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Development Of Welding Defects Identifier

Application On Radiographic Film Using Fuzzy

C-Means (FCM)

Zaenal Abidin
Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Nuklir-BATAN, Jl. Babarsari Yogyakarta,

Achmad Faris S.
Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Nuklir-BATAN,

Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Nuklir-BATAN,

Abstract A software development for the 1. INTRODUCTION

identification of weld defect shape indicator Radiographic Testing (RT) is one of the most important
radiographs has been constructed. The nondestructive testing techniques for welding inspection. It is
background of this research is the reading of based on the ability of foton (x-ray or ray) to pass through
the conventional radiographic film that takes a metal and other materials opaque to ordinary light, and produce
long time and subjectivity that can trigger photographic records by the transmitted radiant energy [1]-[3].
dissent fellow interpreter. The purpose of this Because different materials absorb either foton to different
research is to produce Applications that can extents, penetrated rays show variations in intensity on the
identify the form of weld defects in digital receiving films. RT can examine the internal structure of a weld.
image processing radiographic film by Traditionally, experienced interpreters evaluate the weld quality
applying image enhancement, segmentation based on radiography. It is a time and manpower consuming
Fuzzy C Means (FCM), image morphology, work. In addition, human interpretation of weld quality based on
and feature extraction methods labeling. Image film radiography is very subjective, inconsistent and sometimes
enhancement process aims to create a better biased. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a computer-aided
image quality, including contrast stretching system to assist interpretation of radiographic images to increase
techniques, noise reduction by a median filter, the objectivity, accuracy and efficiency of radiographic
and image sharpening with laplacian filter. In inspection [1],[3]-[5].
a separate defect of object with a background Currently there are great deals of work and research on the
image using a clustering segmentation method development of automated systems for inspection and analysis
Fuzzy C - Means. Feature extraction method of radiographs. In our view, the major steps of an automatic
used in this research Labeling by regionprops detection system are the film digitization stage, pre-processing
command in MATLAB toolbox. Results of the of images, and identification of defects. These developments
research is an application that has been tested rely mostly on techniques such as image processing, feature
and able to interpret defects form with 91.85% extraction, and pattern recognition. The pattern classification
success rate of 60 label image data. stage is one of the most important steps in the implementation of
an automated radiographic inspection system [6,7]. Digital
Keyword radiographic film, image image processing applied in the development is technique of
enhancement, segmentation, Fuzzy C-Means. noise removal using median filter, contrast stretching and image
sharpening by Laplacian filter. The purpose of this research is to
produce Applications that can identify the form of weld defects
in digital image processing radiographic film by applying image
enhancement, segmentation Fuzzy C Means (FCM), image
morphology, and feature extraction methods labeling.

Image enhancement aims to improve the quality of the display
image to view humans or to convert an image in order to have
a better format so that the image becomes more easily

processed by computers[6]. Operation that repairs image ( =
in this study includes three processes, namely: contrast ( = (5)
stretching, noise reduction by a median filter, and image
enhancement using the Laplacian filter. (6)
5. Repeat until the algorithm converges
Clustering is an unsupervised classification (not trained) to 3. PROCEDUR
a pattern (data, feature vectors) into groups or clusters Digital image used radiographic films have a format .bmp or
based bebearap resemblance. Intuitively, a different pattern .jpg, for a program that reads a digital image radiographic film
is true within a cluster will be more similar to each other designed to read both formats .bmp or bitmap files is a common
when compared with the pattern that is on a different format for storing bitmap images developed by Microsoft and is
cluster. It can be defined as the process of defining a used as an uncompressed image. While format jpeg (Joint
mapping or mapping f: D C of some data D = {t1, t2, ..., Photographic Experts Group) is a standard photographic image
tn} into several clusters C = {c1, c2, ..., cn} it is based on quality [3].
the similarity between them. A cluster is a set of objects
that are merged because of similarities or closeness. While 3.1.CUTTING IMAGE
the image is in the process that divides the clustering or This operation serves to avoid image processing on the
grouping a set of images into a number of different identification process that is not useful and to reduce the
Begian, where the different parts of the members have in computing time and the image that needs to be cut into smaller
common a special (homogen)[6,8]. Broadly speaking, sizes. The command is to do a digital image which cuts crop =
clustering activity involves several stages, as follows. imcrop (f), where f is the image that will be cut, while the crop is
1. Represents pattern (may involve feature extraction or the result of cutting. Operator / user can choose the location of
feature selection). the image will be cut according to the needs.
2. Defining proximity or similarity pattern that matches How to get a piece of the image is by dragging the mouse cursor
the domain of the data. to form a box with the desired size and then clicked 2 times.
3. Clustering according to the selected algorithm. Image will be cropped automatically and will be processed in the
4. Creating a data abstraction (if needed). pre - prosessing.
5. Evaluating clustering results.
2.3. FUZZY C-MEANS (FCM) The quality of a radiograph will affect the process of
The concept of Fuzzy C - Means is the first time to interpretation, not least in the form of a digital image that is
determine the cluster center, which will mark the location caused in general of the process of conversion from analog
of the average for each cluster. In the initial condition, the radiograph image into digital form using only the camera
cluster center is still not accurate. Each data point has a optics[5]. To overcome this, the digital radiograph image of the
degree of membership for each cluster. By the way of image must be improved first. Before the digital image
improving membership degree and cluster center of each enhancement processing the RGB image should be changed
data point over and over, it will be seen that the center of (converted) into a first grayscale image by using the command
the cluster will move towards the right location. This rgb2gray. Improvement of digital images in this study includes
iteration is based on minimizing an objective function that three processes, namely stretching contrast, noise reduction by a
describes the distance from the given data point to a cluster median filter, and image sharpening with laplacian filter. For the
center weighted by the degree of membership of the data third image processing operations above, use the commands that
points. The output of the Fuzzy C - Means is a row of have been available in Matlab toolbox.
cluster centers and some degree of membership for each
data point. This information can be used to construct a 3.3. SEGMENTATION FUZZY C MEANS
fuzzy inference system[9,10]. One of the digital image segmentation method used to separate
the background image and the object segmentation defects is
2.4. FUZZY C-MEANS ALGORITHM Fuzzy C - Means. This method divides an image into regions -
Fuzzy C-Means algorithm is as follows [9,10]: homogeneous regions based on certain criteria that similarity
1. Select the number of clusters between the gray level of a pixel with gray level pixels - pixels
c (2 c M x N) (1) neighbors, then the result of this segmentation process will be
2. Set the initial value of fuzzy clustering matrix U used for further high-level process that can be performed on an
image, for example, the process of image classification and
object identification process. Initial value of the program cluster
3. Update the cluster center vk Fuzzy C - Means is determined at random. The number of
(3) clusters can be determined as needed with a minimum number of
4. Update fuzzy clustering matrix clusters amounted to 2, which means separating the defect with
(4) the background image of the object[7].

The results of image segmentation have been obtained then
performed morphological processes. In this morphological 4.1. DIGITAL IMAGE DATA INPUT RADIOGRAPH
processes there are 3 options for the extraction of useful The data input is the application of digital radiographic image of
components in the representation of the image of the BATAN (standard IIW). Radiograph can be with the defect and
morphological closing, dilation, and erosion. non-defect, there are 4 geometric shapes defect indications,
The processes of operation morphological equipped with namely (a) branched / stringy, (b) longitudinal, (c) spherical, and
structure element and the value of neighborhood. Structure (d) irregular as in Fig. 1.
elements used is arbitrary, diamond, disk, and square while
the value of adjacency can be changed within 1 to 10.
Changes in structure elements and the value of adjacency
To avoid image processing on the identification process, that is
can impact the input image to be processed at extraction.
not useful and to reduce the computing time, the image needs to
be cut into smaller sizes. The command to do a digital image
3.5. LABELING AND FEATURE EXTRACTION which cuts crop = imcrop (f), where f is the image that will be
The process of this label serves to define the same binary cut, while the crop is the result of cutting. This application will
value on the image extraction results. The image of the ask the operator / user to choose the location of the image that
selected label indications represent the deformed shape. In will be cut according to the needs.
this study, the expected output of the classification is How to get a piece of the image is by dragging the mouse cursor
performed by clustering method Fuzzy C - Means This is with a * to form a box with the desired size and then clicked 2
as much as 3 indicative form of disability that are times. The image will be cropped automatically and will be
elongated, round, and irregular. processed in the pre processing. This process is shown in Fig.
Once the value of the label of each image is known, we 2.
can determine the value of properties of the image of weld
defects such as area, perimeter, major axis length, minor
axis length and eccentricity. The value of properties is
obtained by using the command regionprops existing
Matlab Toolbox. Value of feature extraction for each label
is then measured with the roundness formula for
indications of irregular shape, the major axis length ratio
values and minor axis length to indicate an elongated
shape, and eccentricity for indications rounded shape. (a)
Value the value can be searched by the following

Roundness= (7)

Indications of irregular shape = (8) (b)

lengthwise = (9)
round = eccentricity < 0.7 (10)


The development application for the identification of weld
defect shape indication radiographs using clustering
method Fuzzy C Means This is an application-based
Graphical User Interface (GUI). The use of GUI
intended that the resulting applications are to be user
friendly and easy to use, because the application is (d)
expected to be the decision support for an interpreter in Fig. 1. Image data
interpreting radiographic weld defect shape on a

Fig. 2 The process of cutting the image


Image enhancement process is done after the cutting Fig. 5. Histogram stretching contrast with the low score on at
process of the image (cropping), this study includes 0.1, in the high 0.2, low out of 0.4, and high out of 0.5.
stretching contrast (contrast stretching) reduction in noise
(noise), and sharpening. The process of noise reduction Suppression of noise made by the median filter operator is
performed using a median filter with a kernel size of 3x3. medfilt2. Noise reduction aims to reduce noise (white spots) so
In contrast stretching, the user can select the auto or that the image quality is getting better. The higher the value of
manual. To use the auto option stretchlim command while the filter, the resulting images are blurred because the value of
the user manual, it can determine the value of the low ins, neighborhood increasingly widespread. Each pixel of the new
high in, low out and high out according to need. Fig. 3 image (the result of noise reduction) will contain the median
showed the result of contrast stretching process for setting value in accordance with the neighborhoods around the pixel
the contrast auto and manual settings by setting a low value, according to the input image.
value in 0.1, in the high 0.2, low out of 0.4, and high out of Image enhancement aims to provide a sharper image, especially
0.5 image of cutting (cropping). at the edges of an object, or referred to in this research is the
edge of the parts that are considered to be defected in
radiographic film. Image enhancement is also intended to
eliminate the blur effect (blur) resulting from the reduction of
noise using median filter. Image enhancement process is done in
the order of arrangement stretching contrast, median filter,
further sharpening the image. Fig. 6 is a picture of the results of
(a)auto (b) manual image enhancement.
Fig.3. Differences in auto and manual contrast stretch

The results of the contrast stretching either auto or manual

have obtained to set the value of the low ins, high in, low
out and high out the stretching process better contrast for
image enhancement stretching the auto contrast the use
Fig. 6. Results of image enhancement.
stretchlim command. This can be seen in the histogram of
each image. The Fig.4. is a histogram of the image using
the results of cutting stretchlim command and Fig. 5 is a
histogram with a low value in 0.1, in the high 0.2, low out 4.4. SEGMENTATION FUZZY C MEANS
of 0.4, and high out of 0.5. Image segmentation aims to separate the background image with
the image of the object weld defects radiographs which are
generally located in the middle of an image. This segmentation
will be obtained from each of the characteristic shape of defects
in radiographic images making it easier to recognize. The
maximum of iteration are 100 iterations and iteration error rate
of 1E-6. For a number of clusters or groups of binary image has
the same value can be determined as needed. Fig. 7 shows the
results of image enhancement using contrast stretching and
median filter with a 5x5 kernel then performed segmentation
Fig. 4. Histogram stretching auto contrast using Fuzzy C-Means.

a visual indication by the user. 20 input images are an indication
of the form of the 60 images obtained from the labeling process.
In this study indicated there are 23 images having an elongated
shape defect, 22 images for indications of a round shape, and 15
images for indications of defects shape are irregular.
Results of the testing showed the image of the label - the
following: for the indication of defects elongated shape has an
error rate of 8.69% or have a success rate of 91.31%. For an
Fig. 7. Results of image segmentation FCM
indication of the form of spherical defects have the success
rate90.91% and for indications of irregular shape defects have a
4.5. MORPHOLOGY IMAGE success rate of 93.33%. This means that based on the simulation
In this study used morphological operations are dilation. and tests performed system has an average success rate of
Dilation can be used to perform a thickening on the edge 91.85%. Fig. 9 is an image of the overall results of the testing
of the defect image of the object so that the object can be conducted labels.
connected/ disconnected. As for the structure element used
is arbitrary because the central value at the center of
neighborhood elements that did not change the shape of
the image segmentation results while the other element
structure changes the shape of the image segmentation


The results of improved image quality and segmentation
are processed to take shape defects characteristic of each
pattern using the labeling method.
The using of this method is to obtain unique or specific
image that has separated the background that are
Fig. 9. The results of testing of the weld defect shape radiograph
subsequently measured using regionprops command.
The advantage of using this command is that it can
determine the value of the size of the image region such as
Perimeter, Area, Minor Axis Length, and Eccentricity that In addition to the quality of the input image, especially the
are used to label the image measurements in this study. image enhancement processes, the selection of test points on the
The following are examples of defects shape rounded image that is deemed defective radiograph also affect the level
indication that are displayed on the GUI according to Fig. of success in the interpretation. Selection of pixels / dots that fit
8. testing with targeted disabilities will increase the success rate on
the test simulation and the actual process of interpretation.

This program can produce images that have better image quality
using image enhancement includes stretching contrast, the use of
the median filter to reduce noise, to enhance the image intensity
and image enhancement to provide a sharper image, especially at
Fig. 8. Results indication spherical shape defects the edges of the object are considered disabled welds on the
digital radiograph image.
parameter values of the defect is Applications developed from this research in the form of
eccentricity = 0.6022 software-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that can separate
Ti = 0.8099 the defective object with the background image segmentation
Compmajmin = 0.5971 using clustering Fuzzy C - Means and interpret the deformed
So the parameter is a label image with rounded shape shape of the weld defect particularly elongated shape, round, and
defects. not irregular that can be used as an analysis and decision support
interpreters interpreting radiographs in industrial radiographic
4.7. TESTING IMAGE LABELING weld defect types.
The test program was conducted by analyzing comparative
indication of the shape defect indicated on the panel with
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Name : Zaenal Abidin, Ir,
Agencies : STTN BATAN
Email :
Lecturer since 1988, chairman of
departmen of Nuclear physics
Teaching experience:
Nuclear Technology, Safety,