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Development Of Welding Defects Identifier

Application On Radiographic Film Using Fuzzy
C-Means (FCM)

Zaenal Abidin
Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Nuklir-BATAN, Jl. Babarsari Yogyakarta, zaenala6@gmail.com

Achmad Faris S.
Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Nuklir-BATAN, achmad-faris@ymail.com

Muhtadan
Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Nuklir-BATAN, muhtadan@gmail.com

Abstract —A software development for the 1. INTRODUCTION
identification of weld defect shape indicator Radiographic Testing (RT) is one of the most important
radiographs has been constructed. The nondestructive testing techniques for welding inspection. It is
background of this research is the reading of based on the ability of foton (x-ray or  ray) to pass through
the conventional radiographic film that takes a metal and other materials opaque to ordinary light, and produce
long time and subjectivity that can trigger photographic records by the transmitted radiant energy [1]-[3].
dissent fellow interpreter. The purpose of this Because different materials absorb either foton to different
research is to produce Applications that can extents, penetrated rays show variations in intensity on the
identify the form of weld defects in digital receiving films. RT can examine the internal structure of a weld.
image processing radiographic film by Traditionally, experienced interpreters evaluate the weld quality
applying image enhancement, segmentation based on radiography. It is a time and manpower consuming
Fuzzy C – Means (FCM), image morphology, work. In addition, human interpretation of weld quality based on
and feature extraction methods labeling. Image film radiography is very subjective, inconsistent and sometimes
enhancement process aims to create a better biased. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a computer-aided
image quality, including contrast stretching system to assist interpretation of radiographic images to increase
techniques, noise reduction by a median filter, the objectivity, accuracy and efficiency of radiographic
and image sharpening with laplacian filter. In inspection [1],[3]-[5].
a separate defect of object with a background Currently there are great deals of work and research on the
image using a clustering segmentation method development of automated systems for inspection and analysis
Fuzzy C - Means. Feature extraction method of radiographs. In our view, the major steps of an automatic
used in this research Labeling by regionprops detection system are the film digitization stage, pre-processing
command in MATLAB toolbox. Results of the of images, and identification of defects. These developments
research is an application that has been tested rely mostly on techniques such as image processing, feature
and able to interpret defects form with 91.85% extraction, and pattern recognition. The pattern classification
success rate of 60 label image data. stage is one of the most important steps in the implementation of
an automated radiographic inspection system [6,7]. Digital
Keyword — radiographic film, image image processing applied in the development is technique of
enhancement, segmentation, Fuzzy C-Means. noise removal using median filter, contrast stretching and image
sharpening by Laplacian filter. The purpose of this research is to
produce Applications that can identify the form of weld defects
in digital image processing radiographic film by applying image
enhancement, segmentation Fuzzy C – Means (FCM), image
morphology, and feature extraction methods labeling.

2. METHOD
2.1.IMPROVED DIGITAL IMAGE
Image enhancement aims to improve the quality of the display
image to view humans or to convert an image in order to have
a better format so that the image becomes more easily

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Initial value of the program cluster 3. While 3. noise reduction by a describes the distance from the given data point to a cluster median filter. where f is the image that will be cut. then the result of this segmentation process will be 2..prosessing.processed by computers[6]. which means separating the defect with (4) the background image of the object[7]. a different pattern . 86 . Before the digital image improving membership degree and cluster center of each enhancement processing the RGB image should be changed data point over and over..2. SEGMENTATION FUZZY C – MEANS fuzzy inference system[9. This method divides an image into regions - Fuzzy C-Means algorithm is as follows [9.2. By the way of image must be improved first. Defining proximity or similarity pattern that matches How to get a piece of the image is by dragging the mouse cursor the domain of the data. Operator / user can choose the location of feature selection).pixels c (2 ≤ c ≤ M x N) (1) neighbors. namely: contrast ( = (5) stretching.4. Broadly speaking. DIGITAL IMAGE ENHANCEMENT 2. 3.3. as follows. noise reduction by a median filter.1. and image enhancement using the Laplacian filter. feature vectors) into groups or clusters Digital image used radiographic films have a format .8]. One of the digital image segmentation method used to separate the background image and the object segmentation defects is 2. and image sharpening with laplacian filter. The command is to do a digital image which cuts crop = clustering activity involves several stages. . To overcome this. Evaluating clustering results. It can be defined as the process of defining a used as an uncompressed image. IMAGE CLUSTERING Clustering is an unsupervised classification (not trained) to 3. Clustering according to the selected algorithm. for a program that reads a digital image radiographic film is true within a cluster will be more similar to each other designed to read both formats .10]: homogeneous regions based on certain criteria that similarity 1. For the center weighted by the degree of membership of the data third image processing operations above. Represents pattern (may involve feature extraction or the result of cutting. Each data point has a optics[5]. FUZZY C-MEANS ALGORITHM Fuzzy C . not least in the form of a digital image that is determine the cluster center. Photographic Experts Group) is a standard photographic image tn} into several clusters C = {c1.Means. A cluster is a set of objects that are merged because of similarities or closeness.10]. use the commands that points..jpg. The number of (3) clusters can be determined as needed with a minimum number of 4. while the crop is 1. pre .Means is the first time to interpretation. for example. imcrop (f). Set the initial value of fuzzy clustering matrix U used for further high-level process that can be performed on an image. the process of image classification and (2) object identification process. cn} it is based on quality [3]. Creating a data abstraction (if needed). 5.Means is a row of have been available in Matlab toolbox. (6) 5. While format jpeg (Joint mapping or mapping f: D C of some data D = {t1. t2. cluster centers and some degree of membership for each data point. Operation that repairs image ( = in this study includes three processes. namely stretching contrast. Update fuzzy clustering matrix clusters amounted to 2..bmp or bitmap files is a common when compared with the pattern that is on a different format for storing bitmap images developed by Microsoft and is cluster. Image will be cropped automatically and will be processed in the 4. to form a box with the desired size and then clicked 2 times.Means is determined at random. 3. FUZZY C-MEANS (FCM) The quality of a radiograph will affect the process of The concept of Fuzzy C . the image will be cut according to the needs. Improvement of digital images in this study includes iteration is based on minimizing an objective function that three processes. Repeat until the algorithm converges 2.3.CUTTING IMAGE the image is in the process that divides the clustering or This operation serves to avoid image processing on the grouping a set of images into a number of different identification process that is not useful and to reduce the Begian. the radiograph image into digital form using only the camera cluster center is still not accurate. 2. Update the cluster center vk Fuzzy C . This rgb2gray.bmp or based bebearap resemblance. Intuitively. . where the different parts of the members have in computing time and the image that needs to be cut into smaller common a special (homogen)[6.. In the initial condition. This information can be used to construct a 3. the similarity between them. it will be seen that the center of (converted) into a first grayscale image by using the command the cluster will move towards the right location. The output of the Fuzzy C . the digital radiograph image of the degree of membership for each cluster. Select the number of clusters between the gray level of a pixel with gray level pixels .. PROCEDUR a pattern (data. sizes. which will mark the location caused in general of the process of conversion from analog of the average for each cluster. c2.

This application will value on the image extraction results. CUTTING IMAGE Changes in structure elements and the value of adjacency To avoid image processing on the identification process. this study.4. 87 . disk. can determine the value of properties of the image of weld defects such as area. Roundness= (7) Indications of irregular shape = (8) (b) lengthwise = (9) round = eccentricity < 0.Means This is with a ‘*’ to form a box with the desired size and then clicked 2 as much as 3 indicative form of disability that are times. (a) Value – the value can be searched by the following formula. where f is the image that will be The process of this label serves to define the same binary cut. DEVELOPMENT OF APPLICATIONS WITH (c) A GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI) The development application for the identification of weld defect shape indication radiographs using clustering method Fuzzy C – Means This is an application-based Graphical User Interface (GUI). (c) spherical. there are 4 geometric shapes defect indications. that is can impact the input image to be processed at extraction. Radiograph can be with the defect and morphological closing. DIGITAL IMAGE DATA INPUT RADIOGRAPH processes there are 3 options for the extraction of useful The data input is the application of digital radiographic image of components in the representation of the image of the BATAN (standard IIW). In will be cut according to the needs. not useful and to reduce the computing time. perimeter. LABELING AND FEATURE EXTRACTION which cuts crop = imcrop (f). The processes of operation morphological equipped with namely (a) branched / stringy. and square while the value of adjacency can be changed within 1 to 10. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The results of image segmentation have been obtained then performed morphological processes. This process is shown in Fig. MORPHOLOGY IMAGE 4. The value of properties is obtained by using the command regionprops existing Matlab Toolbox. 1. major axis length. round. 1. minor axis length and eccentricity. dilation. we 2.6. elements used is arbitrary. Structure (d) irregular as in Fig.3. (b) longitudinal. and irregular.1. The use of GUI intended that the resulting applications are to be user friendly and easy to use. diamond.5. and eccentricity for indications rounded shape. while the crop is the result of cutting. Once the value of the label of each image is known. The image of the ask the operator / user to choose the location of the image that selected label indications represent the deformed shape. Image data interpreting radiographic weld defect shape on a radiograph. the expected output of the classification is How to get a piece of the image is by dragging the mouse cursor performed by clustering method Fuzzy C . and structure element and the value of neighborhood. processed in the pre – processing. because the application is (d) expected to be the decision support for an interpreter in Fig.2. The command to do a digital image 3. the image needs to be cut into smaller sizes. 4. In this morphological 4. The image will be cropped automatically and will be elongated. the major axis length ratio values and minor axis length to indicate an elongated shape. Value of feature extraction for each label is then measured with the roundness formula for indications of irregular shape.7 (10) 3. and erosion. non-defect.

Image enhancement process is done in the order of arrangement stretching contrast. Image segmentation aims to separate the background image with the image of the object weld defects radiographs which are generally located in the middle of an image. medfilt2. the user can select the auto or that the image quality is getting better.1. or referred to in this research is the edge of the parts that are considered to be defected in radiographic film. 2 The process of cutting the image 4.4. 6 is a picture of the results of (a)auto (b) manual image enhancement. To use the auto option stretchlim command while the filter.1.5. 6.2. 88 . low out of 0. This can be seen in the histogram of each image.2. The Fig. Fig. Image enhancement is also intended to eliminate the blur effect (blur) resulting from the reduction of noise using median filter. Fig. high in. Histogram stretching contrast with the low score on at process of the image (cropping). Histogram stretching auto contrast using Fuzzy C-Means. 7 shows the results of image enhancement using contrast stretching and median filter with a 5x5 kernel then performed segmentation Fig.5. in the high 0. The maximum of iteration are 100 iterations and iteration error rate of 1E-6. according to the input image.4. at the edges of an object. This segmentation will be obtained from each of the characteristic shape of defects in radiographic images making it easier to recognize. value in 0. DIGITAL IMAGE ENHANCEMENT Image enhancement process is done after the cutting Fig.3. and high out of Image enhancement aims to provide a sharper image. Fig. Fig. Results of image enhancement.3.5 image of cutting (cropping). 5 is a histogram with a low value in 0. and sharpening. is a histogram of the image using the results of cutting stretchlim command and Fig.4. in the high 0. low out and high out according to need. median filter. and high out of 0. 3 image (the result of noise reduction) will contain the median showed the result of contrast stretching process for setting value in accordance with the neighborhoods around the pixel the contrast auto and manual settings by setting a low value. in the high 0. stretchlim command. For a number of clusters or groups of binary image has the same value can be determined as needed. The higher the value of manual. especially 0. low out 4.4. SEGMENTATION FUZZY C – MEANS of 0. Noise reduction aims to reduce noise (white spots) so In contrast stretching.1.2. the resulting images are blurred because the value of the user manual. Fig. Each pixel of the new high in. low out and high out the stretching process better contrast for image enhancement stretching the auto contrast the use Fig. stretching contrast (contrast stretching) reduction in noise (noise).4. this study includes 0. 5. neighborhood increasingly widespread. it can determine the value of the low ins. and high out of 0. low out of 0. further sharpening the image. Differences in auto and manual contrast stretch The results of the contrast stretching either auto or manual have obtained to set the value of the low ins. The process of noise reduction Suppression of noise made by the median filter operator is performed using a median filter with a kernel size of 3x3. 4.

MORPHOLOGY IMAGE success rate of 93. the use of the median filter to reduce noise.8099 the defective object with the background image segmentation • Compmajmin = 0. Fig.5971 using clustering Fuzzy C . especially at Fig.FEATURE EXTRACTION USE LABELING METHODS The results of improved image quality and segmentation are processed to take shape defects characteristic of each pattern using the labeling method. This means that based on the simulation In this study used morphological operations are dilation. a visual indication by the user. 8. 9 is an image of the overall results of the testing of the defect image of the object so that the object can be conducted labels. The using of this method is to obtain unique or specific image that has separated the background that are Fig.7. TESTING IMAGE LABELING weld defect types.69% or have a success rate of 91.6022 software-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that can separate • Ti = 0. not irregular that can be used as an analysis and decision support interpreters interpreting radiographs in industrial radiographic 4. and Eccentricity that In addition to the quality of the input image.6. and defects.the following: for the indication of defects elongated shape has an error rate of 8. round. 5. and tests performed system has an average success rate of Dilation can be used to perform a thickening on the edge 91. Results of image segmentation FCM indication of the form of spherical defects have the success rate90. 7. CONCLUSION This program can produce images that have better image quality using image enhancement includes stretching contrast. As for the structure element used is arbitrary because the central value at the center of neighborhood elements that did not change the shape of the image segmentation results while the other element structure changes the shape of the image segmentation results. especially the are used to label the image measurements in this study. Minor Axis Length.33%. image enhancement processes. 9. 20 input images are an indication of the form of the 60 images obtained from the labeling process. Results indication spherical shape defects the edges of the object are considered disabled welds on the digital radiograph image.85%. 4. For an Fig. and 15 images for indications of defects shape are irregular. to enhance the image intensity and image enhancement to provide a sharper image. testing with targeted disabilities will increase the success rate on the test simulation and the actual process of interpretation. Results of the testing showed the image of the label .5. Selection of pixels / dots that fit 8. In this study indicated there are 23 images having an elongated shape defect.Means and interpret the deformed So the parameter is a label image with rounded shape shape of the weld defect particularly elongated shape. The test program was conducted by analyzing comparative indication of the shape defect indicated on the panel with 89 .31%. The results of testing of the weld defect shape radiograph subsequently measured using “regionprops” command. parameter values of the defect is Applications developed from this research in the form of • eccentricity = 0. of success in the interpretation. interpretation The advantage of using this command is that it can determine the value of the size of the image region such as Perimeter.91% and for indications of irregular shape defects have a 4. the selection of test points on the The following are examples of defects shape rounded image that is deemed defective radiograph also affect the level indication that are displayed on the GUI according to Fig. Area. 22 images for indications of a round shape. connected/ disconnected.

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