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Zach Rose

History of Western Music
11/27/16
Victimae Paschali Laudes

Victimae paschali laudes is a sequence that is traditionally performed during the week of
Easter. A sequence is a piece of music performed on important religious occasions that contains
paired lines of rhyming poetry.1 Victimae was originally written as a monophonic plainchant and
is generally attributed to Wipo of Burgundy due to a single note in the Fragmenta Sequentiarum
or Einsiedeln manuscript from the 11th century, though this is easily disputable. 2 Wipo of
Burgundy was a priest, poet, and chronicler around the turn of the 11th century and served under
German Emperor Conrad II as chaplain. 3 Victimae paschali laudes is particularly interesting
because it was specifically influential in the creation of the liturgical drama and is one of only
four sequences that was allowed to remain in use after the Council of Trent in 1545. 4,5 There is an
a verse that was removed by the Council of Trent which refers to the “deceipt of the jewry” and

1 New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd edition, vol 13 (Detroit: Gale 2003), Web, s.v. “Sequence,”
accessed Nov 30, 2016, http://go.galegroup.com/ps/retrieve.do?
tabID=T003&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&searchId=R1&searchType=BasicSearchForm&curr
entPosition=1&userGroupName=lacc_main&inPS=true&sort=RELEVANCE&contentSegment=&
prodId=GVRL&contentSet=GALE%7CCX3407710250&&docId=GALE|
CX3407710250&docType=GALE.

2 Victimae paschali laudes, manuscript, c 11th century, p. 17, Codex 366(472), Fragmenta
Sequentiarum, Stiftsbibliothek, Einsiedeln, http://www.e-codices.unifr.ch/en/list/one/sbe/0366.

3 Richard L. Crocker, Oxford Companion to Music, Oxford Music Online, Web, s.v. “Wipo,”
accessed Nov 28, 2016,
http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/30429?
q=wipo&search=quick&pos=1&_start=1#firsthit.

4 M. I. J. Rousseau, New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd edition (Detroit: Gale 2003), Web, s.v.
“Victimae Paschali Laudes,” accessed Nov. 29, 2016, http://go.galegroup.com/ps/retrieve.do?
tabID=T003&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&searchId=R3&searchType=BasicSearchForm&curr
entPosition=10&userGroupName=lacc_main&inPS=true&sort=RELEVANCE&contentSegment=
&prodId=GVRL&contentSet=GALE%7CCX3407711535&&docId=GALE|
CX3407711535&docType=GALE#.

5 Oxford Music Online, Oxford Companion to Music, Web, s.v. “Victimae paschali laudes,”
accessed Nov 30, 2016, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/opr/t114/e7132?
q=Victimae+paschali+laudes&search=quick&pos=2&_start=1#firsthit.

php/Victimae_paschali_laudes.jstor. The piece is also traditionally performed at a very important time in the Easter mass. http://www2. the main character recovers from near death after being attacked with a bazooka. directly in between the Gloria and the Kyrie which puts a lot of focus on its performance. especially in the 15th century when the Marian cult was very popular. Web. and Philippe Verdelot. 8 David J Rothenberg. “Preparing a Performance of Victoria’s ‘Victimae paschal laudes’. 9 “Gregorian Chant Remixed”. — The website describing the album. 7 This piece was particularly important to Marian devotion during Eastertide because the text focuses on Mary’s depiction of the resurrection. No. http://www.” The Choral Journal 35. 28. 2011). — a collection of scores and basic information about the piece 7 Chris White. my main character seeks revenge. http://www. it is monophonic with mostly scalar. rather than turning the other cheek in a Christ-like manner. 6 The text of Victimae paschali laudes praises Jesus Christ and then depicts a dialogue with Mary Magdalene in which she describes the events of the resurrection on Easter morning. 2016.org/wiki/index. Web. including the drum beats. Josquin des Prez. Thanks to its popularity. accessed Nov. (New York: Oxford University Press. one a recording of the original plainchant and the other a remix by David Minnick. The Flower of Paradise: Marian Devotion and Secular Song in Medieval and Renaissance Music. both from Devices & Desires by New York Polyphony. Heinrich Isaac. 29. The plainchant is a very traditional performance of plainchant.org/stable/23551049. It is also interesting to note that the text of the sequence does not distinguish whether the Mary that is referenced is the Virgin Mary or Mary Magdalene. since it is a digital release there were no liner notes to reference .cpdl.newyorkpolyphony. 2016. stepwise motion and stays largely in the key in which it was written. 9 (1995): 10. This did break the original paired rhyme scheme of the sequence. 190-192. but it was certainly interpreted as the Virgin Mary. I used two versions of the song. Zach Rose History of Western Music 11/27/16 was removed due to its antisemitism. 6 “Victimae paschali laudes. the sequence has been set by many composers throughout history including William Byrd. However.8 The text of Victimae is particularly relevant to my video because it too depicts a sort of resurrection. An interesting fact about the remix is that all of the sounds are manipulated samples of the New York Polyphony vocals. The text of the bible would indicate that it is Mary Magdalene. accessed Nov.9 This is relevant to my video because it is a sequel to Walker Kelly’s final project from 2014 and I only used the people originally involved in its production. Devices & Desires. New York Polyphony.com/gregorian-chant-remixed-2/.” Choral Wiki.

” The Choral Journal 35. s.” http://go. c 11th century. Web. Oxford Companion to Music. Manuscript.do? tabID=T003&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&searchId=R3&searchType=BasicSearchForm&curr entPosition=10&userGroupName=lacc_main&inPS=true&sort=RELEVANCE&contentSegment= &prodId=GVRL&contentSet=GALE%7CCX3407711535&&docId=GALE| CX3407711535&docType=GALE#.” http://www. Einsiedeln. New Catholic Encyclopedia. Richard L.cpdl. http://www.php/Victimae_paschali_laudes.jstor. M. “Gregorian Chant Remixed”. Web. Web. Rousseau.” http://www.com/ps/retrieve. s.v. “Victimae paschali laudes. s.com/subscriber/article/opr/t114/e7132? q=Victimae+paschali+laudes&search=quick&pos=2&_start=1#firsthit. s. http://www.com/ps/retrieve.com/gregorian-chant-remixed-2/. Oxford Companion to Music. http://www. Fragmenta Sequentiarum. I.newyorkpolyphony. 2nd edition.galegroup. Rothenberg. Oxford Music Online.org/stable/23551049.galegroup. Codex 366(472). Zach Rose History of Western Music 11/27/16 Bibliography New Catholic Encyclopedia. David J. 2nd edition. Web. Victimae paschali laudes.oxfordmusiconline. Crocker. Detroit: Gale 2003. “Preparing a Performance of Victoria’s ‘Victimae paschal laudes’. White. Devices & Desires. J.oxfordmusiconline. The Flower of Paradise: Marian Devotion and Secular Song in Medieval and Renaissance Music. Web. . vol 13.v. “Victimae paschali laudes. “Victimae Paschali Laudes.v.ch/en/list/one/sbe/0366. 9 (1995): 9-15. http://www2.unifr. Web.” http://go. “Wipo. Detroit: Gale 2003.do? tabID=T003&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&searchId=R1&searchType=BasicSearchForm&curr entPosition=1&userGroupName=lacc_main&inPS=true&sort=RELEVANCE&contentSegment=& prodId=GVRL&contentSet=GALE%7CCX3407710250&&docId=GALE| CX3407710250&docType=GALE.e-codices.v. Oxford Music Online. No. Chris. New York: Oxford University Press.” Choral Wiki.org/wiki/index. 2011. “Sequence.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/30429? q=wipo&search=quick&pos=1&_start=1#firsthit. New York Polyphony. Stiftsbibliothek.