to insulate the pedestal against the flow tended to other units. motor and in combining it with the gener. ator lay in the mechanical construction of of use in expanding the experience and closed in a sheet metal covering which the motor rotor and in making the cou. have here been ap- this situation.Circuit Testing Generators 835- . windings incorporated in these rotors ture and erection to handle the stator. After the stator is the units. Future Uses of the Features of These ipated relationships between the torques serves as a ventilating housing and also as Machines produced by the short circuits and the a mounting for four motor-driven blowers currents that flow under short circuits and two coolers which occupy the top While most of the novel features of that they could be used as rough calibrat. Consequently. of conventional units. the construction of such special units are as is apparent in Figure 1. plied to very large machines. ertia. When it is realized that the maximum rate cycle short circuit of deceleration due to alternating short- showing harmonics circuit-torque is in the order of 6. winding would have great ability to with- The Enclosure. built. edge gained in studying the effects of celerate it to speed promptly after a short saturation on short-circuit characteristics The many speeds at which these ma.000 rpm in the generator per second. The mostlun. The bases of the trun. but ing are sprayed with a heavy layer of offer a number of interesting possibilities. are a pilot generator for controlling the timing of the circuit closure and a tachometer for speed indi- B cation. During simulated d-c test. round rotor svnchronous condensers are in its final position. tors are of interest principally for the and they may be applicable to more con- cated previously. depending upon the type of torque wave as re. removing the springs from the operation of current but also to provide magnetic The stator winding end blocking meth- of the unit. Nonmagnetic tion at 8 to 12 cycles. The heavy amortisseur Not only were they used during manufac. Single-phase cylindrical rotor generators a trunnion block leaving clearance around The bearings for short-circuit genera. It is mounted on the end opposite already is proving of value in the design chines operate made it virtually impossible to that shown in Figure 1. problems of shaft current control which ventional machines when synchronous nion blocks on one side of the machine can arise due to the nature of the operation of condenser operation is considered or when be seen in Figure 11. During iight-load operation two of the for short-circuit generators. The but was somewhat augmented because of total movement indi. and the trunnions magnetic dissymmetries exist. would retaining rings. these machines are of principal interest ing instruments to determine the short. With fur- ing operations the trunnions are solidly nals. blowers may be shut down to decrease them may find application to more con- The trunnions serve a dual purpose. The knowl- Motor. skill of the same people who construct OCTOBE-R 1 952 RKilbourne-New Large Short. well as currents through the bearing jour. while admittedly difficult to apply. torques which are transmitted to the induc- nions tion motor because of its mechanical in- (A)Three-phase full. These two nevertheless. should small to conventional machines.

tity. Merris. Skeats (General As the following approximate equations rates. Xd= per-unit 3-phase synchronous impedance with a 2-pole machine.Pl17 + RF 2XI ends can be braced securely in the same much greater than for any earlier machine (RF+ Ro 2XJ manner as all turbogenerator stator coils designed for short-circuit testing. W. BEAMA Journal. as in plate temperatures they are especially bene- its ratio of copper to slot area is greater than generators of normal design. Y. In this way. therefore. V. how- that of the field. By the use have a higher rate of decrement of field (RF +RD)(X+X1) l RE)+RF)XJ of nonmagnetic steel retaining rings.): This generator is (RF±RD)(X+Xl)X notable for the high sustained value of its ventilation. Sterling Beckwith. A. 7. England). 8.000-kva ratory but these must be produced in quan- reactance links (is mutual with) the field 4-pole machine. 4. TESTING. AIEE Transactionts. and are affected very field winding alone. B. THE HIGH CAPACITY CURRENT INTERRUPTING 5. 700 short circuits. AIEE Transactions. Clothier. A. interesting is Adequate ventilation is obtained even with to analyze the part played by the damper the oversize spacers required to keep the winding in securing this result. We have found the conical short-circuit current. England). Institution 1. Batten. and on a reliable and winding also. The shrink for the field winding. edly is simplified by the cylindrical rather laying will clear a fault from 3 to 8 cycles 836 Kilbourne-New Large Short-Circuit Testing Generators OCTOBER 195)2 . both resistances affect both decrement R. 6. 1924. AIEE Transactionzs. N. February 1942. TESTING. N. J. HIGH-POWER SHORT-CIRCUIT TESTING. it was necessary to use relatively shallow (low-reactance) approximate winding is extremely important during field slots. part III. ever. Wis.000 short circuits per year. THE HEBBURN SHORT CIRCUIT TESTING PLANT. 2. and that for the transient current depends ance of the damper winding. Y. the generator would be expected to and retaining rings from injury. part II. Sterling Beckwith. TURBOGENERATOR FOR USE IN SHORT-CIRCUIT (Schenectady. the subtransient decrement 1. and with the coils lashed circuit is still more than 70 per cent of the The subtransient current deecrement rate to these brackets using bakelite coil spacers. P2=(R+RD) [1 +RDX+ unit pressure safe under asymmetrical rms To obtain the desired initial short-circuit P1 LlRF±RD~ Xi currents of 86 times normal. in addition to reducing losses and finger Since the damper winding is uninsulated.): Based excitation with no external reactance be- short circuit on Figure 2 of the paper. ERDXI . pages 49-53. OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER INVESTIGATION AS ber. at high severity. the resist. and to realize that the great X + X1 = per-unit 3-phase leakage reactance of field winding alone Beckwith was less than 2 per cent on its amount of extra labor and cost going into RD= per-unit resistance of damper winding alone nominal kilovolt-ampere base. Association (London. References G. May 1930. In this case. at the least cost. 1/2-cycle value. only the beginning. the 4-pole genera.000-kva 2-pole generator with 2-per-cent been well spent. pages 641-47. England). V. volume 71. A lower reactance can be obtained an estimated 15. volume STATION. interest. 1951. was made not much larger than ing generator described in this paper. Nothing but short circuits c = 2rf = 377 for 60 cycles is manufactured in the development labo- reactance would deliver the same initial It is assumed that all the damper-winding short-circuit current as the 125. A modern circuit breaker with fast re- The 3-phase symmetrical per-unit short. Also. Davis. volume XXVI. part II. volume 70. CARRIED ON WITH A 26. so that the field resistance is relatively high. Easton. This gave space for only a and that for the transient cur -ent is rent is single-phase high initial currents onlyminimize tests. The subtransient It is not difficult to appreciate that this X=per-unit 3-phase leakage reactance of damper reactance of the 2-pole cylindrical rotor represents tremendous pounding of the winding alone machine described in a paper by Sterling generators. November 1937. England). damper winding. Ehrenberg. November 1942. L. Cox. by Mr. On this RFRD r RFX1 tion but also to protect the rotor wedges basis. XLIII. Journtal. 1948. lower end-turn resistance and higher effec- tive turn-ratio. Therefore. 2 months later.). all available P. In either case. MacNeill. Hilliard. September. Enginieering (AIEE Transactions). In the short-circuit test- primary. volume 35. V. a given amount P2 = RD/X1 approximate fit over the rotor body and end disk and of copper is more effective in the damper the use of steel wedges also agree with our winding than in the field. Institution of Electrical Engi- ING STATION OF THE: GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY. = RF/X+Xl approximate REFERENCE slot space above that required to give satis. HIGH-CAPACITY CIRCUIT BREAKER TESTING 10.700 KVA GENERATOR. NEw HIGH-CAPACITY SWITCHGEAR TESTING J. February 1932. Philadelphia.IP2t a solid continuous blocking in short-circuit Lpproximate test units. F. TURBOGENERATOR FOR USE IN SHORT-CIRCUIT factory field heating was devoted to the rate depends on the damper winding alone. If RD is large compared Ito RF. 1952 (Proceedings 52-20). the results depend in both the field and the damper windings. H. neers (London. T. ALTERNATORS FOR SWITCHGEAR TESTING. Since that time these little by which of the two has the higher machines have been subjected to about resistance. E. 1951. and that the induced currents A number of the features employed are of continuing basis. General Electric Review (Schenec- tady. June 1923. Both methods greatly handicap Schenectady. The Electrical Review (London. components of both Electric Company. It is. Many of these have been made at full E = per-unit alternating current voltage before turing Company. Rosenberg (Allis-Chalmers Manufac. L. January TESTING STATION OF THE GENERAL ELECTRIC Brown. Williams. D. pages 2016-20. because of its and practice on turbogenerators. of Electrical Engineers (London. C. Kilbourne was placed in operation on the resistance of the field and damper while the sustained current flows in the in November 1951 and the second about windings in parallel. yond that of the bus to the test cells. F. COMPANY. The effectiveness of the amortisseur current. Pa): The for the short-circuit currents and their the transient and subtransient currents flow first of the two testing generators described decrement ratios show. notand to maintain the retarda- limited amount of field copper. W. Electrical LABORATORY. referred to the only on the field. I" =per-unit subtransient current (symmetrical tors described appear to have a saturated These are. AIEE Transactions. Milwaukee. Some manufac- turers have gone the other way and em- ployed radial coil ends in order to provide P. C.much of the power equipment needed for 3. General Electric Review The British Electrical and Allied Manufacturers' 9. L. HIGH-POWER INTERRUPTING CAPACITY TEST. As X+X( using metal brackets lined with hard wood shown by Figure 2 of the paper. SOME FACTORS AFFECTING THE DESIGN OF today's expansion programs. B. volume 70. Let L.). both singly and in parallel. W. Y. the 3-phase cushioning liners forming several continuous symmetrical current 5 cycles after short and the steady-state current 1 rings at each end. of course. volume 61. pages 2016-19. Journal. Alger (General Electric Company. Discussion circuit current is the sum oif three com- ponents than conical end shape. THE NELSON RESEARCH LABORATORIES OF THE ENGLISH ELECTRIC COMPANY. which is relatively it Ee . The stator coil bracing undoubt. Octo. ficial at time of short circuits. the current on short circuit than for a normal approximate author has confirmed our own belief that machine of the same rating. in the solid iron rotor are negligible. A nominal the building of these machines will have RF per-unit resistance of field winding alone = 40. N. as alternating current) subtransient reactance of about 61/4 per our development program is predicated on I'=per-unit transient current Io=per-unit sustained symmetrical 3-phase current cent.

Carrier-Current except with a greatly magnified frequency scale. When this request was made. Kilbourne was asked to hold the a-c cated in outdoor component of short-circuit current at 5 cycles as close as possible to 75 per cent of switchyard the value at 1/4 cycle. keyed at rates up to about 30 cycles per second. N. In the Appendix a thorough explana- other types of low-frequency signals. smoothly from one of these frequencies Paper 52-218. and therefore. MEMBER AIEE and the second circuit is used to detect this small shift in frequency. Minn. sample circuits have been built. an improved transmit. acteristics of a conventional discriminator University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Electrical Engineering. having better efficiency and freedom from Equipment for Telemetering and effects of interfering signals. frequency-shift. Furthermore. Minneapolis. carrier-current system has been de. a quency modulation' have been ex. OCTOBER 1952 Beckwith-Carrier-Current Equipment for Telemetering 837 . Frequency-Shift. formers tops lo. March 25. is described in later paragraphs. Maximum breaker is tripped before the short circuit a-c component decays relatively little from frequency loss in a 5-cycle test at 60 cycles is applied. Mr. BECKWITH iS with General Electric Com- pany. Manuscript submitted plied to power-line use. sufficient to invalidate test data or to re- usefulness of such a generator as described ingly.. a wide variation will create conditions whiah tion selector are either unfairly severe in some respects switch for trans. Hartley oscillator is modified by the intro- properties for transmission of telemetering tended to the transmission of coded and duction of a network of two crystals in signals. The com- veloped. is approximately 1 cycle. power. Figure 1. A the feedback circuit to the grid. This is not cycles after inception that determines the Circuit breakers are proportioned accord. Theoretical work has been controlled by the crystals at two frequen- plete 3-dimensional impedance -frequency function is shown in two forms to aid in done. be tolerated without serious consequences. operation. It is therefore with very high appre- ciation that we note how closely Mr. W. additional development work. to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Syracuse ter and receiver have been designed. June 23-27. tion of the impedance characteristics of a very narrow-band. As a result of field experience. Kilbourne's oscillograms.2) and the electromagnetic form ('/2LI2). 1952. the AIEE Summer General Meeting. Although deceleration as high as 6. tests which are adequately severe in all respects but seriously unfair in none. this is associated with a cyclic exchange of energy back and forth be- tween the mechanical kinetic form (W/wIc. Kilbourne as the current in the first from this condition in the test circuit can at the time of a test. An improved form of this circuit. made available for printing May now has had several years of successful As a receiver demodulator. Y. and the average deceleration over a number of after inception. 1952. it is as much the current 2 to 5 inception to interruption at these times.'BECKWITH small to conserve frequency spectrum. actance circuit connected across the oscil. Other Control Type Functions The first circuit is used to form a fre- quency-shift signal. or inadequate in others. crystal is used in a bridge circuit along R. and therefore. Syracuse. recommended by the AIEE Carrier Current Committee and approved by the AIEE Transmitters and receivers have been to the other by means of a variable re. This com- bination forms a channel having excellent THE substantiated theories of fre. planation of this circuit operation is given line. High. For this reason. it was realized that most of the things that could be done to increase the short-circuit current from a machine to a given size had a strong tendency to in- crease the sharpness of the decrement curve. 1952. Kil- bourne has approached this goal. In the frequency-shift transmitter.000 rpm per second arises from alternating torques. within the power delivered. voltage 5-posi. An ex. W. and new with diode rectifiers to produce a true This material is the major part of a thesis presented operating needs. crystal discriminator2 having all the char. a single 12. even though loop. and cies and that operation can be shifted the simplest ones have been selected. while a small deviation quire de-energization of the driving motor by Mr. in practice in the field. cycles is very much less. and it is shown that oscillation is piezoelectric crystal is given. The first of these lator tuned circuit. later. as is indicated by tests may be made in which the circuit a circuit breaker faces a short circuit whose Mr. The per- centage shift in frequency is kept very R. Technical Program Committee for presentation at produced in sizable quantities and ap. The curve which he shows in Figure 4 makes it possible to test three phase at maximum short-circuit current with a decrement curve quite comparable with those to be found in our major generating stations and makes possible.