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Practice Test 1 71

we’ve already talked about how difficult this “light pollution” screen after the lecture is over.) You will have twenty min-
makes things for astronomers, so I’m not going to say any utes in which to finish the Integrated Writing Task. Begin
more about that. But to address the question of lighting as a reading now. [3-minute pause]
crime deterrent . . . well, there are just as many studies show-
ing that increased lighting has no effect on crime. That’s Narrator: Now listen to part of a lecture in an economics
right, zero effect. But the letter that I wrote to the editor of class.
the campus newspaper, and the ones that my colleagues Professor: Morning, everyone. Hope you had a chance to
wrote, did not ask the university to get rid of outdoor light- look at the articles I gave you Friday. I want to start by talk-
ing, it simply asked the university to get smarter lights. The ing about one of the articles, the . . . uh, the one by

typical unshielded street lamp, the kind that is in use on the Professor Woodall that . . . that takes a stand against Free
campus now, it sends 20% of its light upwards and 20% out Trade, and in favor of Protectionism. The thing is, in a
to the side—only 60% goes downward! By shielding these global economy, the concept of Protectionism . . . it just

streetlamps, you direct light where it’s needed—on the doesn’t work. It’s not effective. Look at those developing
ground—and keep it out of the sky. By just taking this step countries whose economies have been the most successful;
and a few other simple steps, we can still have well-lit streets they’re the countries that have been most open to Free
and a well-lit campus but, uh, everyone—not just Trade. And those countries whose economic growth has
astronomers, but everyone—can see the stars at night. stalled or died, they’re the ones that have closed them-
selves off to international trade.
Narrator: Task 6 Now, it’s true, international competition can cause prob-
Listen to part of a lecture in a biology class. lems for local businesses. Some local companies will go
Professor: Now this little paragraph in your book illustrates a bankrupt when you invite in the global big boys, the multi-
basic problem. Of course, as . . . uh, as I’ve said, the system national corporations. Workers will lose their jobs, and
we use for classifying organisms, the Linnaean system, it labor groups will get upset. But the companies that do sur-
used the two-kingdom system of classification for over 200 vive, the ones that learn to compete with global companies,
years. It was hard for biologists to think outside this basic they’ll be stronger than ever. And global companies always
two-part model for classifying living things. Organisms had hire local people. These local people have well-paying jobs
to be plants or animals ’cause . . . well, those were the only and they learn how international corporations work. That’s
two possibilities. Protozoa, as our book points out, weren’t what’s called a transfer of technology, and that’s a good
much like fish or horses or any other animals, but they had thing for local economies.
to be classified as something, so they were called animals. It’s also true that governments that throw open their
Bacteria weren’t much like oak trees, but they had to be clas- borders to trade no longer have income from tariffs. But . . .
sified as something too, so they were called plants. It was like governments that collect tariffs on foreign goods are often
putting square pegs in round holes. Finally, in the late 1950’s, the same ones that spend lots of money subsidizing local
someone got a brilliant idea: let’s change the classification farmers, or steel manufacturers. A truly free-market coun-
system! At first, one new kingdom was added. Protozoa and try will not subsidize inefficient sectors of the economy,
other microorganisms were put in this kingdom. Later, there and so the government saves money that way.
was a five-kingdom model. Today there is an even more The author says that Free Trade doesn’t always lead to
complicated model. There are now three domains divided peace between nations. Perhaps not, but just look at Europe.
up into from eight to fifteen kingdoms, depending on who’s For centuries, the great powers of Europe fought wars
doing the classifying. So anyway . . . the lesson to be learned among themselves. Then, after World War II, the European
here is—if you’re classifying something, and it doesn’t fit into Common Market was set up, and for once there was truly
the system—take another look at the classification system— Free Trade among the members. Today, a war between, say,
maybe the problem is there! France and Germany or France and Britain is unimaginable.
When you’re engaged in a trading relationship that helps
[CD 11 TRACK 4] both your country and other countries, there’s no reason to
. . . to risk this relationship with war or aggression.
Writing Review Test Narrator: Now get ready to answer the question.
This Writing Section tests your ability to write academic Remember, you may look back at the reading passage. You
English. It consists of two writing tasks. The first writing may also use your notes to help you. You have twenty min-
task is an “integrated” task. It involves reading a short pas- utes to prepare and write your response. Summarize the
sage and listening to a short lecture on the same topic. You main points made in the lecture that you just heard, dis-
will then have twenty minutes in which to write a response cussing how they differ from the points made in the read-
based on the information in the passage and the lecture. ing. You can refer to the reading passage as you write.
Now read the directions for the first writing task.
Narrator: Directions: Take three minutes to read the short Narrator: This is the end of the Review Test and the end of
passage on the following page. You may take notes as you Section 4, Writing.
read. After three minutes have passed, start the Audio
Program. You will hear a lecture on the same topic as the [CD 12 Track 1]
reading. Again, you may take notes as you listen. You will
have twenty minutes to write your response. Your response Practice Test 1
should include information from both the reading and the
lecture. Your essay will be rated on the completeness and Listening Section
accuracy of your response as well as on the correctness and
quality of your writing. A typical response should be 150 to Narrator: Directions: This section tests your understanding
225 words. You may use your notes and look at the reading of conversations and lectures. You will hear each conversa-
passage as you write. (During the actual exam, you can tion or lecture only once. Your answers should be based on
view the reading passage on the left side of the computer

. your ple of poems as well. first off. Some questions have special directions that Narrator: Listen again to part of the conversation. powerful. I have no idea. no cafeteria job . Professor: Well. . one of them to be you. . I’ll read just one chapter right now? from the novel. you will see a headphones icon. and for those. uh. you’d need to fill out some financial business. These positions are available regardless. then . you know. determines that a work-study position helps you meet your Professor: Well. professor. Fong. aid forms to see if you qualify . I’m working on the campus newspaper and . no. . needs-based positions—those are the ones funded by the ing the night alone in the forest . What would you Student: Yeah. and you can use flattered that you’d ask me to take part. . just calling to see if I can get Creative Writing seminar are going to be reading aloud some information on your . . I . . cial aid. . But I really have no money for poems. Professor Jacobs? Student: Hi. . say much about it at all. Plus ify for financial aid. . In fact. . a hundred percent—I’m a full-time student. Student: Yeah. on the work-study program? from their works at the Student Union . What’s it about? part-time job . if I fill out these forms and . Narrator: Question 1: Why is Ted unable to meet with Then you will answer a question about the part of the lecture Professor Jacobs after class? that you heard. I. . Most Student: Me? Seriously? I don’t know what to say . what’s up. and I don’t qual- owned a fishing boat. . . anyway. part of the lecture again. Almost a little frightening. then . if you’re willing. This test includes two conversations and four lectures. the students in my graduate second-year student. for . come to his office? Student: Well. useful supple- class thought of it . . . what was it called? government. if it’s a . . I’m not getting any finan- Student: You know . anyway. Student: So. I have a personal bank loan to pay for three chapters of this novel I’ve been working on . . if you’re willing. and my grandfather Student: So. . . dents from my undergraduate class to take part. thanks . I worked in a restaurant sometime this week and we’ll figure out which poems you but . Professor: Well. my tuition. You may use your notes to help you. I’m also inviting a few stu. this won’t take long . well. Will that be okay? experience . . that you will hear. . . Student: Well. tion . you didn’t study positions. and I’d like Administrator: The eligibility requirements? Okay. Narrator: Now get ready to answer some questions about tions. Ted. uh. I grew up in Alaska. . . that’s not necessarily true. it depends on your interests. and Professor Jacobs. did you get my e-mail? ing aloud next Friday? Student: Umm. Then. . I don’t want anything in food service. Ted. It’s even possible that you was very strong and in particular I found the imagery . . . I didn’t even realize that you were writing a living expenses. Ms. yes. . I’m. and my parents are helping me out with my Professor: I was thinking that you could read some of your room-and-board expenses. Student: Ummm. . . the thing is. it depends on your level Professor: Really? Do you know a lot about that topic? of income and on your parents’ level of income . . see. I’m really You are allowed to take notes as you listen. Narrator: Question 3: What is Ted most interested in read- Professor: Ted. The reading will Administrator: Okay. . then. but not read. During an actual listening test. it’s about the commercial fishing Administrator: Well. questions are separated by a ten-second pause. Student: Well. . I’d really like to read the first two or cial aid now. In some ques. I just wanted to see if I could have a quick Narrator: Question 5: Why does Professor Jacobs ask Ted to word with you after this class. next week. Financial Aid Office. Student: Okay. . are you taking at least 60% of a full-time academic load? Student: Me? Seriously? I don’t know what to say . There are Professor: I was hoping you’d read that poem about spend. . . . My name’s Dana Hart and I’m a Professor: Well. . The language ment for your formal classes. . and I worked on it one summer. so try to dents from my undergraduate class to take part. . that’s fine. . professor. well. there are two kinds of work-study positions. . Student: Umm. I’m also inviting a few stu- be able to skip items and come back to them later. Student: Sure. happy to help you. . a . Professor: I think that should work. Narrator: Question 2: What does Ted mean when he says this? Narrator: Listen to a conversation between a student and a Student: Me? Seriously? I don’t know what to say . . . about working on a fishing boat . Drop by my office Student: The only job I’ve ever had. . . I figured you didn’t regardless of financial need. what sorts of positions do you have open Student: How about this. Administrator: Sure. no. you have to qualify for finan- Northern Lights. . are highlighted. but there are also what we call merit-based work- Student: That poem? Huh! When I read it in class. speaking. This icon tells you the conversation. what are the requirements Professor: Yes. administrator and a student. well. could earn academic credit for some of these positions. so I figured . . you will not Professor: Yes. You the characters. sorry. . I think . . I wanted to hear what the other students in educational goals. . . . uh. . . these notes to help you answer the questions. but. Administrator: Well. . so. I quite liked it. . Connie Fong before class starts . I saw a poster about that on the bulletin like to know? board down the hall. . Of a work-study job? course. actually I haven’t had a chance to Narrator: Question 4: Which of the following can be check my e-mail yet today. as long the financial aid office much like it. that’s why I’m hoping to land a novel. . . let’s just chat now Administrator: Hello. and I’d like answer every question that you hear on this practice test. the first one’s pretty short. what do you . . . and then a cou. food prepara- should read. inferred about Professor Jacobs? Professor: Well. and I need to get over there Narrator: Listen to a conversation between a university right after class for a meeting . . . . uh.TOEFL_ASAK_001-140. then there’s no way I could get my grandfather told me a million stories about fishing. See. yes. I’ve changed the stories some and fictionalized all Administrator: No. just say you’ll do it. be in the ballroom of the Student Union at noon next are you qualified to receive financial aid? Friday. one of them to be you. .qxp 4/21/06 1:16 PM Page 72 72 Practice Test 1 what is stated or implied in the conversations and lectures. let me ask you this.

uh. styles of houses used by times you’d have clusters of igloos. .” and so that’s what we call them now. it turns out. believe it or not. the interior was “set” with a seal-oil museum. made of snow. They were connected by traditional people. You may use your notes to help you. the Eskimos. in the Arctic regions of North snow domes that could be used more or less as . the nights are long up there houses. arrived in northern Canada. of snow. not one on the inside. early nineteenth century. . Today. thanks a lot for all the informa. because it was so strong. . Oh. It’s possible that we could adding smaller and smaller blocks in a rising spiral until a arrange something where you’d only work about half that dome was formed. the position that she is interested in? they naturally tended to be more elaborate. Imagine how surprised they thought work-study jobs were all on campus. It was ogy lab . . Their summer in the Arctic. Narrator: Question 9: What must Dana do first to apply for If igloos were to be used for a fairly long time. Igloos were remarkably warm inside. but. later. The on overnight hunting trips. Oh. Say. It didn’t need any Aid forms I mentioned. sometimes the Inuit built larger ple who live in the far north. . uh. were the first time they met outsiders! Administrator: Oh. . don’t give up on the position for that from the wind. right? would support the weight of a man standing on top of it. Okay. they thought they were AUDIO Student: Really? Wow. Now. . it’s a Doctor Ferrarra. all the Inuit used to have two types of community centers. and by the way. a second dome around the first one. uh. we really encourage job-sharing—two stu. . You can come down and get them interior support because. replied. Sometimes these walls were even built into reason. it’s. These semi-permanent igloos had windows and skylights Professor: Okay. still do okay in my classes. uh. . they built their winter houses from stone biology. whatever. And some- types of shelters . . Let’s see . I’ll get those forms from your Web site and send them they were made out of snow. . it anyone in our office. . Y’ know. I mean. the peo. canvas. Igloos were usually small the conversation. so that it was lower than the igloo floor. about 25% of all our positions are Anyway. Seal-oil lamps were usually used to Narrator: Question 8: Which of these work-study positions heat igloos. these clusters. and cold air got based work-study jobs? trapped in the tunnel. and they saw these houses izations that we think perform some worthwhile commu. in fact. the blocks with loose snow. no positions at all at the Greenland. about the. In fact. and you know twelve hours a week or so. okay. time and still . the word igloo means a dome-shaped house made Administrator: I’ll check . I’ll call him and bit of the snow blocks. There were various types of singing competitions in these larger igloos. However. summer houses and winter houses. set up an interview for you. built their year-round housing. uh. How did the Inuit make these snow houses? They used Administrator: Well. But. and it Narrator: Now get ready to answer some questions about keeps the intense cold out. they used these lamps to melt a little he’s the personnel director at the museum. The Inuit who lived in northern In the early 1950’s. we’ve been talking about traditional made of freshwater ice or translucent seal gut. so there had to be a hole at the top of the dome does Dana express the most enthusiasm for? to let out stale air and smoke. and the entrance tunnel to the igloo was dug out Narrator: Question 7: What can be inferred about merit. They houses were called tupiq. okay. and the layer of air between the two domes provided even more insulation. In Student: So. Then I’ll call the contact person at the freeze solid. . Sometimes cir- Narrator: Question 10: Why does Ms. “Igloos. uh. And. . from the receptionist at the front desk. then. they’re positions with foundations or organ. No. Until sometime in the Metropolitan Art Museum . You know.qxp 4/21/06 1:16 PM Page 73 Practice Test 1 73 Administrator: Well. They only used igloos when they went winter houses from wood they found on the shore. they were surprisingly cozy. the one who makes the hiring decision. . Narrator: Question 6: Why does Dana want a work-study The Inuit slept on platforms of packed snow covered with position? furs.TOEFL_ASAK_001-140. . They arranged these in a circle and then kept dents working one position. Student: Sure. any sort of house—a house of wood. put up a simple igloo in a couple of hours. though. well. Fong say this? cular walls of snow were built around igloos to shield them Administrator: Well. and like I say. . don’t give up on the position for that knives made of bone or ivory to cut wind-packed snow into reason. they were some of the Student Union . America. are there Greenland that the Inuit built their winter houses from any jobs in the art gallery at the Student Union? snow. if you’re studying Canada—now. here’s a position at the most isolated people in the world. lamp. and then the water refroze into ice. it’s as a tour guide there. we might try to place you as a technician in a biol. The Inuit nity service. that sounds fabulous. a house Student: Really? I don’t know if I could put in that much of snow. in a place called Thule. how many hours a week is this job? English. and I was wondering . means house. . for example. A skilled igloo-builder could Student: That sounds more like what I had in mind: ten. they asked what they were called. given that tion. only in the north central part of Canada and in one place in Student: I’m an art major. Snow is actually a good insulator. the Inuit who lived up in Administrator: Hang on a sec. or you can fill them The bitter Arctic winds caused the outside of the igloo to out online if you like. Narrator: Listen to a lecture in an anthropology class. the first step is to fill out the Financial that was built without internal support. I the only people in the world. . we try to find you jobs related to your Inuit who lived in Labrador—that’s in Northeastern educational goals. no. So what do I do to apply for what? He could do it in a blizzard! this job? The igloo was the only dome-shaped traditional housing Administrator: Well. What I mean is. and they were originally made of held dances and wrestling matches and their famous animal skins and. uh. they. the Inuit began living in permanent. enough so that body heat warmed them up pretty quickly. . Alaska. today I’d like to talk a bit tunnels. where there was plenty of driftwood. . back to you this afternoon or tomorrow. . class. and today . winter houses. blocks. . it was strong. when the first Canadians of European descent SCRIPT off-campus . so they needed some entertainment. the word igloo in Inuit just one there for around twenty to twenty-five hours a week. Then. and earth and supported them with whalebones. Then they’d pack the cracks between much time. they don’t use these . it looks like they want some. Sometimes five or more Inuit families lived in about the homes of the Inuit people. And you understand that he’s So you had a layer of ice on the outside of the dome and the one . .

many square kilometers of thin plastic sails. there have Student A: Wow. . . 186. let’s say. that scientists dream up a way to travel half as fast as light. and they build it can never travel to other stars in spaceships? for you. in fact. special exhibits. the lecture. . We think about that. I thought you said that. a lot like Jupiter. Almost 6 trillion miles per hour! And how far is it to about eight years to get to the nearest star and eight years to the nearest star? get back That’s . Moving at 6 trillion miles per hour. no air . But all these technologies that I men- travel? tioned. . It takes an enormous rocket full of fuel just that people would one day be able to whiz around the to lift one of the shuttles into Earth orbit.000 miles per and engineers manage to build it . we can’t travel anywhere near as fast as light. . though . covered. rockets won’t work . Narrator: Now get ready to answer some questions about Professor: No. A scientist named Robert Forward came up with Narrator: Question 11: The professor mentions three types this idea. . uh. Okay. . I guess you’re saying that we’ll Student B: I think I know . years at that speed to get to the closest star. . notes . Professor: Well. There’s the speculation Professor: Yes. you’re scooting along at Greenland. Mark? phase—that’s where you figure out what your need is and Student A: You just said . let me find it in my Student A: Okay. . it’s just coasting. Clearly. but if you remember. Liza’s right. . But. of houses with the locations where they were used. And Professor: No doubt they would! Now. and by the way. of course. things called nega- larger igloos were used in which of these ways? tive mass and zero-point energy—as possible ways to power Narrator: Question 16: According to the professor. yes. . they couldn’t carry enough never be able to visit other stars. Professor: Well. Student A: Wait. there are teams of some igloo-building process. but that’s close enough . I just think that’s too bad. Mark. you just couldn’t bring enough mass. And of hood have planets. yeah. . . and of winter houses used by the Inuit. early nineteenth century. I said that almost all of them wouldn’t they? are huge planets. closer than the space like a bullet that was shot from a gun. Student B: Is anyone even working on something like that? Indicate whether each of the following is a step in the Professor: As a matter of fact. they thought they were Professor: There’s a catch. most isolated people in the world. . probably. carry enough to get to another star. ? least four phases of development. . where you basically do experiments Professor: Well. . it’s a vacuum . is the science phase. you put the technology to work. that’s true. possibly. . Match these three types then unfurl these giant sails made of thin plastic—I mean. they’d get pretty stale before you arrived. excuse me. . . and since lasers Professor: Oh. well. the only people in the world. . Imagine how surprised they Student A: What’s the catch? were the first time they met outsiders! Professor: Well. . in a place called Thule. . dozens. After this comes the technology phase. You bring in Student A: So that means . . . they’re in the speculation phase? Narrator: Listen to a discussion in an astrophysics class. Then you fire Narrator: Question 12: Why does the professor say this? intense bursts of laser beams at the sails. . But 4. . and I always hoped Professor: Right. pretty soon. Even if you used nuclear. it don’t know if any of the stars in our immediate neighbor- takes about four years to get to the closest star. That’s the Professor: Well. the professor requires little or no fuel. . not even as tem. professor. the Inuit do in the early 1950’s? Student B: What do you mean. dream up a system or a device that can fill that need. We still don’t have the know-how to detect is a ship that can constantly accelerate and keep increasing earth-like planets. then it would only take second. rocky plan- isn’t accelerating. . cutting-edge physicists who are looking at things like anti- Narrator: Question 15: The professor did not mention that gravity. A cou. any workable technology goes through at Student A: Ah. isn’t that just a sixteen-year trip? Student A: I think you told us it’s four light years . tem. Professor: That’s miles per second. But these concepts are all in the speculation phase . I fuel. describes the process the Inuit used to build a simple igloo. .2 light years is the distance Professor: It’s a little more. . and it was traveling faster than any man-made object Student B: Professor. professor.TOEFL_ASAK_001-140. Student B: Professor. Suppose you went all that way and just course. to the nearest star. You could never galaxy the way people travel around our planet today. how fast does light application phase. artificial wormholes. I don’t think that trips to the powered engines. right? love science fiction books and movies. . Until sometime in the Student B: I thought it was a brilliant idea . What you need planet Mercury. of course.qxp 4/21/06 1:16 PM Page 74 74 Practice Test 1 wonderful snow-domes for shelter at all. so. gas giants. you need some revolutionary drive system that Narrator: Question 14: In this lecture. tell them what you need. . Professor: You know.000 scientists could detect planets around other stars. These aren’t conventional sails. If you brought along sandwiches for been hundreds of what are called “extra-solar” planets dis- the trip. the Voyager spacecraft left our solar sys. they’re just in the speculation phase. And you know what? It would take Voyager 80. Voyager a few that were discovered recently are smaller. you just told us . what did ships. He said you could launch a ship with rockets. . that’s according to the theories of Albert and see if the technology you dreamed up might possibly Einstein. anti-matter. not to the nearest star with planets. Student A: What’s wrong with rockets? Student A: Well. No. as I said. . for the sake of argument. stars will be practical unless we develop a way to travel . Mark—186. . I read an article about a space ship porary housing. I did say that . . to reach igloo? the stars. you just told us that it’s impossi. they were some of the close to the speed of light. it’s traveling through ets but they are very close to their stars. found empty space! The closest star with planets—at least ple of years ago. . You may use your notes to help you. And who am I to argue with Einstein? work. ever.000 miles an hour. let’s think about it . Professor: Well. with earthlike planets—may be much farther away. sometimes they’ll build igloos for that used sails to propel itself through space. Maybe the closest earth-like planet is its speed. even hundred of light years away. Next ble to travel faster than light . their yards that they build as playhouses for their children. . you’d still need huge amounts of fuel to Narrator: Question 13: What can be inferred about the word power the lasers—more than you could carry. and sometimes you’ll see little igloos in Student A: You couldn’t use sails in space. . Professor Fuller . doesn’t that mean people the engineers. Finally. these days. the Inuit who lived up in travel at light speed.

“I don’t enjoy looking at the things I about the planets that have so far been discovered around paint. . Photorealists never chose tinue our study of twentieth-century art with a discussion grand. you have to keep in mind that at this time. I don’t want to rule out anything . this incredi. . a child putting together a puz- photo of the family. as promised. that the subject itself means little. Richard Estes. was taken at the museum where Duane Hanson’s works they . Summarize so . I other stars? think. he might paint a parking lot reflected in glass. they portrayed their subjects down to the smallest were on display. inspiring subjects to paint. thing. are as realistic as this one of the security guard. Conceptual Art. First. a niques that a lot of Photorealists used. What sort of subjects did the Photorealists that the class discusses? paint? Photorealists painted still-lifes. Audrey think of them. jewelry. portraits. she used the same tech. one Photorealist who only painted neon signs and one who Professor: Morning.qxp 4/21/06 1:16 PM Page 75 Practice Test 1 75 faster than light. Weeds are growing up between the speaker stands and head for the spaceport any time soon. hyperrealism or superrealism—it was popular in the late Now I’m going to show you another slide. once said the subjects of his paintings were “so nor- order. When she painted this. over the weekend. what a lot of the visitors to the resemble photographs in many respects. ah. So . just so ordinary. He fashioned human- types of art. they were also interested have in the future. . The Dutch Masters were Narrator: Question 24: Which of the following did Audrey obsessed with getting details right. As you’ll see in a couple of minutes. . Okay. I don’t want to rule out anything . How one painted Professor: You know. very abstract. example. and so this was . You may use your notes to help you. in the and ask him questions. And in the eighteenth Flack not use when painting The Farb Family Portrait? century there was a European school of painting called Narrator: Question 25: How does the professor explain the trompe l’oeil. let’s see. . just a page or two—that acrylic paints account for the bright. they guard. Professor: But Mark. three-dimensional optical illu- and head for the spaceport any time soon. ah. They would come up to the “guard” Now. it’s a photo of one of Hanson’s sculptures. . . Portrait. AUDIO Narrator: Question 18: What powers the “sails” on the ship Anyway. art was dominated by Minimalism and blood person. Next she drew a grid on her canvas. the painter Chuck this discussion by putting these four steps in the proper Close. the lecture. luminous colors that describes your reactions to these works. you’ll see typical Photorealist subjects. is that the technique of painting is the important Narrator: Listen again to part of the discussion. a student. these painters were . So. banal subjects. . In a lit- stars will be practical unless we develop a way to travel tle while. painted only trucks.” For Narrator: Now get ready to answer some questions about example. There was Narrator: Listen to a lecture in an art class. I don’t think that trips to the was much more important than what one painted. Photorealistic art. You may use your notes to help you. everyday. she took a homeless person. and so their paintings look like photographs. The subjects of Narrator: Question 20: Professor Fuller discusses the Photorealist paintings are interesting only because they are process by which a new technology evolves. what’s the big deal. . That’s not . what scapes—although there are not many paintings of rural SCRIPT must be developed before ships can travel to the stars? scenes. you see in most of her works. or close to that. He then painted them to ble realism was kind of a reaction to that. I’d like you to write worked with an airbrush. . . and he added hair. mal that they are shocking. Narrator: Question 22: What does Professor Fuller imply Some painters specialized in painting one type of sub- about travel to other stars when she says this? ject. The a short paper—really short. . one of the paintings from this school pictures a the discussion. . she systematically show for you. I’m going to show you a slide of a painting by the clothing. making their subjects look real. shoes. ah. climb- Narrator: Question 17: What is Professor Fuller’s opinion of ing right out of the frame. . Again. when we look at some more of the slides I faster than light. While you’re viewing these works of painted what was projected onto each of the little squares. creating optical illusions. for example. said. and I don’t think that will brought. . For head for the spaceport any time soon. so today we’re gonna con.” Another one. class. . zle. his subjects were ordinary people—a car salesman. reflected in sheets of window glass. They always painted ordi- of photorealism. . in capturing every detail ever happen. and the screen is practically falling down. Then. . . going to have a little slide picture onto her canvas. closed-down drive-in have in the future. not one of the Albert Einstein? interests of Photorealism. . . But Mark. mostly they show urban scenes. . people have been painting Minimalism and Conceptualism? realistically for hundreds of years. Then she made a slide from the photo and projected the Okay. . I don’t think I’d pack my bags and ordinary city sights. so why should you enjoy it?” What he meant there. I don’t think I’d pack my bags movie. It’s called The Farb Family sculptures features a man riding on a lawn mower. One by one. who knows what kind of scientific breakthroughs we might However. I don’t think I’d pack my bags in creating optical illusions. Okay. and she used acrylic paints. most Photorealist Narrator: Now get ready to answer some questions about paintings tend to be bright and colorful. This. all of these statues dividing the whole surface of the canvas into little squares. land- Narrator: Question 19: According to Professor Fuller. a painter named Narrator: Question 21: What does Professor Fuller say Richard Estes. . of what they saw. make the plastic look like human skin. of a gas station .TOEFL_ASAK_001-140. Looks like a photo of the museum security detail. liked to paint urban scenes. But Mark. . One Photorealist. museum thought too. Painters who worked in this style. uh. or close to that. In fact. size statues of people from plastic. boy who appears to be climbing out of the painting. This picture 1960’s and the 1970’s. or a drug store reflected in big plate-glass windows. and painters who worked in this style were as subjects that Photorealists painted? . sometimes props—one of his photorealist Audrey Flack. But this isn’t a photo of a flesh-and- 60’s and 70’s. and I don’t think that will interested as Photorealists in . There’s one ever happen. The point is. in . doesn’t it? That’s ah. there’s one of an old. where did this style of painting come from? You Narrator: Question 23: What does the professor say about might say. sions—the phrase trompe l’oeil means “trick of the eye. Mark. . So . style of art—it was also called nary. which were very non-representational Hanson was a Photorealist sculptor. one of an elderly man waiting at a bus who knows what kind of scientific breakthroughs we might stop . I’d like you to take notes on what you Each square was really its own tiny work of art. I’m.

uh. uh. But hail isn’t always associated They were really upset. why are cloud—that’s a thundercloud. . like little pebbles were pounding on the car. another question—has anyone ever seem like it to me. . With each trip above and below the freezing from the university one weekend—my parents live about level. . number of characteristics of the Photorealistic school of one of these updrafts picks up the droplet and lifts it high painting. . uh. do they get hurt by hail. the most silver iodide crystals into clouds. Now. and . And the part of the United States the nineteenth century. Indicate whether each of the following is a typical into the cloud. Student A: The hailstorm I was caught in was in April. were common in wine-producing regions. really. farmers tried to ward off hail by ringing church bells. . most recently? well. Professor: Well. no practical way to protect common? crops. as a matter of fact. last year. the seventy miles from here—and the sky got really dark. uh. . although farmers can buy insurance against hail Student B: I’d guess in the winter. Student B: Professor. hail only forms in cumulonimbus clouds. Student B: Professor? Wouldn’t it melt when it falls . . because of gravity and cold downdrafts. . when you have hail. not all tornadoes are accompa- Professor: Well. So. well. summer. you get Student B: I remember when I was in high school. I Narrator: Listen to a discussion in a meteorology class. Doppler radar can “look” inside Student A: There’s nothing farmers can do? Can’t they cover a cloud. mean when it gets into the warmer air? Professor: Afternoon. the sculptures of Duane Hanson so remarkable? we said there were a lot of strong updrafts of warm air and Narrator: Question 28: In this lecture. This . . . So. a hundred miles an hour. . uh. . Professor: Well. those two examples you nied by hail. . which of seem like it to me. last class. . well . . these methods of preventing damage from hail was used it doesn’t seem to happen very often. . .qxp 4/21/06 1:16 PM Page 76 76 Practice Test 1 Narrator: Question 26: Which of the following would Professor: Exactly. we said thunderstorms are most common in their crops with plastic sheets or . Professor: Nope. it’s kind of surprising. .TOEFL_ASAK_001-140. but farmers’ crops. Narrator: Question 30: According to the professor. . and it wiped out my parents’ garden. back in the fourteenth century in Europe. damage. and it freezes. I suppose . characteristic of paintings of that school of art. Hail cannons maybe early May. . and it hailstone gets so heavy that the updrafts can’t lift it anymore. because they love gardening. where the air is cold. Eventually. I want to talk about a the thundercloud. it falls. but I’ll try to get some Professor: Hurt? Hmmm. . $750 million dollars’ worth of damage. . and firing cannons. it doesn’t really mean when you find layers in something? Mike? seem like it to me. . it doesn’t . Then. You may use your notes to help you. as where they’re most common is along the Rocky Mountains late as the 1950’s. well. Sometimes you’ll hear about a person cut a hailstone in half to see what it looks like? No? No one? stuck up in a Ferris wheel or some other ride at an amuse- Well. in the Soviet Union. and you know what? By far ground. . uh. which of ment park being injured. um. I believe it was about damage. . Montana . . Student B: Sometimes. tell by using Doppler radar. . you said that you only get hail there were balls of ice as big as marbles bouncing around when there’s a thunderstorm—is that right? on the highway. when it hits the warmer air at the bottom of talked about thunderstorms. gave—because every year. and Student A: So. And then. In fact. or something like that. afraid not. it might start to thaw—but then. but . And . Today. history was in Denver. . I don’t storms very often? really have any statistics about that.S. does it? And that’s . was supposed costly hailstorm in U. isn’t it. . in our last class. I’ve seen on weather reports. or something like that. Professor. Student A: Um. . bang. And what does it usually Professor: Hurt? Hmmm. it must look like a doesn’t seem to happen very often. carry- caught in a hailstorm? ing it back into very cold air and refreezing it. all of a sudden—it. the hailstone adds another layer of ice. we Professor: Yeah. bingo. I guess that it wasn’t formed all Narrator: Question 32: Why does the professor compare a at once. but. Wyoming. are people . considering that hail. This happens Student A: As a matter of fact. but it didn’t really work too well. with tornadoes. A hail- Richard Estes most likely choose to paint? stone starts off as a droplet of water in a cumulonimbus Narrator: Question 27: According to the speaker. ing on pots and pans. . it was so it drops out of the cloud and . to make the hailstones smaller so they wouldn’t do as much Just that one storm caused over . I dunno. it doesn’t really information. Colorado. Narrator: Now get ready to answer some questions about storms very often? the discussion. I pulled off the road and storms—though you don’t always get thunder and lightning parked under a highway bridge until the storm was over. do they get hurt by hail- and can travel like. . it doesn’t . stones can be as big as baseballs—sometimes even bigger— Student B: Professor. Then—remember. the professor gives a strong downdrafts of cold air inside a thunderstorm? Well. . everyone. But it was too late—I had lots of little dents in my car. Sometimes you’ll hear about a person the following are most often damaged by hail? stuck up in a Ferris wheel or some other ride at an amuse. Okay. does it? little snowball cut in half . How about hailstorms? When are they most Professor: No. well. can you tell if you’re going to have hail? the most damage is done to vehicles and plants—not gar. there’s no . hailstorms cause more than a Student A: So if you just look at a thundercloud from the billion dollars worth of damage. I was driving home again and again. now. there a lot of hail just before tornadoes. the government used cannons to shoot . . . what do you think it would look like? Penny? ment park being injured. Professor: No. started to rain. Here’s how you get hailstones. . as soon as I could. you’ve got hail! like . . Narrator: Question 31: What does the professor mean when Professor: No. it looks more like an he says this? onion cut in half—lots of layers. at least through Professor: You’re right. in Colorado. are people . was a bad hailstorm. not just by looking. Student B: So what did you do. . it doesn’t . hailstone to an onion? . . that’s interesting. that’s true. our little similar phenomenon: hailstorms. well. Mike? which are the only kind of clouds that generate thunder- Student A: Well. . . But a meteorologist can dens. Okay. so I’d guess spring. it doesn’t really Narrator: Question 29: According to the professor. Anyone here ever been half-frozen droplet gets picked up by another updraft. . it Student B: Well. Professor: Hurt? Hmmm. Narrator: Listen again to part of the discussion. .

. huh? Did you hap- versation or lecture. . . You have fifteen seconds in which to prepare your some fluency in another language. these. The third just for balance. have ever made? Give specific details and examples to sup. five seconds in which to read the passage. I think I could probably get at least an 85 most common? on the placement test for Japanese. they’re descendants of the zeppelins that were built in the port your explanation. [15-second pause. Student B: Yeah. Student A: That’s the . tric signs on them advertising something. then beep] Now stop speaking. what language are you going to study? will have forty-five seconds in which to answer the question. . . and fourth questions involve a reading text and a listening Narrator: The woman gives her opinion of the notice writ- passage. You will have forty-five Student B: What caused it. Okay. well. There are six tasks in this section. Indicate didn’t you? whether each of the following is a step in that process. then Germany—not all. Please listen carefully . Student B: Well. You may take a ten-minute break before beginning friends. so I got to be fairly fluent. On an actual test your responses show what things look like from above. Professor: So. amazingly long distances. you have sixty seconds in which to answer the question. . and other big gatherings. Hindenburg disaster. lots of theories. I didn’t really learn much of the language. although there’ve been Narrator: Now listen to two students discussing this notice. picture? tion. Explain her opinion and dis- text. I kinda agree with what the Narrator: Directions: This section tests your ability to speak regents are saying—you gotta be able to speak another lan- about various subjects. I’m just going to start over. The first two tasks are Independent Speaking if you want to work abroad or even just travel. the professor Student A: Oh. There was an explosion and a terri- Narrator: Lincoln University is instituting a new policy ble fire on the German zeppelin Hindenburg and thirty-five regarding requirements for graduation. No real SCRIPT Speaking Section point to my trying to take a test. mostly? tion. fifth and sixth questions involve a short listening passage. . At least. then ing and listening passage. . Professor: No one knows for sure. I’m going to show you a pic- dents write. grades depend mainly zeppelins—even transatlantic service. Anyway. my teacher wasn’t a native Spanish speaker and [CD 12 Track 2] . You have forty-five seconds in which to read a short ten by the Dean of Education. a clock on Professor: Right. what’s it called. on Saturday night? Quite a few of you. I am too. Narrator: What is the most important decision that you Professor: Right. What are they used for. What were these airships used for? Student B: I don’t know. . in Narrator: Question 3. this tragedy pretty much ended Student A: So I guess it’s back to the language classroom for the age of the giant zeppelins. When you hear a beep on the Audio Program. After listening to the con. [30-second pause. New Jersey. and . I think I should learn a European language. uh. . Student A: Lucky for you. Professor: That’s right—this happened in 1937. During actual tests. These zeppelins were huge— beep] Now stop speaking. until about ten years us! Have you . Please listen carefully . You will then see a question on the beep] [60-second pause] Now stop speaking. Which type of class would you prefer to take? ture. . the screen will tell you how much preparation time or how You’ll see the Columbia and other blimps at sporting events much response time (speaking time) remains for each ques. And the screen. . Most of them were built in beep. . but most. uh. Please listen carefully . aerial photography. Please begin speaking after the first part of the twentieth century. You will then hear a short conversation or part of a lec. begin speaking after the beep. I took classes and I had a lot of Japanese Test 1. When you hear a beep on the Audio Program. screen asking about the information that you have just read Narrator: Question 4. the then beep] [45-second pause. cuss the reasons she gives for having this opinion. Please begin speaking after the beep. over 250 meters long. Narrator: Question 34: In this lecture. [15-second pause. Probably French or Italian. . Begin reading now. . . . . Now. . will be recorded and evaluated by trained raters. A lot of times they’ll have elec- Narrator: Question 1. and heard. Professor? seconds in which to read the notice. response. It is important that you time yourself accurately when Student A: To. The last four tasks are Integrated Speaking tasks.TOEFL_ASAK_001-140. and you will have thirty seconds in which to plan Read the following passage about airships. Professor: Right. then beep] [45-second pause. . Please ture on the same topic. . uh. . a blimp—it was the Blimp Columbia. . work on the Speaking Section. . my dad worked for a Japanese company and my family spent a year and a half there when I was in Narrator: This is the end of the Listening Section of Practice high school. Lakehurst. You may take notes on both the read. to tell you the truth. . Didn’t they carry passengers? Narrator: Question 2. carry television cameras so they can you take this practice test. Begin reading now. . you need tasks. I studied Spanish in high school AUDIO but. blimps you see today. I don’t think you can understand another Listen carefully to the directions and read the questions on culture without speaking at least a bit of the language. and you have pen to look up and see something in the sky? Yeah? What twenty seconds in which to plan your response. The Narrator: Now listen to a discussion about airships. there was regular passenger service on Narrator: In some university classes. . Read the following passengers and crew members lost their lives . Student B: And advertising. In other classes. Professor: Right. you will see a question. purposes in World War I.qxp 4/21/06 1:16 PM Page 77 Practice Test 1 77 Narrator: Question 33: At what time of year are hailstorms Student B: Well. Student B: Well. you Student A: So . . . given any thought about what language you’re going to study? . that’s right. guage these days. I guess. . a very famous picture—what’s happening in this Give specific details and examples to support your explana. When you did you see? hear a beep on the Audio Program. such as quizzes and final exams. . You will have forty- a response. notice from the Dean of Education. They could travel on tests. how many of you were at the football game You may take notes as you listen. you used to live in Japan. . Please listen carefully . you have sixty seconds in Students: A blimp! which to answer the question. uh. . describes the process by which hail is formed. all we did was memorize grammar rules. because . . They were also used for military grades depend primarily on academic papers that the stu.

when you’re leaving. Mike. or not. you may take notes as you listen. of food. . and plants do not have to expend energy divided up into regions. you might say. are also fertile and are ready to pass on their beep. And taking a train. I just had another idea—you [CD 12 Track 3] might also think about taking a train. problem. . . I never think about taking trains—it Writing Section seems kinda—I don’t know. Student B: Okay. . you know. someone else was driving there. . so I should fill out a blue card since I have and insects and discuss how it benefits both of them. . . Well. you could fill out both. trying to keep all their flowers full of nectar and pollen all lope hanging on the wall. it’s a Student A: You’ve probably seen it. you fill out a blue the time. A lot of stu. then beep] Now stop speaking.qxp 4/21/06 1:16 PM Page 78 78 Practice Test 1 ago. I said then that. If you don’t have a car. After Student A: Yeah. Probably not all that much cheaper. This is their source Using information from the passage and the discussion. they have Student B: Hey. Discuss her problem and then explain which of the two solutions you think is better and why you think so. be pollinated. . Professor: Okay. well. the flower is full of pollen and nectar. which flowers to visit. . I was going to go see my sister in Boston. then beep] [60-second pause. its flowers are yellow. Insects have to visit what it was. day. . we were speaking in our last class The author takes a pretty harsh view of risk-taking. ers are yellow at any one time. I don’t know. I waited too long to make an airline reservation. If you have a car. Uh. A typical response should be 150 to 225 words. about pollination. Only about 10% of the lantana’s flow- got there. But you can You will hear a lecture on the same topic as the reading. everyone have a chance to read that little piece I gave you about risk-taking personalities? It comes Narrator: Question 6. we. well. It has almost as expensive as flying. We’ll talk about that in our next class . it’s pretty random. Usually riders share the gas as likely to visit these as . You put it in the enve. It will take quite awhile to get there. Your response should flying. method of pollination was by bees. but it’s at least a 20-hour That day. passage that follows. but I think it’s usually a little cheaper than minutes to write your response. maybe it’s something else. Again. basically it’s a map of the United Sates fewer flowers. are some plants that have a system that tells the insects but . . fertile orange one and nearly 100 times more likely to visit a Student B: What are you talking about? yellow one than an infertile red one. so . you should go check the Ride Board over at more likely to visit a super fertile yellow flower than a less the Student Union building. Narrator: Listen to part of a lecture in a psychology class on Please begin speaking after the beep. and so on. turn the page and start the Audio Program. Narrator: This is the end of the Speaking Section. The next drive. a shrub called the lan- Student A: Why don’t you just drive to Boston? tana. no. maybe seventy years ago. Student B: I thought about that. But no. you fill out a white card. begin speaking after the beep. less pollen. it’s expenses and sometimes the driving. . stop speaking. It was a lot cheaper and easier than traveling alone. most psychologists take a somewhat . Narrator: Directions: Take three minutes to read the short and those were great . It’s. Professor: Okay. Narrator: Listen to part of a lecture in a botany class. . butterflies. . though. Student A: Hey. speed. You may take notes as you read. card saying where you’re going. there out on campus. Go Student B: Well. I suppose I could look into that. Narrator: Listen to a conversation between two students. well. uh. then beep] Now stop speaking. Insects have no way of knowing spring break? which flowers contain nectar and pollen. It just so happens that these flowers. And for each region there’s an enve. . [30-second pause. That’s when a German company started building zep. uh. explain the relationship between the lantana plants Student B: Okay. you just didn’t realize good deal for both plants and insects. That way if [60-second pause. it’s the smell of the nectar and not the colors that provide lope for the region where you want to go—for New England. and I’d be exhausted when I no pollen. . but insects are ten times Student A: Hey. [20-second pause. Driving there would be On the third day it turns red and it’s no longer fertile. Student B: A train. and other Narrator: The professor and the students discuss two air. too. they could also receive pollen the insect has picked up Narrator: Question 5. . . .TOEFL_ASAK_001-140. old-fashioned somehow. well. I guess I should give it a shot. although in Europe I rode some of those high-speed trains. For example. . There’s less nectar. . And this system. as real flowers. . I used the Ride Board the color. this process is pretty much hit or Student A: Hi. . directly to the Writing Section. So . dents are traveling at this time of year. and insects were a ride. Please listen carefully . Please listen carefully . no. . However. from an article in a journal published . . And gas is so expensive these days. [20-second pause. of your response as well as on the correctness and quality of Narrator: Mike offers Diane two possible solutions to her your writing. the same topic that you just read about. so I’d have to stop somewhere and get a hotel room. It’s based on a color code. these nectar- compare these two airships. three minutes. the most common pelins again. . sleep and study or whatever on the way. called nectar that the flowers produce. maybe many riders you can take. include information from both the reading and the lecture. believe it The only tickets available are way too expensive for me. the train to Boston won’t be high. . Please begin speaking after the rich flowers. Please a car . . Your essay will be rated on the completeness and accuracy Thanks for the suggestions. and on the first day it blossoms. You will have twenty I dunno for sure. insects. There were experiments in your case. then beep] Student A: Right. Diane. you could go with him or her. the flower turns orange. from another plant. Mike. there’s a plant. how Now. about how all flowering plants have to doesn’t he? Today. this year I guess I’ll just hang to visit a lot of flowers to find the right ones. the blimp Columbia and the zeppelin Hindenburg. for most plants. These insects visit flowers to get a sweet liquid ships. the signal to the insect. ture. then beep] [60-second pause] Now pollen to other plants by means of these insects . Now. . no nectar. Any questions about this? and found a guy who wanted a ride to San Francisco last Narrator: Using specific examples and points from the lec- summer. uh. or. if you’re just looking for done with flowers made of yellow paper. Gettin’ ready to go somewhere for miss.

Well. Student B: Well. well. like. Studies have shown that risk. They recognize that their activities are to the School of Business. dent and vice president. these notes to help you answer the questions. . . but because of their skill. you asked me. but that doesn’t mean that the Trustees Then you will answer a question about the part of the lecture don’t listen to the Council President’s concerns sometimes.qxp 4/21/06 1:16 PM Page 79 Practice Test 2 79 more tolerant view of many types of risk-taking than psy. But I can’t go along with this article when it Student B: Oh. Your answers should be based on dents are. there are rewards. . Real power on this You are allowed to take notes as you listen. but the president of the Student Council tions.TOEFL_ASAK_001-140. . no someone from your own school? matter how fast they drive. but Student B: Tell you the truth. We realize that sometimes it’s impor. I don’t want to make any blanket statements about and vice president. . . takers have higher self-esteem. campus? An investment banker might always buy safe stocks. So pleasurable. some people are natural risk-takers. this is dents at the university get to vote for those two offices. . All the stu- adrenaline into their bloodstreams. Narrator: This is the end of the Integrated Skills Writing Student B: Why? Why should it matter to me who’s on the Section and of the Audio Program for Practice Test 1. You have twenty minutes to prepare and write your and then. I ture that you just heard. a chemical reward. part of the lecture again. . and I never pay much attention to any of The article discusses the connection between risk-taking them. So are you running for office again. Janet. . But I’ll tell you what.” Some Student A: Yeah. council was elected and that then they voted for president Now. . uh. so try to what they want to do. I have my doubts—I think the Trustees do be able to skip items and come back to them later. I’m thinking that next year. I’m running for takers tend to be pretty confident that nothing bad will re-election for the seat on the Student Council that belongs happen to them. You may also use your notes to help you. Student Council? Student A: Well. if I can’t vote for you tomorrow. well. discussing how they cast doubt on don’t think there’s much point in voting. Student A: Hey. Fifteen dollars from each student’s fees goes into the Student Council’s general fund. you’re right. doesn’t get to vote. the Law School. and you can only What I mean is. . that’s how it works? You can only vote for Motorcycle racers don’t think they will have accidents. president. reading passage. We decided it was more . This test includes two conversations and four lectures. During an actual listening test. they will succeed. are highlighted. that’s tomorrow? says there’s a . Student A: I want to serve one more year on the council . and . representative on the Student Council. their . you may turn the page and look back at the everyone on campus knows you. Allen. I’d argue that most risk. you will see a headphones icon. passage as you write. This icon tells you goes to the Trustees’ Meetings. and V. one that’s just foolish to take. say. There are some risks that people shouldn’t Student A: Uh. Narrator: Directions: This section tests your understanding Student B: Tell you the truth. also psychological benefits. the Business School. tonight. Most Student A: Great! Then you should also go to the debate questions are separated by a ten-second pause. For some people. more article was written. sure. ment doesn’t have any real power. . yeah. higher levels of confidence. around campus. the School of Arts and who take unnecessary risks. That’s a budget of. . I don’t know any- the main points of the reading. haven’t you seen the posters all over people take risks in one part of their lives but not in others. Now it’s true. I’ll try to get response. a “universal risk-taking personality. Actually. I thought I read somewhere that first the more. I’ll vote in the election tomorrow. You may not think so. For Sciences. Besides. and that risk-takers aren’t mentally ill. positive attitude . Student A: Right. Smoking is a health risk. their experience. Student B: Why didn’t you run for president then? Almost Remember. well. vote for someone from your own school. Janet. Student A: Yeah. taking risks. But you can’t vote for me. there’re always a lot of posters then he might race motorcycles on weekends. tomorrow. elected president. organizations or go to any concerts—most engineering stu- tion or lecture only once. Some questions have special directions that Just last year . I’m too busy to join any of conversations and lectures. Janet—since answer every question that you hear on this practice test. Narrator: Now get ready to answer the question. have you decided who you’re going to Sure. You will hear each conversa. but not read. Each of the ten schools on campus—the The article suggests that there’s no reward for people Engineering School. it decides what concerts Listening Section we’re going to have. to figure out who’s the best candidate for you to vote for. chologists did then.P. Student B: Oh. Except for the jump from airplanes. Allen. and you can use campus belongs to the Board of Trustees. there’s a physical reward. you will not Student B: Well. last year the Student Council voted to change the student But we psychologists have changed our opinion since this government charter. . everyone knows that student govern- what is stated or implied in the conversations and lectures. But take. You can refer to the reading thing about any of the other candidates. he or she that you will hear. . SCRIPT dangerous. it used to be that way. their bodies pump chemicals like Student Council President and Vice President. the most important thing is—the Council [CD 13 Track 1] gets to decide how to spend your money. democratic if all the students could directly elect the presi- tant to take risks. Question: Summarize the main points made in the lec. that you heard. something to repeat over and over. when skydivers. social and financial success than those who don’t. all ten of them—has one one thing. when people take risks. And others are vote for tomorrow? In the student government election? risk-averse. Student A: You should vote anyway. Narrator: Listen to a conversation between two students. There are you’ll be voting for council member. but student government’s important. a hundred and fifty Practice Test 2 thousand dollars. Student A: As a matter of fact. I am. Student B: Oh. their because you’re in the School of Engineering. The Council decides how much each campus organization can spend. In some ques. Janet? AUDIO and suicidal tendencies.