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1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE CHAP. 16, DIV.

I
1601
1605.2.1

Volume 2
Chapters 1 through 15 are printed in Volume 1 of the Uniform Building Code.

Chapter 16
STRUCTURAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
NOTE: This chapter has been revised in its entirety.
Division I—GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

SECTION 1601 — SCOPE L = live load, except roof live load, including any permitted
live load reduction.
This chapter prescribes general design requirements applicable to
all structures regulated by this code. CHAP. 16, DIV. I Lr = roof live load, including any permitted live load
reduction.
P = ponding load.
SECTION 1602 — DEFINITIONS S = snow load.
The following terms are defined for use in this code: T = self-straining force and effects arising from contraction
or expansion resulting from temperature change, shrink-
ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN is a method of proportion-
age, moisture change, creep in component materials,
ing structural elements such that computed stresses produced in
the elements by the allowable stress load combinations do not movement due to differential settlement, or combina-
exceed specified allowable stress (also called working stress tions thereof.
design). W = load due to wind pressure.
BALCONY, EXTERIOR, is an exterior floor system project-
SECTION 1604 — STANDARDS
ing from a structure and supported by that structure, with no addi-
tional independent supports. The standards listed below are recognized standards (see Section
DEAD LOADS consist of the weight of all materials and fixed 3504).
equipment incorporated into the building or other structure. 1. Wind Design.
DECK is an exterior floor system supported on at least two 1.1 ASCE 7, Chapter 6, Minimum Design Loads for
opposing sides by an adjoining structure and/or posts, piers, or Buildings and Other Structures
other independent supports. 1.2 ANSI EIA/TIA 222-E, Structural Standards for Steel
Antenna Towers and Antenna Supporting Structures
FACTORED LOAD is the product of a load specified in Sec-
tions 1606 through 1611 and a load factor. See Section 1612.2 for 1.3 ANSI/NAAMM FP1001, Guide Specifications for
combinations of factored loads. the Design Loads of Metal Flagpoles
LIMIT STATE is a condition in which a structure or compo- SECTION 1605 — DESIGN
nent is judged either to be no longer useful for its intended function
(serviceability limit state) or to be unsafe (strength limit state). 1605.1 General. Buildings and other structures and all portions
thereof shall be designed and constructed to sustain, within the
LIVE LOADS are those loads produced by the use and occu- limitations specified in this code, all loads set forth in Chapter 16
pancy of the building or other structure and do not include dead and elsewhere in this code, combined in accordance with Section
load, construction load, or environmental loads such as wind load, 1612. Design shall be in accordance with Strength Design, Load
snow load, rain load, earthquake load or flood load. and Resistance Factor Design or Allowable Stress Design meth-
LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN (LRFD) is a ods, as permitted by the applicable materials chapters.
method of proportioning structural elements using load and resist- EXCEPTION: Unless otherwise required by the building official,
ance factors such that no applicable limit state is reached when the buildings or portions thereof that are constructed in accordance with
structure is subjected to all appropriate load combinations. The the conventional light-framing requirements specified in Chapter 23 of
term “LRFD” is used in the design of steel and wood structures. this code shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this section.

STRENGTH DESIGN is a method of proportioning structural 1605.2 Rationality. Any system or method of construction to be
elements such that the computed forces produced in the elements used shall be based on a rational analysis in accordance with well-
by the factored load combinations do not exceed the factored ele- established principles of mechanics. Such analysis shall result in a
ment strength. The term “strength design” is used in the design of system that provides a complete load path capable of transferring
concrete and masonry structures. all loads and forces from their point of origin to the load-resisting
elements. The analysis shall include, but not be limited to, the pro-
visions of Sections 1605.2.1 through 1605.2.3.
SECTION 1603 — NOTATIONS
1605.2.1 Distribution of horizontal shear. The total lateral
D = dead load. force shall be distributed to the various vertical elements of the
E = earthquake load set forth in Section 1630.1. lateral-force-resisting system in proportion to their rigidities con-
Em = estimated maximum earthquake force that can be devel- sidering the rigidity of the horizontal bracing system or dia-
phragm. Rigid elements that are assumed not to be part of the
oped in the structure as set forth in Section 1630.1.1.
lateral-force-resisting system may be incorporated into buildings,
F = load due to fluids. provided that their effect on the action of the system is considered
H = load due to lateral pressure of soil and water in soil. and provided for in the design.
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CHAP. 16, DIV. I
1605.2.1 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
1607.4.2

Provision shall be made for the increased forces induced on listed, and loads at least equal shall be assumed for uses not listed
resisting elements of the structural system resulting from torsion in this section but that create or accommodate similar loadings.
due to eccentricity between the center of application of the lateral Where it can be determined in designing floors that the actual
forces and the center of rigidity of the lateral-force-resisting sys- live load will be greater than the value shown in Table 16-A, the
tem. For accidental torsion requirements for seismic design, see actual live load shall be used in the design of such buildings or por-
Section 1630.6. tions thereof. Special provisions shall be made for machine and
1605.2.2 Stability against overturning. Every structure shall be apparatus loads.
designed to resist the overturning effects caused by the lateral 1607.3.2 Distribution of uniform floor loads. Where uniform
forces specified in this chapter. See Section 1611.6 for retaining floor loads are involved, consideration may be limited to full dead
walls, Section 1615 for wind and Section 1626 for seismic. load on all spans in combination with full live load on adjacent
1605.2.3 Anchorage. Anchorage of the roof to walls and col- spans and alternate spans.
umns, and of walls and columns to foundations, shall be provided 1607.3.3 Concentrated loads. Provision shall be made in
to resist the uplift and sliding forces that result from the applica- designing floors for a concentrated load, L, as set forth in Table
tion of the prescribed forces. 16-A placed upon any space 21/2 feet (762 mm) square, wherever
Concrete and masonry walls shall be anchored to all floors, this load upon an otherwise unloaded floor would produce stresses
roofs and other structural elements that provide lateral support for greater than those caused by the uniform load required therefor.
the wall. Such anchorage shall provide a positive direct connec- Provision shall be made in areas where vehicles are used or
tion capable of resisting the horizontal forces specified in this stored for concentrated loads, L, consisting of two or more loads
chapter but not less than the minimum forces in Section 1611.4. In spaced 5 feet (1524 mm) nominally on center without uniform live
addition, in Seismic Zones 3 and 4, diaphragm to wall anchorage loads. Each load shall be 40 percent of the gross weight of the
using embedded straps shall have the straps attached to or hooked maximum-size vehicle to be accommodated. Parking garages for
around the reinforcing steel or otherwise terminated so as to effec- the storage of private or pleasure-type motor vehicles with no
tively transfer forces to the reinforcing steel. Walls shall be repair or refueling shall have a floor system designed for a concen-
designed to resist bending between anchors where the anchor trated load of not less than 2,000 pounds (8.9 kN) acting on an area
spacing exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm). Required anchors in masonry of 20 square inches (12 903 mm2) without uniform live loads. The
walls of hollow units or cavity walls shall be embedded in a rein- condition of concentrated or uniform live load, combined in
forced grouted structural element of the wall. See Sections 1632, accordance with Section 1612.2 or 1612.3 as appropriate, produc-
1633.2.8 and 1633.2.9 for earthquake design requirements. ing the greatest stresses shall govern.
1605.3 Erection of Structural Framing. Walls and structural 1607.3.4 Special loads. Provision shall be made for the special
framing shall be erected true and plumb in accordance with the vertical and lateral loads as set forth in Table 16-B.
design.
1607.3.5 Live loads posted. The live loads for which each floor
or portion thereof of a commercial or industrial building is or has
SECTION 1606 — DEAD LOADS been designed shall have such design live loads conspicuously
posted by the owner in that part of each story in which they apply,
1606.1 General. Dead loads shall be as defined in Section 1602 using durable metal signs, and it shall be unlawful to remove or
and this section. deface such notices. The occupant of the building shall be respon-
sible for keeping the actual load below the allowable limits.
1606.2 Partition Loads. Floors in office buildings and other
buildings where partition locations are subject to change shall be 1607.4 Roof Live Loads.
designed to support, in addition to all other loads, a uniformly dis-
tributed dead load equal to 20 pounds per square foot (psf) (0.96 1607.4.1 General. Roofs shall be designed for the unit live
kN/m2) of floor area. loads, L r, set forth in Table 16-C. The live loads shall be assumed
to act vertically upon the area projected on a horizontal plane.
EXCEPTION: Access floor systems shall be designed to support,
in addition to all other loads, a uniformly distributed dead load not less 1607.4.2 Distribution of loads. Where uniform roof loads are
than 10 psf (0.48 kN/m2) of floor area. involved in the design of structural members arranged to create
continuity, consideration may be limited to full dead loads on all
spans in combination with full roof live loads on adjacent spans
SECTION 1607 — LIVE LOADS
and on alternate spans.
1607.1 General. Live loads shall be the maximum loads EXCEPTION: Alternate span loading need not be considered
expected by the intended use or occupancy but in no case shall be where the uniform roof live load is 20 psf (0.96 kN/m2) or more or
less than the loads required by this section. where load combinations, including snow load, result in larger mem-
bers or connections.
1607.2 Critical Distribution of Live Loads. Where structural For those conditions where light-gage metal preformed struc-
members are arranged to create continuity, members shall be tural sheets serve as the support and finish of roofs, roof structural
designed using the loading conditions, which would cause maxi- members arranged to create continuity shall be considered ade-
mum shear and bending moments. This requirement may be satis- quate if designed for full dead loads on all spans in combination
fied in accordance with the provisions of Section 1607.3.2 or with the most critical one of the following superimposed loads:
1607.4.2, where applicable.
1. Snow load in accordance with Section 1614.
1607.3 Floor Live Loads. 2. The uniform roof live load, L r, set forth in Table 16-C on all
1607.3.1 General. Floors shall be designed for the unit live spans.
loads as set forth in Table 16-A. These loads shall be taken as the 3. A concentrated gravity load, L r, of 2,000 pounds (8.9 kN)
minimum live loads in pounds per square foot of horizontal pro- placed on any span supporting a tributary area greater than 200
jection to be used in the design of buildings for the occupancies square feet (18.58 m2) to create maximum stresses in the member,
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CHAP. 16, DIV. I
1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1607.4.2
1611.5

whenever this loading creates greater stresses than those caused
by the uniform live load. The concentrated load shall be placed on
the member over a length of 21/2 feet (762 mm) along the span.
ǒ
L + L o 0.25 ) 15
ǸA I
Ǔ (7-3)

The concentrated load need not be applied to more than one span
For SI:

ƪ ǒ Ǔƫ
simultaneously.
4. Water accumulation as prescribed in Section 1611.7. L + Lo 0.25 ) 4.57 1
ǸA I
1607.4.3 Unbalanced loading. Unbalanced loads shall be used
where such loading will result in larger members or connections. WHERE:
Trusses and arches shall be designed to resist the stresses caused
by unit live loads on one half of the span if such loading results in AI = influence area, in square feet (m2). The influence area AI
reverse stresses, or stresses greater in any portion than the stresses is four times the tributary area for a column, two times
produced by the required unit live load on the entire span. For the tributary area for a beam, equal to the panel area for a
roofs whose structures are composed of a stressed shell, framed or two-way slab, and equal to the product of the span and
solid, wherein stresses caused by any point loading are distributed the full flange width for a precast T-beam.
throughout the area of the shell, the requirements for unbalanced L = reduced design live load per square foot (m2) of area
unit live load design may be reduced 50 percent. supported by the member.
1607.4.4 Special roof loads. Roofs to be used for special pur- Lo = unreduced design live load per square foot (m2) of area
poses shall be designed for appropriate loads as approved by the supported by the member (Table 16-A).
building official. The reduced live load shall not be less than 50 percent of the unit
live load Lo for members receiving load from one level only, nor
Greenhouse roof bars, purlins and rafters shall be designed to less than 40 percent of the unit live load Lo for other members.
carry a 100-pound-minimum (444.8 N) concentrated load, L r, in
addition to the uniform live load.
SECTION 1608 — SNOW LOADS
1607.5 Reduction of Live Loads. The design live load deter-
mined using the unit live loads as set forth in Table 16-A for floors Snow loads shall be determined in accordance with Chapter 16,
and Table 16-C, Method 2, for roofs may be reduced on any mem- Division II.
ber supporting more than 150 square feet (13.94 m2), including
flat slabs, except for floors in places of public assembly and for SECTION 1609 — WIND LOADS
live loads greater than 100 psf (4.79 kN/m2), in accordance with
the following formula: Wind loads shall be determined in accordance with Chapter 16,
Division III.
R = r (A – 150) (7-1)
For SI: SECTION 1610 — EARTHQUAKE LOADS
R = r (A – 13.94)
Earthquake loads shall be determined in accordance with Chapter
The reduction shall not exceed 40 percent for members receiv-
16, Division IV.
ing load from one level only, 60 percent for other members or R, as
determined by the following formula:
SECTION 1611 — OTHER MINIMUM LOADS
R = 23.1 (1 + D/L) (7-2)
WHERE: 1611.1 General. In addition to the other design loads specified
in this chapter, structures shall be designed to resist the loads spe-
A = area of floor or roof supported by the member, square cified in this section and the special loads set forth in Table 16-B.
feet (m2).
1611.2 Other Loads. Buildings and other structures and por-
D = dead load per square foot (m2) of area supported by the tions thereof shall be designed to resist all loads due to applicable
member. fluid pressures, F, lateral soil pressures, H, ponding loads, P, and
L = unit live load per square foot (m2) of area supported by self-straining forces, T. See Section 1611.7 for ponding loads for
the member. roofs.
R = reduction in percentage. 1611.3 Impact Loads. Impact loads shall be included in the
r = rate of reduction equal to 0.08 percent for floors. See design of any structure where impact loads occur.
Table 16-C for roofs. 1611.4 Anchorage of Concrete and Masonry Walls. Concrete
For storage loads exceeding 100 psf (4.79 kN/m2), no reduction and masonry walls shall be anchored as required by Section
shall be made, except that design live loads on columns may be 1605.2.3. Such anchorage shall be capable of resisting the load
reduced 20 percent. combinations of Section 1612.2 or 1612.3 using the greater of the
wind or earthquake loads required by this chapter or a minimum
The live load reduction shall not exceed 40 percent in garages horizontal force of 280 pounds per linear foot (4.09 kN/m) of wall,
for the storage of private pleasure cars having a capacity of not substituted for E.
more than nine passengers per vehicle.
1611.5 Interior Wall Loads. Interior walls, permanent partitions
1607.6 Alternate Floor Live Load Reduction. As an alternate and temporary partitions that exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) in height
to Formula (7-1), the unit live loads set forth in Table 16-A may be shall be designed to resist all loads to which they are subjected but
reduced in accordance with Formula (7-3) on any member, includ- not less than a load, L, of 5 psf (0.24 kN/m2) applied perpendicu-
ing flat slabs, having an influence area of 400 square feet (37.2 m2) lar to the walls. The 5 psf (0.24 kN/m2) load need not be applied
or more. simultaneously with wind or seismic loads. The deflection of such
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CHAP. 16, DIV. I
1611.5 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
1612.3.2

walls under a load of 5 psf (0.24 kN/m2) shall not exceed 1/240 of SECTION 1612 — COMBINATIONS OF LOADS
the span for walls with brittle finishes and 1/120 of the span for
1612.1 General. Buildings and other structures and all portions
walls with flexible finishes. See Table 16-O for earthquake design
thereof shall be designed to resist the load combinations specified
requirements where such requirements are more restrictive.
in Section 1612.2 or 1612.3 and, where required by Chapter 16,
EXCEPTION: Flexible, folding or portable partitions are not Division IV, or Chapters 18 through 23, the special seismic load
required to meet the load and deflection criteria but must be anchored combinations of Section 1612.4.
to the supporting structure to meet the provisions of this code.
The most critical effect can occur when one or more of the con-
1611.6 Retaining Walls. Retaining walls shall be designed to tributing loads are not acting. All applicable loads shall be consid-
resist loads due to the lateral pressure of retained material in ered, including both earthquake and wind, in accordance with the
accordance with accepted engineering practice. Walls retaining specified load combinations.
drained soil, where the surface of the retained soil is level, shall be
designed for a load, H, equivalent to that exerted by a fluid weigh- 1612.2 Load Combinations Using Strength Design or Load
ing not less than 30 psf per foot of depth (4.71 kN/m2/m) and hav- and Resistance Factor Design.
ing a depth equal to that of the retained soil. Any surcharge shall be 1612.2.1 Basic load combinations. Where Load and Resistance
in addition to the equivalent fluid pressure. Factor Design (Strength Design) is used, structures and all por-
Retaining walls shall be designed to resist sliding by at least tions thereof shall resist the most critical effects from the follow-
1.5 times the lateral force and overturning by at least 1.5 times the ing combinations of factored loads:
overturning moment, using allowable stress design loads. 1.4D (12-1)
1611.7 Water Accumulation. All roofs shall be designed with 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5 (Lr or S) (12-2)
sufficient slope or camber to ensure adequate drainage after the 1.2D + 1.6 (Lr or S) + (f1L or 0.8W) (12-3)
long-term deflection from dead load or shall be designed to resist 1.2D + 1.3W + f1L + 0.5 (Lr or S) (12-4)
ponding load, P, combined in accordance with Section 1612.2 or 1.2D + 1.0E + (f1L + f2S) (12-5)
1612.3. Ponding load shall include water accumulation from any
source, including snow, due to deflection. See Section 1506 and 0.9D (1.0E or 1.3W) (12-6)
Table 16-C, Footnote 3, for drainage slope. See Section 1615 for WHERE:
deflection criteria. f1 = 1.0 for floors in places of public assembly, for live loads
1611.8 Hydrostatic Uplift. All foundations, slabs and other in excess of 100 psf (4.9 kN/m2), and for garage live
footings subjected to water pressure shall be designed to resist a load.
uniformly distributed uplift load, F, equal to the full hydrostatic = 0.5 for other live loads.
pressure. f2 = 0.7 for roof configurations (such as saw tooth) that do
not shed snow off the structure.
1611.9 Flood-resistant Construction. For flood-resistant con-
struction requirements, where specifically adopted, see Appendix = 0.2 for other roof configurations.
Chapter 31, Division I. EXCEPTIONS: 1. Factored load combinations for concrete per
Section 1909.2 where load combinations do not include seismic forces.
1611.10 Heliport and Helistop Landing Areas. In addition to 2. Factored load combinations of this section multiplied by 1.1 for
other design requirements of this chapter, heliport and helistop concrete and masonry where load combinations include seismic
landing or touchdown areas shall be designed for the following forces.
loads, combined in accordance with Section 1612.2 or 1612.3: 3. Where other factored load combinations are specifically required
by the provisions of this code.
1. Dead load plus actual weight of the helicopter.
1612.2.2 Other loads. Where F, H, P or T are to be considered in
2. Dead load plus a single concentrated impact load, L, cover- design, each applicable load shall be added to the above combina-
ing 1 square foot (0.093 m2) of 0.75 times the fully loaded weight tions factored as follows: 1.3F, 1.6H, 1.2P and 1.2T.
of the helicopter if it is equipped with hydraulic-type shock
absorbers, or 1.5 times the fully loaded weight of the helicopter if 1612.3 Load Combinations Using Allowable Stress Design.
it is equipped with a rigid or skid-type landing gear. 1612.3.1 Basic load combinations. Where allowable stress
3. The dead load plus a uniform live load, L, of 100 psf (4.8 kN/ design (working stress design) is used, structures and all portions
m2). The required live load may be reduced in accordance with thereof shall resist the most critical effects resulting from the fol-
Section 1607.5 or 1607.6. lowing combinations of loads:
D (12-7)
1611.11 Prefabricated Construction.
D + L + (Lr or S) (12-8)
1611.11.1 Connections. Every device used to connect pre-
fabricated assemblies shall be designed as required by this code 
D  W or E
1.4
 (12-9)
and shall be capable of developing the strength of the members
connected, except in the case of members forming part of a struc- 0.9D E (12-10)
tural frame designed as specified in this chapter. Connections shall 1.4
be capable of withstanding uplift forces as specified in this
chapter. 
D  0.75 L  (L r or S)  W or E
1.4
 (12-11)

1611.11.2 Pipes and conduit. In structural design, due allowance No increase in allowable stresses shall be used with these load
shall be made for any material to be removed for the installation of combinations except as specifically permitted elsewhere in this
pipes, conduits or other equipment. code.
1611.11.3 Tests and inspections. See Section 1704 for require- 1612.3.2 Alternate basic load combinations. In lieu of the basic
ments for tests and inspections of prefabricated construction. load combinations specified in Section 1612.3.1, structures and
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CHAP. 16, DIV. I
1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1612.3.2
1613

portions thereof shall be permitted to be designed for the most crit- nate load combinations specified in Section 1612.3.2, a one-third
ical effects resulting from the following load combinations. When increase shall be permitted in allowable stresses for all combina-
using these alternate basic load combinations, a one-third increase tions including W or E.
shall be permitted in allowable stresses for all combinations
including W or E. 1612.4 Special Seismic Load Combinations. For both Allow-
able Stress Design and Strength Design, the following special load
D  L  (L r or S) (12-12) combinations for seismic design shall be used as specifically
required by Chapter 16, Division IV, or by Chapters 18 through 23:
D  L  W or E
1.4
 (12-13)
1.2D  f 1L  1.0E m (12-17)

DLWS (12-14) 0.9D 1.0E m (12-18)
2
WHERE:
DLSW (12-15) f1 = 1.0 for floors in places of public assembly, for live loads
2
E
in excess of 100 psf (4.79 kN/m2), and for garage live
D  L  S  (12-16) load.
1.4
E = 0.5 for other live loads.
0.9D (12-16-1)
1.4
EXCEPTIONS: 1. Crane hook loads need not be combined with SECTION 1613 — DEFLECTION
roof live load or with more than three fourths of the snow load or one
half of the wind load. The deflection of any structural member shall not exceed the val-
2. Design snow loads of 30 psf (1.44 kN/m2) or less need not be com- ues set forth in Table 16-D, based on the factors set forth in Table
bined with seismic loads. Where design snow loads exceed 30 psf (1.44 16-E. The deflection criteria representing the most restrictive con-
kN/m2), the design snow load shall be included with seismic loads, but dition shall apply. Deflection criteria for materials not specified
may be reduced up to 75 percent where consideration of siting, config- shall be developed in a manner consistent with the provisions of
uration and load duration warrant when approved by the building offi-
cial.
this section. See Section 1611.7 for camber requirements. Span
tables for light wood-frame construction as specified in Chapter
1612.3.3 Other loads. Where F, H, P or T are to be considered in 23, Division VII, shall conform to the design criteria contained
design, each applicable load shall be added to the combinations therein. For concrete, see Section 1909.5.2.6; for aluminum, see
specified in Sections 1612.3.1 and 1612.3.2. When using the alter- Section 2003; for glazing framing, see Section 2404.2.

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CHAP. 16, DIV. II
1614 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
1614

Division II—SNOW LOADS

SECTION 1614 — SNOW LOADS Rs  S 1 (14-1)
40 2
Buildings and other structures and all portions thereof that are sub-
ject to snow loading shall be designed to resist the snow loads, as For SI: Rs  S 0.024
determined by the building official, in accordance with the load 40
combinations set forth in Section 1612.2 or 1612.3.
WHERE:
Potential unbalanced accumulation of snow at valleys, para- Rs = snow load reduction in pounds per square foot (kN/m2)
pets, roof structures and offsets in roofs of uneven configuration per degree of pitch over 20 degrees.
shall be considered.
S = total snow load in pounds per square foot (kN/m2).
Snow loads in excess of 20 psf (0.96 kN/m2) may be reduced for
each degree of pitch over 20 degrees by Rs as determined by the For alternate design procedure, where specifically adopted, see
formula: CHAP. 16, DIV. II Appendix Chapter 16, Division I.

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CHAP. 16, DIV. III
1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1615
1621.3

Division III—WIND DESIGN

SECTION 1615 — GENERAL SECTION 1617 — SYMBOLS AND NOTATIONS
Every building or structure and every portion thereof shall be de- The following symbols and notations apply to the provisions of
signed and constructed to resist the wind effects determined in ac- this division:
cordance with the requirements of this division. Wind shall be Ce = combined height, exposure and gust factor coefficient as
assumed to come from any horizontal direction. No reduction in given in Table 16-G.
wind pressure shall be taken for the shielding effect of adjacent
structures. Cq = pressure coefficient for the structure or portion of struc-
ture under consideration as given in Table 16-H.
Structures sensitive to dynamic effects, such as buildings with a Iw = importance factor as set forth in Table 16-K.
height-to-width ratio greater than five, structures sensitive to
wind-excited oscillations, such as vortex shedding or icing, and P = design wind pressure.
buildings over 400 feet (121.9 m) in height, shall be, and any struc- qs = wind stagnation pressure at the standard height of 33 feet
ture may be, designed in accordance with approved national (10 000 mm) as set forth in Table 16-F.
standards. CHAP. 16, DIV. III
The provisions of this section do not apply to building and foun- SECTION 1618 — BASIC WIND SPEED
dation systems in those areas subject to scour and water pressure The minimum basic wind speed at any site shall not be less than
by wind and wave action. Buildings and foundations subject to that shown in Figure 16-1. For those areas designated in Figure
such loads shall be designed in accordance with approved national 16-1 as special wind regions and other areas where local records or
standards. terrain indicate higher 50-year (mean recurrence interval) fastest-
mile wind speeds, these higher values shall be the minimum basic
SECTION 1616 — DEFINITIONS wind speeds.

The following definitions apply only to this division: SECTION 1619 — EXPOSURE
BASIC WIND SPEED is the fastest-mile wind speed asso-
ciated with an annual probability of 0.02 measured at a point An exposure shall be assigned at each site for which a building or
33 feet (10 000 mm) above the ground for an area having exposure structure is to be designed.
category C.
EXPOSURE B has terrain with buildings, forest or surface ir- SECTION 1620 — DESIGN WIND PRESSURES
regularities, covering at least 20 percent of the ground level area Design wind pressures for buildings and structures and elements
extending 1 mile (1.61 km) or more from the site. therein shall be determined for any height in accordance with the
EXPOSURE C has terrain that is flat and generally open, ex- following formula:
tending 1/2 mile (0.81 km) or more from the site in any full quad- P = Ce Cq qs Iw (20-1)
rant.
EXPOSURE D represents the most severe exposure in areas SECTION 1621 — PRIMARY FRAMES AND SYSTEMS
with basic wind speeds of 80 miles per hour (mph) (129 km/h) or
greater and has terrain that is flat and unobstructed facing large bo- 1621.1 General. The primary frames or load-resisting system of
dies of water over 1 mile (1.61 km) or more in width relative to any every structure shall be designed for the pressures calculated us-
quadrant of the building site. Exposure D extends inland from the ing Formula (20-1) and the pressure coefficients, Cq , of either
shoreline 1/4 mile (0.40 km) or 10 times the building height, Method 1 or Method 2. In addition, design of the overall structure
whichever is greater. and its primary load-resisting system shall conform to Section
1605.
FASTEST-MILE WIND SPEED is the wind speed obtained
from wind velocity maps prepared by the National Oceanographic The base overturning moment for the entire structure, or for any
and Atmospheric Administration and is the highest sustained av- one of its individual primary lateral-resisting elements, shall not
erage wind speed based on the time required for a mile-long sam- exceed two thirds of the dead-load-resisting moment. For an entire
ple of air to pass a fixed point. structure with a height-to-width ratio of 0.5 or less in the wind di-
rection and a maximum height of 60 feet (18 290 mm), the combi-
OPENINGS are apertures or holes in the exterior wall bound- nation of the effects of uplift and overturning may be reduced by
ary of the structure. All windows or doors or other openings shall one third. The weight of earth superimposed over footings may be
be considered as openings unless such openings and their frames used to calculate the dead-load-resisting moment.
are specifically detailed and designed to resist the loads on ele-
ments and components in accordance with the provisions of this 1621.2 Method 1 (Normal Force Method). Method 1 shall be
section. used for the design of gabled rigid frames and may be used for any
structure. In the Normal Force Method, the wind pressures shall be
PARTIALLY ENCLOSED STRUCTURE OR STORY is a assumed to act simultaneously normal to all exterior surfaces. For
structure or story that has more than 15 percent of any windward pressures on roofs and leeward walls, Ce shall be evaluated at the
projected area open and the area of opening on all other projected mean roof height.
areas is less than half of that on the windward projection.
1621.3 Method 2 (Projected Area Method). Method 2 may be
SPECIAL WIND REGION is an area where local records and used for any structure less than 200 feet (60 960 mm) in height ex-
terrain features indicate 50-year fastest-mile basic wind speed is cept those using gabled rigid frames. This method may be used in
higher than shown in Figure 16-1. stability determinations for any structure less than 200 feet
UNENCLOSED STRUCTURE OR STORY is a structure (60 960 mm) high. In the Projected Area Method, horizontal pres-
that has 85 percent or more openings on all sides. sures shall be assumed to act upon the full vertical projected area
2–7

CHAP. 16, DIV. III
1621.3 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
1625

of the structure, and the vertical pressures shall be assumed to act SECTION 1623 — OPEN-FRAME TOWERS
simultaneously upon the full horizontal projected area.
Radio towers and other towers of trussed construction shall be de-
signed and constructed to withstand wind pressures specified in
SECTION 1622 — ELEMENTS AND COMPONENTS OF this section, multiplied by the shape factors set forth in Table
STRUCTURES 16-H.
Design wind pressures for each element or component of a struc-
ture shall be determined from Formula (20-1) and Cq values from
Table 16-H, and shall be applied perpendicular to the surface. For SECTION 1624 — MISCELLANEOUS STRUCTURES
outward acting forces the value of Ce shall be obtained from Table
16-G based on the mean roof height and applied for the entire Greenhouses, lath houses, agricultural buildings or fences 12 feet
height of the structure. Each element or component shall be de- (3658 mm) or less in height shall be designed in accordance with
signed for the more severe of the following loadings: Chapter 16, Division III. However, three fourths of qs , but not less
1. The pressures determined using Cq values for elements and than 10 psf (0.48 kN/m2), may be substituted for qs in Formula
components acting over the entire tributary area of the element. (20-1). Pressures on local areas at discontinuities need not be con-
sidered.
2. The pressures determined using Cq values for local areas at
discontinuities such as corners, ridges and eaves. These local pres-
sures shall be applied over a distance from a discontinuity of
SECTION 1625 — OCCUPANCY CATEGORIES
10 feet (3048 mm) or 0.1 times the least width of the structure,
whichever is less. For the purpose of wind-resistant design, each structure shall be
The wind pressures from Sections 1621 and 1622 need not be placed in one of the occupancy categories listed in Table 16-K.
combined. Table 16-K lists importance factors, Iw, for each category.

2–8

CHAP. 16, DIV. IV
1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1626
1627

Division IV—EARTHQUAKE DESIGN

SECTION 1626 — GENERAL be used to represent this ground motion. The dynamic effects of
the Design Basis Ground Motion may be represented by the
1626.1 Purpose. The purpose of the earthquake provisions herein Design Response Spectrum. See Section 1631.2.
is primarily to safeguard against major structural failures and loss
of life, not to limit damage or maintain function. DESIGN RESPONSE SPECTRUM is an elastic response
spectrum for 5 percent equivalent viscous damping used to repre-
1626.2 Minimum Seismic Design. Structures and portions sent the dynamic effects of the Design Basis Ground Motion for
thereof shall, as a minimum, be designed and constructed to resist the design of structures in accordance with Sections 1630 and
the effects of seismic ground motions as provided in this division. 1631. This response spectrum may be either a site-specific spec-
trum based on geologic, tectonic, seismological and soil charac-
1626.3 Seismic and Wind Design. When the code-prescribed teristics associated with a specific site or may be a spectrum
wind design produces greater effects, the wind design shall gov- constructed in accordance with the spectral shape in Figure 16-3
ern, but detailing requirements and limitations prescribed in this using the site-specific values of Ca and Cv and multiplied by the
section and referenced sections shall be followed. acceleration of gravity, 386.4 in./sec.2 (9.815 m/sec.2). See Sec-
tion 1631.2.
SECTION 1627 — DEFINITIONS DESIGN SEISMIC FORCE is the minimum total strength de-
sign base shear, factored and distributed in accordance with Sec-
For the purposes of this division, certain terms are defined as fol- tion 1630.
lows: CHAP. 16, DIV. IV
DIAPHRAGM is a horizontal or nearly horizontal system act-
BASE is the level at which the earthquake motions are consid- ing to transmit lateral forces to the vertical-resisting elements. The
ered to be imparted to the structure or the level at which the struc- term “diaphragm” includes horizontal bracing systems.
ture as a dynamic vibrator is supported.
DIAPHRAGM or SHEAR WALL CHORD is the boundary
BASE SHEAR, V, is the total design lateral force or shear at the element of a diaphragm or shear wall that is assumed to take axial
base of a structure. stresses analogous to the flanges of a beam.
BEARING WALL SYSTEM is a structural system without a DIAPHRAGM STRUT (drag strut, tie, collector) is the ele-
complete vertical load-carrying space frame. See Section ment of a diaphragm parallel to the applied load that collects and
1629.6.2. transfers diaphragm shear to the vertical-resisting elements or dis-
BOUNDARY ELEMENT is an element at edges of openings tributes loads within the diaphragm. Such members may take axial
or at perimeters of shear walls or diaphragms. tension or compression.

BRACED FRAME is an essentially vertical truss system of the DRIFT. See “story drift.”
concentric or eccentric type that is provided to resist lateral forces. DUAL SYSTEM is a combination of moment-resisting frames
and shear walls or braced frames designed in accordance with the
BUILDING FRAME SYSTEM is an essentially complete
criteria of Section 1629.6.5.
space frame that provides support for gravity loads. See Section
1629.6.3. ECCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAME (EBF) is a steel-
braced frame designed in conformance with Section 2213.10.
CANTILEVERED COLUMN ELEMENT is a column ele-
ment in a lateral-force-resisting system that cantilevers from a ELASTIC RESPONSE PARAMETERS are forces and
fixed base and has minimal moment capacity at the top, with lat- deformations determined from an elastic dynamic analysis using
eral forces applied essentially at the top. an unreduced ground motion representation, in accordance with
Section 1630.
COLLECTOR is a member or element provided to transfer lat-
eral forces from a portion of a structure to vertical elements of the ESSENTIAL FACILITIES are those structures that are nec-
lateral-force-resisting system. essary for emergency operations subsequent to a natural disaster.
COMPONENT is a part or element of an architectural, electri- FLEXIBLE ELEMENT or system is one whose deformation
cal, mechanical or structural system. under lateral load is significantly larger than adjoining parts of the
system. Limiting ratios for defining specific flexible elements are
COMPONENT, EQUIPMENT, is a mechanical or electrical set forth in Section 1630.6.
component or element that is part of a mechanical and/or electrical
system. HORIZONTAL BRACING SYSTEM is a horizontal truss
system that serves the same function as a diaphragm.
COMPONENT, FLEXIBLE, is a component, including its
attachments, having a fundamental period greater than 0.06 sec- INTERMEDIATE MOMENT-RESISTING FRAME
ond. (IMRF) is a concrete frame designed in accordance with Section
1921.8.
COMPONENT, RIGID, is a component, including its attach-
ments, having a fundamental period less than or equal to 0.06 sec- LATERAL-FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM is that part of
ond. the structural system designed to resist the Design Seismic Forces.
CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAME is a braced frame MOMENT-RESISTING FRAME is a frame in which mem-
in which the members are subjected primarily to axial forces. bers and joints are capable of resisting forces primarily by flexure.
DESIGN BASIS GROUND MOTION is that ground motion MOMENT-RESISTING WALL FRAME (MRWF) is a
that has a 10 percent chance of being exceeded in 50 years as deter- masonry wall frame especially detailed to provide ductile behav-
mined by a site-specific hazard analysis or may be determined ior and designed in conformance with Section 2108.2.5.
from a hazard map. A suite of ground motion time histories with ORDINARY BRACED FRAME (OBF) is a steel-braced
dynamic properties representative of the site characteristics shall frame designed in accordance with the provisions of Section
2–9

CHAP. 16, DIV. IV
1627 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
1628

2213.8 or 2214.6, or concrete-braced frame designed in accord- subdiaphragms and continuous ties, as specified in Sections
ance with Section 1921. 1633.2.8 and 1633.2.9.
ORDINARY MOMENT-RESISTING FRAME (OMRF) is WEAK STORY is one in which the story strength is less than
a moment-resisting frame not meeting special detailing require- 80 percent of the story above. See Table 16-L.
ments for ductile behavior.
ORTHOGONAL EFFECTS are the earthquake load effects SECTION 1628 — SYMBOLS AND NOTATIONS
on structural elements common to the lateral-force-resisting sys-
tems along two orthogonal axes. The following symbols and notations apply to the provisions of
this division:
OVERSTRENGTH is a characteristic of structures where the
actual strength is larger than the design strength. The degree of AB = ground floor area of structure in square feet (m2) to
overstrength is material- and system-dependent. include area covered by all overhangs and projec-
tions.
PD EFFECT is the secondary effect on shears, axial forces and
moments of frame members induced by the vertical loads acting Ac = the combined effective area, in square feet (m2), of
on the laterally displaced building system. the shear walls in the first story of the structure.
SHEAR WALL is a wall designed to resist lateral forces paral- Ae = the minimum cross-sectional area in any horizontal
lel to the plane of the wall (sometimes referred to as vertical dia- plane in the first story, in square feet (m2) of a shear
phragm or structural wall). wall.
Ax = the torsional amplification factor at Level x.
SHEAR WALL-FRAME INTERACTIVE SYSTEM uses
combinations of shear walls and frames designed to resist lateral ap = numerical coefficient specified in Section 1632 and
forces in proportion to their relative rigidities, considering inter- set forth in Table 16-O.
action between shear walls and frames on all levels. Ca = seismic coefficient, as set forth in Table 16-Q.
SOFT STORY is one in which the lateral stiffness is less than Ct = numerical coefficient given in Section 1630.2.2.
70 percent of the stiffness of the story above. See Table 16-L. Cv = seismic coefficient, as set forth in Table 16-R.
SPACE FRAME is a three-dimensional structural system, D = dead load on a structural element.
without bearing walls, composed of members interconnected so De = the length, in feet (m), of a shear wall in the first story
as to function as a complete self-contained unit with or without the in the direction parallel to the applied forces.
aid of horizontal diaphragms or floor-bracing systems.
E, Eh ,
SPECIAL CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAME Em , Ev = earthquake loads set forth in Section 1630.1.
(SCBF) is a steel-braced frame designed in conformance with the Fi , Fn ,
provisions of Section 2213.9. Fx = Design Seismic Force applied to Level i, n or x,
SPECIAL MOMENT-RESISTING FRAME (SMRF) is a respectively.
moment-resisting frame specially detailed to provide ductile Fp = Design Seismic Forces on a part of the structure.
behavior and comply with the requirements given in Chapter 19
or 22. Fpx = Design Seismic Force on a diaphragm.
Ft = that portion of the base shear, V, considered concen-
SPECIAL TRUSS MOMENT FRAME (STMF) is a trated at the top of the structure in addition to Fn .
moment-resisting frame specially detailed to provide ductile
behavior and comply with the provisions of Section 2213.11. fi = lateral force at Level i for use in Formula (30-10).
g = acceleration due to gravity.
STORY is the space between levels. Story x is the story below
Level x. hi , hn ,
hx = height in feet (m) above the base to Level i, n or x,
STORY DRIFT is the lateral displacement of one level relative respectively.
to the level above or below.
I = importance factor given in Table 16-K.
STORY DRIFT RATIO is the story drift divided by the story Ip = importance factor specified in Table 16-K.
height.
L = live load on a structural element.
STORY SHEAR, Vx , is the summation of design lateral forces
Level i = level of the structure referred to by the subscript i.
above the story under consideration.
“i = 1” designates the first level above the base.
STRENGTH is the capacity of an element or a member to resist Level n = that level that is uppermost in the main portion of the
factored load as specified in Chapters 16, 18, 19, 21 and 22. structure.
STRUCTURE is an assemblage of framing members designed Level x = that level that is under design consideration. “x = 1”
to support gravity loads and resist lateral forces. Structures may be designates the first level above the base.
categorized as building structures or nonbuilding structures.
M = maximum moment magnitude.
SUBDIAPHRAGM is a portion of a larger wood diaphragm Na = near-source factor used in the determination of Ca in
designed to anchor and transfer local forces to primary diaphragm Seismic Zone 4 related to both the proximity of the
struts and the main diaphragm. building or structure to known faults with magnitudes
VERTICAL LOAD-CARRYING FRAME is a space frame and slip rates as set forth in Tables 16-S and 16-U.
designed to carry vertical gravity loads. Nv = near-source factor used in the determination of Cv in
WALL ANCHORAGE SYSTEM is the system of elements Seismic Zone 4 related to both the proximity of the
anchoring the wall to the diaphragm and those elements within the building or structure to known faults with magnitudes
diaphragm required to develop the anchorage forces, including and slip rates as set forth in Tables 16-T and 16-U.
2–10

SB . None of the following structural irregularities is present: redundancy. DIV. 2. including applicable portions of other loads defined in Section 1630.2 Occupancy Categories. configuration. Z = seismic zone factor as given in Table 16-I. in accordance with Table 16-I. determines that Type SE or SF may be present at the site or in the event that Type SE or SF is established by geotechnical data. Each structure shall be static lateral force procedure of Section 1630. occupancy. and structural observation requirements for each category. 1629. be assigned a soil profile type based on properly substantiated T = elastic fundamental period of vibration. 1629. SB . SA . provided load com. where the depth of clay Motion. Group R. CHAP. consid.5 Configuration Requirements. 1. The soil profile type is SA . SECTION 1629 — CRITERIA SELECTION 3. 1629. Table 16-S and the Seismic Source Type set forth in Table 16-U. Type SD shall be used.1. for use in Formula seismic zone factor Z. wx = that portion of W located at or assigned to Level i or x. such as liquefiable soils. W = the total seismic dead load defined in Section 1630. V = the total design lateral force or shear at the base given EXCEPTION: When the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail to determine the soil profile type. system and height in accordance with this section. in Division V. Each structure shall be designated as being overturning at the soil-structure interface regardless of the design structurally regular or irregular in accordance with Sections approach used in the design of the structure.1 Basis for Design. soils requiring site-specific evaluation as follows: Wp = the weight of an element or component.4.1. the load combinations of Section 1612. site characteristics. Each site shall SE . multistory buildings. as set forth in Table 16-N or resistant design. file Type SE or SF need not be assumed unless the building official Vx = the design story shear in Story x. Type 1. and a seismic coefficient.3 shall apply. where the depth of clay exceeds 25 feet (7620 mm). tance factors.1. each structure shall be placed in one of the occu- 16-P. The exceptions to Section 2213. 2. Soil Profile Types SA . including estimated elastic and inelastic exceeds 120 feet (36 576 mm).1 General. resisting system. structural moment-resisting frames. overstrength and global ductility capacity of lateral. ering the inelastic response of the structure and the inherent 5.4. where the thickness of peat or highly organic clay exceeds 10 feet (3048 mm). Each structure shall be assigned a due to applied lateral forces. 4 or 5 of Table 16-L. I and Ip . The procedures and the limitations for Group U. Wo = Seismic Force Amplification Factor. moment frame systems desig- the design of structures shall be determined considering seismic nated as part of the lateral-force-resisting system shall be special zoning. PI > 75.4. (30-10). quick and highly sensitive wpx = the weight of the diaphragm and the element tributary clays. Division 1 Occupancies.5. Where strength design is used.5. structure is subjected to the design seismic forces. 1. Soil Pro- by Formula (30-5). characteristics for the site shall be established based on the seis- DS = Design Level Response Displacement. SF = soil profile types as set forth in Table 16-J.5. the load com. In Seismic Zone 4. site total drift or total story drift that occurs when the soil profile characteristics and the structure’s importance factor.1 PI = plasticity index of soil determined in accordance with binations of Section 1612. 2–11 . SC or SD . for columns in one-story buildings or columns at the top story of placements induced by the Design Basis Ground Motion.1 Soil profile type. Section 1636 and Table 16-J. DM = Maximum Inelastic Response Displacement. 1629. SD . Seismic hazard tion 1630.2 and 1629. Design is used.3. Table 16-K assigns impor- r = a ratio used in determining ò.and two-family approved national standards.1. dwellings in Seismic Zone 1 need not conform to the provisions of R = numerical coefficient representative of the inherent this section. binations of Section 1612. which 3. SE are defined in Table 16-J and Soil Profile Type SF is defined as respectively. except as modified assigned a seismic coefficient. Soils vulnerable to potential failure or collapse under seis- mic loading. in accordance with Table 16-R.5. IV 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1628 1629. See Section 1630.0. (30-7) or (30-11).3 are utilized.1. SC . ρ = Redundancy/Reliability Factor given by Formula each site shall be assigned a near-source factor in accordance with (30-3). Allowable Stress Design may be used to evaluate sliding or 1629. 1629. in accordance with Table 16-Q by Section 1631. and collapsible weakly cemented soils. in seconds. overstrength and ductility of the lateral-force. pancy categories listed in Table 16-K.4. For purposes of earthquake- force-resisting systems. contributions to the total deformation defined in Sec. Each site shall be assigned a seismic zone di = horizontal displacement at Level i relative to the base in accordance with Figure 16-2. which is the mic zone and proximity of the site to active seismic sources.3 Seismic response coefficients. Except in single-story structures. ρ = 1. SB .2 shall apply. Very thick soft/medium stiff clays.4 Site Seismic Hazard Characteristics.1 for required to account for structural overstrength and set structures complying with all the following conditions: forth in Table 16-N.3. is the total drift or total story drift that occurs when the structure is subjected to the Design Basis Ground 4. geotechnical data using the site categorization procedure set forth of the structure in the direction under consideration. 16. One. Very high plasticity clays with a plasticity index. Ca . (30-6). except be designed with adequate strength to withstand the lateral dis.7.2 Seismic Zone 4 near-source factor. Structures shall 4. 1629. Peats and/or highly organic clays. Division 3 and 1629.5.3 Site Geology and Soil Characteristics. Where Allowable Stress 1629. f.9. The minimum design strength shall be based on the Design Seismic Forces determined in accordance with the 1629. SC . 1629.1 Seismic zone. thereto at Level x. which is The value of Na used to determine Ca need not exceed 1. Cv. and Type 1 or 4 of Table 16-M. SD and wi .5 shall not apply.

Moment-resisting frames provide resistance to lat. The dynamic lateral-force procedure of loads. with lateral force resistance provided by systems listed in Table 16-N.3 times the story drift ratio of the story above.6.5.4.2 1629. IV 1629. Irregu- lar features include. Resistance to lateral load is provided by shear walls or braced 4.7 Height Limits. For undefined struc- tural systems not listed in Table 16-N. base shear in proportion to their relative rigidities considering the interaction of the dual system at all levels. 2. A structural system 1. 1. Irregular structures have significant physical discontinuities procedures of Section 1631. A structural system not be over two stories or 30 feet (9144 mm) in height where the relying on cantilevered column elements for lateral resistance. but are not limited to. The fol- systems in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 are given in Table 16-N.2 Undefined structural systems.6. weak story has a calculated strength of less than 65 percent of the story above. 4. story stiffness of the upper portion and the period of the entire sistance to lateral load is provided by shear walls or braced frames. A structural system conforming to Section 1634. as defined in Table 16-L. Structural systems shall be classified as one (19 812 mm) in height. tures described in Section 1629. Occupancy Categories 4 and 5 in Seismic Zone 2. An essentially complete space frame that provides support in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 not having the same structural system for gravity loads. ex- 1629. ings) not more than three stories in height excluding basements. Buildings of any occupancy (including single-family dwell- tal irregularities of Type 1 (Table 16-M).8 Nonbuilding structural system. weight or geometric vertical ir- eral load primarily by flexural action of members. 1629.2. 3. including the braced frames. procedure set forth in Section 1630.3 may be used for the fol- pancy Categories 4 and 5 in Seismic Zone 2 need to be evaluated lowing structures of Occupancy Category 4 or 5: only for vertical irregularities of Type 5 (Table 16-L) and horizon. The moment-resisting frames shall be designed to include the effects of the soils at the site and shall conform to Sec- independently resist at least 25 percent of the design base shear. A structural system without a ered separately can be classified as being regular. 1629. the coefficient R shall be 1629. All structures in Seismic Zone 1 and Occu. 1629. DIV. 2. forces is greater than 1. in Seismic Zone 1 and in calculated neglecting torsional effects.5.6. ble to the general public. 2. Height limits for the various structural substantiated by approved cyclic test data and analyses.2 Bearing wall system.9.1 times the period of the upper por- 1629.7 second. Item 1. The analysis shall steel OMRF). Structures having a stiffness.2 Simplified static. A structural system with the following cept as permitted by Section 1630.1 General.4 Dynamic.5 Dual system. lateral seismic force of Wo times the design force prescribed in Section 1630. that have a period greater than 0.2. applies. those described in 1629. essentially complete space frame providing support for gravity 1629.2 Regular structures. Resistance to lateral load is provided by shear walls or Section 1631 shall be used for all other structures. 16. Item 4. 2 or 3. EXCEPTION: Regular structures may exceed these limits by not nificant physical discontinuities in plan or vertical configuration more than 50 percent for unoccupied structures. structure is not greater than 1.2. 3. throughout their height except as permitted by Section 1630.3 Static.2 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1629. regularity of Type 1. Structures having a flexible upper portion supported on a rigid lower portion where both portions of the structure consid- 1629. The story drifts for this determination may be 1. A structural system not EXCEPTION: Where the weak story is capable of resisting a total listed in Table 16-N. features: 3. Regular structures under 240 feet (73 152 mm) in height shall be designated as having a plan irregularity. All structures. be designated as if having a vertical irregularity. shall 1629. which are not accessi- or in their lateral-force-resisting systems such as the irregular fea. The simplified static lateral-force Tables 16-L and 16-M.9.CHAP.3 Building frame system. A structural system with an tion considered as a separate structure fixed at the base.3 Irregular structures.8. 3.5.3. The two systems shall be designed to resist the total design 1629.8.6. vertical irregularity Type 5 as defined in Table 16-L. MMRWF or SF.8. the average complete vertical load-carrying space frame.6 Cantilevered column system. in configuration or in their lateral-force-resisting systems. lowing items shall be addressed when establishing R: 2–12 .4. following: 1629. The story drift ratio for the top two stories 1630 may be used for the following structures: need not be considered. and certain structures defined below shall be. tion 1631.6.5.8 Selection of Lateral-force Procedure. of the types listed in Table 16-N and defined in this section. regular or irregular. Re. 1629.1 Discontinuity. 1629. except as with an essentially complete space frame providing support for permitted by Section 1629.6. 1629. Structures with a discontinuity in ca- pacity.8.6 Structural Systems. 1629.1 General. Structures 240 feet (73 152 mm) or more in height.7 Undefined structural system. Irregular structures not more than five stories or 65 feet 1629. Structures.8. regular or irregular.9 System Limitations. gravity loads.8. Structures over five stories or 65 feet (19 812 mm) in height 1. Any structure may be.9. Structures having any of the features listed in Table 16-M 2.3. Item 4. Structures having any of the features listed in Table 16-L shall that use light-frame construction.2. Bearing walls or story stiffness of the lower portion is at least 10 times the average bracing systems provide support for all or most gravity loads.6.4. 1629. 2. except where Section 1629. IMRF. Other buildings not more than two stories in height exclud- EXCEPTION: Where no story drift ratio under design lateral ing basements. The static lateral force procedure of Section the structure may be deemed to not have the structural irregularities of Type 1 or 2 in Table 16-L. or structures having irregular features not described in Table 16-L or 16-M.4 Moment-resisting frame system. designed using the dynamic lateral-force 1. located on Soil Profile Type frames and moment-resisting frames (SMRF. Regular structures have no sig.6. 1629.

70 percent of the shear in that tion and damping systems may be used in the design of structures column may be used in the column shear summation. W. Ev. Em = the estimated maximum earthquake force that can be developed in the structure as set forth in Section Seismic dead load. The following earthquake loads shall (m2). but may be reduced up to tion 1630. ò shall not exceed 1.05/lw ) and on seismic isolation systems. Alternative lateral-force procedures using For moment frames. the earthquake ground motion and is equal to an addition of 0.1. Dynamic response characteristics. Energy dissipation characteristics. ò = Reliability/Redundancy Factor as given by the follow- ing formula: 4. Structures shall be designed for ò shall not be taken less than 1. tio of the design story shear in the most heavily loaded 6. tio is denoted as ri . Seismic isolation. of each principal axis of the structure. For dual systems. or when the structure is located in Seis- Eh . ri shall be taken as the maximum value of the conventional structural systems.3 Irregular features. Where design snow loads exceed 30 psf (1.48 kN/m2) shall be included. 16. when approved by the building official and when special detailing is used to provide results equivalent to those obtained by the use of For shear walls. the value of ò need not exceed 80 percent of the value cal- 1630. such E = ρ Eh + Ev (30-1) that ò is less than or equal to 1. Ev = the load effect resulting from the vertical component of 1. 20 1630. except as required by Sec- tion 1633.2 Modeling requirements. the direction under consideration. a load of Design. IV 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1629. For dual systems. Strength and stiffness degradation. ri .1. except when used in be used in the load combinations set forth in Section 1612: dual systems. Design snow loads of 30 psf (1. the element-story shear ra- 7. 75 percent where consideration of siting. Design. ri shall be taken as the maximum value of ri as defined above considering all lateral-load-resisting elements. DIV. Earthquake Regulations for Seismic-isolated Structures. account for structural overstrength. as set forth in Sec. sum of the shears in any two adjacent columns in a moment frame ics may be used in lieu of those prescribed in these provisions.5. where lw is the length of the wall in sion III.1 For SI: 2.44 kN/m2) or less need not be Wo = the seismic force amplification factor that is required to included. For columns common to two bays with moment-resisting connections on opposite sides at Level i in 1629. D. which occurs in any of the story levels at the additional requirements of those sections referenced in the or below the two-thirds height level of the building. For alternate design procedures product of the wall shear multiplied by 10/lw (For SI: 3.1.25.10. the value of ri is equal to the maximum hori- zontal force component in a single brace element divided by the 1629. WHERE: 4. Fp . a minimum of 25 percent of the floor live load shall be applicable. for Strength 2.1 Earthquake Loads and Modeling Requirements. 1 or 2. For braced frames. The maximum element-story shear 1629. For any given Story Level i. For special moment-resisting frames. feet (m). ri shall be taken as the maximum of the rational analyses based on well-established principles of mechan.1. tables. total story shear. E = the earthquake load on an element of the structure result- ing from the combination of the horizontal component. Total weight of permanent equipment shall be included. Redundancy. energy dissipa. Divi. refer to Appendix Chapter 16.2 or the design lateral force. as set mic forces may be assumed to act nonconcurrently in the direction forth in Section 1632.1 Earthquake loads. and AB is the ground floor area of the structure in square feet in any horizontal direction. The number of bays of spe- cial moment-resisting frames shall be increased to reduce r. Lateral force resistance. Where a partition load is used in the floor design. In storage and warehouse occupancies. For a given di- rection of loading. is the total dead load and applicable por- tions of other loads listed below. culated above. 3.25.2 Seismic isolation.2 1630.10 Alternative Procedures. rmax = the maximum element-story shear ratio.1. The mathematical model of ò  2 (30-3) the physical structure shall include all elements of the lateral- r max A B force-resisting system. ρ shall be taken equal to 1. mic Zone 0. When calculating drift. V. Em = Wo Eh (30-2) EXCEPTION: AB may be taken as the average floor area in the WHERE: upper setback portion of the building where a larger base area exists at the ground floor. CHAP. ò  2 6.5Ca ID to the dead load effect.2 1. Eh = the earthquake load due to the base shear. System ductility. and single element divided by the total design story shear.10.3. Overstrength and strain hardening or softening. the element-story shear ratio is the ra- 5.1.1. the design snow load shall be included.44 kN/m2).9. 1630. and the vertical component.1 General. configuration and load duration warrant when approved by the building official. All structures having irregular ratio rmax is defined as the largest of the element story features described in Table 16-L or 16-M shall be designed to meet shear ratios.0 and need not be greater than ground motion producing structural response and seismic forces 1. and may be taken as zero for Allowable Stress not less than 10 psf (0. The model shall also include the stiffness 2–13 .9. as set forth The ground motion producing lateral response and design seis- in Section 1630. divided by the total story shear. 1630. r max A B 3. 1629. bay divided by the story shear. The SECTION 1630 — MINIMUM DESIGN LATERAL lateral loads shall be distributed to elements based on relative ri- FORCES AND RELATED EFFECTS gidities considering the interaction of the dual system.

1 General.0731) for reinforced concrete moment-resist. 16.2 may be designed using this procedure. 1630.2. δi .9. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4. PD T + 2p Ǹǒȍ Ǔ ǒ ȍ Ǔ n i+1 wi di 2 B g n i+1 fi di (30-10) need not be considered when the ratio of secondary moment to pri. For both Allowable Stress Design and Strength Design. Alternatively. 2. but shall not be ing frames and eccentrically braced frames. Table 16-N. mated from the following formula: EXCEPTION: For buildings with relatively flexible structural systems.1 Design base shear.5 C a I (30-5) Seismic Zones 3 and 4.3. In Section 1633. In addition.2 Determination of R.10 and 1631 shall not apply when 1. Type SD shall be used in 2. 1630. DM shall be taken equal to 0. 2–14 . The value of T from Method B shall not exceed a value 1. the total base shear shall also 1630.5.8 ZN v I 3.10. 1630. height of all stories.5 Ca wpx.1 Determination of Wo . or Type 1 or 4 of V + 0. of Section 1629. the Near-Source Factor.2. 1630. For specific elements of the sonry shear walls may be taken as 0. Method A: For all buildings. any story as the product of the total dead.2.3. PD need not be considered when the story drift ratio does not exceed 1630. WHERE: Where used. the building official may require consideration of PD effects T + C t (h n) 3ń4 (30-8) and drift in accordance with Sections 1630. the contribution of panel The fundamental period T may be computed by using the fol- zone deformations to overall story drift shall be included.0 C a V + W (30-7) Fx + wi (30-12) R R where the value of Ca shall be determined in Section 1630.3 Vertical distribution.01 times the story Ct = 0.3.1.10. 1630. Ds shall be prepared using design seismic forces from Section 1630. (30-14) and (30-15) or any other rational distribution. shall be calculated using the applied lateral in that story divided by the product of the seismic shear in that forces.2 Base shear. the ratio may be evaluated for mately in accordance with the principles of Formulas (30-13). R and Wo shall be taken from Table 16-N.2. The notation R shall be taken from The value of De /hn used in Formula (30-9) shall not exceed 0. When the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail to determine the soil profile type.3 PD effects. design strength shall be the product of the seismic force over- The value of Ac shall be determined from the following for.11 C a I W (30-6) Table 16-M.3. Na . need The total design base shear shall not be less than the following: not be greater than 1. In Seismic Zone 4.3. The elastic as required in Section 1612. The resulting member forces and moments and the story drifts induced by PD effects shall be considered in the evaluation of overall structural frame stability and shall be evaluated using the forces producing the displacements of DS . 1630.3.2 and strength of elements.3. the value of Ct for structures with concrete or ma- 1630. Formula (33-1) shall read 3.8. 2 and 3. The with the following: analysis shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section 1630. Fpx = w px and need not exceed 1.9 and 1630. IV 1630.1.2.2. 0.3.3. for Seismic Zone 4. 1630.2 ) (D eńh n) 2ƫ (30-9) Table 16-N.1. Structures conforming to the requirements 1630.3 Simplified design base shear.2. The total design base shear in a direction shall be determined from the following formula: given direction shall be determined from the following formula: 3.2. using the simplified procedure. shall be taken from A c + SA e ƪ0. Method B: The fundamental period T may be calculated us- of forces. In addition.9.CHAP.3. and Type SE shall be used in Seismic Zones V + W R 1.2. 1630.0488) for all other buildings. 2A and 2B. Wo . above the story times the seismic drift deflections.1. For steel moment frame systems. which are significant to the distribution 2.2. Stiffness properties of reinforced concrete and masonry ele- 30 percent greater than the value of T obtained from Method A in ments shall consider the effects of cracked sections.02/R.2. floor live and snow load.2.0 Ca wpx . the minimum for Ac in m2).020 (0.0 C a Ct = 0.030 (0.2.1.2 Static Force Procedure.1.1/ ǸA c (For SI: 0.3 if none of the following structural irregular- ities are present: Type 1.0743ń ǸA c structure. 1630. and 40 percent in Seismic Zones 1. Sections 1630.3 Determination of Seismic Factors. 1630. story times the height of that story. strength factor Wo and the design seismic forces set forth in Sec- mula: tion 1630. fi . the model shall comply the resisting elements in a properly substantiated analysis. the value T may be approxi.2. lowing formula: 1630. Seismic Zone 4. The total design base shear in a given 1630.9.035 (0.0853) for steel moment-resisting frames. The forces at each level shall not be less than the following: be calculated using the following formula: 0. R less than 0. Ct = 0.2.0 C a Cv I V + W (30-11) V + W (30-4) R R T where the value of Ca shall be based on Table 16-Q for the soil pro- The total design base shear need not exceed the following: file type.2 Structure period. DIV. and shall represent the spatial distribution of the mass ing the structural properties and deformational characteristics of and stiffness of the structure. The values of fi represent any lateral force distributed approxi- mary moment does not exceed 0. 1630.2. 4 or 5 of Table 16-L. 1630.3. as specifically identified in this code. The value of T shall be determined from one of the following methods: 1630. the Seismic Force Overstrength Factor.2.2 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1630.4 Applicability.1.

3.1 General. The effect of this displacement on the story shear reactions from the upper portion shall be those deter. distribution shall be considered. The design story shear. shall be determined using those seismic forces (Ft and Fx ) that act sidered as zero where T is 0. DIV.07 T V (30-14) 1630. Vx .1 General.3 Combinations along different axes. each direction a distance equal to 5 percent of the building dimen- 2. the overturning moments to be resisted using Formula (30-4). For other than ing the mass is displaced as required by Section 1630.6.0.5.7 Horizontal Torsional Moments. in any story is the sum of the forces Ft and Fx above that 1. i1 sign of any story shall be less than or equal to the value of R used in the given direction for the story above. The total force shall be d max distributed over the height of the structure in conformance with Ax  (30-16) Formulas (30-13). i1 δmax = the maximum displacement at Level x.2 Vertical combinations. The value of Ax need not exceed 3. Every structure shall be designed to resist the The value of T used for the purpose of calculating Ft shall be the overturning effects caused by earthquake forces specified in Sec- period that corresponds with the design base shear as computed tion 1630. on levels above the level under consideration. building frame sys. The following two-stage static analysis procedures may be sidering the rigidity of the diaphragm. the value of R used for design in the orthogonal di. rection shall not be greater than that used for the bearing wall sys- tem. the following formula:   2 1630. the requirements of this (V  F t ) w x h x Fx  (30-15) wh section shall be satisfied. IV 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1630. the in- 2–15 .2 The rigid lower portion shall be designed as a separate sion at that level perpendicular to the direction of the force under structure using the appropriate values of R and ò.8 Overturning. using the appropriate values of R and ò. where a combination of different structural systems Where torsional irregularity exists.4. used to resist seismic forces in structures less than 160 feet (48 768 mm) in height.8. The value of R used in the de. Structures may be designed using the procedures of this section under the following conditions: 1630. This may be determined 1630. tion of the base shear shall be distributed over the height of the structure.4 Combinations of Structural Systems. The concentrated force Ft at the top. The entire structure is designed using the lowest R of the story. Structural displacements and design seismic forces where the dead weight above that story is less than 10 percent of the total dead weight of the structure. shall be determined from the formula: 1630.4. as defined in Table 16-M. including Level n. Ax . shall be calculated as the effect of forces Fx and Ft applied at the appropriate levels above the base. At any level. Item 4. vertical-resisting elements under equivalent tributary lateral load. CHAP. 2. (30-14) and (30-15) in the absence of a more 1. The most severe load combi- tems.4 Combinations along the same axis. the mass at each level shall be assumed to be displaced from the calculated center of mass in portion. Provisions shall be made for the increased shears resulting from horizontal torsion Any combination of bearing wall systems.7 second or less. Only combinations of dual systems and special The torsional design moment at a given story shall be the mo- moment-resisting frames shall be used to resist seismic forces in ment resulting from eccentricities between applied design lateral structures exceeding 160 feet (48 768 mm) in height in Seismic forces at levels above that story and the vertical-resisting elements Zones 3 and 4. Where combinations of structural systems are incorporated into the same structure.5 Vertical Distribution of Force. dual systems and shear wall-frame interactive systems in Seismic Zones 0 and 1. See Section 1633.25V and may be con. The remaining por. rigid elements that are not intended to be part of the lateral-force- resisting systems.2 d avg rigorous procedure. 16. At each level designated as x.1 1630. which is in addition to Fn . where diaphragms are not flexible. n i i 1630. according to the following formula: 1630.8. WHERE: F n δavg = the average of the displacements at the extreme points of V  Ft i (30-13) the structure at Level x. The consideration. or lateral-force-resisting system in proportion to their rigidities. At any level.4 for used for structures conforming to Section 1629. Ft need not exceed 0. 1630. mined from the analysis of the upper portion amplified Diaphragms shall be considered flexible for the purposes of dis- by the ratio of the (R/ò) of the upper portion over (R/ò) tribution of story shear and torsional moment when the maximum of the lower portion. In Seismic by comparing the computed midpoint in-plane deflection of the Zones 3 and 4 where a structure has a bearing wall system in only diaphragm itself under lateral load with the story drift of adjoining one direction.2. Vx shall be distributed to the various elements of the vertical lateral-force-resisting systems used.6 Horizontal Distribution of Shear. supported laterally by the rigid lower Where diaphragms are not flexible. The accidental torsional moment shall be determined by assum- 1630. determined from value for any of the systems utilized in that same direction. the value of the effects shall be accounted for by increasing the accidental tor- R used for design in that direction shall not be greater than the least sion at each level by an amplification factor.4. is utilized to resist lateral forces in the same direction. con- 2. lateral deformation of the diaphragm is more than two times the average story drift of the associated story. dual systems or moment-resisting frame systems may be nation for each element shall be considered for design. F t  0.4 1630.1 The flexible upper portion shall be designed as a sepa- rate structure.8. the force Fx shall be applied over the area of the building in accordance with the mass distribution at EXCEPTION: This requirement need not be applied to a story that level.4. in that story plus an accidental torsion.

CHAP. 16, DIV. IV
1630.8.1 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
1631.1

cremental changes of the design overturning moment shall be dis- forces of Section 1630.2.1, DS , shall be determined in accordance
tributed to the various resisting elements in the manner prescribed with Section 1630.9.1. To determine DM , these drifts shall be
in Section 1630.6. Overturning effects on every element shall be amplified in accordance with Section 1630.9.2.
carried down to the foundation. See Sections 1612 and 1633 for
combining gravity and seismic forces. 1630.9.1 Determination of DS . A static, elastic analysis of the
lateral force-resisting system shall be prepared using the design
1630.8.2 Elements supporting discontinuous systems. seismic forces from Section 1630.2.1. Alternatively, dynamic
analysis may be performed in accordance with Section 1631.
1630.8.2.1 General. Where any portion of the lateral-load- Where Allowable Stress Design is used and where drift is being
resisting system is discontinuous, such as for vertical irregularity computed, the load combinations of Section 1612.2 shall be used.
Type 4 in Table 16-L or plan irregularity Type 4 in Table 16-M, The mathematical model shall comply with Section 1630.1.2. The
concrete, masonry, steel and wood elements supporting such dis- resulting deformations, denoted as DS , shall be determined at all
continuous systems shall have the design strength to resist the critical locations in the structure. Calculated drift shall include
combination loads resulting from the special seismic load com- translational and torsional deflections.
binations of Section 1612.4.
1630.9.2 Determination of DM . The Maximum Inelastic
EXCEPTIONS: 1. The quantity Em in Section 1612.4 need not
exceed the maximum force that can be transferred to the element by the Response Displacement, DM , shall be computed as follows:
lateral-force-resisting system. DM 0.7 RD S (30-17)
2. Concrete slabs supporting light-frame wood shear wall systems
or light-frame steel and wood structural panel shear wall systems. EXCEPTION: Alternatively, DM may be computed by nonlinear
time history analysis in accordance with Section 1631.6.
For Allowable Stress Design, the design strength may be deter- The analysis used to determine the Maximum Inelastic
mined using an allowable stress increase of 1.7 and a resistance Response Displacement DM shall consider PD effects.
factor, f, of 1.0. This increase shall not be combined with the one-
third stress increase permitted by Section 1612.3, but may be com- 1630.10 Story Drift Limitation.
bined with the duration of load increase permitted in Chapter 23, 1630.10.1 General. Story drifts shall be computed using the
Division III. Maximum Inelastic Response Displacement, DM .
1630.8.2.2 Detailing requirements in Seismic Zones 3 and 4. 1630.10.2 Calculated. Calculated story drift using DM shall not
In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, elements supporting discontinuous sys- exceed 0.025 times the story height for structures having a funda-
tems shall meet the following detailing or member limitations: mental period of less than 0.7 second. For structures having a fun-
1. Reinforced concrete elements designed primarily as axial- damental period of 0.7 second or greater, the calculated story drift
load members shall comply with Section 1921.4.4.5. shall not exceed 0.020 times the story height.
EXCEPTIONS: 1. These drift limits may be exceeded when it is
2. Reinforced concrete elements designed primarily as flexural
demonstrated that greater drift can be tolerated by both structural ele-
members and supporting other than light-frame wood shear wall ments and nonstructural elements that could affect life safety. The drift
systems or light-frame steel and wood structural panel shear wall used in this assessment shall be based upon the Maximum Inelastic
systems shall comply with Sections 1921.3.2 and 1921.3.3. Response Displacement, DM .
Strength computations for portions of slabs designed as support- 2. There shall be no drift limit in single-story steel-framed structures
ing elements shall include only those portions of the slab that com- classified as Groups B, F and S Occupancies or Group H, Division 4
ply with the requirements of these sections. or 5 Occupancies. In Groups B, F and S Occupancies, the primary use
shall be limited to storage, factories or workshops. Minor accessory
3. Masonry elements designed primarily as axial-load carrying uses shall be allowed in accordance with the provisions of Section 302.
members shall comply with Sections 2106.1.12.4, Item 1, and Structures on which this exception is used shall not have equipment at-
2108.2.6.2.6. tached to the structural frame or shall have such equipment detailed to
accommodate the additional drift. Walls that are laterally supported by
4. Masonry elements designed primarily as flexural members the steel frame shall be designed to accommodate the drift in accor-
shall comply with Section 2108.2.6.2.5. dance with Section 1633.2.4.
5. Steel elements designed primarily as axial-load members 1630.10.3 Limitations. The design lateral forces used to deter-
shall comply with Sections 2213.5.2 and 2213.5.3. mine the calculated drift may disregard the limitations of Formula
6. Steel elements designed primarily as flexural members or (30-6) and may be based on the period determined from Formula
trusses shall have bracing for both top and bottom beam flanges or (30-10) neglecting the 30 or 40 percent limitations of Section
chords at the location of the support of the discontinuous system 1630.2.2, Item 2.
and shall comply with the requirements of Section 2213.7.1.3. 1630.11 Vertical Component. The following requirements ap-
7. Wood elements designed primarily as flexural members shall ply in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 only. Horizontal cantilever compo-
be provided with lateral bracing or solid blocking at each end of nents shall be designed for a net upward force of 0.7Ca IWp .
the element and at the connection location(s) of the discontinuous In addition to all other applicable load combinations, horizontal
system. prestressed components shall be designed using not more than 50
1630.8.3 At foundation. See Sections 1629.1 and 1809.4 for percent of the dead load for the gravity load, alone or in combina-
overturning moments to be resisted at the foundation soil inter- tion with the lateral force effects.
face.
SECTION 1631 — DYNAMIC ANALYSIS
1630.9 Drift. Drift or horizontal displacements of the structure PROCEDURES
shall be computed where required by this code. For both Allow-
able Stress Design and Strength Design, the Maximum Inelastic 1631.1 General. Dynamic analyses procedures, when used,
Response Displacement, DM , of the structure caused by the shall conform to the criteria established in this section. The analy-
Design Basis Ground Motion shall be determined in accordance sis shall be based on an appropriate ground motion representation
with this section. The drifts corresponding to the design seismic and shall be performed using accepted principles of dynamics.
2–16

CHAP. 16, DIV. IV
1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1631.1
1631.5.7

Structures that are designed in accordance with this section shall 1631.5 Response Spectrum Analysis.
comply with all other applicable requirements of these provisions.
1631.5.1 Response spectrum representation and interpreta-
1631.2 Ground Motion. The ground motion representation tion of results. The ground motion representation shall be in
shall, as a minimum, be one having a 10-percent probability of be- accordance with Section 1631.2. The corresponding response
ing exceeded in 50 years, shall not be reduced by the quantity R parameters, including forces, moments and displacements, shall
and may be one of the following: be denoted as Elastic Response Parameters. Elastic Response
Parameters may be reduced in accordance with Section 1631.5.4.
1. An elastic design response spectrum constructed in accord-
ance with Figure 16-3, using the values of Ca and Cv consistent 1631.5.2 Number of modes. The requirement of Section
with the specific site. The design acceleration ordinates shall be 1631.4.1 that all significant modes be included may be satisfied by
multiplied by the acceleration of gravity, 386.4 in./sec.2 (9.815 demonstrating that for the modes considered, at least 90 percent of
m/sec.2). the participating mass of the structure is included in the calcula-
tion of response for each principal horizontal direction.
2. A site-specific elastic design response spectrum based on the
geologic, tectonic, seismologic and soil characteristics associated 1631.5.3 Combining modes. The peak member forces, dis-
with the specific site. The spectrum shall be developed for a damp- placements, story forces, story shears and base reactions for each
ing ratio of 0.05, unless a different value is shown to be consistent mode shall be combined by recognized methods. When three-
with the anticipated structural behavior at the intensity of shaking dimensional models are used for analysis, modal interaction ef-
established for the site. fects shall be considered when combining modal maxima.
3. Ground motion time histories developed for the specific site 1631.5.4 Reduction of Elastic Response Parameters for de-
shall be representative of actual earthquake motions. Response sign. Elastic Response Parameters may be reduced for purposes
spectra from time histories, either individually or in combination, of design in accordance with the following items, with the limita-
shall approximate the site design spectrum conforming to Section tion that in no case shall the Elastic Response Parameters be re-
1631.2, Item 2. duced such that the corresponding design base shear is less than
the Elastic Response Base Shear divided by the value of R.
4. For structures on Soil Profile Type SF, the following require-
ments shall apply when required by Section 1629.8.4, Item 4: 1. For all regular structures where the ground motion represen-
tation complies with Section 1631.2, Item 1, Elastic Response
4.1 The ground motion representation shall be developed in Parameters may be reduced such that the corresponding design
accordance with Items 2 and 3. base shear is not less than 90 percent of the base shear determined
in accordance with Section 1630.2.
4.2 Possible amplification of building response due to the
effects of soil-structure interaction and lengthening of 2. For all regular structures where the ground motion represen-
building period caused by inelastic behavior shall be tation complies with Section 1631.2, Item 2, Elastic Response
considered. Parameters may be reduced such that the corresponding design
base shear is not less than 80 percent of the base shear determined
5. The vertical component of ground motion may be defined by in accordance with Section 1630.2.
scaling corresponding horizontal accelerations by a factor of two- 3. For all irregular structures, regardless of the ground motion
thirds. Alternative factors may be used when substantiated by site- representation, Elastic Response Parameters may be reduced such
specific data. Where the Near Source Factor, Na , is greater than that the corresponding design base shear is not less than 100 per-
1.0, site-specific vertical response spectra shall be used in lieu of cent of the base shear determined in accordance with Section
the factor of two-thirds. 1630.2.
1631.3 Mathematical Model. A mathematical model of the The corresponding reduced design seismic forces shall be used
physical structure shall represent the spatial distribution of the for design in accordance with Section 1612.
mass and stiffness of the structure to an extent that is adequate for
1631.5.5 Directional effects. Directional effects for horizontal
the calculation of the significant features of its dynamic response.
ground motion shall conform to the requirements of Section
A three-dimensional model shall be used for the dynamic analysis
1630.1. The effects of vertical ground motions on horizontal can-
of structures with highly irregular plan configurations such as
tilevers and prestressed elements shall be considered in accord-
those having a plan irregularity defined in Table 16-M and having
ance with Section 1630.11. Alternately, vertical seismic response
a rigid or semirigid diaphragm. The stiffness properties used in the
may be determined by dynamic response methods; in no case shall
analysis and general mathematical modeling shall be in accord-
the response used for design be less than that obtained by the static
ance with Section 1630.1.2.
method.
1631.4 Description of Analysis Procedures. 1631.5.6 Torsion. The analysis shall account for torsional ef-
fects, including accidental torsional effects as prescribed in Sec-
1631.4.1 Response spectrum analysis. An elastic dynamic tion 1630.7. Where three-dimensional models are used for
analysis of a structure utilizing the peak dynamic response of all analysis, effects of accidental torsion shall be accounted for by ap-
modes having a significant contribution to total structural re- propriate adjustments in the model such as adjustment of mass lo-
sponse. Peak modal responses are calculated using the ordinates cations, or by equivalent static procedures such as provided in
of the appropriate response spectrum curve which correspond to Section 1630.6.
the modal periods. Maximum modal contributions are combined
in a statistical manner to obtain an approximate total structural re- 1631.5.7 Dual systems. Where the lateral forces are resisted by
sponse. a dual system as defined in Section 1629.6.5, the combined system
shall be capable of resisting the base shear determined in accord-
1631.4.2 Time-history analysis. An analysis of the dynamic re- ance with this section. The moment-resisting frame shall conform
sponse of a structure at each increment of time when the base is to Section 1629.6.5, Item 2, and may be analyzed using either the
subjected to a specific ground motion time history. procedures of Section 1630.5 or those of Section 1631.5.
2–17

CHAP. 16, DIV. IV
1631.6 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
1632.2

1631.6 Time-history Analysis. SECTION 1632 — LATERAL FORCE ON ELEMENTS
OF STRUCTURES, NONSTRUCTURAL COMPONENTS
1631.6.1 Time history. Time-history analysis shall be per- AND EQUIPMENT SUPPORTED BY STRUCTURES
formed with pairs of appropriate horizontal ground-motion time- 1632.1 General. Elements of structures and their attachments,
history components that shall be selected and scaled from not less permanent nonstructural components and their attachments, and
than three recorded events. Appropriate time histories shall have the attachments for permanent equipment supported by a structure
magnitudes, fault distances and source mechanisms that are con- shall be designed to resist the total design seismic forces pre-
sistent with those that control the design-basis earthquake (or scribed in Section 1632.2. Attachments for floor- or roof-mounted
maximum capable earthquake). Where three appropriate recorded equipment weighing less than 400 pounds (181 kg), and furniture
ground-motion time-history pairs are not available, appropriate need not be designed.
simulated ground-motion time-history pairs may be used to make
up the total number required. For each pair of horizontal ground- Attachments shall include anchorages and required bracing.
motion components, the square root of the sum of the squares Friction resulting from gravity loads shall not be considered to
(SRSS) of the 5 percent-damped site-specific spectrum of the provide resistance to seismic forces.
scaled horizontal components shall be constructed. The motions When the structural failure of the lateral-force-resisting sys-
shall be scaled such that the average value of the SRSS spectra tems of nonrigid equipment would cause a life hazard, such sys-
does not fall below 1.4 times the 5 percent-damped spectrum of tems shall be designed to resist the seismic forces prescribed in
the design-basis earthquake for periods from 0.2T second to Section 1632.2.
1.5T seconds. Each pair of time histories shall be applied simulta- When permissible design strengths and other acceptance crite-
neously to the model considering torsional effects. ria are not contained in or referenced by this code, such criteria
shall be obtained from approved national standards subject to the
The parameter of interest shall be calculated for each time- approval of the building official.
history analysis. If three time-history analyses are performed, then
the maximum response of the parameter of interest shall be used 1632.2 Design for Total Lateral Force. The total design lateral
for design. If seven or more time-history analyses are performed, seismic force, Fp , shall be determined from the following formula:
then the average value of the response parameter of interest may F p  4.0 C a I p W p (32-1)
be used for design.
Alternatively, Fp may be calculated using the following for-
mula:
1631.6.2 Elastic time-history analysis. Elastic time history
shall conform to Sections 1631.1, 1631.2, 1631.3, 1631.5.2,
1631.5.4, 1631.5.5, 1631.5.6, 1631.5.7 and 1631.6.1. Response
Fp 
ap Ca Ip
Rp
1 3
hx
hr
W p (32-2)
parameters from elastic time-history analysis shall be denoted as
Elastic Response Parameters. All elements shall be designed Except that:
using Strength Design. Elastic Response Parameters may be Fp shall not be less than 0.7Ca Ip Wp and
scaled in accordance with Section 1631.5.4. need not be more than 4Ca Ip Wp (32-3)
WHERE:
1631.6.3 Nonlinear time-history analysis.
hx is the element or component attachment elevation with
respect to grade. hx shall not be taken less than 0.0.
1631.6.3.1 Nonlinear time history. Nonlinear time-history
analysis shall meet the requirements of Section 1629.10, and time hr is the structure roof elevation with respect to grade.
histories shall be developed and results determined in accordance ap is the in-structure Component Amplification Factor that var-
with the requirements of Section 1631.6.1. Capacities and charac- ies from 1.0 to 2.5.
teristics of nonlinear elements shall be modeled consistent with A value for ap shall be selected from Table 16-O. Alternatively,
test data or substantiated analysis, considering the Importance this factor may be determined based on the dynamic properties or
Factor. The maximum inelastic response displacement shall not empirical data of the component and the structure that supports it.
be reduced and shall comply with Section 1630.10. The value shall not be taken less than 1.0.
Rp is the Component Response Modification Factor that shall
1631.6.3.2 Design review. When nonlinear time-history analysis be taken from Table 16-O, except that Rp for anchorages shall
is used to justify a structural design, a design review of the lateral- equal 1.5 for shallow expansion anchor bolts, shallow chemical
force-resisting system shall be performed by an independent engi- anchors or shallow cast-in-place anchors. Shallow anchors are
neering team, including persons licensed in the appropriate those with an embedment length-to-diameter ratio of less than 8.
disciplines and experienced in seismic analysis methods. The When anchorage is constructed of nonductile materials, or by use
lateral-force-resisting system design review shall include, but not of adhesive, Rp shall equal 1.0.
be limited to, the following:
The design lateral forces determined using Formula (32-1) or
1. Reviewing the development of site-specific spectra and (32-2) shall be distributed in proportion to the mass distribution of
ground-motion time histories. the element or component.
Forces determined using Formula (32-1) or (32-2) shall be used
2. Reviewing the preliminary design of the lateral-force-resist- to design members and connections that transfer these forces to
ing system. the seismic-resisting systems. Members and connection design
shall use the load combinations and factors specified in Section
3. Reviewing the final design of the lateral-force-resisting sys-
1612.2 or 1612.3. The Reliability/Redundancy Factor, ρ, may be
tem and all supporting analyses.
taken equal to 1.0.
The engineer of record shall submit with the plans and calcula- For applicable forces and Component Response Modification
tions a statement by all members of the engineering team doing the Factors in connectors for exterior panels and diaphragms, refer to
review stating that the above review has been performed. Sections 1633.2.4, 1633.2.8 and 1633.2.9.
2–18

CHAP. 16, DIV. IV
1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1632.2
1633.2.4.2

Forces shall be applied in the horizontal directions, which result directional effects is used, each term computed shall be assigned
in the most critical loadings for design. the sign that will result in the most conservative result.
1632.3 Specifying Lateral Forces. Design specifications for 1633.2 Structural Framing Systems.
equipment shall either specify the design lateral forces prescribed
1633.2.1 General. Four types of general building framing sys-
herein or reference these provisions.
tems defined in Section 1629.6 are recognized in these provisions
1632.4 Relative Motion of Equipment Attachments. For and shown in Table 16-N. Each type is subdivided by the types of
equipment in Categories 1 and 2 buildings as defined in Table vertical elements used to resist lateral seismic forces. Special
16-K, the lateral-force design shall consider the effects of relative framing requirements are given in this section and in Chapters 19
motion of the points of attachment to the structure, using the drift through 23.
based upon DM . 1633.2.2 Detailing for combinations of systems. For compo-
1632.5 Alternative Designs. Where an approved national nents common to different structural systems, the more restrictive
standard or approved physical test data provide a basis for the detailing requirements shall be used.
earthquake-resistant design of a particular type of equipment or 1633.2.3 Connections. Connections that resist design seismic
other nonstructural component, such a standard or data may be ac- forces shall be designed and detailed on the drawings.
cepted as a basis for design of the items with the following limita-
tions: 1633.2.4 Deformation compatibility. All structural framing
elements and their connections, not required by design to be part
1. These provisions shall provide minimum values for the de-
of the lateral-force-resisting system, shall be designed and/or
sign of the anchorage and the members and connections that trans-
detailed to be adequate to maintain support of design dead plus
fer the forces to the seismic-resisting system.
live loads when subjected to the expected deformations caused by
2. The force, Fp , and the overturning moment used in the design seismic forces. PD effects on such elements shall be considered.
of the nonstructural component shall not be less than 80 percent of Expected deformations shall be determined as the greater of the
the values that would be obtained using these provisions. Maximum Inelastic Response Displacement, DM , considering PD
effects determined in accordance with Section 1630.9.2 or the
deformation induced by a story drift of 0.0025 times the story
SECTION 1633 — DETAILED SYSTEMS DESIGN height. When computing expected deformations, the stiffening
REQUIREMENTS effect of those elements not part of the lateral-force-resisting sys-
1633.1 General. All structural framing systems shall comply tem shall be neglected.
with the requirements of Section 1629. Only the elements of the For elements not part of the lateral-force-resisting system, the
designated seismic-force-resisting system shall be used to resist forces induced by the expected deformation may be considered as
design forces. The individual components shall be designed to re- ultimate or factored forces. When computing the forces induced
sist the prescribed design seismic forces acting on them. The com- by expected deformations, the restraining effect of adjoining rigid
ponents shall also comply with the specific requirements for the structures and nonstructural elements shall be considered and a
material contained in Chapters 19 through 23. In addition, such rational value of member and restraint stiffness shall be used.
framing systems and components shall comply with the detailed Inelastic deformations of members and connections may be con-
system design requirements contained in Section 1633. sidered in the evaluation, provided the assumed calculated capaci-
All building components in Seismic Zones 2, 3 and 4 shall be ties are consistent with member and connection design and
designed to resist the effects of the seismic forces prescribed here- detailing.
in and the effects of gravity loadings from dead, floor live and For concrete and masonry elements that are part of the lateral-
snow loads. force-resisting system, the assumed flexural and shear stiffness
Consideration shall be given to design for uplift effects caused properties shall not exceed one half of the gross section properties
by seismic loads. unless a rational cracked-section analysis is performed. Addi-
tional deformations that may result from foundation flexibility
In Seismic Zones 2, 3 and 4, provision shall be made for the ef- and diaphragm deflections shall be considered. For concrete ele-
fects of earthquake forces acting in a direction other than the prin- ments not part of the lateral-force-resisting system, see Section
cipal axes in each of the following circumstances: 1921.7.
The structure has plan irregularity Type 5 as given in Table 1633.2.4.1 Adjoining rigid elements. Moment-resisting frames
16-M. and shear walls may be enclosed by or adjoined by more rigid ele-
The structure has plan irregularity Type 1 as given in Table ments, provided it can be shown that the participation or failure of
16-M for both major axes. the more rigid elements will not impair the vertical and lateral-
load-resisting ability of the gravity load and lateral-force-resisting
A column of a structure forms part of two or more intersecting
systems. The effects of adjoining rigid elements shall be consid-
lateral-force-resisting systems.
ered when assessing whether a structure shall be designated regu-
EXCEPTION: If the axial load in the column due to seismic forces lar or irregular in Section 1629.5.1.
acting in either direction is less than 20 percent of the column axial load
capacity. 1633.2.4.2 Exterior elements. Exterior nonbearing, nonshear
The requirement that orthogonal effects be considered may be wall panels or elements that are attached to or enclose the exterior
satisfied by designing such elements for 100 percent of the pre- shall be designed to resist the forces per Formula (32-1) or (32–2)
scribed design seismic forces in one direction plus 30 percent of and shall accommodate movements of the structure based on DM
the prescribed design seismic forces in the perpendicular direc- and temperature changes. Such elements shall be supported by
tion. The combination requiring the greater component strength means of cast-in-place concrete or by mechanical connections and
shall be used for design. Alternatively, the effects of the two ortho- fasteners in accordance with the following provisions:
gonal directions may be combined on a square root of the sum of 1. Connections and panel joints shall allow for a relative move-
the squares (SRSS) basis. When the SRSS method of combining ment between stories of not less than two times story drift caused
2–19

CHAP. 16, DIV. IV
1633.2.4.2 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
1633.2.9

by wind, the calculated story drift based on DM or 1/2 inch (12.7 provide a positive direct connection between the wall and floor or
mm), whichever is greater. roof construction capable of resisting the larger of the horizontal
2. Connections to permit movement in the plane of the panel forces specified in this section and Sections 1611.4 and 1632. In
for story drift shall be sliding connections using slotted or oversize addition, in Seismic Zones 3 and 4, diaphragm to wall anchorage
holes, connections that permit movement by bending of steel, or using embedded straps shall have the straps attached to or hooked
other connections providing equivalent sliding and ductility ca- around the reinforcing steel or otherwise terminated to effectively
pacity. transfer forces to the reinforcing steel. Requirements for develop-
ing anchorage forces in diaphragms are given in Section 1633.2.9.
3. Bodies of connections shall have sufficient ductility and ro- Diaphragm deformation shall be considered in the design of the
tation capacity to preclude fracture of the concrete or brittle fail- supported walls.
ures at or near welds.
1633.2.8.1 Out-of-plane wall anchorage to flexible dia-
4. The body of the connection shall be designed for the force phragms. This section shall apply in Seismic Zones 3 and 4
determined by Formula (32-2), where Rp = 3.0 and ap = 1.0. where flexible diaphragms, as defined in Section 1630.6, provide
5. All fasteners in the connecting system, such as bolts, inserts, lateral support for walls.
welds and dowels, shall be designed for the forces determined by 1. Elements of the wall anchorage system shall be designed for
Formula (32-2), where Rp = 1.0 and ap = 1.0. the forces specified in Section 1632 where Rp = 3.0 and ap = 1.5.
6. Fasteners embedded in concrete shall be attached to, or In Seismic Zone 4, the value of Fp used for the design of the ele-
hooked around, reinforcing steel or otherwise terminated to effec- ments of the wall anchorage system shall not be less than 420
tively transfer forces to the reinforcing steel. pounds per lineal foot (6.1 kN per lineal meter) of wall substituted
for E.
1633.2.5 Ties and continuity. All parts of a structure shall be
interconnected and the connections shall be capable of transmit- See Section 1611.4 for minimum design forces in other seismic
ting the seismic force induced by the parts being connected. As a zones.
minimum, any smaller portion of the building shall be tied to the 2. When elements of the wall anchorage system are not loaded
remainder of the building with elements having at least a strength concentrically or are not perpendicular to the wall, the system
to resist 0.5 Ca I times the weight of the smaller portion. shall be designed to resist all components of the forces induced by
A positive connection for resisting a horizontal force acting par- the eccentricity.
allel to the member shall be provided for each beam, girder or 3. When pilasters are present in the wall, the anchorage force at
truss. This force shall not be less than 0.5 Ca I times the dead plus the pilasters shall be calculated considering the additional load
live load. transferred from the wall panels to the pilasters. However, the
minimum anchorage force at a floor or roof shall be that specified
1633.2.6 Collector elements. Collector elements shall be pro- in Section 1633.2.8.1, Item 1.
vided that are capable of transferring the seismic forces originat-
ing in other portions of the structure to the element providing the 4. The strength design forces for steel elements of the wall an-
resistance to those forces. chorage system shall be 1.4 times the forces otherwise required by
this section.
Collector elements, splices and their connections to resisting
5. The strength design forces for wood elements of the wall
elements shall resist the forces determined in accordance with
anchorage system shall be 0.85 times the force otherwise required
Formula (33-1). In addition, collector elements, splices, and their
by this section and these wood elements shall have a minimum
connections to resisting elements shall have the design strength to
actual net thickness of 21/2 inches (63.5 mm).
resist the combined loads resulting from the special seismic load
of Section 1612.4. 1633.2.9 Diaphragms.
EXCEPTION: In structures, or portions thereof, braced entirely by 1. The deflection in the plane of the diaphragm shall not exceed
light-frame wood shear walls or light-frame steel and wood structural the permissible deflection of the attached elements. Permissible
panel shear wall systems, collector elements, splices and connections deflection shall be that deflection that will permit the attached ele-
to resisting elements need only be designed to resist forces in accord- ment to maintain its structural integrity under the individual load-
ance with Formula (33-1).
ing and continue to support the prescribed loads.
The quantity EM need not exceed the maximum force that can 2. Floor and roof diaphragms shall be designed to resist the
be transferred to the collector by the diaphragm and other ele- forces determined in accordance with the following formula:
ments of the lateral-force-resisting system. For Allowable Stress
F
n
Design, the design strength may be determined using an allowable
stress increase of 1.7 and a resistance factor, f, of 1.0. This in- Ft i
ix
crease shall not be combined with the one-third stress increase F px  wpx (33-1)
w
n
permitted by Section 1612.3, but may be combined with the dura-
i
tion of load increase permitted in Division III of Chapter 23. ix

1633.2.7 Concrete frames. Concrete frames required by design
to be part of the lateral-force-resisting system shall conform to the The force Fpx determined from Formula (33-1) need not exceed
following: 1.0Ca Iwpx , but shall not be less than 0.5Ca Iwpx .
1. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 they shall be special moment- When the diaphragm is required to transfer design seismic
resisting frames. forces from the vertical-resisting elements above the diaphragm
to other vertical-resisting elements below the diaphragm due to
2. In Seismic Zone 2 they shall, as a minimum, be intermediate offset in the placement of the elements or to changes in stiffness in
moment-resisting frames. the vertical elements, these forces shall be added to those deter-
1633.2.8 Anchorage of concrete or masonry walls. Concrete mined from Formula (33-1).
or masonry walls shall be anchored to all floors and roofs that pro- 3. Design seismic forces for flexible diaphragms providing lat-
vide out-of-plane lateral support of the wall. The anchorage shall eral supports for walls or frames of masonry or concrete shall be
2–20

CHAP. 16, DIV. IV
1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1633.2.9
1634.4

determined using Formula (33-1) based on the load determined in be designed to provide the strength required to resist the displace-
accordance with Section 1630.2 using a R not exceeding 4. ments induced by the minimum lateral forces specified in this sec-
4. Diaphragms supporting concrete or masonry walls shall tion. Design shall conform to the applicable provisions of other
have continuous ties or struts between diaphragm chords to dis- sections as modified by the provisions contained in Section 1634.
tribute the anchorage forces specified in Section 1633.2.8. Added 1634.1.2 Criteria. The minimum design seismic forces pre-
chords of subdiaphragms may be used to form subdiaphragms to scribed in this section are at a level that produce displacements in a
transmit the anchorage forces to the main continuous crossties. fixed base, elastic model of the structure, comparable to those
The maximum length-to-width ratio of the wood structural sub- expected of the real structure when responding to the Design Basis
diaphragm shall be 21/2:1. Ground Motion. Reductions in these forces using the coefficient R
5. Where wood diaphragms are used to laterally support con- is permitted where the design of nonbuilding structures provides
crete or masonry walls, the anchorage shall conform to Section sufficient strength and ductility, consistent with the provisions
1633.2.8. In Seismic Zones 2, 3 and 4, anchorage shall not be ac- specified herein for buildings, to resist the effects of seismic
complished by use of toenails or nails subject to withdrawal, wood ground motions as represented by these design forces.
ledgers or framing shall not be used in cross-grain bending or When applicable, design strengths and other detailed design
cross-grain tension, and the continuous ties required by Item 4 criteria shall be obtained from other sections or their referenced
shall be in addition to the diaphragm sheathing. standards. The design of nonbuilding structures shall use the load
6. Connections of diaphragms to the vertical elements in struc- combinations or factors specified in Section 1612.2 or 1612.3. For
tures in Seismic Zones 3 and 4, having a plan irregularity of Type nonbuilding structures designed using Section 1634.3, 1634.4 or
1, 2, 3 or 4 in Table 16-M, shall be designed without considering 1634.5, the Reliability/Redundancy Factor, ρ, may be taken as 1.0.
either the one-third increase or the duration of load increase con- When applicable design strengths and other design criteria are
sidered in allowable stresses for elements resisting earthquake not contained in or referenced by this code, such criteria shall be
forces. obtained from approved national standards.
7. In structures in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 having a plan irregu- 1634.1.3 Weight W. The weight, W, for nonbuilding structures
larity of Type 2 in Table 16-M, diaphragm chords and drag mem- shall include all dead loads as defined for buildings in Section
bers shall be designed considering independent movement of the 1630.1.1. For purposes of calculating design seismic forces in
projecting wings of the structure. Each of these diaphragm ele- nonbuilding structures, W shall also include all normal operating
ments shall be designed for the more severe of the following two contents for items such as tanks, vessels, bins and piping.
assumptions:
Motion of the projecting wings in the same direction. 1634.1.4 Period. The fundamental period of the structure shall
be determined by rational methods such as by using Method B in
Motion of the projecting wings in opposing directions. Section 1630.2.2.
EXCEPTION: This requirement may be deemed satisfied if the
procedures of Section 1631 in conjunction with a three-dimensional 1634.1.5 Drift. The drift limitations of Section 1630.10 need not
model have been used to determine the lateral seismic forces for apply to nonbuilding structures. Drift limitations shall be estab-
design. lished for structural or nonstructural elements whose failure
1633.2.10 Framing below the base. The strength and stiffness would cause life hazards. P∆ effects shall be considered for struc-
of the framing between the base and the foundation shall not be tures whose calculated drifts exceed the values in Section
less than that of the superstructure. The special detailing require- 1630.1.3.
ments of Chapters 19 and 22, as appropriate, shall apply to col- 1634.1.6 Interaction effects. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, struc-
umns supporting discontinuous lateral-force-resisting elements tures that support flexible nonstructural elements whose com-
and to SMRF, IMRF, EBF, STMF and MMRWF system elements bined weight exceeds 25 percent of the weight of the structure
below the base, which are required to transmit the forces resulting shall be designed considering interaction effects between the
from lateral loads to the foundation. structure and the supported elements.
1633.2.11 Building separations. All structures shall be sepa- 1634.2 Lateral Force. Lateral-force procedures for non-
rated from adjoining structures. Separations shall allow for the building structures with structural systems similar to buildings
displacement DM . Adjacent buildings on the same property shall (those with structural systems which are listed in Table 16-N) shall
be separated by at least DMT where be selected in accordance with the provisions of Section 1629.
D MT  (DM1) 2 (D M2) 2 (33-2) EXCEPTION: Intermediate moment-resisting frames (IMRF)
may be used in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 for nonbuilding structures in
Occupancy Categories 3 and 4 if (1) the structure is less than 50 feet
and DM1 and DM2 are the displacements of the adjacent buildings. (15 240 mm) in height and (2) the value R used in reducing calculated
When a structure adjoins a property line not common to a public member forces and moments does not exceed 2.8.
way, that structure shall also be set back from the property line by 1634.3 Rigid Structures. Rigid structures (those with period T
at least the displacement DM of that structure. less than 0.06 second) and their anchorages shall be designed for
EXCEPTION: Smaller separations or property line setbacks may the lateral force obtained from Formula (34-1).
be permitted when justified by rational analyses based on maximum
expected ground motions. V  0.7C a IW (34-1)
The force V shall be distributed according to the distribution of
SECTION 1634 — NONBUILDING STRUCTURES mass and shall be assumed to act in any horizontal direction.

1634.1 General. 1634.4 Tanks with Supported Bottoms. Flat bottom tanks or
other tanks with supported bottoms, founded at or below grade,
1634.1.1 Scope. Nonbuilding structures include all self- shall be designed to resist the seismic forces calculated using the
supporting structures other than buildings that carry gravity loads procedures in Section 1634 for rigid structures considering the en-
and resist the effects of earthquakes. Nonbuilding structures shall tire weight of the tank and its contents. Alternatively, such tanks
2–21

CHAP. 16, DIV. IV
1634.4 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
1635

may be designed using one of the two procedures described be- 2. The vertical distribution of the design seismic forces in
low: structures covered by this section may be determined by using the
1. A response spectrum analysis that includes consideration of provisions of Section 1630.5 or by using the procedures of Section
the actual ground motion anticipated at the site and the inertial ef- 1631.
fects of the contained fluid. EXCEPTION: For irregular structures assigned to Occupancy
Categories 1 and 2 that cannot be modeled as a single mass, the proce-
2. A design basis prescribed for the particular type of tank by an dures of Section 1631 shall be used.
approved national standard, provided that the seismic zones and
occupancy categories shall be in conformance with the provisions 3. Where an approved national standard provides a basis for the
of Sections 1629.4 and 1629.2, respectively. earthquake-resistant design of a particular type of nonbuilding
structure covered by this section, such a standard may be used,
1634.5 Other Nonbuilding Structures. Nonbuilding struc- subject to the limitations in this section:
tures that are not covered by Sections 1634.3 and 1634.4 shall be
designed to resist design seismic forces not less than those deter- The seismic zones and occupancy categories shall be in confor-
mined in accordance with the provisions in Section 1630 with the mance with the provisions of Sections 1629.4 and 1629.2, respec-
following additions and exceptions: tively.
1. The factors R and Wo shall be as set forth in Table 16-P. The The values for total lateral force and total base overturning mo-
total design base shear determined in accordance with Section ment used in design shall not be less than 80 percent of the values
1630.2 shall not be less than the following: that would be obtained using these provisions.
V 0.56C aIW (34-2)
Additionally, for Seismic Zone 4, the total base shear shall also SECTION 1635 — EARTHQUAKE-RECORDING
not be less than the following: INSTRUMENTATIONS
1.6 ZN v I For earthquake-recording instrumentations, see Appendix Chap-
V W (34-3)
R ter 16, Division II.

2–22

CHAP. 16, DIV. V
1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1636
1636.2.6

Division V—SOIL PROFILE TYPES

d
n
SECTION 1636 — SITE CATEGORIZATION
PROCEDURE i
i 1
N (36-2)

n
1636.1 Scope. This division describes the procedure for deter- di
mining Soil Profile Types SA through SF in accordance with Table Ni
i 1
16-J. CHAP. 16, DIV. V
and
1636.2 Definitions. Soil profile types are defined as follows:
ds
SA Hard rock with measured shear wave velocity, v s > 5,000 N CH (36-3)

n
di
ft./sec. (1500 m/s). Ni
SB Rock with 2,500 ft./sec. < v s  5,000 ft./sec. (760 m/s < i 1

v s  1500 m/s). WHERE:
SC Very dense soil and soft rock with 1,200 ft./sec. < v s  di = thickness of Layer i in feet (mm).
2,500 ft./sec. (360 m/s v s  760 m/s) or with either ds = the total thickness of cohesionless soil layers in the top
N > 50 or s u  2,000 psf (100 kPa). 100 feet (30 480 mm).
SD Stiff soil with 600 ft./sec.  v s  1,200 ft./sec. (180 m/s Ni = the standard penetration resistance of soil layer in
 v s  360 m/s) or with 15  N  50 or 1,000 psf  s u accordance with approved nationally recognized stand-
 2,000 psf (50 kPa  s u  100 kPa). ards.
SE A soil profile with v s < 600 ft./sec. (180 m/s) or any pro- 1636.2.3 s u, Average undrained shear strength. s u shall be
file with more than 10 ft. (3048 mm) of soft clay defined determined in accordance with the following formula:
as soil with PI > 20, wmc  40 percent and s u < 500 psf dc
su (36-4)

(25 kPa). n
di
SF Soils requiring site-specific evaluation: S ui
i 1
1. Soils vulnerable to potential failure or collapse under seis- WHERE:
mic loading such as liquefiable soils, quick and highly sensitive
clays, collapsible weakly cemented soils. dc = the total thickness (100 – ds ) of cohesive soil layers in the
top 100 feet (30 480 mm).
2. Peats and/or highly organic clays [H > 10 ft. (3048 mm) of Sui = the undrained shear strength in accordance with
peat and/or highly organic clay where H = thickness of soil]. approved nationally recognized standards, not to exceed
3. Very high plasticity clays [H > 25 ft. (7620 mm) with PI > 5,000 psf (250 kPa).
75].
1636.2.4 Soft clay profile, SE . The existence of a total thickness
4. Very thick soft/medium stiff clays [H > 120 ft. (36 580 of soft clay greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be investigated
mm)]. where a soft clay layer is defined by s u < 500 psf (24 kPa), wmc 
40 percent and PI > 20. If these criteria are met, the site shall be
EXCEPTION: When the soil properties are not known in sufficient
detail to determine the soil profile type, Type SD shall be used. Soil Pro- classified as Soil Profile Type SE .
file Type SE need not be assumed unless the building official deter- 1636.2.5 Soil profiles SC , SD and SE . Sites with Soil Profile
mines that Soil Profile Type SE may be present at the site or in the event
that Type SE is established by geotechnical data. Types SC , SD and SE shall be classified by using one of the follow-
ing three methods with v s, N and s u computed in all cases as speci-
The criteria set forth in the definition for Soil Profile Type SF fied in Section 1636.2.
requiring site-specific evaluation shall be considered. If the site 1. v s for the top 100 feet (30 480 mm) ( v s method).
corresponds to this criteria, the site shall be classified as Soil Pro-
file Type SF and a site-specific evaluation shall be conducted. 2. N for the top 100 feet (30 480 mm) (N method).
3. NCH for cohesionless soil layers (PI < 20) in the top 100 feet
1636.2.1 v s, Average shear wave velocity. v s shall be deter- (30 480 mm) and average s u for cohesive soil layers (PI > 20) in
mined in accordance with the following formula: the top 100 feet (30 480 mm) ( s u method).
d
n
1636.2.6 Rock profiles, SA and SB . The shear wave velocity for
i
i 1
rock, Soil Profile Type SB , shall be either measured on site or esti-
vs (36-1) mated by a geotechnical engineer, engineering geologist or

n
di
v si
seismologist for competent rock with moderate fracturing and
i 1 weathering. Softer and more highly fractured and weathered rock
shall either be measured on site for shear wave velocity or classi-
WHERE: fied as Soil Profile Type SC .
di = thickness of Layer i in feet (m). The hard rock, Soil Profile Type SA , category shall be supported
vsi = shear wave velocity in Layer i in ft./sec. (m/sec). by shear wave velocity measurement either on site or on profiles
of the same rock type in the same formation with an equal or
1636.2.2 N, average field standard penetration resistance and greater degree of weathering and fracturing. Where hard rock con-
NCH , average standard penetration resistance for cohesionless ditions are known to be continuous to a depth of 100 feet (30 480
soil layers. N and NCH shall be determined in accordance with the mm), surficial shear wave velocity measurements may be extrap-
following formula: olated to assess v s. The rock categories, Soil Profile Types SA and
2–23

CHAP. 16, DIV. V
1636.2.6 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE
1636.2.6

SB , shall not be used if there is more than 10 feet (3048 mm) of soil
between the rock surface and the bottom of the spread footing or
mat foundation.
The definitions presented herein shall apply to the upper 100
feet (30 480 mm) of the site profile. Profiles containing distinctly
different soil layers shall be subdivided into those layers desig-
nated by a number from 1 to n at the bottom, where there are a total
of n distinct layers in the upper 100 feet (30 480 mm). The symbol
i then refers to any one of the layers between 1 and n.

2–24

1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 16-A
TABLE 16-A

TABLE 16-A—UNIFORM AND CONCENTRATED LOADS
CONCENTRATED
UNIFORM LOAD1 LOAD
USE OR OCCUPANCY (psf) (pounds)
Category Description  0.0479 for kN/m2  0.004 48 for kN
1. Access floor systems Office use 50 2,0002
Computer use 100 2,0002
2. Armories 150 0
3. Assembly areas3 and auditoriums and balconies Fixed seating areas 50 0
therewith Movable seating and other areas 100 0
Stage areas and enclosed platforms 125 0
4. Cornices and marquees 604 0
5. Exit facilities5 100 06
6. Garages General storage and/or repair 100 7

Private or pleasure-type motor vehicle storage 50 7

7. Hospitals Wards and rooms 40 1,0002
8. Libraries Reading rooms 60 1,0002
Stack rooms 125 1,5002
9. Manufacturing Light 75 2,0002
Heavy 125 3,0002
10. Offices 50 2,0002
11. Printing plants Press rooms 150 2,5002
Composing and linotype rooms 100 2,0002
12. Residential8 Basic floor area 40 06
Exterior balconies 604 0
Decks 404 0
Storage 40 0
13. Restrooms9
14. Reviewing stands, grandstands, bleachers, and
folding and telescoping seating 100 0
15. Roof decks Same as area served or for the type of occupancy
accommodated
16. Schools Classrooms 40 1,0002
17. Sidewalks and driveways Public access 250 7

18. Storage Light 125
Heavy 250
19. Stores 100 3,0002
20. Pedestrian bridges and walkways 100
1See Section 1607 for live load reductions.
2See Section 1607.3.3, first paragraph, for area of load application.
3Assembly areas include such occupancies as dance halls, drill rooms, gymnasiums, playgrounds, plazas, terraces and similar occupancies that are generally accessi-
ble to the public.
4When snow loads occur that are in excess of the design conditions, the structure shall be designed to support the loads due to the increased loads caused by drift
buildup or a greater snow design as determined by the building official. See Section 1614. For special-purpose roofs, see Section 1607.4.4.
5Exit facilities shall include such uses as corridors serving an occupant load of 10 or more persons, exterior exit balconies, stairways, fire escapes and similar uses.
6Individual stair treads shall be designed to support a 300-pound (1.33 kN) concentrated load placed in a position that would cause maximum stress. Stair stringers
may be designed for the uniform load set forth in the table.
7See Section 1607.3.3, second paragraph, for concentrated loads. See Table 16-B for vehicle barriers.
8Residential occupancies include private dwellings, apartments and hotel guest rooms.
9Restroom loads shall not be less than the load for the occupancy with which they are associated, but need not exceed 50 pounds per square foot (2.4 kN/m2).

2–25

The factor for forces perpendicular to the rail is 0. Vehicle barriers See Section 311. Stage accessories (live load) Catwalks 40 Followspot. panel fillers and their connections shall be capable of withstanding a load of 25 pounds per square foot (1. see reference standard cited therein for additional design requirements. 9Intermediate rails. Forces shall be applied at top of rail and may be distributed among rails of multiple rail cranes and shall be distributed with due regard for lateral stiffness of the structures supporting these rails. See Table 16-O filled pipe13 14. 4Does not apply to ceilings that have sufficient total access from below.8-millimeter-square) area. 13The 250-pound (1. and Seats and footboards 1202 See Footnote 3 folding and telescoping seating (live load) 3. 10A horizontal load in pounds (N) applied at right angles to the vehicle barrier at a height of 18 inches (457 mm) above the parking surface. 6The impact factors included are for cranes with steel wheels riding on steel rails. see Section 307. see Section 3303. Cranes (dead and live loads) Total load including impact increase 1.0479 for kN/m2 1. bleachers.6 150 Canopy. Explosion exposure Hazardous occupancies. 1611.20  the transverse traveling loads (trolley.6 for N/m) to be applied horizontally at right angles to the top rail. hooks and lifted loads). These loads shall not be assumed to act cumulatively with Item 9.6 for N/m). 2Pounds per lineal foot ( 14. Fire sprinkler structural support 250 pounds (1112 N) plus weight of water.25  total load6 0. Storage racks Over 8 feet (2438 mm) high Total loads12 See Table 16-O 13. ppublic access at site ((live load)) Walkway. 12Vertical members of storage racks shall be protected from impact forces of operating equipment. They may be modified if substantiating technical data acceptable to the building official is submitted. This live load need not be considered as acting simultaneously with other live loads imposed upon the ceiling framing or its supporting structure. Reactions due to this loading need not be combined with those of Foot- note 8. 8A load per lineal foot ( 14.TABLE 16-B 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 16-B TABLE 16-B—SPECIAL LOADS1 USE VERTICAL LOAD LATERAL LOAD Category Description (pounds per square foot unless otherwise noted)  0. Ceiling g framing g ((live load)) Over stages 20 All uses except over stages 104 5. Partitions and interior walls. reviewing stands. such that access is not required within the space above the ceiling. see Sec. including openings and spaces between rails.2. Handrails See Footnote 11 See Footnote 11 12.7 150 2.9 N/m) perpendicular to seat and footboards. Balcony railings and guardrails Exit facilities serving an occupant load greater than 50 508 Other than exit facilities 208 Components 259 10. 7This applies in the direction parallel to the runway rails (longitudinal).10 1The tabulated loads are minimum loads. Construction. Grandstands. Elevators and dumbwaiters (dead and live loads) 2  total loads5 7. Does not apply to ceilings if the attic areas above the ceiling are not provided with access. see Section 3303. cab. Live loads on crane support girders and their connections shall be taken as the maximum crane wheel loads.10  total load7 9. projection and control rooms 50 4.10.2 kN/m2) applied horizontally at right angles over the entire tributary area. or racks shall be designed so that failure of one vertical member will not cause collapse of more than the bay or bays directly supported by that member.. 11The mounting of handrails shall be such that the completed handrail and supporting structure are capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 pounds (890 N) applied in any direction at any point on the rail.5 (live load) 5 6. Where other vertical loads required by this code or required by the design would cause greater stresses. they shall be used.00010 11.3. Mechanical and electrical equipment (dead load) Total loads 8. the impact factors shall be 1. 5Where Appendix Chapter 30 has been adopted.11 kN) load is to be applied to any single fire sprinkler support point but not simultaneously to all support joints.5 6. For pendant-operated traveling crane support girders and their connections. 3Lateral sway bracing loads of 24 pounds per foot (350 N/m) parallel and 10 pounds per foot (145. 2–26 . The force may be distrib- uted over a 1-foot-square (304.

L.4. 2See Sections 1607.0479 for kN/m2 (percentage) (percentage) 1.4. Arch or dome with rise 12 12 12 12 three eighths of span or greater 4. D.7.0 twelve months 1. The maximum reduction R shall not exceed the value indicated in the table. + K.0 0. ρ’ shall be the value at midspan for simple and continuous spans. 5See Section 1607. lath houses and agricultural buildings5 10 10 10 10 1Where snow loads occur.4 three months 1.5 and 1607.0 2–27 . The live load for flat roofs is in addition to the ponding load required 4 by Section 1611. l— length of member in same units as deflection.— factor as determined by Table 16-E. Rise 12 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (100% slope) and greater. 4As defined in Section 3206.4. 3A flat roof is any roof with a slope of less than 1/ unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2% slope).1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 16-C TABLE 16-E TABLE 16-C—MINIMUM ROOF LIVE LOADS1 METHOD 1 METHOD 2 Tributary Loaded Area in Square Feet for Any Structural Member  0.D.0929 for m2 0 to 200 201 to 600 Over 600 Uniform Load (psf) Uniform Load2 (psf) Rate of Maximum R d ti Reduction r R d ti Reduction R ROOF SLOPE  0. and at support for cantilevers. Greenhouses.7.—live load. Time-dependent factor T for sustained loads may be taken equal to: five years or more 2. For special-purpose roofs.) LOAD (L.4 for concentrated load requirements for greenhouse roof members.— dead load. See Section 1614.6 for live load reductions. K. Arch or dome with 16 14 12 16 . see Section 1607. the roof structure shall be designed for such loads as determined by the building official.) Roof member supporting plaster or floor member l/360 l/240 1Sufficientslope or camber shall be provided for flat roofs in accordance with Section 1611. TABLE 16-D—MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS1 MEMBER LOADED WITH LIVE LOAD PLUS DEAD TYPE OF MEMBER MEMBER LOADED WITH LIVE LOAD ONLY (L.06 25 rise one eighth of span to less than three eighths of span 3.5 Formula (7-1) shall be as indicated in the table. Flat3 or rise less than 4 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33. Awnings except cloth covered4 5 5 5 5 No reductions permitted 5. The rate of reduction r in Section 1607.2 six months 1. TABLE 16-E—VALUE OF “K” WOOD Unseasoned Seasoned1 REINFORCED CONCRETE2 STEEL 1. Rise 4 units vertical to less than 12 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33% to less than 100% slope).08 40 with rise less than one eighth of span 2. 2See also Section 1909 for definitions and other requirements.5 T/(1+50ρ’) 0 1Seasoned lumber is lumber having a moisture content of less than 16 percent at time of installation and used under dry conditions of use such as in covered structures. Arch or dome 20 16 12 20 .3% slope).

42 300 2.61 1.45 1.73 1.04 100 1.10 1.6 16.19 1.76 40 1.81 1.8 for mm EXPOSURE D EXPOSURE C EXPOSURE B 0-15 1.54 1.67 1.3 1Wind speed from Section 1618.87 1.62 1.84 60 1.TABLE 16-F 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 16-G TABLE 16-F—WIND STAGNATION PRESSURE (qs ) AT STANDARD HEIGHT OF 33 FEET (10 058 mm) Basic wind speed (mph)1 ( 1.19 0.67 25 1.23 2.13 120 1.34 2.39 1.0 36.63 400 2. EXPOSURE AND GUST FACTOR COEFFICIENT (Ce )1 HEIGHT ABOVE AVERAGE LEVEL OF ADJOINING GROUND (feet)  304.20 160 2.50 1.9 43.95 80 1.4 20.79 1.05 1.06 0.88 1.80 1Values for intermediate heights above 15 feet (4572 mm) may be interpolated.53 1.23 0.43 0.62 20 1.31 200 2.0479 for kN/m2) 12.93 1.31 0.13 0.8 25. TABLE 16-G—COMBINED HEIGHT.6 31. 2–28 .02 1.72 30 1.61 for km/h) 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Pressure qs (psf) ( 0.

000 square feet (92.3 inward or outward Roof elements3 Enclosed and unenclosed structures Slope < 7:12 (58.5 added to values above canopies 4. Cylindrical members lights and elevators) 2 inches (51 mm) or less in diameter 1.93 m and 9. see Section 1616. The most critical combination q shall be used for design. rakes or ridges.6 outward or 0.7%) 1. an additional value of 0. tanks and solid towers Square or rectangular 1.7 outward Slope 2:12 (16.5 shall be added to the outward C .7 outward Method 2 (Projected area method) On vertical projected area Structures 40 feet (12 192 mm) or less in height 1. Interpolation 2 2 2 may be used for tributary areas between 10 and 100 square feet (0.29 m2).8 inward Leeward wall 0. minor structures8 1.0 Normal 3. 3For slopes greater than 12 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (100% slope).3% slope) where the value of 0.93 m2) tributary areas. 7Wind pressures shall be applied to the total normal projected area of all elements on one face. lightpoles.2 outward Partially enclosed structures 1.4 inward Slope > 12:12 (100%) 0.9 outward or 0.1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 16-H TABLE 16-H TABLE 16-H—PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS (Cq ) STRUCTURE OR PART THEREOF DESCRIPTION Cq FACTOR 1.7%) to 7:12 (58.7%) 0.3 7. 5Discontinuities at wall corners or roof ridges are defined as discontinuous breaks in the surface where the included interior angle measures 170 degrees or less.3 inward Slope 9:12 (75%) to 12:12 (100%) 0. 8Factors for cylindrical elements are two thirds of those for flat or angular elements.8 Square and rectangular Diagonal 4. whichever is smaller.7%) 2. except q q for areas at discontinuities with slopes less than 7 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (58.3%) to 12:12 (100%) 1.3 outward or inward Partially enclosed structures Slope < 2:12 (16.7 outward Windward roof less than 2:12 (16.7%) to less than 9:12 (75%) 0.3%) 1.1 any direction Round or elliptical 0.2 inward discontinuities2.5 outward or 1. and 0.3%) 1. flagpoles. The forces shall be assumed to act parallel to the wind direction.0 Over 2 inches (51 mm) in diameter 0.7 outward Slope 2:12 (16. Chimneys. Open-frame towers7.1 times the least width of the structure. For tributary areas greater than 1.3 outward Slope 7:12 (58.8 inward Slope > 7:12 (58.7 inward Wind parallel to ridge and flat roofs 0. Primary frames and systems Method 1 (Normal force method) Walls: Windward wall 0. 2C values listed are for 10-square-foot (0.3%) to 12:12 (100%) 1.5 Roof eaves.3 may be subtracted from C . For definition of partially enclosed structures. For tributary areas of 100 square feet (9. Elements and components in areas of Wall corners6 1.7 outward or inward 3.3 upward Slope 2:12 (16.3%) to 12:12 (100%) 1.4. use wall element values.6 Triangular 3. Signs. 2–29 .3%) 2.7%) to 7:12 (58.2 inward Enclosed and unenclosed structures 1.4 horizontal any direction On horizontal projected area1 0.4 any direction 1For one story or the top story of multistory partially enclosed structures.2 6. 4Local pressures shall apply over a distance from the discontinuity of 10 feet (3048 mm) or 0.4 any direction Hexagonal or octagonal 1.7%) Overhangs at roof eaves. conduit.6 outward Parapets walls 1. rakes or ridges without overhangs6 Slope < 2:12 (16.9 m ). Tower accessories (such as ladders.8 any direction 5.8 Flat or angular members 1.6 outward For slopes less than 2:12 (16.3 horizontal any direction Structures over 40 feet (12 192 mm) in height 1. Elements and components not in areas of Wall elements discontinuity2 All structures 1.7 upward 2.29 m ). use primary frame values.5 outward Roofs1: Wind perpendicular to ridge Leeward roof or flat roof 0. 6Load is to be applied on either side of discontinuity but not simultaneously on both sides.8 may be subtracted from Cq .6 outward Slope > 7:12 (58. the value of 0.

shall be determined in accordance with approved national standards. but not included in Category 1 Group I. Divisions 1. if contained within a building. and the moisture content.00 1.500) — — SB Rock 2. Iw 1.00 occupancy Buildings housing Group E. Division 1.00 1.00 1. 1Soil Profile Type S E also includes any soil profile with more than 10 feet (3048 mm) of soft clay defined as a soil with a plasticity index. Miscellaneous Group U Occupancies except for towers 1. Hazardous Group H. Essential Group I. the value of I shall be taken as 1. Divisions 1 and 3 Occupancies with a capacity structures3 greater than 300 students Buildings housing Group B Occupancies used for college or adult education with a capacity greater than 500 students Group I. 6 and 7 Occupancies and structures therein housing or 1. and other public utility facilities not included in Category 1 or Category 2 above.500 to 5.40 NOTE: The zone shall be determined from the seismic zone map in Figure 16-2. 2 or 3 structures 2.1. See Section 1629.200 15 to 50 1. supporting or containing quantities of toxic or explosive substances that.00 structures 1The limitation of I for panel connections in Section 1633.000 (180) (50) SF Soil Requiring Site-specific Evaluation. TABLE 16-J—SOIL PROFILE TYPES AVERAGE SOIL PROPERTIES FOR TOP 100 FEET (30 480 mm) OF SOIL PROFILE SOIL PROFILE SOIL PROFILE NAME/GENERIC Shear Wave Velocity.200 to 2. The Plasticity Index.3.00 1.00 1.15 0.00 1. Divisions 1.50 1.000 (180 to 360) (50 to 100) SE 1 Soft Soil Profile < 600 < 15 < 1.500 > 50 > 2. wmc w 40 percent and s u < 500 psf (24 kPa). Ip FACTOR. 2. 2 or 7 Occupancy 3. Special Group A. Divisions 1 and 2 Occupancies with 50 or more resident incapacitated patients.000 (360 to 760) (100) SD Stiff Soil Profile 600 to 1. p 2Structural observation requirements are given in Section 1702. s u psf TYPE DESCRIPTION feet/second (m/s) cohesionless soil layers] (blows/foot) (kPa) SA Hard Rock > 5. PI.15 facilities supporting toxic or explosive chemicals or substances Nonbuilding structures housing. Division 1 Occupancies having surgery and emergency treatment 1.5.50 1.000 persons Structures and equipment in power-generating stations.000 (760 to 1. Division 3 Occupancies All structures with an occupancy greater than 5. v s Standard Penetration Test.500) SC Very Dense Soil and Soft Rock 1. I FACTOR.00 occupancy 1. p 2–30 . 2 or 3 and Group U Occupancy towers structures3 5.0 for the entire connector. wmc .20 0. and required for continued operation 4.TABLE 16-I 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 16-K TABLE 16-I—SEISMIC ZONE FACTOR Z ZONE 1 2A 2B 3 4 Z 0.4 shall be 1. 3For anchorage of machinery and equipment required for life-safety systems.1 Occupancies 1. would cause that building to be classified as a Group H.2. 2 and 2.15 facilities2 areas Fire and police stations Garages and shelters for emergency vehicles and emergency aircraft Structures and shelters in emergency-preparedness centers Aviation control towers Structures and equipment in government communication centers and other facilities required for emergency response Standby power-generating equipment for Category 1 facilities Tanks or other structures containing housing or supporting water or other fire-suppression material or equipment required for the protection of Category 1.25 1. Standard All structures housing occupancies or having functions not listed in Category 1.25 1. PI > 20.30 0.000 to 2. TABLE 16-K—OCCUPANCY CATEGORY SEISMIC SEISMIC WIND IMPORTANCE IMPORTANCE1 IMPORTANCE OCCUPANCY CATEGORY OCCUPANCY OR FUNCTIONS OF STRUCTURE FACTOR.075 0. N [or NCH for Undrained Shear Strength.000 (1.

than 50 percent of the gross enclosed area of the diaphragm.2. computed including accidental 1633.2. Stiffness irregularity—soft story A soft story is one in which the lateral stiffness is less than 70 percent of that in the story above or less than 1629. Item 6.4.8. 4.4.1 5. torsion.8.9.1. TABLE 16-M—PLAN STRUCTURAL IRREGULARITIES IRREGULARITY TYPE AND DEFINITION REFERENCE SECTION 1. 1630.9. One-story penthouses need not be considered. Discontinuity in capacity—weak story A weak story is one in which the story strength is less than 80 percent of that in the story above.9. 1633.1 lateral-force-resisting system. Weight (mass) irregularity Mass irregularity shall be considered to exist where the effective mass of any story is more than 150 percent of the 1629. Item 2 80 percent of the average stiffness of the three stories above.9.2. A roof that is lighter than the floor below need not be considered. Re-entrant corners Plan configurations of a structure and its lateral-force-resisting system contain re-entrant corners. 3. The story strength 1629.8.2.9.8. such as out-of-plane offsets of the vertical elements. Item 2 effective mass of an adjacent story.1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 16-L TABLE 16-M TABLE 16-L—VERTICAL STRUCTURAL IRREGULARITIES IRREGULARITY TYPE AND DEFINITION REFERENCE SECTION 1. Item 2 force-resisting system in any story is more than 130 percent of that in an adjacent story. 2. 4. 3.8. Nonparallel systems The vertical lateral-load-resisting elements are not parallel to or symmetric about the major orthogonal axes of the 1633. 2. Out-of-plane offsets Discontinuities in a lateral force path.2 5.2 times the average of the story drifts of the 1633.2. at one end of the structure transverse to an axis is more than 1.9. In-plane discontinuity in vertical lateral-force-resisting element An in-plane offset of the lateral-load-resisting elements greater than the length of those elements. Vertical geometric irregularity Vertical geometric irregularity shall be considered to exist where the horizontal dimension of the lateral.1 is the total strength of all seismic-resisting elements sharing the story shear for the direction under consideration. Diaphragm discontinuity Diaphragms with abrupt discontinuities or variations in stiffness. 2213. or changes in effective diaphragm stiffness of more Item 6 than 50 percent from one story to the next. where both 1633.4. 2–31 . including those having cutout or open areas greater 1633. 1629. projections of the structure beyond a re-entrant corner are greater than 15 percent of the plan dimension of the Items 6 and 7 structure in the given direction. Torsional irregularity—to be considered when diaphragms are not flexible Torsional irregularity shall be considered to exist when the maximum story drift. 1630. Item 6 two ends of the structure.

Special truss moment frames of steel (STMF) 6.2 2. All other light-framed walls 5. Masonry with SMRF 5.8 2. Concrete7 3. Concrete8 5.4 2.0 2.8 65 2. Braced frames where bracing carries gravity load a.2 160 b.2 65 2.7. Dual systems 1.6. Light-framed walls with shear panels a. With steel SMRF 8.5 2.2 65 5. b. Masonry moment-resisting wall frame (MMRWF) 6. Steel with steel OMRF 4.8 — d.5 2. Heavy timber 2.8 160 b. Concrete with concrete IMRF5 6. Concrete with concrete IMRF3 4. Moment-resisting frame 1.5 2.8 2.8 160 4.L.8 240 4.2 2. Heavy timber 5.8 160 3.8 65 3. 6Ordinary moment-resisting frames in Seismic Zone 1 meeting the requirements of Section 2211.8 2. Wood structural panel walls for structures three stories or less 5.2 — — — N.2 2. Shear wall-frame interaction 1.9.6 may use a R value of 8.8 160 3.L.0 357 systems 6.5 2. b. Light steel-framed bearing walls with tension-only bracing 2. Masonry 5.5 2.5 2.2 — c.—no limit 1See Section 1630. Cantilevered column elements 2.2 2. Undefined systems See Sections 1629.5 2. Building frame system 1.2. Concrete with steel OMRF 4.5 2. Shear walls a.L.8 160 d.5 2.0 2.L. Special moment-resisting frame (SMRF) system a. Steel6 4.6 2. Steel eccentrically braced frame (EBF) 7. 5Prohibited in Seismic Zones 3 and 4. 2.2 65 4.5 2. 2–32 .8 65 b.8 N.7. Steel 8.8 N.8 240 2.5 2. 4Includes precast concrete conforming to Section 1921.2 2. Steel with steel SMRF 7.2 2.L.2 2.8 160 f. Concrete with concrete SMRF3 6. Special concentrically braced frames a.7 and 1629.8 160 3.8 240 b. 2B.8 160 c.5 2.5 2.8 160 5. 3 and 4. Ordinary braced frames a. Steel 6.L. Concrete3 5.2.8 160 c.8 160 systems 7. b. Masonry with steel OMRF 4. Special concentrically braced frames a. Masonry with masonry MMRWF 6.5 2.2.6. Shear walls a. Masonry with concrete IMRF3 4. Ordinary moment-resisting frame (OMRF) a.8 65 b. Light-framed walls with shear panels a.8 — 4.5 2.2 240 3.5 2. Concrete4 8.5 2.TABLE 16-N 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 16-N TABLE 16-N—STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS1 HEIGHT LIMIT FOR SEISMIC ZONES 3 AND 4 (feet) BASIC STRUCTURAL SYSTEM2 LATERAL-FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION R o  304.6 2. Masonry 4. Steel 5.8 — g.5 2. Steel EBF a. 3Prohibited in Seismic Zones 3 and 4. b.0 2.6 2. Concrete with SMRF 8.5 2. 8Prohibited in Seismic Zones 2A.8 160 2. Concrete3 2.L. 7 Total height of the building including cantilevered columns.8 for mm 1.8 — 5.4 for combination of structural systems.8 N. Shear walls a. See Section 1633.4 2. Cantilevered column building 1. 2Basic structural systems are defined in Section 1629. Wood structural panel walls for structures three stories or less 6. With steel OMRF 4. Steel 4.2 160 b.5 2.2 — c. Concrete 5. Concrete intermediate moment-resisting frame (IMRF)5 5.8 — 4.2 2.5 2. All other light-framed walls 4.8 N. Ordinary braced frames a. b. Steel with steel OMRF 4.5 2.8 N. Concrete 4. except as permitted in Section 1634.8 160 e.8 160 b. Bearing wall system 1. Steel with steel SMRF 6.8 N.

5 1. 2. 11.6 Support members cantilevered up from the floor are checked for stability. 10. Electrical.0 I. 3Applies to Seismic Zones 2. Connections for prefabricated structural elements other than walls. Equipment A.0 17. Penthouse (except when framed by an extension of the structural frame). Part III. 14.0 3 1632.2 The piping or duct is made of ductile material with ductile connections. See also Section 1632.0 2 B. Flexible components with nonductile material or attachments. Partitions.0 3. 11.2. 1.0 4. Rigid components with ductile material and attachments.2. chillers.48 kN/m2) partition load allowance.0 4 E. as appropriate.0 3. Masonry or concrete fences over 6 feet (1829 mm) high. Rigid components with nonductile material or attachments. 1. 6. 16 C. may be used for design. 16 below their center of mass. Division VI.5 3. 11.2 for connections for panel connectors for panels. 2. 1. Storage racks (include contents) over 6 feet (1829 mm) tall. sprinkler heads) with any other equipment.0 1 B. Nonstructural Components A. 1.0 5. (Continued) 2–33 . air-handling units. Walls including the following: (1) Unbraced (cantilevered) parapets.0 3. For purposes of determining the seismic force. (2) Laterally braced or anchored to the structural frame at or above their centers of mass. pumps.5 3.8 for concrete and masonry walls and Section 1632. Temporary containers with flammable or hazardous materials. trans- formers and life-safety equipment. 1.0 19 4.0 3. (3) All interior-bearing and nonbearing walls.0 3.0 3. 14. a ceiling weight of not less than 4 psf (0. Signs and billboards.0 3. which services such machinery and equipment and fire sprinkler systems.0 3.5 1 C. anchorage or restraints need be designed.. 13.0 B. E. aP AND Rp ELEMENTS OF STRUCTURES AND NONSTRUCTURAL COMPONENTS AND EQUIPMENT1 ap Rp FOOTNOTE 1. 2. Tanks and vessels (include contents). 11Seismic restraints may be omitted from piping and duct supports if all the following conditions are satisfied: 11.0 2 gravity. Any flexible equipment laterally braced or anchored to the structural frame at a point 2. See also Section 1.0 (2) Exterior walls at or above the ground floor and parapets braced above their centers of 1. 11.0 3.0 3.0 3. mechanical and plumbing equipment and associated conduit and ductwork and 1. Chapter 22.5 1 1See Section 1627 for definitions of flexible components and rigid components.2.0 C.0 5 height (include contents). Other Components A.1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 16-O TABLE 16-O TABLE 16-O—HORIZONTAL FORCE FACTORS.0 B.0 D. switchgear. 2. 1. ducting and piping. cooling towers.2 or 1634. 3 and 4 only.2.g.0 5.0 mass.0 3.0 C. 9W for access floor systems shall be the dead load of the access floor system plus 25 percent of the floor live load plus a 10-psf (0.2. 1. 2.0 3. piping. 11.5 3.5 Rod-hung supports of less than 12 inches (305 mm) in length have top connections that cannot develop moments. Exterior and interior ornamentations and appendages. 5.4 and 1633. 2. 1. 15. Elements of Structures A. 11. F.0 1.5 4. 8 G.5 3. including support systems.0 1 D.0 3. Anchorage of emergency power supply systems and essential communications 1. motors. 5Only attachments. See Section 1632. 6Ceiling weight shall include all light fixtures and other equipment or partitions that are laterally supported by the ceiling. It shall include major conduit. Permanent floor-supported cabinets and book stacks more than 6 feet (1829 mm) in 1. control panels.3 Lateral motion of the piping or duct does not cause impact of fragile appurtenances (e. p 10Equipment includes. D. Flexible components with ductile material and attachments. Anchorage and support systems for battery racks and fuel tanks necessary for operation of emergency equipment. Chimneys.5 3.4 Lateral motion of the piping or duct does not cause loss of system vertical support. 7Ceilings constructed of lath and plaster or gypsum board screw or nail attached to suspended members that support a ceiling at one level extending from wall to wall need not be analyzed. 7.19 kN/m2) shall be used.0 3. 10. Anchorage and lateral bracing for suspended ceilings and light fixtures. 18 equipment. 9 H.0 3. but is not limited to. 2. stacks and trussed towers supported on or projecting above the roof: (1) Laterally braced or anchored to the structural frame at a point below their centers of 2. Access floor systems. provided the walls are not over 50 feet (15 240 mm) apart.5 3.5 4. 2. 1. boilers.1 Lateral motion of the piping or duct will not cause damaging impact with other systems.2 for additional requirements for determining ap for nonrigid or flexibly mounted equipment. 2See Sections 1633. heat exchangers. 15. piping or structural member. 8Light fixtures and mechanical services installed in metal suspension systems for acoustical tile and lay-in panel ceilings shall be independently supported from the structure above as specified in UBC Standard 25-2. 1. 12. 4Ground supported steel storage racks may be designed using the provisions of Section 1634. provided seismic design forces are equal to or greater than those specified in Section 1632.

respectively.9 2. guyed stacks and chimneys.0 2. Friction forces may not be used to resist lateral loads in these restraints unless positive uplift restraint is provided which ensures that the friction forces act continuously. Restraint shall also be provided.12 0. Bins and hoppers on braced or unbraced legs. 2. 2.2 Z = 0. chains. such that lateral restraints do not become disengaged.36 0.08 0.2 2.0 4.0.44Na SE 0. 12. rack. F 2–34 .9 2.09 0. Signs and billboards.19 0.6 2. friction clips). 17Movement of components within electrical cabinets. barriers or other mechanisms that prevent sliding.22 0. shall be restricted by attachment to anchored equipment or support frames.15 Z = 0. which must be functional following an earthquake. 2. 2. (32-2) or (32-3) shall be additionally multiplied by a factor of 2.2 Lateral motion of the raceway does not cause loss of system vertical support.30 0. 3.TABLE 16-O 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 16-Q FOOTNOTES TO TABLE 16-O—(Continued) 12Seismic restraints may be omitted from electrical raceways.36Na SF See Footnote 1 1Site-specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response analysis shall be performed to determine seismic coefficients for Soil Profile Type S .24 0.0 3.36 0. including tanks and pressurized spheres.1 Lateral motion of the raceway will not cause damaging impact with other systems. TABLE 16-P—R AND o FACTORS FOR NONBUILDING STRUCTURES STRUCTURE TYPE R o 1.2 2. Vessels. except that if the isolation mounting frame is supported by shallow or expansion anchors. 15Equipment anchorage shall not be designed such that lateral loads are resisted by gravity friction (e. on braced or unbraced legs.40Na SC 0. shall not be used where operational vibrating loads are present.40Na SD 0.34 0. ducts and electrical raceways. chimneys.9 2.5.24 0. falling and breach of containment of flammable and toxic materials. 18Batteries on racks shall be restrained against movement in all directions due to earthquake forces. Z SOIL PROFILE TYPE Z = 0. 12.6 2. spanning between different buildings or structural systems shall be sufficiently flexible to withstand relative motion of support points assuming out-of-phase motions. 3.4 SA 0.20 0. Distributed mass cantilever structures such as stacks. 16Expansion anchors. 13Piping.0 11.0 6.3 Rod-hung supports of less than 12 inches (305 mm) in length have top connections that cannot develop moments. Cooling towers.and skid-mounted equipment and portions of skid-mounted electromechanical equipment that may cause damage to other components by displacing.0 10.0 7.4 Support members cantilevered up from the floor are checked for stability.3 Z = 0. 14Vibration isolators supporting equipment shall be designed for lateral loads or restrained from displacing laterally by other means. silos and skirt-supported vertical vessels.6 2.0 TABLE 16-Q—SEISMIC COEFFICIENT Ca SEISMIC ZONE FACTOR. such as cable trays. bolts.32Na SB 0.33 0. the design forces for the anchors calculated by Formula (32-1). Storage racks. 2.30 0. 12. All other self-supporting structures not otherwise covered.15 0. 3.5 and 1.0 8. Cantilevered column-type structures.12 0. 2. conduit and bus ducts. Cast-in-place concrete silos and chimneys having walls continuous to the foundations.075 Z = 0.28 0. 3. 2. which are required to resist seismic loads in tension.16 0. ap and Rp for equipment supported on vibration isolators shall be taken as 2.g. Amusement structures and monuments.2 2. Trussed towers (freestanding or guyed). which limits vertical displacement. if all the following conditions are satisfied: 12.6 2.0 9.18 0.9 2.0 5.06 0. 19Seismic restraints may include straps..

0 1.84 0. TABLE 16-T—NEAR-SOURCE FACTOR Nv 1 CLOSEST DISTANCE TO KNOWN SEISMIC SOURCE2.54 0. surface projection of fault plane).0 B 1.0 1.2 1.4 SA 0..3 SEISMIC SOURCE TYPE v 2 km 5 km w 10 km A 1.2 1.24 0.26 0.13 0. most recent mapping of active faults by the United States Geological Survey or the California Division of Mines and Geology).0 C 1.0 1.5 1. most recent mapping of active faults by the United States Geological Survey or the California Division of Mines and Geology).12 0.0 1. 3The closest distance to seismic source shall be taken as the minimum distance between the site and the area described by the vertical projection of the source on the surface (i. 2Both maximum moment magnitude and slip rate conditions must be satisfied concurrently when determining the seismic source type.0 1.3 1.0 1The Near-Source Factor may be based on the linear interpolation of values for distances other than those shown in the table.6 1. The largest value of the Near-Source Factor considering all sources shall be used for design.06 0.6 1.0 SR t 5 M t 7.40Nv SC 0.5 SR v 2 and that have a relatively low rate of seismic activity 1Subduction sources shall be evaluated on a site-specific basis.1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 16-R TABLE 16-U TABLE 16-R—SEISMIC COEFFICIENT Cv SEISMIC ZONE FACTOR. M Slip Rate.e.. The largest value of the Near-Source Factor considering all sources shall be used for design.30 0. 2The location and type of seismic sources to be used for design shall be established based on approved geotechnical data (e.e.08 0.32 0.45 0.50 0.. The surface projection need not include portions of the source at depths of 10 km or greater.16 0.2 Z = 0.g.15 0.32 0.40 0.5 SR t 2 C Faults that are not capable of producing large magnitude earthquakes M < 6.. surface projection of fault plane).g. Z SOIL PROFILE TYPE Z = 0. 2–35 .18 0.25 0.0 1.0 1.3 Z = 0.3 SEISMIC SOURCE TYPE v 2 km 5 km 10 km w 15 km A 2.64Nv SE 0.32Nv SB 0.0 C 1. The surface projection need not include portions of the source at depths of 10 km or greater.56Nv SD 0.0 SR u 2 M w 6.64 0.15 Z = 0.0 1.0 SR w 5 have a high rate of seismic activity B All faults other than Types A and C M w 7.0 B 1.0 1The Near-Source Factor may be based on the linear interpolation of values for distances other than those shown in the table.075 Z = 0. 3The closest distance to seismic source shall be taken as the minimum distance between the site and the area described by the vertical projection of the source on the surface (i. 2The location and type of seismic sources to be used for design shall be established based on approved geotechnical data (e.20 0.2 1. F TABLE 16-S—NEAR-SOURCE FACTOR Na 1 CLOSEST DISTANCE TO KNOWN SEISMIC SOURCE2. TABLE 16-U—SEISMIC SOURCE TYPE1 SEISMIC SOURCE DEFINITION2 SEISMIC SOURCE TYPE SEISMIC SOURCE DESCRIPTION Maximum Moment Magnitude. SR (mm/year) A Faults that are capable of producing large magnitude events and that M w 7.96Nv SF See Footnote 1 1Site-specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response analysis shall be performed to determine seismic coefficients for Soil Profile Type S .

LINEAR INTERPOLATION BETWEEN WIND SPEED CONTOURS IS ACCEPTABLE. PUERTO RICO IS 95 AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS IS 110.FIGURE 16-1 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE FIGURE 16-1 100 90 80 125° 70 120° 115° 110° 105° 100° 95° 90° 85° 80° 75° 70° 65° 80 70 70 80 80 45° 100 90 45° 90 70 70 90 70 90 40° 40° 90 80 70 80 100 35° 110 35° 110 70 30° 70 30° 176° 168° 160° 152° 100 80 ALASKA 90 80 0 100 200 80 68° 70 70 90 110 110 64° 25° 25° 110 60° 70 100 80 BASIC WIND SPEED 70 mph SPECIAL WIND REGION 110 80 90 176° E 180° 176° W NOTES: 56° Aleutian Islands 90 1. 100° 110° 105° 100° 95° 90° 85° 80° 75° FIGURE 16-1—MINIMUM BASIC WIND SPEEDS IN MILES PER HOUR ( 1. WIND SPEED FOR HAWAII IS 80. 100 52° 2.61 for km/h) 2–36 . 110 52° 110 52° 3. WIND SPEED MAY BE ASSUMED TO BE CONSTANT BETWEEN THE COASTLINE AND THE NEAREST INLAND 168° 160° 152° 144° 136° CONTOUR. CAUTION IN USE OF WIND SPEED CONTOURS IN MOUNTAINOUS REGIONS OF ALASKA IS ADVISED. 110 176° E 180° 176° W 4.

see Appendix Chapter 16.1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE FIGURE 16-2 FIGURE 16-2 2A 2B 3 2B 1 0 1 4 3 0 2A 3 4 2B 3 1 3 0 4 1 3 2 A 2A 1 3 3 2B 1 1 4 2A 2A ALASKA 2A 1 0 2B 1 1 0 2B KAUAI 1 2A 1 2B 3 MAUI OAHU 1 2B 4 0 HAWAII GUAM 3 3 4 3 0 TUTUILA 2B 3 3 4 0 100 200 300 4 PUERTO RICO 0 MILES ALEUTIAN ISLANDS FIGURE 16-2—SEISMIC ZONE MAP OF THE UNITED STATES For areas outside of the United States. 2–37 .

5Ca SPECTRAL ACCELERATION (gs) To = 0.5Ca Ts = Cv /2.2Ts Cv /T Ca To Ts PERIOD (SECONDS) FIGURE 16-3—DESIGN RESPONSE SPECTRA 2–38 .FIGURE 16-3 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE FIGURE 16-3 CONTROL PERIODS 2.

Structural welding. and other des. During the taking of test specimens and placing of EXCEPTION: The special inspector need not be continuously reinforced concrete. by this code. High-strength bolting. by Item 1. MPa).3 Duties and Responsibilities of the Special Inspec- tor. Bolts-Allowable Stress Design. Division 1 Occupancies.1 General. ment of concrete around bolts when stress increases permitted by EXCEPTION: The building official may waive the requirement Footnote 5 of Table 19-D or Section 1923 are utilized. to the best of to the jobsite. 5 bars used for embedments. Special moment-resisting concrete frame. ing as required by Section 1703 of this code. The inspection of high-strength 2. pro- vided the special inspector has inspected for conformance to the The special inspector shall submit a final signed report stating approved plans prior to the closing of forms or the delivery of concrete whether the work requiring special inspection was. provided the materials. Spray-applied Fire-resistive Materials. 5. The special inspector need not be continuously present during 1. periodic inspections are made of work in progress. Part II. nondestructive test- 1701. 2. such as studs and joists. Research Council of Structural 2. 3. 2.03 1701. of shop welding: Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A 325 or A 490 2. Item 6. Research Council of size.5. for inspection of the particular type of con. 5. and a special hazard does not exist. During the welding of spector. and EXCEPTIONS: 1. For moment minor nature.2 Special moment-resisting steel frames. than No. The special inspector shall furnish inspection reports to the 4.2 During placing of reinforcing steel and prestressing ten- building official. Thickness and Density Determination for Spray-applied Fire-resistive Materials welding of special moment-resisting steel frames. 4.1 During all stressing and grouting of tendons in pre- conformance to the approved design drawings and specifications. In addition to the inspections required by Sec.9 mm) in Bolts-Load and Resistance Factor Design. The other standards listed below are recog.2 Special Inspector. Division 3 or Group cations of welding procedures and welders are verified prior to the start U. in accordance with Section 1701. Zones 3 and 4.1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1701 1701. Section 1701. See Item 12 for shotcrete. the engineer or architect of record. the special inspector shall provide reports to the fied person who shall demonstrate competence. periodic inspections are made of work in progress. who shall provide inspections during construction on the types of 2.1 Single-pass fillet welds not exceeding 5/16 inch (7. Welding done in an approved fabricator’s shop are part of this code.3 Welded studs when used for structural diaphragm or com- Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A 325 or A 490 posite systems. in conformance to the approved plans 5. EXCEPTION: The special inspector need not be present continu- to the proper design authority and to the building official.1 General. Section 1701. For foundation concrete. Structural Connections. for the employment of a special inspector if the construction is of a 3. (See Sections 3503 and 3504.2 MPa). beled a “UBC Standard” are also listed in Chapter 35. nized standards.1 requirements. Connections. tion 108. present during the welding of ASTM A 706 reinforcing steel not larger EXCEPTIONS: 1.7. reinforcing steel.5 Types of Work.) 2. Item 6. to the satisfaction person responsible for the structural design and shall provide con- of the building official. 5. 1. Concrete for foundations conforming to mini. provided the building official finds that a of work. Site work concrete fully supported on earth and concrete where the owner’s agent shall employ one or more special inspectors no special hazard exists.5 Welding of stairs and railing systems. 2. Ready-mixed Concrete work.4 Standards of Quality. the types of work listed below shall be inspected by a special in. During the UBC Standard 7-6. the inspector’s knowledge. A 325 and A 490 bolts shall be in accordance with approved 2–39 . and a visual inspection of all welds is made prior to completion or prior to shipment 2.5. In addition to Item 5. crete. including prestressed slabs on grade when effective prestress in concrete is less than 150 psi (1. ously during placing of reinforcing steel and prestressing tendons.4 Welded sheet steel for cold-formed steel framing members Connections. Except as provided in Section 1701. the owner or the engineer or architect of record acting as 4. Prior to and during the place- work listed under Section 1701. 2. if uncorrected. provided the materials. dons for all concrete required to have special inspection ignated persons. During the welding of any member or connec- tion that is designed to resist loads and forces required 1701. qualifi- mum requirements of Table 18-I-C or for Group R. The special inspector shall be a quali.5 Chapter 17 STRUCTURAL TESTS AND INSPECTIONS SECTION 1701 — SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 3. visual inspection of all welds is made prior to completion or prior to shipment of shop welding.500 pounds per square inch (psi) (17. The standards listed below la. frames resisting design seismic load in structures within Seismic 1701. then. tinuous inspection of the placement of the reinforcement and con- struction or operation requiring special inspection. Nonstructural slabs on grade. The special inspector shall observe the work assigned for 4.3 Welding of reinforcing steel. where the structural design is based on an f ’c no greater than 6. qualifications of welding procedures and welders are verified prior to the start of ASTM C 94. welding of the following items.5. Bolts installed in concrete. ate attention of the contractor for correction.2 Floor and roof deck welding. Concrete. and specifications and the applicable workmanship provisions of this code. stressed concrete. 1701. Reinforcing steel and prestressing steel tendons. other than cast-in-place drilled piles or caissons.1. All discrepancies shall be brought to the immedi. Concrete.

1 and 7.10 and 1924. Continuous special inspector shall observe the calibration procedures when such pro. gypsum concrete is being mixed and placed. The approved for clay units. plant and personnel as outlined in the fabrication procedural man- 8. During the taking of test specimens and placing of all shotcrete and as required by Sections 1924.and two-story Group R. no special hazard 2. formed as outlined in the project plans and specifications and 7.and two-story Groups B. When so designated by the architect or engineer of record. The structure is required to comply with Section 403. EXCEPTION: The special inspections may be limited to an initial 4.6. Special inspections required by required prisms or test specimens. accordance with the requirements of Section 1701. During the application of insulating proved inspection or quality control agency to monitor the effec- concrete fill when used as part of a structural system. placing of all this section and elsewhere in this code are not required where the masonry units.7 Approved Fabricators. Special grading. grading and filling operations inspection tire structure.500 psi (10. F. As required by tingent on compliance with quality control procedures during the UBC Standard 7-6. tor the installation of bolts to determine that all plies of connected materials have been drawn together and that the selected proce.600 psi (17. Structural observation shall be provided in Seismic Zone 3 or 4 when one of the following conditions exists: 12. 14. during preparation and taking of any 1701.93 MPa) pursuant to the approval is in violation of this code. 14. and detection and control verifica- tion.2 Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion The owner shall employ the engineer or architect responsible for the purposes of pressure difference testing. Na as set forth in Table 13. Periodic plant inspections shall be conducted by an ap- 9.1701. and a lateral design is required for the en- earth-work excavations. Piling. Work that. special inspection may be performed as required for fully fabricator shall submit a certificate of compliance that the work grouted open-end hollow-unit masonry specified in Item 7. cation procedural manual reflecting key quality control proce- dures that will provide a basis for inspection control of EXCEPTION: Special inspection as required in Items 7. The certificate of registration shall be subject to EXCEPTION: For hollow-unit masonry where the f ′m is no more revocation by the building official if it is found that any work done than 1. When cast-in-place Class B ual shall be by an approved inspection or quality control agency. 2 or 3. inspection work is done on the premises of a fabricator registered and ap- of grout space. M and S 14. ing official. washers and paint.1 For masonry. Verification of the fabricator’s quality control capabilities. While the work is in progress. It shall be the responsibility of the inspection or quality con- inspection to check the deck surface and placement of reinforcing.2 workmanship and the fabricator plant. drilled piers and caissons. Some inspections may be dure is properly used to tighten all bolts. Insulating concrete fill. approved by the building official. other than fully grouted open-end hollow. Any fabricator approval may be revoked for just cause. Reapproval of the fabricator shall be con- 10. SECTION 1702 — STRUCTURAL OBSERVATION sons. exists. flow for the structural design. past year. nuts. The fabricator has developed and submitted a detailed fabri- grouting operation. 15. The structure is defined in Table 16-K as Occupancy Cate- gory 1. provided this periodic scheduled inspection is per- 7. 3. 5. or ment for the purposes of leakage testing and record. Occupancies. tiveness of the quality control program. placement of reinforcement. times observing the work requiring special inspection. inspection means that the special inspector is on the site at all cedures are required by the plans or specifications and shall moni. change to the procedural manual. or another engineer or architect desig- 2–40 . The structure is in Seismic Zone 4. grout space prior to each 1. The trol agency to notify the approving authority in writing of any special inspector shall supervise the preparation of compression test specimens during this initial inspection.11.1 Continuous special inspection. Spray-applied fire-resistive materials. in the opinion of the building offi- mine that the requirements for bolts. at the start of laying units.6 Continuous and Periodic Special Inspection. excavation and filling. 11. 1701. Such inspections may be performed on a periodic basis in 1701. made on a periodic basis and satisfy the requirements of continu- ous inspection.2.2 Periodic special inspection. Reinforced gypsum concrete. was performed in accordance with the approved plans and specifi- cations to the building official and to the engineer or architect of 7. involves unusual hazards or conditions. to satisfy requirements of Chapter 18 and Appendix Chapter 33. EXCEPTION: Shotcrete work fully supported on earth. proved by the building official to perform such work without spe- outs. unit masonry.34 MPa) for concrete units or 2. Special cases. the special inspector shall deter. Structural masonry. During driving and test- ing of piles and construction of cast-in-place drilled piles or cais. 2. Shotcrete.5 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1702 nationally recognized standards and the requirements of this sec. minor re- pairs and when. 1. bolted parts. 4. 3. During 16-S is greater than one. measurements. The special 1701. in the opinion of the building official. immediately prior to closing of clean. Division 3 and Group U Occupancies and one. tion. Smoke-control system. and installation and tightening in such standards are met.1 During erection of ductwork and prior to conceal. and during all grouting operations. after the place- ment of reinforcing steel.6. cial inspection. When such observation is specifically required by the build- ing of device location.2 For fully grouted open-end hollow-unit masonry during record. EXCEPTION: One. cial. See Items l and 4 for concrete and reinforcing steel inspection.6. and during all grouting operations. The approved fabricator’s qualifications shall be contin- preparation and taking of any required prisms or test gent on compliance with the following: specimens. need not be provided when design stresses have been adjusted as speci- fied in Chapter 21 to permit noncontinuous inspection.

2 Tests of Materials. for this 16 nished with every prefabricated assembly.5.4 Connections.5 Continuous inspection. Placement of prefabricated assemblies not required.11. ture or portion thereof is wholly or partially prefabricated.1 mm) thick. all prefabricated construction and all materials used therein shall conform to all the requirements of this code. Base metal thicker than 11/2 inches (38 mm). each 12-inch increment (305 mm) or fraction thereof shall be consid.2 Certificate. representative. Reject rate is defined as the number of welds containing re. To be acceptable under this code. continuous inspection is required.3 Certifying agency. each 6 inches (152 mm) of length or frac.4 Field erection.1 Purpose. For evaluating the reject rate on continuous welds inspected to determine compliance with this code. the inte- methods for compliance with approved standards and job specifi. When approved by the building official and outlined in the proj. kind and number of tests to be made during prefabrication. contractor and the building offi.6. Unless otherwise specifically stated in this sec- tion.1 General. tion thereof shall be considered one weld. The 3. it shall also be required where the same materials are used in joint completion. 2. or by radiography. ing any reported deficiencies that.2. nondestructive testing is not required. A certificate of approval shall be fur- 5/ inch (7. special inspector. be performed in the shop of an approved fabricator utilizing qualified When mechanical equipment is installed so that it cannot be in- test techniques in the employment of the fabricator. The purpose of this section is to regulate ma- cial. EXCEPTIONS: 1.6. termine compliance with this code. For complete penetration groove welds on materials less than 1704. 25 percent.5 nated by the engineer or architect responsible for the structural de. when subjected 1704. A sampling 1704.6 Certificate and Inspection. provided the reject rate is demonstrated to be 5 percent or less of the welds tested for the welder or welding operator. the certificate of approval shall certify that such 2. 2–41 . A program for this testing shall be 1704. See Section 1611. 1704.) In Seismic Zones 3 and 4. certificate of approval shall certify that the assembly in question ect plans and specifications.6. For evaluating the reject rate of continuous welds over 3 feet (914 mm) in 1704.9 mm) thick. this nondestructive ultrasonic testing may has been inspected and meets all the requirements of this code. When approved. marked or labeled where required elsewhere in greater than 1 inch (25 mm).8. jectable defects divided by the number of welds completed. 1704. nondestructive testing is 1704. Every approval of a material not spe- established by the person responsible for structural design and as cifically mentioned in this code shall incorporate as a proviso the shown on plans and specifications.11. For partial penetra- every certificate of approval shall be made by an approved agency. tion groove welds when used in column splices. Partial penetration groove welds when used in column equipment complies with the laws applying thereto.1 Materials.2 for design of at least 40 completed welds for a job shall be made for such reduction requirements for removal of material for pipes. except where the as- welding.2 Scope. If continuous inspection is re- to through-thickness weld shrinkage strains. Materials and the assembly thereof shall be ered as one weld. 3. fully restrained connections 1704.6. splices shall be tested either by ultrasonic testing or radiography 1704.1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1702 1704. this code. All complete penetration groove welds contained in joints special tests to be made on assemblies to determine their durabil- and splices shall be tested 100 percent either by ultrasonic testing ity and weather resistance. Any material discontinuities shall be accepted or rejected on the EXCEPTION: Continuous inspection will not be required during basis of the defect rating in accordance with the (larger reflector) prefabrication if the approved agency certifies to the construction and criteria of approved national standards.1.6. this program shall include the following: 1704. with an effective throat less than 3/4 inch (19. quired for certain materials where construction takes place on the cally inspected for discontinuities directly behind such welds after site. have not been resolved.5 Pipes and Conduits.3 Tests of Assemblies. gral parts of which have been built up or assembled prior to incor- cations.1.3 Definition. to perform structural observation as defined in Section 220. (See Section SECTION 1703 — NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING 104. As a minimum.6. for this welding. conduit and other evaluation. length where the effective throat thickness is 1 inch (25 mm) or less. between the primary members of ordinary moment frames and special moment-resisting frames shall be tested by nondestructive PREFABRICATED ASSEMBLY is a structural unit. to the best of the structural ob- server’s knowledge.1 for design require- rate for an individual welder or welding operator may be reduced to ments of connections for prefabricated assemblies. SECTION 1704 — PREFABRICATED CONSTRUCTION sign. Every material over 3 feet (914 mm) in length where the effective throat thickness is shall be graded. spected at the site. This testing shall be a part of the special inspection re. quirements of Section 1701. poration in the building. Observed deficiencies shall be reported in writing to the owner’s 1704. welded. The building official may require 1. shall be ultrasoni. prefabricated construction. 1704.1. continuous special inspection is at the building site shall be inspected by the building official to de- required. sembly is readily accessible to inspection at the site. equipment. The structural observer shall submit to the building official a terials and establish methods of safe construction where any struc- written statement that the site visits have been made and identify. the nondestructive testing 1704. See Section 1611. furnishes evidence of compliance. when required by the plans and specifications.

Such measures shall be given consideration in expansion index greater than 20. Group U. For the purposes of this chapter. The soil classification and design-bearing ca- are part of this code. ground stabilization.2 Standards of Quality. Expected total and differential settlement. and 1804. Elevation of the water table. lateral movement with UBC Standard 18-2 and the soil shall be classified according or reduction in foundation soil-bearing capacity. shall require special design consideration. grading and earthwork construction. I 3. the following information: 1. CHAP. Expansion Index Test 1. 21. 2. The potential for liquefaction and soil strength loss shall be eva- SECTION 1804 — FOUNDATION INVESTIGATION luated for a site peak ground acceleration that. (See also Section liquefaction and expansiveness. 19. site-specific study taking into account soil amplification effects. DIV. provisions to mitigate the effects of expansive soils. or any combination of these mea- ture. compressibility.5. 18. instability shall be evaluated as described in Section 1804. and the effects of adjacent loads. Peak ground acceleration may be determined based on a site shall be determined when required by the building official. Recommendations for foundation type and design criteria. soil strength loss during earthquakes shall be evaluated during the geotechnical investigation. 1806. 1801.2 Investigation. cluding fills and embankments. 3. including bearing capacity. Where footings are placed at varying 1804.2. The classification of the soil at each building 1631. if encountered. con- forms to the probability of exceedance specified in Section 1804. 5. 1804. A detached.5. 18-2. The building official may require that this determination be made In the absence of such a study. and soil strength. 2. when required by the building offi- cial. 22 and 23. footings and foundations shall conform to the requirements 4. Soils Classification clude. unless the foundation con- 1. I 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1801 1804. The building official may require submission of a written report of the investigation. mulas provided in this chapter shall be used with the allowable stress design load combinations specified in Section 1612. the variation is to be included in the depths. drainage of surface water around buildings. the potential for soil liquefaction and according to UBC Standard 18-1. 1803. soil are to be determined. When expansive soils are present. Part II. Additional studies may be necessary to evaluate soil strength. Descriptions and classifications of the materials encoun- SECTION 1802 — QUALITY AND DESIGN tered.1 General. specified in Chapters 16.4 Expansive Soils. tions. 1804. 4. DIV. The quality and design of materials used structurally in excava. The standards listed below la. in.3. forms to Table 18-I-C.2. Division 1 Occupancies. When the expansive characteristics of a potential consequences of any liquefaction and soil strength loss. vation and fills for any building or structure and for foundations EXCEPTIONS: 1. The building official may waive this evaluation and retaining structures. borings or excavations made in appropriate locations. peak ground acceleration may be by an engineer or architect licensed by the state to practice as such.2 Expansive Soil. pacity shall be shown on the plans. selection of appropriate structural systems to accommo- engineering analysis of the expansive soil effect upon the struc. single-story dwelling of Group R. but are not limited to.6 Adjacent Loads. assumed equal to the seismic zone factor in Table 16-I. The building official may require a EXPANSIVE SOIL special investigation and report to provide these design and con- struction criteria. When and classification of soil materials for use in Table 18-I-A shall be required by Section 1804. The geotechnical report shall assess 1803. Allowable bearing pressures. Division 3 Occu- pancy with or without attached garages. and discuss miti- to Table 18-I-B. Fences.7 Chapter 18 FOUNDATIONS AND RETAINING WALLS Division I—GENERAL SECTION 1801 — SCOPE In Seismic Zones 3 and 4. sures. A plot showing the location of all test borings and/or excava- tions. The classification shall be based on ob- elevations. the definition 1804. the effect of adjacent loads shall be included in the servation and any necessary tests of the materials disclosed by foundation design.1 UBC Standard 18-1. but need not be limited to. date anticipated displacements. which shall in- 1. allowable stresses and design for. as a minimum. If the soil expan. the potential for seismically induced soil liquefaction and soil 1801. upon receipt of written opinion of a qualified geotechnical engineer or Reference is made to Appendix Chapter 33 for requirements geologist that liquefaction is not probable.5. Testing.1 General. the procedures shall be in accordance including estimation of differential settlement. governing excavation. Provisions shall be made for the control and moisture variation on soil-bearing capacity. Foundations for structures resting on soils with an gating measures. the building official may require that special provisions be made in the foundation design and construction to safeguard against dam- SECTION 1803 — SOIL CLASSIFICATION— age due to this expansiveness.) 2–43 .7 Drainage. 18.1 General. CHAP. provisions to mitigate the effects of liquefaction Excavations and fills shall comply with Chapter 33. as determined by UBC Standard the design of the building and may include. the effect of 1804.5 Liquefaction Potential and Soil Strength Loss.2 UBC Standard 18-2.3 Reports. selection of appropriate foundation type and sion index varies with depth. beled a “UBC Standard” are also listed in Chapter 35. This chapter sets forth requirements for exca.

the height of the slope shall be measured from the top of the wall to the top of the slope. Steel nut and washer shall be tightened on each bolt to the plate. Wood plates or sills shall be ments for stud bearing walls shall be as set forth in Table 18-I-C. expansive soils may be designed in accordance with the provi- sions of Division III or such other engineering design based on 1806. The building offi- geotechnical recommendation as approved by the building offi. 1806. the minimum foundation require. the following criteria will be assumed to provide kN/m) and isolated footings with loads of less than 50. Such an investigation shall include consideration sonry or concrete foundations or piles or other approved founda.3 Bearing Walls. the toe of the slope shall be Allowable bearing pressures provided in Table 18-I-A shall be assumed to be at the intersection of a horizontal plane drawn from used with the allowable stress design load combinations specified the top of the foundation and a plane drawn tangent to the slope at in Section 1612. I 1805 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1806.8. On graded sites. The placement of buildings and structures on or The allowable foundation and lateral pressures shall not exceed adjacent to slopes steeper than 1 unit vertical in 3 units horizontal the values set forth in Table 18-I-A unless data to substantiate the (33.5. 1806. Seismic Zones 0 through 3. shall be measured from an imaginary plane 45 degrees to the hori- tion investigation.1 SECTION 1805 — ALLOWABLE FOUNDATION AND 1806. unless another depth is recommended by a founda. dation plates and sills shall be the kind of wood specified in Section 2306. Foundations for all buildings where the surface of the ground slopes more than 1 unit vertical in 1806.000 pounds this protection.4.2 Building clearance from ascending slopes.3.1 General.6 and Figure 18-I-1. the required setback Table 18-I-C. crete or masonry and shall be spaced not more than 6 feet (1829 tion plate when approved by the building official. one bolt located not more than 12 inches (305 mm) or less than signed as specified in Section 1806.6 Alternate setback and clearance. Footings shall have a minimum depth as indicated in vertical in 1 unit horizontal (100% slope).2 Footing Design. SECTION 1806 — FOOTINGS 1806. Foundations supporting 1806.CHAP. Type II-N and Type V buildings that do not exceed the slope to provide protection from slope drainage. A one-story wood. 10 units horizontal (10% slope) shall be level or shall be stepped so The following additional requirements shall apply in Seismic that both top and bottom of such foundation are level. been satisfied. Where the existing slope is steeper than 1 unit ver- (222. LATERAL PRESSURES 1806. without soil support.6. concrete or treated wood in conformance with Divi. the top of any 1806. 2–44 .5 Footings on or Adjacent to Slopes.6 Foundation Plates or Sills.000 pounds per lineal foot (29. Except as provided for in Section 1806. Footings of concrete without detrimental settlement. the following setback is deemed ade- wood shall extend at least 6 inches (152 mm) above the adjacent quate to meet the criteria. Steel bolts with a unless expansive soils of a severity to cause differential move. Except for special provisions of Sec- exterior foundation shall extend above the elevation of the street tion 1808 covering the design of piles. Where a retaining wall is constructed at the toe of the slope.5. erosion and three stories in height or for structures that have continuous foot. slope gradient. The build- code and shall be designed to minimize differential settlement ing official may approve alternate elevations. tical in 1 unit horizontal (100% slope).5.1 Additional requirements in Seismic Zones 3 and 4. The support of buildings by posts embedded in earth shall be de. Foun- posts or poles shall be protected as specified in Section 1807.5. load intensity and ero- tion system that shall be of sufficient size to support all loads. height of slope.3 Footing setback from descending slope surface. That portion of the pool such loads shall be designed in accordance with approved national wall within a horizontal distance of 7 feet (2134 mm) from the top standards. shallow failures. Except as provided for in Section and masonry shall be of solid material. used for human occupancy and not over 400 square feet (37. Buildings and foundations subject to back distance required by this section.3% slope) shall be in accordance with this section. of material. Table 18-I-A may be used for 1806.7 mm) shall be used in ment are known to exist.5. Bearing walls shall be supported on ma. Where a design is not provided.6 and ings having a load of less than 2. 18. bolted to the foundation or foundation wall. all portions of footings shall gutter at point of discharge or the inlet of an approved drainage de- be designed in accordance with the structural provisions of this vice a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) plus 2 percent. A properly sized in earth shall be pressure treated with an approved preservative. demonstrated that required drainage to the point of discharge and Slab-on-grade and mat-type footings for buildings located on away from the structure is provided at all locations on the site. See Section 3302 for subsoil preparation and wood of the slope shall be capable of supporting the water in the pool form removal. official may require an investigation and recommendation of a qualified engineer to demonstrate that the intent of this section has 1806. There shall be a minimum of two bolts per piece with 2.5 Foundation elevation.4 Pools. mm) apart.5. sion characteristics of slope material.2 m2) in Bolts shall be embedded at least 7 inches (178 mm) into the con- floor area may be constructed with walls supported on a wood founda.4 Stepped Foundations.6. Wood posts or poles embedded seven bolt diameters from each end of the piece.9. minimum nominal diameter of 1/2 inch (12. use of higher values are submitted.2 Figure 18-I-1. Footing on or adjacent to slope surfaces shall be founded in firm 1806. cial may approve alternate setbacks and clearances. buildings below slopes shall be set a sufficient distance from One-hour.5. The setback between pools regulated by this dation systems in those areas subject to scour and water pressure code and slopes shall be equal to one half the building footing set- by wind and wave action.or metal-frame building not diameter of 5/8 inch (16 mm) shall be used in Seismic Zone 4. Steel bolts with a minimum nominal EXCEPTIONS: 1. projected upward from the toe of the slope.4 kN). Where the slope is steeper than 1 unit finish grade. In gener- design of foundations on rock or nonexpansive soil for Type II al. an angle of 45 degrees to the horizontal.1 Scope. 1806. 1806. sufficient to provide vertical and lateral support for the footing sion II and shall extend below the frost line. Footings and foundations shall be constructed material with an embedment and setback from the slope surface of masonry. The building cial. Zones 3 and 4. The provisions of this section do not apply to building and foun. zontal.5. DIV. provided it can be when necessary and the effects of expansive soils when present.

such as a rigid 1807. embedment (kPa). The investigation and report provisions of Section 1804 shall be d = depth of embedment in earth in feet (m) but not over expanded to include. sure. determine the depth of embedment required to resist lateral loads where constraint is provided at the ground surface. they shall be completely embedded the building official. Sill bolt diameter and spacing for three-story raised wood 1806. 1806.2. S3 = allowable lateral soil-bearing pressure as set forth in The use of piles not specifically mentioned in this chapter shall Table 18-I-A based on a depth equal to the depth of be permitted.2 Design criteria. I 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1806.6. compacted by tamping in layers not more than 8 inches (203 mm) in depth. ma- columns embedded in earth or embedded in concrete footings in sonry or concrete unless bracing is provided that develops the the earth may be used to resist both axial and lateral loads.36h Ǔ does not exceed 1.8. 1806. walls shall be provided with a minimum of one No. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4.200 pounds per square foot (57.2 shall be placed in continuous foundations to minimize 1. Field inspection and reporting procedures (to include proce- S1 = allowable lateral soil-bearing pressure as set forth in dures for verification of the installed bearing capacity where re- Table 18-I-A based on a depth of one third the depth of quired).9 Grillage Footings. Plate washers a minimum of 2 inch by 2 inch by 3/16 inch (51 mm by 51 mm by 4.8. section shall be subject to the following limitations: EXCEPTION: For slabs-on-ground cast monolithically with a The frictional resistance for retaining walls and slabs on silts footing. 2–45 .2 Slabs–on–ground with turned–down footings. 2.7. CHAP.7. Such ties shall be capable of resisting.8. a minimum horizontal force equal to 10 percent of the S 3b larger column vertical load. feet (m). 1806. calculations or other informa- tion relating to the properties and load-carrying capacities of such 1806. provided soil pressure ǒ1 ) Ǹ1 ) 4. The following formula may be lities shall comply with Chapter 18. every structure subjected to seismic forces shall be interconnected by ties. Backfill shall be of clean sand.000 pounds per square inch (13. The following formula may be used to piles. in concrete with at least 6 inches (152 mm) on the bottom and at least 4 inches (102 mm) at all other points.34P 1807. shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm) larger than the diameter of the column at its bottom or 4 inches (102 mm) larger than the diag- 1806. Foundations with stem. and clays shall be limited to one half of the normal force imposed on the soil by the weight of the footing or slab. depth to resist lateral loads shall be determined by means of the 1806.7 Seismic Zones 3 and 4.” 3. Individual pile caps and caissons of floor or pavement.7.25 Ph (6-2) pression. the following: 12 feet (3658 mm) for purpose of computing lateral pres.8. 4 bar at the top and bottom. DIV. termined by the allowable soil-bearing pressure set forth in Table 18-I-A. 1806. but not be limited to. d + A (6-1) 2 A SECTION 1807 — PILES — GENERAL WHERE: REQUIREMENTS A = 2.2.7. 5. lowing methods: zontal reinforcement in accordance with Sections 1806. onal dimension of a square or rectangular column. 5 bar may be located at either the top or bottom.4 Limitations.1 and 1806.1. fined in Section 1008. The design procedure outlined in this mum of one No. Footings for open-air seating faci- 1806.2 may be supported upon wood sills or steel such as rigid floor or rigid ground surface pavement.2 Constrained. The limited deflection required.8. 18. The hole vided with cover in accordance with Section 1907. Posts embedded in earth shall not be used to provide lateral sup- 1806. in tension or com- d 2 + 4.8 mm) thick shall be used on each bolt.79 MPa) at 28 days. hori. submission of acceptable test data. subject to the approval of the building official upon embedment (kPa). Slabs–on–ground with turned-down footings shall have a mini.10 Bleacher Footings. Foundation reinforcement shall be pro. The sand shall be thoroughly of the wall and one No. 4. Recommended pile types and installed capacities. Pile foundations shall be designed and in- S 1b stalled on the basis of a foundation investigation as defined in Sec- b = diameter of round post or footing or diagonal dimension tion 1804 where required by the building official.2 Interconnection. When grillage footings of structural design criteria established herein or other methods approved by steel shapes are used on soils.7. P = applied lateral force in pounds (kN). Installation procedures. 1806.2 1.1 General.3 Vertical load. Driving criteria.3 Backfill. EXCEPTIONS: Temporary open-air portable bleachers as de- eral loads where no constraint is provided at the ground surface. of square post or footing.8. 1806. Pile load test requirements.8 Designs Employing Lateral Bearing.1 Foundations with stemwalls.1 1807. 1.8. 4 bar at the bottom of the footing. plates placed directly upon the ground surface. 2.1 Nonconstrained. The backfill in the annular space around col- umns not embedded in poured footings shall be by one of the fol- 1806. Backfill shall be of concrete with an ultimate strength of differential settlement. h = distance in feet (m) from ground surface to point of application of ‘‘P. used in determining the depth of embedment required to resist lat. Construction employing posts or poles as port for structural or nonstructural materials such as plaster. 2.1 General. 4 bar at the top 2.2. The resistance to vertical loads is de- floor buildings shall be specifically designed.5 kPa). one No.

vestigation by an approved agency. gineer defined as a civil engineer experienced and knowledgeable ment. such materials shall be adequately protected by methods shall have a sealed tip with a diameter of not less than 8 inches or processes approved by the building official. When used. The allowable ax.000565 mm/N) of test load which has been applied for a period of at least 24 hours. Method 2. the allowable axial load determined for a single pile 1808.1 by a soils en- increase in load produces a disproportionate increase in settle. 1808.6 Group Action. The effectiveness (203 mm). mended after a foundation investigation as specified in Section 1804. Allowable single pile is determined by a load test. 1808.3 Determination of Allowable Loads. necessary. conditions shall be established in accordance with Section 1807. changing water levels or other 1808. Frictional resistance and bearing ial and lateral loads on piles shall be determined by an approved resistance shall not be assumed to act simultaneously unless recom- formula.4 Static Load Tests. through subsiding fills or other subsiding strata and derive support The length of such pile shall be limited to not more than 30 times from underlying firmer materials. Consideration shall be given to the re. 18.25 shall duction of allowable pile load when piles are placed in groups. of site conditions indicate possible deleterious action on pile ma- terials because of soil constituents. which support their own specific load.5 Column Action. Piles shall be driven in such order and with such spacing as to EXCEPTION: Any uncased cast-in-place pile may be assumed to ensure against distortion of or injury to piles already in place.1 Material.2 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1808.3. 1807. lowest groundwater level assumed to exist during the life of the ter or material not capable of lateral support.10 Allowable Loads. When the allowable axial load of a 1807. Part I.7 MPa). The shells shall be sufficiently strong to tective measures. Such piles 1808. It shall not exceed one half of that load under which.1 Round Wood Piles. the applicable column formula as specified in this code. a safety factor of 1. The allowable compres- specifically permitted by the building official.2 EXCEPTION: Other approved methods may be used where it can of the soil material at minimum depth as set forth in Table 18-I-A but be demonstrated that equivalent restraint can be provided. no addi.3.7 Piles in Subsiding Areas. shall be reduced by any rational method or formula approved by the building official. Untreated piles may be used tional settlement takes place. I 1807.500 psi (17. EXCEPTION: The length of pile may exceed 30 times the diame- Where the influence of subsiding fills is considered as imposing ter provided the design and installation of the pile foundation is in ac- loads on the pile.30 to Where soil conditions make such load reductions advisable or extreme fiber in bending values. piles shall be driven down until the required re- sistance is obtained. not to exceed 500 pounds per square foot (24 kPa) unless a greater value is allowed by the building official after a soil investigation as spe- 1807. by the subsiding upper strata. The yield point shall be defined as that point at which an including a report in accordance with Section 1807. Jetting shall not be used except where and as in the concrete shall not exceed 0. existing piles and structures shall not be impaired. Part I. 1808. material at 10 feet (3048 mm) below the ground surface unless otherwise prescribed by the building official after a foundation in.24 MPa). It shall not exceed one half of the load which causes a net settlement. jetting sive stress of reinforcement shall not exceed 34 percent of the shall be carried out in such a manner that the carrying capacity of yield strength of the steel or 25. one of the following meth. The allowable unit stresses for driven into firm ground may be considered fixed and laterally sup. wa. round wood piles shall not exceed those set forth in Chapter 23. The allowable compressive stress 1807. Except where untreated piles are permitted. of 0.2. Method 3.2 Allowable stresses.2 Allowable stresses.500 psi (17. 1808. Every metal casing for a concrete pile factors.01 inch per ton SECTION 1808 — SPECIFIC PILE REQUIREMENTS (0. All piles standing unbraced in air. drawal of the jet. After with- 1808. The allowable values listed in Chapter 23. may be increased if satisfactory substantiating data are submitted. consideration shall be given to the average diameter. The allowable loads based on soil foreign material during the placing of concrete.9 Protection of Pile Materials. It shall not exceed 50 percent of the yield point under Such substantiating data shall include a foundation investigation test load.1 Material. only when it has been established that the cutoff will be below 1807. the allowable stresses specified in this chapter cordance with an approved investigation report.2.2 Uncased Cast-in-place Concrete Piles.2 Installation. ported at 5 feet (1524 mm) below the ground surface and in soft Division III.3 Metal-cased Concrete Piles.CHAP. No develop a frictional resistance equal to one sixth of the bearing value pile shall be driven within four and one-half average pile diame- 2–46 . after deducting rebound. for compression parallel to the grain at extreme fiber in bending are based on load sharing as occurs in a pile cluster. Method 1. by load tests or by a foundation investigation.500 psi (175. wood piles shall be pressure treated. DIV. shall conform with structure. be applied to compression parallel to the grain values and 1. Where piles are driven the exclusion of any foreign matter and to secure a full-sized shaft.8 Jetting. Concrete used in metal-cased concrete piles shall have a specified compressive strength f ′c of not less than 1807.24 MPa). For piles 1807. compressive stresses greater than those specified in Section 1808 ods shall be used: shall be permitted when substantiating data justifying such higher stresses are submitted to and approved by the building official.11 Use of Higher Allowable Pile Stresses. left permanently in place.1 Material. of such methods or processes for the particular purpose shall have Concrete piles cast in place in metal shells shall have shells been thoroughly established by satisfactory service records or driven for their full length in contact with the surrounding soil and other evidence which demonstrates the effectiveness of such pro.1.1.33f ′c . Concrete piles cast in place against earth in drilled or bored holes shall be made in such a manner as to ensure 1807. Division III.3. Where the boring records 2. resist collapse and sufficiently watertight to exclude water and 1807. 1808. cified in Section 1804 is submitted. during a 40-hour period of continuous load application. Concrete shall have a specified compressive the downward frictional forces which may be imposed on the piles strength f ′c of not less than 2. in the practice of soils engineering.

1. psi (3. EXCEPTION: When justified in accordance with Section For piles having a diameter greater than 24 inches (610 mm) but 2807.40f ′c for that portion of the pile meeting the following condi.000 psi (27. Precast concrete piles shall have a speci.6 mm) (No. and less than 20 inches (508 mm). 4. 5 B.7 Concrete-filled Steel Pipe Piles.000 psi (20. 3 B.88 For piles having a diameter of more than 16 inches (406 mm) MPa) and 0.4 mm) round or 0. gage).W. for a distance of 2 feet (610 (17.85 MPa) in the prestressing steel.5. ance with Section 2202. 1808. have a specified compressive strength f ′c of not less than 2. Precast concrete piling shall be section. The compressive stress in the concrete due to externally applied load shall not exceed: 3.35Fy.4. I 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1808.259 mum thickness of metal in either the flange or the web. for a distance of 2 feet (610 mm) from the ends and not more than 8 inches (203 mm) else. DIV. center to center.2 ters of a pile filled with concrete less than 24 hours old unless ap. psi (206. For piles having a diameter of 16 inches (406 mm) or less. wire (248. 1/ inch (6.0 mm) (No.73 mm) (No. 1808. 550 (1. gage).22 inch (5.6. The concrete-filled steel pipe piles shall Ties or spiral reinforcement shall not be spaced more than 3 in.2. tion 1918. CHAP. The allowable axial stresses shall where. the allowable stresses may be increased to 0.6 Structural Steel Piles. The flange projection shall not exceed 14 times the mini- wire shall not be smaller than 1/4 inch (6. Longitudinal reinforcement conform to UBC Standard 22-1 and shall be identified in accord- shall be laterally tied with steel ties or wire spirals. Allowable stresses shall not ex.27fp c yield strength fy to concrete specified compressive strength f ′c WHERE: shall not be less than 6.4 mm) round or 0.000 psi For piles having a diameter of 24 inches (610 mm) or less.2 Allowable stresses. shall not be smaller than 0.6 mm) (No. ches (76 mm) apart.3.5Fy.2.76 MPa) for piles up to 30 feet (9144 mm) in length.4 Precast Concrete Piles.1 Materials. The allowable stress in the prestressing steel shall not exceed the values specified in Sec- 1808.6.48 MPa) and shall develop a compressive strength of not less less than 1/4 inch (6.68 MPa). 2202. The allowable axial stresses shall not exceed 0.000 1808. Precast prestressed concrete piles shall Sections of driven pipe piles shall have an outside diameter of have a specified compressive strength f ′c of not less than 5. designed to resist stresses induced by handling and driving as well 2. the allowable axial stress may be increased above 12. The thickness of the metal casing is not less than 0.1 Material.83 MPa) for piles greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) in 2. Ties and spirals shall not be spaced more than 3 in.6. 1808. 4 ceed the values specified in Section 1808.11. and shall develop a compressive strength of not less than 1808. designed to resist stresses induced by handling and driving as well tions: as by loads.3 Allowable stresses.068 inch 400 psi (2.W. 1808. flange widths shall not be less than 80 percent of the depth of the 1808. 1808. shall not be smaller than 0. Effective prestress shall be based on an assumed loss of 30. gage). fied compressive strength f ′c of not less than 3. fpc = effective prestress stress on the gross section. mm) from the ends and not more than 8 inches (203 mm) else- where.4 mm). strength and is of a configuration that will provide confinement to the cast-in-place concrete.3 Minimum dimensions. 4 B. 1808.11. and the inch (6. wire shall not be smaller than 0. 14 carbon sheet steel gage). less than 8 inches (203 mm).2 Reinforcement.2 1808.4. Flanges and webs shall have a minimum nominal thickness 1808. Sections of driven H-piles 0.W. whichever is less.600 psi (86.50 Fy.68 MPa) before driving.35 of the minimum specified yield strength Fy or 12.2. For piles having a diameter greater than 36 inches (914 mm). 4 B. The longitudinal reinforcement fully welded steel piles fabricated from plates shall conform to in driven precast concrete piles shall be laterally tied with steel ties UBC Standard 22-1 and be identified in accordance with Section or wire spirals.6 mm) (No. the first five ties or spirals shall be steel plus 0.W.500 psi ches (76 mm) apart. The longitudinal reinforcement shall 1808. gage).2 Allowable stresses.79 MPa) for piles up to 50 feet (15 240 mm) in length.5. gage). than 4. and 700 psi (4.W.7.5.7. 3. crete.3 Allowable stresses.24 MPa). Structural steel piles. 3.22 inch (5.58 MPa) before driving.2. provided Fy shall not be assumed greater than 36.6 mm) (No. cified in Section 1808. The gage of ties and spirals shall be as follows: not exceed 0. The concrete-filled steel pipe piles shall be high-tensile seven-wire strand.2. steel pipe piles and 1808. 3 B.7.1 Materials. The nominal depth in the direction of the web shall not be as by loads.88 MPa).3 Allowable stresses. inch (6.35 of the minimum specified yield strength Fy of the At each end of the pile. 18.W. except that the al- lowable concrete stress may be increased to a maximum value of 1808. wire EXCEPTION: When justified in accordance with Section 1807.2. shall comply with the following: For piles having a diameter of 20 inches (508 mm) and larger. of 3/8 inch (9.259 inch (6.0 mm) (No. less than 36 inches (914 mm). center to center.1 Material. 2–47 . wire shall not be smaller than 1808.47 MPa) and the ratio of steel minimum specified f c  0. wire shall not be smaller than 1808.5 mm).2 Reinforcement ties. The casing is seamless or is provided with seams of equal length.33f c 0.238 proved by the building official. The effective prestress in the pile shall not be less than 1. 5 B.600 psi (86.5 Precast Prestressed Concrete Piles (Pretensioned).33 of the specified compressive strength f ′c of con- spaced 1 inch (25 mm) center to center. The specified compressive strength f ′c shall not exceed 5.238 inch (6.22 MPa) for computational purposes.000 psi (20.3.000 psi not less than 10 inches (254 mm) and a minimum thickness of not (34.000 psi (34.4. Precast prestressed piling shall be 0. gage). The allowable stresses shall not exceed the values spe. The pile diameter is not greater than 16 inches (406 mm). but shall not exceed 0.

2 shall apply for a length of piles equal to 120 SECTION 1809 — FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION— percent of the flexural length.1 Steel piles. 1809. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 the further require. EXCEPTION: Transverse reinforcement need not exceed the 1809.3 Prestressed concrete piles. 1809. Piles shall have short-term dynamic nature of the loads may be taken into account transverse reinforcement meeting the requirements of Section in establishing the soil properties. The con. including the effects of lateral displacements. tween the specified ratios for intermediate sizes.2.4. The 1809. Driven piles of uniform sec.5.021 1809. as shown in Chapter 22.2 Nonprestressed concrete piles.2. nonprestressed concrete piles and pre- ments of this section shall apply to the design and construction of stressed concrete piles. amount determined by Formula (21-2) in Section 1921. Piles shall have a mini- mum volumetric ratio of spiral reinforcement no less than 0.5.3 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1809. Special detailing requirements as described in Section 1809.3 1808. Piles shall conform to width-thickness ratios of stiffened.012 for force Ft as provided in Section 1630. 1921. 1809. 2–48 . foundations.1 General.5.2.2 Soil Capacity.4. 24-inch (610 mm) square and larger piles unless a smaller value mining the overturning moment to be resisted at the can be justified by rational analysis. Division VIII. and 0. unstiffened and tubular compression elements ' 1809.5. The foundation shall be capable of trans.3 Minimum dimensions.4.4. Interpolation may be used be- foundation-soil interface. 18.3 Superstructure-to-Foundation Connection. 1921.5.1 for spiral or circular hoop reinforcement or by Formula (21-4) in Section nection of superstructure elements to the foundation shall be ade. quate to transmit to the foundation the forces for which the elements were required to be designed. foundation components and the connection of super- structure elements thereto.2.7. the for 14-inch (356 mm) square and smaller piles. Flexural length shall be considered SEISMIC ZONES 3 AND 4 as a length of pile from the first point of zero lateral deflection to the underside of the pile cap or grade beam. 1809.1 for rectangular hoop reinforcement.7. I 1808. CHAP.5. mitting the design base shear and overturning forces prescribed in Section 1630 from the structure into the supporting soil. caissons and caps shall be designed ac- cording to the provisions of Section 1603. 1809.2 Steel piles. DIV. For regular buildings.5. tion shall have a nominal outside diameter of not less than 8 inches (203 mm).4 Foundation-Soil Interface. 1809.1 General.5 may be omitted when deter.4. Piles.5 Special Requirements for Piles and Caissons.

200 0. SP.70 2. Additionally.3. TABLE 18-I-B—CLASSIFICATION OF EXPANSIVE SOIL EXPANSION INDEX POTENTIAL EXPANSION 0-20 Very low 21-50 Low 51-90 Medium 91-130 High Above 130 Very high a TABLE 18-I-C—FOUNDATIONS FOR STUD BEARING WALLS—MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS1. a foundation investigation shall be required.3 THICKNESS OF FOUNDATION WALL (inches) WIDTH OF FOOTING THICKNESS OF DEPTH BELOW UNDISTURBED 25. as permitted by Section 1612.2./FT.1. 5Coefficient to be multiplied by the dead load. MH and CH) 1. an increase of 20 percent shall be allowed for each additional foot (305 mm) of width or depth to a maximum value of three times the designated value. 4Foundations may support a roof in addition to the stipulated number of floors. FOUNDATION DEPTH BELOW Resistance PRESSURE (psf)2 NATURAL GRADE3 (psf)6 0. GM and GC) 1. OH and PT (i.35 4. SM. clayey sand.000 200 0. The footing width and length shall be twice the width shown in this table and the footings shall be spaced not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) on center. footings and foundations shall be as required in Section 1806. 6Lateral sliding resistance value to be multiplied by the contact area.2. Massive crystalline bedrock 4.25 5.. Sandy gravel and/or gravel (GW and GP) 2./FT. sandy clay. Clay.000 400 0. 4Lateral bearing and lateral sliding resistance may be combined. 2The ground under the floor may be excavated to the elevation of the top of the footing. 7No increase for width is allowed. silty clay and clayey silt (CL. an increase of one third shall be permitted when considering load combinations. Sand./SQ.4 for mm 1 6 6 12 6 12 2 8 8 15 7 18 3 10 10 18 8 24 1Where unusual conditions or frost conditions are found. Foundations supporting roofs only shall be as required for supporting one floor.e. 2All values of allowable foundation pressure are for footings having a minimum width of 12 inches (305 mm) and a minimum depth of 12 inches (305 mm) into natural grade. CHAP.500 150 0. including wind or earthquake loads. ML.0007 100 130 1For soil classifications OL.4 for mm (inches) FOOTING (inches) GROUND SURFACE (inches) NUMBER OF FLOORS SUPPORTED Unit BY THE FOUNDATION4 Concrete Masonry 25. I 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 18-I-A TABLE 18-I-C TABLE 18-I-A—ALLOWABLE FOUNDATION AND LATERAL PRESSURE LATERAL BEARING LATERAL SLIDING4 ALLOWABLE LBS /SQ /FT /FT OF LBS. 18. In no case shall the lateral sliding resistance exceed one half the dead load. Sedimentary and foliated rock 2. SC.0479 CLASS OF MATERIALS1 0.7 mm) motion at ground surface due to short-term lateral loads may be designed using lateral bearing values equal to two times the tabulated values. silty sand.35 3. 3May be increased the amount of the designated value for each additional foot (305 mm) of depth to a maximum of 15 times the designated value. silty gravel and clayey gravel (SW. Except as in Footnote 7. 3Interior stud bearing walls may be supported by isolated footings. Isolated poles for uses such as flagpoles or signs and poles used to support buildings that are not adversely affected by a 1/2-inch (12.0479 for kPa per meter Coefficient5 for kPa 1. 2–49 . organic clays and peat). DIV.000 1.157 for kPa 0.

DIV. H/2 BUT NEED NOT EXCEED 15 FT.CHAP. FIGURE 18-I-1—SETBACK DIMENSIONS 2–50 . (12 192 mm) MAX. 18. (4572 mm) MAX. I FIGURE 18-I-1 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE FIGURE 18-I-1 FACE OF FOOTING TOP OF SLOPE FACE OF STRUCTURE H/3 BUT NEED NOT H TOE OF SLOPE EXCEED 40 FT.

II 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1810 1812. including wall framing lumber and plywood sheathing less than 6 inches pointing. SW. Waterborne preservatives ACA and CCA. crawl space construction shall be lo. All lumber and plywood re. SP. all interior-bearing wall framing and nails may be used for basement and crawl space wall construction sheathing posts or other wood supports used in crawl spaces. (152 mm) above finished grade shall be preservative treated. Division (FCAP). testing and inspection teria for materials. 1811.7 Preservative Treatment. After treatment. to AWPA Standard P5. DIV. and shall bear the grade mark of. such as when a building is situated on slop- and SM types. Crushed stone shall have a maximum size of 1/2 inch (12.1 Lumber.4. all where polyethylene sheeting is applied to the below-grade portion sleepers. threading or twisting. Preparations made 1811. Waterborne preservatives FCAP and ACC may be used for field 1811. 1811. 7 SECTION 1810 — SCOPE plywood shall be dried to a moisture content not exceeding 19 per- cent. CHAP. Each piece of treated lumber and plywood shall bear an ap- The basic design and construction requirements for treated wood proved quality mark or that of an approved inspection agency foundation systems are set forth in this division. 18. Gravel shall be washed and well graded. heating. B and C. Zinc-coated fasteners dow or door headers or the top plate. Backfill with organic. Included are cri. design loads and structural design. fluor chrome arsenate phenol which allowable unit stresses are set forth in Chapter 23. Types A. ing terrain. DIV. blocking and plywood subflooring used in base- of the exterior wall and for wood basement floor construction. not smaller than 1/16-inch (1. Sand or Crushed Stone for Footings may assign other values based on soil tests or local experience. glue and be grade marked indicating conformance with UBC Standard 23-2 and shall bear the grade mark of an approved ply. Gravel shall be free from types of expansive soils shall not be compacted dry. The maximum size Backfill of CH type (inorganic clays of high plasticity) or other stone shall not exceed 3/4 inch (19 mm). an approved lumber grading or inspection Copper napthenate shall be prepared with a solvent conforming bureau or agency.3 Fasteners in Preservative-treated Wood. 1811. each piece of lumber and 1804. such as win- indicate an equal or better performance. Lumber shall be of a species and grade for mated copper arsenate (CCA). The preservative concentration shall contain a minimum of 2 percent copper metal. preservative treatment. All plywood shall be bonded with exterior by manufacturers of preservatives can also be used. (See Section the FDN grade mark.7 mm). Silicon shall be a minimum of 5 percent in solution. Electro. copper and stainless steel fasteners are acceptable for all All lumber and plywood used in exterior foundation walls (ex- ground contact and moisture situations.6 mm) grains sandy or silty soils. GM adjacent ground level.7. that is located above the permanent water table.1 Division II—DESIGN STANDARD FOR TREATED WOOD FOUNDATION SYSTEM Based on National Forest Products Association. As a minimum. soil characteristics. wood inspection agency. over the quality of the product. treated. OL. Floors located be- low the permanent water table are not permitted unless special 1811. dipping or soaking until the wood absorbs no more preservative: ammoniacal copper arsenate (ACA). and all other plates. as applicable. MH soil types (inorganic silts. clayey or silty soils. OH and Pt are unsatisfactory for foundations unless specifically approved by the building official after a quali- 1811. and shall be identified. moisture control measures are designed by persons qualified in quired to be preservative treated shall be pressure treated and bear accordance with the authority having jurisdiction. surface water infiltration. bronze. ard 18-1). en. joists. acid copper chromate (ACC). Design properties are provided in Table 18-I-A or by a qualified soils engineer who. Technical Report No. galvanized nails or staples and hot-dipped zinc-coated staples shall not be used.1 General. by approval of the building official. II shall have a minimum concentration of 3 percent in solution. such as GW.5 Polyethylene Sheeting. III. ment floors.4 Gravel. Soils are defined herein in accord- Framing anchors shall be of hot-dipped zinc-coated A-446 ance with the Unified Soil Classification System (see UBC Stand- Grade A sheet steel conforming to UBC Standard 22-1. micaceous or diatomaceous fine Sand shall be coarse. elastic silts) shall be well compacted to prevent and shall be free from organic. 18. chro- 1811. structural system. Organic soils. or have a certificate of inspection issued by. Other types of steel or metal fasteners shall be per. Some members in including the effects associated with the wood treating chemicals. which maintains continuing supervision. framing and sheathing in the provided the polyethylene sheeting is placed in accordance with ground or in direct contact with concrete shall be preservative Section 1812.6 Sealants. clayey or silty soils.) 2–51 . CHAP. The following sections present requirements under the conditions of temperature and moisture content at which to achieve dry and energy-efficient below-grade habitable space it will be applied and used. Where a significant portion of a bottom story wall is above cated in soils having good drainage. all exterior shall be coated after manufacture to their final form. Polyethylene sheeting shall fied soils engineer advises on the design of the entire soil- conform to requirements approved by the building official. GP. In addition. Fasteners in treatment of material originally treated with CCA and ACA wa- preservative-treated wood shall be approved silicon bronze or terborne preservatives and the concentration of FCAP or ACC copper.8 Soil Characteristics. shall be based on good engineering practice. such a wall may not require preservative treatment. Hot-dipped zinc-coated cept the upper top plate). The materials used to attach the polyethylene sheets to each other or to the plywood shall be capable of adhering SECTION 1812 — DRAINAGE AND MOISTURE to those materials to form a continuous seal. Part I. or copper napthenate. Fill. vironmental control. the cut sur- face shall be field treated with the following preservatives by re- SECTION 1811 — MATERIALS peated brushing.2 Plywood. CONTROL The material used for caulking joints in plywood sheathing shall be capable of adhering to the wood to provide a moisture seal 1812. the portion of wall to be considered as foundation wall mitted only if adequate comparative tests for corrosion resistance. stainless steel or hot-dipped zinc-coated steel. Where FDN lumber is cut or drilled after treatment.

except in GW-. coarse sand or crushed stone. from the granular backfill outside the footing to the porous layer face water. GP-.6 Alternate Drainage System. Polyethylene sheeting of 6-mil Design loads shall not be less than those specified in Chapter 16. mm) per foot for a distance of 6 feet (1829 mm) or more.CHAP. terior wall sheathing and does not extend down to the bottom plate. The wood strip shall extend at least 2 inches (51 mm) for framing lumber shall be based on use under dry conditions (19 above and 5 inches (127 mm) below finish grade level to protect percent maximum moisture content). Provi. All parts of the wood foundation system shall or mechanical drainage to remove any accumulated water. drainage across the concrete footing shall be provided by transverse pipes or drain tiles embedded in 1812. If a continuous concrete footing. plus the lateral pres- ment floor system shall be constructed on the sheeting. Lateral pressure of the soil on the wall shall pound. SW-. stucco or other cov. crushed the concrete every 6 linear feet (1829 mm) around the foundation.7 shall be placed over a 4-inch-thick (102 mm) layer of gravel. asbestos-cement board. a sump shall be end of the insulation to prevent convection currents. SW-. A treated lumber or plywood strip shall be at. 1813. 18. with adjacent strips lapped to provide for water seepage while footings shall not exceed the allowable soil bearing values from preventing excessive infiltration of fine soils.1 General. foundation walls shall be sealed full length with caulking com. vere distribution. concentration or combination of design loads In basement construction. Joints in the polyethylene sheeting shall be lapped 6 in.4 Sheeting and Caulking. SP-. tions. sand or crushed stone under the footing plate shall footing rather than a composite wood and gravel footing is used be compacted to provide an allowable bearing capacity of 3.5 Perimeter Drainage Control.4 Footing Design. The treated wood foundation systems are well drained and acceptable to the authority having incorporate a composite footing consisting of a wood footing plate jurisdiction. panels are fastened to the framing.153 mm) polyethylene sheeting shall be SECTION 1814 — STRUCTURAL DESIGN applied over the below-grade portion of exterior basement walls prior to backfilling.6. Footing plate width shall be determined by allowable bearing pressure between the footing plate and the granular part of the 1812. Allowable loads for stainless steel Type 304 or 316. Six-mil-thick (0. Sheeting should forces.and SM-type soils.2 Area Drainage.4 1812. under the slab. The joint between the strip and the wall conditions. shall extend at least 24 inches (610 mm) below the bottom of the basement floor slab and shall be capable of positive gravity 1813. provided to drain the porous layer unless the foundation is in- stalled in GW-. GM. 1814. Allowable loads for 1812. joints between plywood panels in the deemed proper to act on the structure simultaneously. ering appropriate to the architectural treatment may be used in 1814. Where insulation is applied between studs in basement construction in MH and CH type soils. The sump shall be at least 24-inch (610 mm) diameter or 20-inch (508 mm) SECTION 1813 — DESIGN LOADS square. Allowable loads for place of the wood strip. Where sure from soil. 1814.2 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1814.2 Allowable Stresses. from dead loads and roof and floor live loads. stone or sand shall be placed to a minimum thickness of 4 inches (102 mm) under basement floor slabs and all wall footings. Gravel. be designed and constructed to provide safe support for all anticipated loads within the stress limits specified by this code. Structural design of wood foundations shall be type soils. GP-.and SM-type soils. Where applicable. blocking shall be installed between the studs at the lower Where there is basement space below grade. the granular fill need not exceed a height of 1 foot and a layer of gravel. SW-. GM. A Design loads shall include downward forces acting on the wall concrete slab shall be poured over the sheeting or a wood base. Allowable unit stresses for lumber tached to the wall to cover the top edge of the polyethylene and plywood shall be as provided in Section 2304.000 2–52 . the foundation also shall be de- wood floors are used. or other sites that 1814. The top of this granular fill outside ing plate distributes the axial design load from the framed wall to basement foundation walls and footings shall be covered with the gravel layer which in turn distributes it to the supporting soil.153 mm) thickness shall be applied over the porous layer. (0. brick. polyethylene sheeting shall be bonded with a sealant to the ply- wood sheeting. The foundation system shall be designed for the most se- not extend beneath the wood footing plate. Design stresses for plywood sheathing shall be based shall be caulked full length prior to fastening the strip to the wall. sand or crushed stone felt. on use under damp (moisture content 16 percent or more) condi- Alternatively. SP-. A porous layer of gravel. Any unbacked panel joints shall be caulked at the time the be considered in accordance with Section 1611.and SM. The top edge of the design practices as set forth in Chapter 23.2 Soil Loads. 1812. but shall not overlap Section 2318. GM. earthquake and other static or dynamic over wood sleepers supporting the floor joists. For 1812. Perforated sheeting Table 18-I-A except as permitted by Section 1805. SP-. except that stresses for foot- the polyethylene from exposure to light and from mechanical ing plates and crawl space framing shall be based on use under wet damage at or near grade.3 Allowable Loads on Fastenings. except that for basements located in GW-.7 Insulation. same material used for footings. The polyethylene sheeting shall extend steel nails and framing anchors shall be in accordance with down to the bottom of the wood footing plate. the concrete away from the structure with a gradient of at least 1/2 inch (12. GP-. the porous layer exterior basement walls but the insulation is not flush with the ex- under footings and slab shall be at least 6 inches (152 mm) thick. silicon bronze or copper staples or side of a basement excavation and the exterior of a basement wall other fasteners shall be in accordance with good engineering shall be backfilled for half the height of the excavation with the practice. The space between the stainless steel Type 304 or 316. or other filter membrane may also be used to control infiltration of fines. strips of 6-mil-thick (0. The wood foot- (305 mm) above the footing. or extend into the gravel footing.1 General. crushed stone or sand that is arranged to allow drainage of water sions shall be made for drainage to prevent accumulation of sur.153 mm) polyethylene sheeting or Type 30 Soil-bearing pressure under the gravel. Alternately. the polyethylene sheeting shall be placed signed to resist wind. in accordance with established structural engineering and wood ches (152 mm) and bonded with a sealant. II 1812. Adjacent ground surface shall be sloped with the wood foundation in basement construction. silicon bronze or copper nails shall be developed on a comparable basis to loads allowed for common steel nails. Design stresses sheeting. DIV.3 Subgrade Drainage.

treated into the floor system. Connections at the Thickness and width of the granular footing shall be determined top of the foundation wall shall be designed to transfer lateral soil by allowable bearing pressure between the gravel.7 Basement Floor Design. but earthquake and wind forces shall not be granular fill. joists. When the footing plate is wider than the bottom wall plate. assuming the downward load from basement wall shall be transferred to the basement floor through the wood footing plate is distributed outward through the gravel. ial loading resulting from lateral soil pressure and downward live Sleepers. the foundation wall or other equiva. Where a bottom wall plate of lent means. maximum depth of frost penetration unless the gravel. joists are parallel to the wall. 2–53 .8 Uplift or Overturning. Lateral load at the bottom of sand or crushed stone footing at an angle of 30 degrees from verti. when a deep granular footing is used to reach the frost line. sand Foundation walls subject to racking loads due to earthquake. Concrete slab basement floors gravel. sand or tion requirements of this code. Framing at openings in wall and floor systems and at other code. sand or crushed stone. resistance to uplift or restraint against buckling 1814.3) by a trench filled with 1814. cal at each edge of the footing plate. sand or crushed load into the floor assembly. sand or crushed stone footing extends to the maximum depth of frost 1814. to the footing or to the applicable floor system. SP-. or crushed stone footing shall have a width not less than twice the wind or differential soil pressure forces shall be designed with width and a thickness not less than three-quarters the width of the adequate shear strength to resist the most severe racking load or wood footing plate and shall be confined laterally by backfill. blocking and plywood subflooring used in and dead loads on the foundation wall. Use of plywood strips to reinforce the tem shall be adequate to transfer all vertical and horizontal forces lumber footing plate is acceptable. or by an acceptable pipe connection.5 for basement construction to prevent excessive Unless special provision is made to resist sliding caused by un- infiltration of fine soils. Lateral load at the bottom of a stone and the supporting soil. Interior load-bearing penetration and is either connected to positive mechanical or grav. wood and gravel.000 psf (96 kPa) shall be assumed. the bottom of the wall shall be considered an unsupported panel edge when The bottom of the wood footing plate shall not be above the determining shear resistance of the wall. fastenings and connections in the wood foundation sys- stress for the footing plate. the top of the gravel. balanced lateral soil loads. Joints in footing plate and upper top plate shall be staggered at least one stud space from 1814. row face of studs in the foundation wall or directly against a band joist that bears on the studs. GP-. forces and bending moments resulting from lateral soil pressures at the base of the exterior foundation walls and floor and live and Where the bottom of the wood footing plate of a crawl space dead loads. II 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1814.8 psf (144 kPa) when required by the design. Design of the structure for uplift joints in the adjacent plate to provide continuity between wall pan.4 1814. crushed stone outside the wall shall be covered as required in Sec- tion 1812. sufficient blocking shall be provided between joists to transfer lateral forces from the base of the wall Footings under posts or piers may be of treated wood. for bearing of the studs on the plates. 18. applicable dead and live loads in accordance with standard SW-. CHAP.5 Foundation Wall Design. or overturning shall be in accordance with the requirements of this els. GM. DIV. at or below the frost line. precast concrete or other approved material. Top and bottom wall plates shall be designed 1811. a crawl space wall shall be resisted by the soil inside the footing. assumed to act simultaneously.7. wood basement floors shall be limited to applications where the differential depth of fill on opposing ex- Where a wood footing plate is close to finished grade. combination of loads. the gravel. such as terior foundation walls is 2 feet (610 mm) or less. Floor framing shall be designed to meet joist deflec- wall is not below the frost line. 1-inch (25 mm) nominal thickness has been used. Where shall be in accordance with Sections 1806 and 2306. Foundation wall studs shall shall be provided by interior-bearing walls or appropriately be designed for stresses due to combined bending moment and ax.and SM-type soils where the permanent water engineering practice and the requirements of this code. undisturbed soil. table is below the frost line. the granular footing shall be protected against surface erosion or Joists in wood basement floors shall bear tightly against the nar- mechanical disturbance. shall be designed in accordance with requirements of this code but shall be considered to be drained to the level of the bottom of the shall not be less than 31/2 inches (89 mm) in thickness. bearing of the studs against the floor.6 Interior Load-bearing Walls. the footing plate shall not exceed one third the allowable unit shear Joints. or is installed in GW-. whichever is Wood basement floors shall be designed to withstand axial higher. otherwise an allowable points of concentrated loads shall be designed with adequate ca- bearing capacity of 2. sump or the bottom of the connecting trench or pipe. Where required. pacity for the concentrated loads. the Plywood wall sheathing shall be designed for the shear and tension stress perpendicular to grain induced in the bottom face of bending moment between studs due to soil pressures. walls in basements or crawl spaces shall be designed to carry the ity drainage. Additionally. designed stub walls anchored in the supporting soil below. and for shear stresses due to basement floors shall meet the treatment requirements of Section lateral soil pressure. Plywood subfloor shall be continuous Posts and piers and their footings in basements or crawl spaces overlapped joists or over butt joints between in-line joists. A granular footing connected to a pos- itively drained sump (see Section 1812.

2–54 . and with or 2. by the area of the foundation. pounds per square foot (287. L = total length of slab in prime direction. Those conditions where concentrated loads are of such magnitude FOUNDATIONS [BASED ON DESIGN OF SLAB-ON. 3. III 1815 1814. 1815. assumption that the zone of seasonal moisture changes under the V = design shear force (total). Other factors that are capable of modifying the plasticity index k s = length modification factor-short direction. 18-III-2. Slabs of irregular shape shall be l c = cantilever length as soil function. See Figure 18-III-7. The foundation shall be designed for a uni- formly distributed load which shall be determined by dividing the The calculations shall be performed for both the long and short actual dead and live loads for which the superstructure is de. signed. See Figure weighted plasticity index × Cs × Co 18-III-5. As = area of steel reinforcing (square inch per foot) (mm2 per the plasticity index shall be modified by the factor Co determined m) in slab. The plasticity index shall be determined for the upper 15 feet in accordance with Division I. See Figure 18-III-8.7 Division III—DESIGN STANDARD FOR DESIGN OF SLAB-ON-GROUND FOUNDATIONS TO RESIST THE EFFECTS OF EXPANSIVE SOILS AND COMPRESSIBLE SOILS SECTION 1815 — DESIGN OF SLAB-ON-GROUND 2. For one-story metal and wood stud buildings.4. spacing. 1815. w L (L c) 4 D 4 Ec Ic 1815. The following formulas shall be used to calculate the moment.6 kN/m2) may be assumed shall be placed in both directions at the specified amounts and in lieu of calculating the effects of specific dead and live loads.4 Design Procedure. 1981)] effective plasticity index to be used in the design shall be determined in accordance with the following procedures: 1815.4 kPa). perimeter of the slab is such that the beams resist loads as a canti- w = weight per square foot (N/m2) of building and slab. and the maximum spacing of reinforcing bars EXCEPTIONS: 1. DIV.5 Beam Spacing and Location.000 pounds per square foot (287. inch (mm). shear and deflections. See Figure such as fineness of soil particles and the moisture condition at the 18-III-5. CHAP. 1815. 1-c = soil/climatic rating factor. Effective plasticity index = k l = length modification factor-long direction. See Figure 18-III-3. slab perimeter. divided into rectangles (which may overlap) so that the resulting overall boundary of the rectangles is coincident with that of the Ml = design moment in long direction. determined in accordance with Figure 18-III-1. ∆ = deflection of slab. with or without masonry veneer. See Figure 18-III-1. and inte- L c = design cantilever length (l c k)—See Figures 18-III-5 and rior beams shall be placed at spacings not to exceed that deter- 18-III-6.000 Cs = soil slope coefficient. INC.7 Slab Reinforcing. the plasticity index may be modified by the factor Co determined in accordance with Figure Cw = climatic rating. and when the design floor live load shall be 18 inches (457 mm). The minimum slab thickness shall be 4 inches (102 mm). the plasticity index shall be without masonry veneer.8 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1815. beams shall be provided around the perimeter of the slab. This section covers a procedure for the design of slab-on-ground foundations to resist the effects of expansive soils 1. The amount of reinforcing shall be is 50 pounds per square foot (2.3 Foundation Investigation. GROUND FOUNDATIONS OF THE WIRE 1815. 18. Ec = creep modulus of elasticity of concrete. Where the natural ground slopes. 18. Slab reinforcing uted load of 200 pounds per square foot (9. w L (L c) 2 M 2 1815. A foundation investigation of the site shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of V wLL c Section 1804. 18-III-3.2 Symbols and Notations. PI = plasticity index. directions. Where the unconfined compressive strength of the founda- tion materials exceeds 6.1 Loads. Where the unconfined com- Co = overconsolidation coefficient. III increased by the factor Cs determined in accordance with Figure 1815.4 kN/m2) or less.1 Scope.2 Determining the effective plasticity index. pressive strength of the foundation materials is less than 6. a uniformly distrib. time of construction shall be considered. See Figure 18-III-4. walls constructed of masonry. Ms = design moment in short direction. in accordance with Figure 18-III-2. mined from Figure 18-III-7. See Figure 18-III-10.CHAP.4 kPa).4. and are based on the S = maximum spacing of beams. (AUGUST. The REINFORCEMENT INSTITUTE. See Figure 18-III-2. Use of this section shall be limited (4572 mm) of the soil layers and where the plasticity index varies to buildings three stories or less in height in which gravity loads between layers shall be weighted in accordance with the proce- are transmitted to the foundation primarily by means of bearing dures outlined in Figure 18-III-9. plus the dead and live loads contributed by the foundation. wood or steel studs. The value of the effective plasticity index is that determined fy = yield strength of reinforcing. DIV. from the following equation: I c = cracked moment of inertia of cross section. lever of length L c : qu = unconfined compressive strength of soil. Reinforced concrete Li = total length of slab (width) perpendicular to L. that they must be considered are not covered by this section. 1815. Deflection shall not exceed Lc /480.6 Beam Design.

SPECIFICATION OF THE POSTTENSIONING fpi = allowable tendon stress immediately after stressing. g = moment of inertia factor. ft. changed for Ab = bearing area beneath a tendon anchor. psi frame into the exterior wall. psi (MPa). in. M L = maximum applied service load moment in the long Bw = assumed slab width (used in Section 1816. fbp = allowable bearing stress under tendon anchorages. that is geometrically similar to and concentric with the loaded area. III 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1816 1816. (MPa). the entire length of the perimeter stiffening beams repre- tance between the CGS and the CGC).2 SECTION 1816 — DESIGN OF POSTTENSIONED fp = minimum average residual prestress compressive stress. (kN·m/m).2 (mm2). Es = modulus of elasticity of the soil. and with or ft = allowable concrete flexural tension stress. (mm). This section covers a procedure for the design of fpj = allowable tendon stress due to tendon jacking force. in.2 List of Symbols and Notations. creep and shrinkage of concrete. 1816. in. psi (MPa)./ft. ft. Pi = prestress force immediately after stressing and anchor- f = applied flexural concrete stress (tension or compres. ft. Aib = maximum area of the portion of the supporting surface I = gross concrete moment of inertia. deflection (see Table 18-III-GG). without masonry veneer. qu = unconfined compressive strength of the soil. dicular to W. senting the weight of the exterior building material and that portion of the superstructure dead and live loads that Ec = long-term or creep modulus of elasticity of concrete. (mm). wood or steel studs. 1816.5. psi (MPa). (mm3).2 (mm2). psi (MPa). also abbreviation for “kips” Abm = total area of beam concrete. B = constant used in Formula (16-13-1). ' CEAC= cation exchange activity. psi (MPa).-kips/ft. in accordance with Division I. Use of this section shall be limited fpu = specified maximum tendon tensile stress. ft.5. P = a uniform unfactored service line load (P) acting along e = eccentricity of posttensioning force (perpendicular dis. EI = expansion index (see Table 18-I-B and UBC Standard 18-2). k = depth-to-neutral axis ratio. (mm). psi (MPa). in. use S = 0. Cp = coefficient in Formula (16-35) for slab stress due to partition load—function of ks . lbs. kips (kN). in. h = total depth of stiffening beam. LL = long length of the design rectangle. walls constructed of masonry. between the largest and smallest spacing does not dons. in.2 (mm2). in. CHAP. (m). in.85x (largest spacing). and steel relax- em = edge moisture variation distance. flexural tension stress spacing exceeds 1. If beam spacings f ic = 28-day concrete compressive strength. (mm). which produces first cracking. fc = allowable concrete compressive stress.2 (mm2). 2–55 . section) from either center lift or edge lift swelling con- C = constant used in Formula (16-13-1). due to subgrade friction). LS = short length of the design rectangle. Pe = effective prestress force after losses due to elastic short- ening.2 (mm2). psi qallow = allowable soil-bearing pressure. P does not include any por- (MPa).1 Scope. b = width of an individual stiffening beam.12). ation. psi (MPa). Pr = resultant prestress force after all losses (including those fB = section modulus factor for bottom fiber. consistency with ACI-318). kips (kN). Mmax = maximum moment in slab under load-bearing partition. psi slab-on-ground foundations to resist the effects of expansive soils (MPa). (N). tion of the foundation concrete.3 fe = effective prestress force. psi (MPa). n = number of stiffening beams in a cross section of a C∆ = coefficient used to establish allowable differential width W.4 (mm4). direction (causing bending stresses on the long cross CGS = center of gravity of prestressing force. MS = maximum applied service load moment in the short CGC = geometric centroid of gross concrete section. lbs. psf (N/m2). L = total slab length (or total length of design rectangle) in the direction being considered (short or long). kips (kN). in. SLABS ON GROUND (BASED ON DESIGN psi (MPa). Ao = coefficient in Formula (16-13-1). perpen- Aps = area of prestressing steel in. ks = soil subgrade modulus.-kips/ft. in. (m). c = distance between CGC and extreme cross-section fibers. A = area of gross concrete cross section. (m). (kN·m/m).-kips/ft. ing tendons. (kN). (mm). If the ratio between the largest and smallest fcr = concrete modulus of rupture. to buildings three stories or less in height in which gravity loads are transmitted to the foundation primarily by means of bearing fT = section modulus factor for top fiber. DIV. Asl = total area of slab concrete. section) from either center lift or edge lift swelling con- dition. Sb = section modulus with respect to bottom fiber. psf (N/m2). ft. in.2 (mm2). ft. H = thickness of a uniform thickness foundation. (N/m). (m). AC = activity ratio of clay.4. 18. psi INSTITUTE) (MPa). (kN·m/m). sion). direction (causing bending stresses on the short cross (mm). in. in. measured from top sur- face of slab to bottom of beam (formerly d. ft. dition. ft. PI = plasticity index. en = base of natural (Naperian) logarithms. vary. pci (N/mm3). exceed 1. a S = interior stiffening beam spacing. the average spacing may be used if the ratio f ici = concrete compressive strength at time of stressing ten.

1. yielding the maximum allowable differential deflection. the assumed sections and compare the applied shear stress with the allowable shear stress (Section 1816. Calculate the applied service moment the section will be 2. ∆o = expected service load differential deflection of slab 1. For SI: 1 inch = 25. 8. (mm). ft. lbs. in. in inches (millimeters).1 SG = prestress loss due to subgrade friction. Repeat Steps 4 through 8 for the opposite swelling condition. kips (kN). Calculate stresses due to any heavy concentrated loads on the slab and provide special load transfer details when necessary Wslab = foundation weight.2 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1816. with the pertinent sections shown in parentheses: 1816. The pounds per square inch (MPa). thickness foundation. Soils. (without deflection caused by prestressing).1 Assume beam depth and spacing. The soils and structural proper- α = slope of tangent to tendon.11). 9. in feet (meters) 1. cluding correction for prestressing.4. in. The design procedure for posttensioned foundations con- 1816. 1816. L or 6β.35 MPa) at the center of each design rectangle in both directions. ties needed for design are as follows: β = relative stiffness length. Determine the expected differential deflections and compare ST = section modulus with respect to top fiber. f ic .3 Trial section assumptions.1 General. with the allowable differential deflections (Section 1816. direction being considered (short or long). 12(L or 6b) 12(L or 6b) 5. Calculate the applied service shear force and shear stress in (mm).12). vc = allowable concrete shear stress. in- per square foot (newtons per square meter). use β = 8 feet (2. 6. To design a uniform thickness foundation. whichever is smaller. VS = maximum service load shear force in the short direction from either center lift or edge lift swelling condition. kips/ft. a first approximation. (kN/m). stiffening beams (ribbed foundations) or uniform thickness 2.2 Edge moisture variation distance. grade and strength of the prestressing steel. Determine the maximum distance over which the allowable 3. ft.4 Beam depth. P. An initial esti- 1. DIV. Check the effect of slab-subgrade friction to ensure a resid- kips/ft.4. in.4. Assemble all the known design data (Section 1816.2 Perimeter loading. changes resulting from the second design swelling condition addressed in Step 9. 11. 2. Assume a trial section for a ribbed foundation in both the long differential deflection will occur.3 Foundation Investigation.9 Prestress losses in kips per inch (kN per mm).5 Compressive strength of the concrete.44 m). larger of VS or VL . in feet (meters) (both directions). if W = foundation width (or width of design rectangle) in the necessary (Section 1816.4. 2–56 .6). 2. 18.9).2). in. approximate distance from 1. Divide an irregular foundation plan into overlapping rectan. if desired (Section 1816. 1.10). fully conformant ribbed foundation is then converted to an equiv. (m).6 Allowable flexural tensile stress in the concrete. (kN/m).4 mm. (kg). 2. ∆p = deflection caused by prestressing.4. structed over expansive clays should include the following steps.4. perpendicu- lar to L.4. fc . em .1 Center lift (assume C∆ = 360): edge lift condition (Section 1816.3 (mm3). alent uniform thickness foundation. (mm). 4.8 Type.1 Slab length. qallow. ym .4. psi (MPa).3. in pounds ∆ = expected service load differential deflection of slab. ' ters). in foundations. in. (kN/m). S. 12.4 Slab-subgrade friction coefficient. CHAP. µ. 2. in. ym = maximum differential soil movement or swell. 2. of the site shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of 2.4. t = slab thickness in a ribbed (stiffened) foundation. psi (MPa).4.4 and 1816.2 Required design data. (mm) (∆ = ∆o ∆p ). A foundation investigation meter). in. V = controlling service load shear force. in feet (meters) Section 1804. Convert the ribbed foundation to an equivalent uniform v = service load shear stress. (m). in pounds 1816. 1. designer must first design a ribbed foundation that satisfies all 2. edge of slab to point of maximum moment.4 Structural Design Procedure for Slabs on Expansive 2.4. ual compressive stress of 50 psi (0. (Section 1816. in requirements of the design procedure for ribbed foundations.3.1 Allowable soil-bearing pressure. 1816.7). Select the allowable differential deflection ∆allow : expected to experience in each direction for either the center lift or 2. Determine the flexural concrete stresses caused by the D allow   (16-1) CD 360 applied service moments and compare to the allowable flexural concrete stresses (Sections 1816. radians. As and short directions of the design rectangle (Section 1816. ' µ = coefficient of friction between slab and subgrade. Soils properties.7 Allowable compressive stress in the concrete. VL = maximum service load shear force in the long direction 10. if adjustments are necessary to compensate for any design kips/ft.4.7). L. the pounds per square inch (MPa). Structural data and materials properties.3 Average stiffening beam spacing. (mm). 7.4. 2. III 1816. in inches (millime- ∆allow = allowable differential deflection of slab.4. ft . (mm). (both directions). in pounds per foot (newtons per 1816. This procedure can be used for slabs with per square inch (MPa).3 Differential soil movement. mate of the depth of the stiffening beam can be obtained from solv- ing either Formula (16-21) or Formula (16-22) for the beam depth 2. h. Adjust posttensioning force. Check the design for the first swelling condition to ascertain from either center lift or edge lift swelling condition.4.3). The pro- gles and design each rectangular section separately (Figure cedure is as follows: 18-III-11).

6f Ȁ c Ǹ AȀ b Ab v f Ȁc (16-7) M L + A o ƪ B(e m) 1.·kips/ft.1 1816. DIV.2f p 12(L or 6b) 12(L or 6b) D allow + + (16-2) (16-9) CD 720 For SI: 1 inch = 25.74(y m) 0.6 Slab-subgrade friction. the analysis 2000 shall be based on the smallest beam depth actually used.74(y m) 0.76 tion: h + (16-4-2) 15.4 Allowable stresses. The largest amount of prestress loss due to slab-subgrade fric- tia.9D allow(P) 0.176 0. is the difference between the effective prestress force and the losses due to subgrade fric- ǒ(L) Ǔ 1.4 mm.1 Allowable stress due to tendon jacking force: 3.824 (y mL) 0. 5.7 Ǹf Ȁ c ) 0.01 P r + P e * SG (16-12-1) For SI: 1 inch = 25.14 Ǹf Ȁ c ) 0.2 Allowable stress immediately after prestress trans- (y mL) 0. C∆ may be selected from Table 18-III-GG. which 5.2 v 1. In the where SG can be conservatively taken as: analysis procedure.5 Prestress losses.8f pu v 0.4 mm.35 MPa) after allowance for slab-subgrade fric- f t + 6 Ǹf Ȁ c (16-5) tion. however.45f Ȁ c (16-6) (16-13-1) and (16-15)] shall be used for moments in both direc- tions. section modulus. 3.88(e m) 0. Select the larger h from Formula (16-3-2) or (16-4-2).45 kN.3.1 Long direction: f bp + 0. 1. III 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1816. The moment of iner.4. and steel 380D allow relaxation shall be calculated in accordance with Section 1918. For SI: 1 pound = 4. which occurs at approximately one β-length with normal structural engineering procedures. inward from the edge of the slab. The following allowable stresses are recommended: The maximum spacing of tendons shall not exceed that which 1.4. = 4. S. creep and shrinkage of the concrete. Allowable concrete shear stress: v c + 1.8 f Ȁ ci Ǹ AȀ b Ab * 0.6.238 ) C ƫ (16-13-1) 3. f bp + 0.76 ing stressing as well as the frictional resistance to dimensional h 0. 3. Allowable stresses in prestressing steel.2f p Alternatively. If different beam depths are selected for W slab SG + m (16-12-2) the actual structure (such as a deeper edge beam).4. Assume a beam spacing.2 Edge lift (from Formula 16-21): force in posttensioned slabs-on-ground is further reduced by the frictional resistance to movement of the slab on the subgrade dur- (L) 0.45 kN.00 for slabs cast directly on a sand base.45 kN·m/m. The maximum For SI: f t + 0. the value of the coefficient of friction µ should be taken as 1816.193ƫ 727 (16-13-2) 2–57 .1 Center lift (from Formula 16-20): 5. and cross-sectional area of the slabs and tion occurs in the center regions of the slab.296 h 1.688(P) 0.1.35(S) 0.4. For normal construction prac- tices. 1816. presents sample C∆ values for various types of superstructures. is at the location of the lated for the trial beam depth determined above in accordance maximum moment.214 + (16-3-1) fer: 380D allow f pi + 0.25f Ȁ ci (16-8) WHERE: A o + 1 ƪ(L) 0. P r . 1816.9D allow(P) 0. Loss of prestress due to friction.205(S) 1.85 + (16-4-1) changes due to concrete shrinkage. CHAP.4. the beam depth h must be the same for all beams in both directions.7f pu (16-11) ǒ Ǔ 0. For SI: v c + 0.296 1816.4. elas- h + (16-3-2) tic shortening.1 At service load: 1. For design rectangles with a ratio of 2. For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. Allowable concrete flexural compressive stress: long side to short side less than 1. the formulas for ML [Formulas f c + 0.534(y m) 0. Allowable concrete bearing stress at anchorages. The resultant prestress force. and eccentricity of the prestressing force shall be calcu.5 Ǹf Ȁ c moment will vary. 0. requirement for prestress force.2 Edge lift (assume C∆ = 720): 4. Allowable concrete flexural tensile stress: would produce a minimum average effective prestress compres- sion of 50 psi (0.523(e m) 1.01 tions.2 Determine section properties.059(P) 0.7 2. The effective prestressing 3. Center lift moment.75 for slabs on polyethylene and 1.013(S) 0.7 Maximum applied service moments.523(e m) 1.3. creep and temperature varia- 15. The greatest structural beams.88(e m) 0. For SI: 1 pound = 4.94f py (16-10) 3.306(h) 0. 18.4. h: f pj + 0. depending on the swelling mode and the slab direction being designed.2 At transfer: For SI: 1 ft.35(S) 0.205(S) 1.059(P) 0. 1816. and solve for beam depth.

1: deflection may not occur over the entire length of the slab. in the appropriate direction (short or long).9 Differential deflections.4 mm.9(h) 0. ∆p (in inches) taken as f cr + 7. the prestressing force at the slab edge is applied at any point other Some cracking from restraint to slab shortening is inevitable in than the CGC.24 m). For SI: 1 ft. Additional slab deflection is produced by prestressing if with this method will theoretically have no flexural cracking.9. 12(L or 6b) 2.1: or early life concrete modulus of elasticity.10(he m) 0.0 (16-13-4) s 3 C + ƪ 8 * P * 613 ƫƪ 4 * ym ƫ w 0 (16-13-5) For SI: b + 1 1000 ǸEE I 4 c s 255 3 If the creep modulus of elasticity of the concrete Ec is not 1. C + 0 (16-13-3) ǒym * 1 Ǔ b+ 1 12 ǸEE I 4 c (16-18) em u 5 B + v 1.S Pe f + " " r (16-17) (y mL) 0.5 and for: 1816.9. both 2.45 kN·m/m.45 kN·m/m. P eeb 2 Dp + (16-22) tensioned concrete members. For SI: 1 inch = 25.04 1.01 limits concrete flexural tensile stresses to 6 Ǹf Ȁ c (For SI: For SI: 1 inch = 25. Thus. L or 6β. 2. ∆o (in inches) (mm): moments shall be calculated with the following formula: 1.9. Edge lift: sion and fc in compression.214 For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 0.2(L) 0.2 Differential deflection distance.4 mm. condition).78(y m) 0.4.5 Ǹf Ȁ c). Allowable and expected dif.·kips/ft. 1816. ∆allow (in inches) (S) 0.66 (mm).·kips/ft.9.000 psi (6.4. MS + ML 1816.88(e m) 0.45 kN·m/m.625 Ǹf Ȁ c ).4.7 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1816.CHAP.0069 MPa.85(P) 0. as it is in elevated posttensioned approximated with reasonable accuracy by assuming it is pro- concrete members.4 Expected differential deflection without prestress- Concrete flexural stresses produced by the applied service ing. ferential deflections may be calculated from the formulas pre. β may be calculated as fol- lows: 0 v em v 5 B + 1. For SI: 1 inch = 25.9.5 Ǹf Ȁ c (For SI: f cr + 0.9. the limitation of flexural tensile duced by a concentrated moment of Pe e applied at the end of a can- stresses to a value less than the modulus of rupture justifies the use tilever with a span length of β.3 Allowable differential deflection.75 ƫM 1000(L or 6b) ) e m For SI: D allow + M S + h 0. material and the swelling condition (center or edge lift).1 Relative stiffness length. The applied concrete flexural stresses f shall not exceed ft in ten.1: ƪ1957. ML + (16-15) 7. Sample For LL /LS < 1. If the modulus of elas- ticity of the clay soil Es is not known.4. = 4. known.2 Short direction.523(e m) 1.35(S) 0. If the tendon CGS is higher than the concrete CGC (a typical sented in the following sections. Nevertheless. This design method Do + (16-21) 15. The deflection caused by prestressing can be posttensioned slabs on ground. = 4. D allow + (16-19) CD For LL /LS w 1. 0.059(P) 0.4. 1816. III 1816. Center lift: P re M L. ential deflection is the smaller of the two distances. slabs designed (mm).0065 (P) 0.·kips/ft.b S t. Center lift or edge lift: For SI: 1 ft.76 1816.296 A S t.2 Short direction.1: values of C∆ for both swelling conditions and various superstruc- ture materials are shown in Table 18-III-GG.4.74(y m) 0.5 Deflection caused by prestressing. I in MS + ƪ58 60) e ƫ M m L (16-14) Formula (16-18) is the gross moment of inertia for the entire slab cross section of width W. DIV. The deflection is: of the gross concrete cross section for calculating all section prop- erties.1 Long direction: expressed in feet (meters). particu- MS + ML larly if the slab is longer than approximately 50 feet (15. = 4. This is consistent with standard practices in elevated post. use 1. Edge lift moment. Since the modulus of rupture of concrete is commonly 1816. the effective distance for determining the allowable differ- 2. ∆p increases the edge lift deflection and decreases the 2–58 .89 MPa).8 Cracked section considerations.4. it can be closely approximated by using half of the normal For LL /LS w 1.4 mm.b Do + (16-20) 380(h) 1. (L) 0.4. 2E cI 1816.4.205(S) 1. 18. The differential For LL /LS < 1.35 L (16-16) CD The coefficient C∆ is a function of the type of superstructure For SI: 1 ft.

4(P) 0.000 psi (10 341 MPa) and ks = 4 pci (0.3 Compare v to vc . 500.9.4.10 Shear.93ƫ (16-23) b + v S t. For SI: 1 ft.6 Compare expected to allowable differential deflec- tion.0069 MPa.4. To Stiff. 1.4.71(h) 0.12 Calculation of stress in slabs due to load-bearing partitions. III 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1816.25 V L + 1 ƪ(L) 0. Increasing the beam width. or a stiffening beam should be placed directly beneath I + (16-28) 12 the concentrated line load.43(P) 0.16(y m) 0.25 2. resisting shear force in a ribbed slab: The formula for applied tensile stress ft is: 1.4) (mm4) to a uniform thickness foundation of width. Once the ribbed Lightly compacted. The following table 2. shear reinforce- ment in accordance with ACI 318-95 shall be provided. 1816. lb. CHAP.97ƫ (16-24) 1350 I + B wt 3 + t 3 For SI: 1 kips/ft. W (ft.74 convert a ribbed slab of width.11 Uniform thickness conversion. Possible For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 0. Compacted.0069 MPa. WHERE: 1.04(e m) 0. select 400 0.9.4. use the following formula: If the allowable tensile stress is exceeded by the results of the above analysis. = 4.4. it may be converted to an equiva. (16-33) and (16-35). ƫ 0.44(y m) 0.54(y m) 0. Deflection caused by prestressing is nor.2 Long direction shear: ƪk4EB Iƫ 0. The formula for the allowable tensile stress in a slab 1816. Only the beams are considered in calculating the cross-sectional area For SI: 1 ft. Solve for H: ǸWI mally small and can justifiably be ignored in the design of most posttensioned slabs on ground. W (ft. = 14. a thicker slab section should be used under the (12W)H 3 loaded area. beneath a bearing partition may be derived from beam-on-elastic foundation theory. Increasing the number of beams (decrease the beam spacing).b c (16-31) 1940 s w For SI: 1 kips/ft. Edge lift (for both directions): 000)t 3 b + + 18. las (16-32).45 kN·m/m. 1. adjusted for the effect of prestressing. Bw 12B w 12 ƪ4(1.25 (16-35) A 2t 2 A t 1816.4. ks . shear and differ.59 kN/m.07(h) 0. = 4.4. 2–59 . H (ft.4.1 Short direction shear: with Ec = 1.0069 MPa. if desired.35 foundation has been designed to satisfy moment.·kips/ft.10.4. The value of Cp depends on the assumed value of the subgrade modulus ks . 18. If v exceeds vc .001 N/mm3): V s + 1 ƪ(L) 0.3 TYPE OF SUBGRADE (0./in. Ribbed foundations: Pr M maxc ft +* (16-34) A I v + VW (16-26) nhb For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 0.16(e m) 0. exceeds that determined from Formula (16-19) for the appropriate swelling condition.19(S) 0.75 M max + * 18.·kips/ft.09(S) 0. illustrates the variation in Cp for different values of ks : 3.) (m) and depth. v.75 (16-32) (L) 0. = 4.45 kN·m/m. Uniform thickness foundations: I B wt 3 2 c + 12 t ǒǓ + B wt 2 6 2 + 12t + 2t 2 6 v + V (16-27) 12H the applied tensile stress is: For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 0. Expected values of load P in such a beam is: service shear forces in kips per foot (kN per meter) of width of slab Pb and stresses in kips per square inch (kN per square millimeter) M max + – (16-30) shall be calculated from the following formulas: 4 For SI: 1 ft. P r 4. DIV. the assumed section must be stiffened.45(h) 0.8Pt + * 4. For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 0.00027 for N/mm3) Cp 1816.45 kN·m/m. If the expected differential deflection as calculated by either For SI: H + 3 12I Formula (16-20) or (16-21). Increasing the beam depth. and since: 2. alternatives to shear reinforcement include: For uniform thickness foundations substitute H for t in Formu- 1. 0. plastic compressible soil ential deflection requirements.12 center lift deflection.015 therefore: For SI: 1 kips/ft.59 kN/m. = 14.75 P P f+ * + r * C p 1.34 lent uniform thickness foundation with thickness H.) (m) and moment of inertia.67 4(12) V S or V L + (16-25) 3.0(S) 0.) (m).10. The maximum moment directly under a point 1816.500. compacted. = 14. granular or stabilized fill I (in.1 Applied service load shear.03(e m) 0.7Pt 0.5 1816.0069 MPa. high 4 2.7Pt 0.8t 0. Center lift.10.2 Applied service load shear stress.20(P) 0.59 kN/m.75 (16-33) 4 1816. low plastic soil 40 1. H + 3 (16-29) Ǹ1000W 1816.·kips/ft.

S. the magnitude of the equilibrium suc. expansive soils is presented in this appendix. and find the correspond- Procedures for determining or estimating the necessary items of ing soil differential movements./month (17. The values of swell presented soil information are as follows: in the tables were obtained from a computer program based on the 1.4 Calculate the Cation Exchange Activity. Soil Conservation Service. SECTION 1818 — APPENDIX B (SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING CATION 2. or to a high water table. but pref- [75 mm] sieve 0. moisture variation distance.S. this value shall not be assumed to be less than 0.002mm) erably 24 hours. The Cation Exchange Capacity of soil samples may be determined ure 18-III-15. Place 10 grams of clay soil in a beaker and 100 ml of neutral 3. Depth to constant soil suction can be estimated as the depth supplied by a registered geotechnical engineer. The geotechnical below which the ratio of water content to plastic limit is constant.6. 6. mated with reasonable accuracy from Figure 18-III-16 if it is not versity that may be used by geotechnical engineers (in conjunc.5 Enter Figure 18-III-15 with the Ac and CEAC. by comparative means in the standard spectrophotometer device. differential movements may be selected from rillonite). using suction. soil suction. Using values of edge moisture distance variation. and the maximum moisture velocity of clay. or Tables of moisture flow determined in steps 1 through 5 above. Add CEAC = (Percent passing U. an unweathered for these recommendations. Determine the percent of clay in the soil and the predominant Simplified Procedure for Determining Cation clay mineral. This procedure is 5. em . the amount of differential movement to be expected in a given expansive soil should be based on recommendations 4. by the U. type is determined by the intersection of the two entries. Normally. filter the fluid resulting from Step 4. velocity. the solution of MgCI2 must be diluted before it is Note that the same mineral type is obtained from Figure placed in the spectrophotometer in Step 10. Data obtained by this method should be comparable with data for similar soils that have 3. 3./month (12. EXCHANGE CAPACITY AND CATION EXCHANGE em .002mm) with 50 ml of NH4AC. propyl alcohol wash fluid should be added in increments of ap- ity for use in calculating Cation Exchange Activity is proximately 25 ml and the sample allowed to drain well between presented in Appendix B. Under suction.1 Determine the plastic limit (PL) and the plasticity index This method of determining the Cation Exchange Capacity is used (PI) of the soil. 1. per- tion. the clay may be conservatively classified as montmorillonite. A discussion two 150 ml washings of isopropyl alcohol. Constant soil suction can be esti- through the PTI-sponsored research project at Texas A & M Uni. inches/month. or 18-III-15.17 4. 18. Obtain an estimate of the edge moisture variation distance. The dilution will vary 18-III-15 for a significant range of values of Ac and from one piece of equipment to the next. 200 2. Filter the solution of Step 1 by washing through filter paper [75 mm] sieve 0. The calculations given at CEAC. Tables 18-III-A to 18-III-O for center lift and Tables 18-III-P to 18-III-DD for edge lift. No. Transfer the soil and filter paper to a 800-ml flask. The soil 5. The iso- of procedures for determining Cation Exchange Capac. This indicates that the determination of the the end of this section assume that 200 ml of distilled water have 2–60 . 200 (2) 50 ml MgCI2 solution and allow to set at least 30 minutes.5 ment using the procedure in this appendix is the type and amount in. III 1817 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1818 SECTION 1817 — APPENDIX A (A PROCEDURE FOR mineral type is relatively insensitive to the precision by ESTIMATION OF THE AMOUNT OF CLIMATE which the Atterberg Limits and other soil parameters CONTROLLED DIFFERENTIAL MOVEMENT OF have been determined. This solution is al- lowed to stand overnight. This simplified passing the U. engineer may use various soil testing procedures to provide a basis At times it will be the depth to an inert material. Select a Thornthwaite Moisture Index from Figure 18-III-14 permeability of clays and the total potential of the soil water. actually determined in the laboratory. Wash the material retained on the filter paper of Step 2 with 3.S. Ac = PI (1) (Percent passing U. for both edge lift and center lift loading conditions from Figure ACTIVITY) 18-III-14. the depth to constant or equilibrium suction.2 Determine the percentage of clay sizes in the material been measured by the U. and velocity Tables 18-III-A to 18-III-O for the center lift condition. With this information either cent clay. converted to climate alone. No. the design soil suction value will seldom exceed a an aid for estimation of expected differential movements of magnitude of pF 3. Moisture velocity can be approximated by using a velocity applicable only in those cases where site conditions have been equal to one half of the Thornthwaite Moisture Index [expressed corrected so that soil moisture conditions are controlled by the in inches/year (mm/year)] for the construction site. the edge shall be 0.S. Alternatively. depth to constant suction. pF. A procedure developed in part shale. In general.3 Calculate the activity ratio of the soil: 1 N ammonium acetate (NH4AC) is added. predominant clay mineral (kaolinite. DIV. appropriate tables.8 mm/month). ym . enter the 18-III-P to 18-III-DD for the edge lift condition. In the case of doubt as to the pre- EXPANSIVE SOILS) dominant mineral type. 3. The predominant type of clay can be determined by Exchange Capacity Using a Spectrophotometer performing the following tests and calculations and by using Fig.7 in. or montmo- known or estimated. for most practical tion with accumulated experience with local soils conditions) as applications. 6. extreme annual values of the Thorn- thwaite Index may be calculated for a given site using Thorn- thwaite’s procedures. 200 (75 µm) sieve (Hydrometer procedure is: Test).S. No. To allow for extreme local variations in moisture The information necessary to determine the differential move. 3. illite. 3. PI 1. however.CHAP. and the field moisture velocity.7 mm/month). Conservation Service. additions.

ft.103(h)*1.65x10 n (19-5) 2–61 .500 pounds per square foot (71.10 % Clay = % Passing U.S.35(S) 0. 2. 000mńmg Design of slabs constructed on compressible soils can be done in a manner similar to that of the edge lift condition for slabs on expan- 1 sive soils. 50 ml. Moment. spectrophotometer and record the transparency reading. Add sufficient distilled water to bring the tion 1816. 1819. Compressible soils are normally assumed to have 100 g + 82. SLABS ON COMPRESSIBLE SOILS (BASED ON 7. Record readings and plot the results to Mcs = applied service moment in slab on compressible soil. 2 mlńaliquot 1 ml 10. Prepare a standard curve by using 10 µg of nitrogen (in the DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS OF THE POSTTENSIONING NH4 form) per ml of a standard solution in a 50 ml volumetric INSTITUTE) flask. Repeat Step 7 for 1. These formulas are: proposed modifications to the Pearring and Holt equations for 1.0 ml of sample aliquot from Step 6 and add 25 ml kips/ft. D cs + de [1. 200 sieve (75 µm) v 0.4 mm. and Cation Exchange Activity: 1.36 M nsL + (19-3) 80(L) 0. CHAP. Comparison of clay mineral determination between atomic ab. No.2 Short direction: Cation Exchange Activity: (PL) 1. (kN·m/m). DIV. 9.64mg 1.17 M csS + ǒ970880– hǓ M cs L (19-2) CEAC = ǒ Ǔ % Clay For SI: M csS + 24Ă638 * h ĄM csL Symbols and Notations 22Ă352 PI = plasticity index.62 atomic absorption and spectrophotometer techniques is presented in Table 18-III-EE.1 Long direction: ǒ Ǔ 0. (kN/m). Add 2 ml of Nessler’s ali. except that different equations are used and the total volume to 50 ml.95x10 *7(P) 2] in Table 18-III-FF and Figure 18-III-17. of distilled water in a 50 ml volumetric flask. kips/ft. Add sufficient distilled water to bring the total volume to Vns = service load shear force in the “no swell” condition.4. equal to or less 14 mgńmeq than 1.5 mg/g from standard curve δ = expected settlement. WHERE: PL = plastic limit. The design procedure for foundations on com- 10 percent tartrate solution.0. and 8. Differential deflection: sorption of the correlation equations presented above is presented *3(P))3.80 A comparison of values of Cation Exchange Capacity using D nsL + (19-4) 133(h) 0. Insert the standard solution resulting from Steps 7 and 8 into the spectrophotometer.78*0.28(S) 0. Typical calculations: (mm). (mm).002 mm. add 1 ml of 1819. reported by the geotechnical engi- Conversion: neer occurring in compressible soil due to the total load expressed as a uniform load. ft. Vcs = maximum service load shear force in slab on compress- cent tartrate and shake. Add 1 ml of 10 per. Exchange Capacity in Predominant Clay Mineral (L) 1.2 List of Symbols and Notations.12(P) 0.0.2 meqń100g allowable values of soil-bearing capacity. 18.0. (kN·m/m).) Mns = moment occurring in the “no swell” condition. and shake. Weight of dry soil = 10. (kN/m). primary bending deformation is usually similar to the edge lift 8. pressible soils is similar to the structural design procedure in Sec- quot with rapid mixing. ∆cs = differential deflection in a slab on compressible soil.64 grams ∆ns = differential deflection in the “no swell” condition. (h) 1. SECTION 1819 — DESIGN OF POSTTENSIONED tion is fairly typical. beforehand with distilled water. Let the solution stand for 30 minutes and then insert into the kips/ft. The 200-to-1 dilu. For SI: 1 inch = 25.-kips/ft.3 been used to dilute l ml of the MgCI2 solution. Special design equations are necessary for this problem due to the expected in situ Equation for Cation Exchange Capacity elastic property differences between compressible soils and the A 1979 study at Texas Tech University resulted in the following stiffer expansive soils. construct a standard curve. Cation Exchange Capacity.5mg 200 ml 50 ml 1 1819.·kip Comparison of Methods of Determining Cation For SI: 1 + 4 448 031 kN·m m ft. III 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1818 1819. Add 2 ml of Nessler’s aliquot with rapid ible soil.5 Clay Activity Ac PI = % Clay M csL + d M nsL (19-1) D nsL Cation Exchange Capacity: CEC = (PL)1. Adjust the volume to approximately 25 ml. in. = 24. ard solution.9 kN/m2). 11. in. in.0 ml aliquots of stand. 4. mixing.17 1.- 10. qallow. Extract 2. (The spectrophotometer is calibrated ft. Allow color to develop for 30 minutes. Clay Activity.3 Slabs-on-ground Constructed on Compressible Soils.28(P) 0. Spectrophotometer = 81 percent (mm).1 General. loading case. 2. 24.

2 Short direction: V csL  d V nsL (19-6) D nsL  V csS  116 h V csL 94  (19-8) WHERE: V nsL  (h) 0.CHAP.30 550(L) 0.   0.30 3.3 3.90(PS) 0.1 Long direction: ft. Shear. DIV.4 h V csL 2387.6  2–62 . III 1819.3 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1819. 18. kip For SI: 1  2100 kN m 3.10 (19-7) For SI:  V csS  2946.

062 0.015 0.010 0.013 0.080  0.803 4.115 0.095 0.058 0.005 0.038 0.008 0.159 0.025 0.553 1.4 for × 304.057 0.106 0.029 0.530 5 3.124 3.148 0.004 0.281  0.166 0.6 0.385 0.041 0.279 3.7 0.181  0.087 0.616 0.365 0.008 0.035 0.077 0.005 0.7 0.8 for mm  (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft. 2 ft.023 0.079 0.7 0.069 0. 4 ft.091 0.577 0.040 0.028 0.022 0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.953 1.413 0.017 0.7 0.4 0.069 0.652 1.093 0.8 for mm  (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.012 0.348 2.040 2.033 0.370 0.036 0.353 3. 7 ft.186 0. 8 ft.074 0.229 0. 6 ft.006 2.129 TABLE 18-III-B—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR A CENTER LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY KAOLINITE CLAY SOIL (40 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.020 0.148 0.134 0.797  0.689 3.58 0.7 0.5 0.028 0.153  0.2 0.012 0.051 0.791  0.306 0.5 0.062 0.083 0.7 0.067 0.5 0.092 0.073 0.) (inches/month) × 304.023 0.276 0.431 0.377  0.112 0.164 3.125 0.043 0.192 0.499 6.014 0.007 0.032 0.037 0.5 0.799 1.2 0.677 4.374 3.039 0.021 0. 30 3 3.128 0.110 0.379 0.167 0.024 0.127 0.4 0.052 0.396 0.075 0.150 0.155 0.069 0.531 0.7 0.5 0.194 0.6 0.139 0.5 0.020 0.068 0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.5 0.051 0.1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 18-III-A TABLE 18-III-B TABLE 18-III-A—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR A CENTER LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY KAOLINITE CLAY SOIL (30 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.7 0.6 0.171 0.7 0.5 0.712 1.152 0.360 0.090  0.046 0.056 0.5 0.046 0.7 0.157 0.038 3. 7 ft.507 0. 2 ft. 40 3 3.371 0.7 0.016 0.107 0.029 0.054 0.256 0.126 — 2–63 .025 0.025 0.596 1.5 0.408  0.027 0.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.080 0.016 0.038 0.653 1.107 0.034 0.346 3.021 0.100 0.009 2.044 0.5 0.269 0.258 0.025 0.043 0.073 0.2 0.096 0.043 0.224 0.057 0.144 0.346 0.017 0.051 0.5 0.051 0.168 0.184 0.047 0.349 9.030 0.5 0.012 0.025 0.019 0.303 0. 5 ft.182 0.2 0.065 0.292 0.051 0.5 0.100 0.034 0.7 0.728 5 3.029 0.220 3.018 0.206  0.111  0.018 0.5 0.148  0.018 0.514 3.011 0.095 0.2 0.089 3.207 0.008 0.7 0.035 0.157 0.079 0.215 7 3.083 0.095 0.027 0.009 0.007 0.879 7 3.226 0.487 1.122 0.125 0.018 0.026 0.2 0.026 0. 5 ft.038 0.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.071 0.277 0.069 0.037 0.019 0.051 0.034 0.4 0.052 0.118 3.081 0.287 0.071 0.210 0.118 0.7 0.060 0.081 8.037 0.098 0.071 0.486 1.018 0.216 0.) (inches/month) × 304.008 0.045 0.060  0.017 0.218 0.016 0.100 0.012 0.050 3.776 1.125 0.4 0.070 0. 4 ft.7 0.030 0.228 0.166 3.246 0.4 for × 304. 3 ft.210 0. 6 ft.58 0.110 0.881  0.7 0.014 0.053 0.018 0.033 0.5 0.050 0.5 0.016 0.003 0.067  0.024 0.6 0.066 0.5 0.088 0.006 0.496 1.148 0.102 0.063 0.012 0.7 0.042 0.157 0.272 0.7 0.042 0.117 0.050 0. 3 ft.4 0.252 3. 8 ft.113 0.090 0.035 0.098  0.074 0.004 0.011 0.4 0.119 0.009 0.067 0.244 0.040 0.

144 0.717 6.249 ' 3.193 0.103 0.457 0.8 for mm ' (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.157 0.189 0.168 0.038 0.371 0.184 0.7 0.031 4.5 0.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.386 0.461 0.104 0. 2 ft.982 2.834 1.4 0.073 0.205 0.119 0.104 0.7 0.022 0.019 0.031 0. 8 ft.203 2.666 1.58 0.5 0.4 0.149 0.200 0.252 0.009 0.013 0.113 0.086 0. 60 3 3.103 0.043 0.028 0.233 0.154 0.053 0.326 0.011 0.455 0.110 0.013 0.015 0.091 0.690 3.078 0.5 0.101 0.226 0.020 0.) (inches/month) × 304.147 0.031 0.080 0.4 0.034 0.696 4.122 0.006 0.6 0.367 0.122 0.008 0.2 0.065 0.566 3.440 0.5 0.306 0.038 0.027 0.188 0.024 0.8 for mm ' (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.185 0.108 0.6 0.252 0.5 0.077 0.436 2.337 0.047 0.186 0.194 2.069 0.160 0.568 0.58 0.723 1.022 0.4 for × 304.083 0.059 0.5 0.017 0.033 0.133 0.260 5.036 0.071 0.046 0.2 0. 6 ft.4 0.223 0.049 — ' 7 3.030 0.039 5.7 0.136 0.102 0.057 0.5 0.051 0.817 1. 4 ft.178 ' 3.983 2.001 1.2 0.499 0.071 0.044 0.303 3.057 0.037 0.105 0.258 0.7 0.4 for × 304.5 0.021 0.765 1.192 0.5 0.347 0.7 0.172 — TABLE 18-III-D—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR A CENTER LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY KAOLINITE CLAY SOIL (60 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.5 0.527 7.069 0. 50 3 3.263 0.012 0.276 ' 3.224 0.019 0.036 0.052 0.044 0.316 0.132 0.030 0.070 0.110 0.800 1.7 0.483 0.417 0.161 0.864 ' 3.042 0.104 0.009 0.025 0.233 0.469 ' 3.345 0.7 0.020 0.5 0.018 0.694 1.059 0.034 0.138 0.085 0.115 0.066 0.196 0.310 0.037 0.6 0.926 ' 5 3.044 0.332 ' 3.135 0.086 0.090 0.125 0.086 0.148 ' 3.2 0.5 0.153 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.383 0.148 0.380 0.064 0.041 0. 3 ft. 7 ft.7 0.210 0.056 0.7 0.054 0.004 0.038 ' 3.044 0.321 0.024 0.177 0. TABLE 18-III-C 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 18-III-D TABLE 18-III-C—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR A CENTER LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY KAOLINITE CLAY SOIL (50 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.058 0.7 0.434 0. 5 ft.264 0.151 0.7 0.564 ' 3.077 ' 3.086 0.4 0.5 0.186 0.012 0.) (inches/month) × 304.779 0.549 0.452 0.465 0.025 0.113 0. 8 ft.103 0.4 0. 4 ft. 2 ft.028 0.025 0.160 0.083 0.088 0.028 0.031 0.636 0.229 0.240 0.580 0.036 0.006 0.100 0.209 0.818 2.870 1.016 0.196 — ' 7 3.281 0.281 0.077 0.628 0.7 0.7 0.133 0.243 0.207 ' 3.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft. 7 ft.041 0.034 0.288 0.126 0.018 0.316 0.745 1.056 0.014 0.7 0.543 0.223 0.086 0.099 0.103 5.217 — 2–64 .063 ' 3.053 0.127 0.026 0.062 0.064 0.559 0. 5 ft.049 0.194 0.087 0.272 0.125 0.202 0.124 0.070 0.048 0.058 0. 3 ft.134 0.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft. 6 ft.073 0.5 0.480 0.124 ' 5 3.084 0.7 0.042 0.160 0.013 0.5 0.292 0.7 0.366 0.031 0.028 0.023 0.120 0.2 0.072 0.521 0.120 0.159 0.7 0.191 0.236 0.066 0.053 0.2 0.472 0.050 0.087 0.142 0.050 0.620 1.308 0.

018 0.049 5 3.689 6.263 — TABLE 18-III-F—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR A CENTER LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY ILLITE CLAY SOIL (30 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.146 0.016 0.129 0.292 3.248 3.065 0.538 0.034 0.288 0.016 4. 2 ft.553 0.737 1.7 0.093 0.158 0.5 0.083 0.8 for mm  (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.180 0.042 0.069 0.044 0.044 0.2 0.062 0.191 2.119  0.028 3.064 0.260 0.543 0.060 0.432 0.678 0.068 0.013 0.122 0.294 0.162  0.4 0.514 0.7 0.7 0.052 0.037 0.2 0.086 0.062 0.089 3.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.176 3.030 0.363 0.2 0.516 0.7 0.025 0.5 0.971 2.175 7.367 0.5 0.121 0.059 0.090 0.260 0.146 0.100 0.075 3.188 0.200 0.032 0.079  0.537 0.935 1.224 0.591  0.5 0.370 0.162 0.231 0.027 0.124 0.5 0.051 0. 5 ft.5 0.176 0.082 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.024 0.500 7.) (inches/month) × 304.487 0. 4 ft.225 0.044 0.019 0.029 0. 4 ft.104 0.078 0. 5 ft.4 for × 304.020 0.135  0.043 0.224 0.157 0.677 3.361  0.6 0.4 for × 304.663  0.341 0. 3 ft.208 3.033 0.830 4.068 0.098 0.010 0. 8 ft.158 0.055 0.148 2.7 0.7 0.406 2.036 0.186 0.7 0.054 0.172 0.065 0.278 0.063 0.5 0.131 0.249 0.952 8.153 — 2–65 .077 0.147 2.5 0.221  0.293 0.532 1.322 5 3.028 0.239  0.7 0.4 0.6 0.182 0.342 0.413 0.991 — 7 3.063 0.381 5.014 0.238 0.187 0.7 0.084 0.107 0.558 3.138 0.057 0.024 0.040 0.143 0.070 0. 7 ft.421 2.031 0.4 0. 2 ft.562  0.016 0.7 0.016 1.861 1.642 0.574 0.168 0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.234 0.451 0.126 0.280 0.160 0.451 0.152 0.027 0.102 0.276 0.041 0.273 0.051 0.134 0.022 0.429 0.58 0.973 2.4 0.141 0.373 4.018 0.436 0.086 0.313 0.083 0.792 1.551 3.6 0.159  0.190 0.081 0.039 0.078 0.048 0.058 0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.235 0.043 0.227 0.871 2.394 0.035 0.027 0.011 0.893 — 7 3.117 0.7 0.053 0.264 0.076 0.382 0.154 0.185 0.333 0.1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 18-III-E TABLE 18-III-F TABLE 18-III-E—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR A CENTER LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY KAOLINITE CLAY SOIL (70 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.032 0.076 0.006 0.404 0.087 0.329 3.825 1.5 0.040 0.141 0.103 0. 70 3 3.166 0.012 0.120 0.634 1.267 0.659 3.051 0.055 0.037 0.080 0.306  0.8 for mm  (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.030 0.082 0.124 0. 6 ft.893 1.7 0.034 0.176 0. 8 ft.221 0.7 0.103 0.146 0.221 0. 3 ft.221 0.027 0.010 4.319 0.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.043 0.5 0.456 0.037 0.2 0.757 1.381 0.4 0.147 0.5 0.119 0.213 3.050 0.215 0.174 0.7 0.6 0.048 0.070 0.974 1.090 0.248 0.7 0.5 0.149 0.913  0.653 1.2 0.760  0.103 0.190 0.119 0.7 0.7 0.057 0.068 0.5 0.2 0.101 0.098 0.262  0.019 0. 7 ft.120 0.328 0.024 0. 30 3 3.5 0.013 0.037 0.7 0.58 0.100 0.323 0.008 0.016 0.101 0.120 0.5 0.109 0.) (inches/month) × 304.006 0.369 0.072 0. 6 ft.388 3.609 0.140  0.102 0.207 0.5 0.

196 0.) (inches/month) × 304.7 0.333 ' 3.441 0.124 0.829 1.069 0.246 0.126 0.085 0.823 1.048 0.) (inches/month) × 304. 7 ft.58 0. 5 ft.5 0.039 0.110 0.050 0.405 3.104 0.100 0.451 0.358 0.2 0.403 2.235 0.401 0.4 for × 304.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.58 0.5 0.263 0. 40 3 3.093 1.418 0.692 0.8 for mm ' (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.320 0. 7 ft.194 0.323 0.254 0.172 0.193 0.657 0.233 0.377 0.834 3.779 1.145 0.120 0.053 0.242 2.836 4.851 1.7 0.143 1.596 0.288 0.7 0.590 1.059 0.215 0.064 0.282 0.077 0.026 0.248 3.080 0.198 0.4 0.188 0.5 0.360 0. 4 ft.940 ' 3.021 0.201 0.210 0.098 0.2 0.856 0.254 0.795 7.646 0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.080 0.7 0.063 0.775 1.682 5.070 0.2 0.142 ' 3.008 0.124 0.054 0.298 0.330 0.030 0.5 0.039 0.2 0.133 0.6 0.353 0.239 5.799 1.805 ' 3.063 0.164 0.122 0.299 0.422 — ' 7 3. 3 ft.343 0.019 0.203 0.417 0.5 0.860 1.318 0. 8 ft.069 0.092 0.5 0.129 0.207 0.5 0.142 0.052 0.113 0.056 0.023 0.883 8.423 0.213 0.046 0.4 0.178 0. 5 ft.7 0.592 0.417 0.193 0.162 0.436 0.146 0.927 6.429 0.469 0.048 0.7 0.051 0.974 1.220 0.494 0.332 0.778 0.5 0.083 0.092 0.042 0.5 0.049 0.109 0.467 ' 3.096 0.045 0.035 0.5 0.524 0.5 0.7 0.275 0.902 6.558 2. 6 ft.192 0.721 1.811 0.254 ' 3.358 0. TABLE 18-III-G 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 18-III-H TABLE 18-III-G—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR A CENTER LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY ILLITE CLAY SOIL (40 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.070 0.156 0.5 0.085 1.344 0.033 0.495 2.2 0.7 0.260 0.143 0. 8 ft.184 0.144 0.287 0.008 0.391 3.070 0.429 1.111 0.109 ' 3.154 0.014 0.2 0.016 0.061 0.7 0.474 ' 3.147 0.442 0.194 0.062 0.7 0.010 0.054 ' 3.4 for × 304.4 0.089 0.228 0. 2 ft.030 0.4 0.098 0.094 0.063 0.253 0.205 0.077 0.148 0.017 0.225 0.054 0. 6 ft.025 0.110 0.357 ' 3.207 — ' 7 3.552 1.022 0.4 0.301 0.416 0.807 9.046 0.5 0.8 for mm ' (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.149 0.7 0.053 0.784 1.039 0.026 1.5 0.101 0.104 0. 50 3 3.6 0.043 1. 3 ft.035 0.579 0.265 0.163 0.072 0.073 0.7 0.131 0.035 0.159 0.452 0.179 0.274 0.745 1.157 0.043 0.5 0.051 3.524 0.546 0.719 2.230 0.7 0.082 0.075 — — 2–66 .129 0.065 2.193 0.359 0.227 0.023 0.7 0.5 0.720 — ' 5 3.449 0.482 0.620 ' 3.270 0.190 0.271 0.116 0.148 0.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.4 0.099 0.912 7.610 0.185 0.328 0.071 0.7 0.651 1.075 0.278 0.011 0.466 0.542 0.624 2.7 0.685 1.147 0.484 ' 3.192 2.120 0.611 — ' 5 3.7 0.5 0.173 0.081 0.147 0.099 0.629 0.318 0. 2 ft.275 0.5 0.034 0.322 0.101 0.051 0.7 0.629 1.6 0. 4 ft.013 1.112 0.528 0.470 0.227 0.338 0.6 0.882 — TABLE 18-III-H—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR A CENTER LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY ILLITE CLAY SOIL (50 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.034 0.025 0.076 0.

287 0.5 0.074 0.7 0.7 0.057 0.2 0. 3 ft.612 1.320 0.519 0.548 3. 60 3 3.178 0.121 0.659 0.141 0. 8 ft.374  0.048 0.153 0.052 2.544 0.869 1.229 0.554 0.507 2.766 3.714  0.5 0.342 0.885  0.831 — 5 3.890 1.5 0.514 0.095 0.088 0.032 0.850  0.340 1.466 0.116 0. 70 3 3.7 0.7 0.252 2.234 0.197 3.851 3.2 0.943 7.5 0.239 0.692 1.148 0.027 0.6 0.7 0.037 0.526 0.333 0.057 0.597 — — 7 3.803 1.620 0.051 0.144 0. 5 ft.043 0.778 1.018 0.895 1.031 0.055 0.355 0.7 0.730 1.280 0.074 0.238 0.549  0.640 0.104  0.4 0.176 3.5 0.7 0.4 for × 304.068 0.239 0.282 0.5 0.134 0.436 0.579 11.4 for × 304.062 0.016 0.369 0.249 0.4 0.176 0.195 0.061 2.209 1.210 0.170 0.7 0.086 0.290 0.702 — — 7 3.510 0.085 0.073 0.289 2.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.153 0.612 0.5 0.119 0.101 0.304 0.702  0.302 0.6 0.123 0.5 0.686 3.4 0.147 0.235 0.007 1.201 0. 4 ft.534 2. 8 ft.411 3.241 0.193 0.6 0.162 0.4 0.437 0.940 — 5 3.424 0.444 0. 5 ft.330  0.231 0.129 0.197 0.442 0.136 0.284 0.362 0.2 0.177 0.314  0.4 0.027 0.846 2.5 0.594 2.181 0.200 0.7 0.044 0.283 0.911 3.114 0.093 0.752 1.062 0.018 1.032 0.102 0.7 0.367 0.103 0.2 0.489 3.487 0.070 0.237 0.203 0.102 0.439 0.5 0.162 0.410 0.078 0.066 0.771 0.7 0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.414 0.087 0.2 0.092 0.083 0.279 0.015 1.238 0.730 0.614  0.251 2.647 0.648 1.055 0. 6 ft.156 0.5 0.8 for mm  (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.094 0.006 3.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25. 2 ft.579 0.4 0.273 0.6 0.372 0. 7 ft.100 0.345 0.268 — — TABLE 18-III-J—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR A CENTER LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY ILLITE CLAY SOIL (70 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.372 0.121 0.328 0.395 3.063 1.037 0.013 0.113 0.138 0.340 0.310  0.124 0.037 0.312 6.442 0.7 0.136 0.404 0. 3 ft.283 0.044 0.2 0.301 3.5 0.869 1.560  0.5 0.554 0.079 0.296 0.629 0.797 1.085 0.855 1.962 1.8 for mm  (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.100 2.462 — — 2–67 .764 2.391 0.514 0.215 0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.304 5.348 0.066 0.164 0.7 0.700 6.538 0.129 0.659 4.238 0.194 0.159 0.5 0.7 0.242 0.144 0.528 0.696 5.409 0.188 0.423 0.674 0.964  0.253 0.119 0.068 0.582 1.687 9.5 0.516  0.313 0.388 3.212 0.021 0.344 0.265 4.528 0.58 0.431 2.265 1.040 0.062 0.948 1.209 3.104 0.5 0.) (inches/month) × 304.7 0.396 0.7 0.58 0.925 1.190 0.846 1. 2 ft.078 0.183 0. 4 ft.924 3.5 0.371  0.302 9.381 0.576 3.290 4. 6 ft.277  0.288 0.689 0.047 4.1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 18-III-I TABLE 18-III-J TABLE 18-III-I—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR A CENTER LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY ILLITE CLAY SOIL (60 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.330 0.776 4.5 0.268 5.7 0.) (inches/month) × 304.203 1.218 0. 7 ft.522 0.7 0.159 0.102 0.145 1.490 2.615 8.148 0.266 1.

626 0.255 0.173 0.100 0.4 0.583 4.147 0.119 0.208 ' 3.014 0.813 1. 2 ft.060 0.094 0.450 0.7 0.778 0.063 0.381 0.214 0.122 0.244 — TABLE 18-III-L—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR A CENTER LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY MONTMORILLONITE CLAY SOIL (40 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.116 0.393 0.2 0.183 0.029 0.229 0.5 0.7 0.145 0.427 0.101 0.057 0.120 0.223 0.5 0.422 ' 3.062 0.660 4.5 0.048 0.224 0. 5 ft.5 0.4 0.074 0.086 0.089 ' 3.7 0.425 0.154 0.063 0.004 3.019 0.607 0. 6 ft.116 0.023 0.433 0. 2 ft.5 0.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.645 6.301 ' 5 3.5 0.880 1.537 0.091 0.013 0.6 0.668 2.325 0.5 0.261 0.7 0.013 1.7 0.270 0.043 0.293 0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.980 1.291 1.028 0.120 0.177 0.748 0.441 8.029 0.932 1.020 0.8 for mm ' (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.2 0.158 0.387 0.815 1.7 0.475 0.405 0.6 0.148 0.6 0.059 0.5 0.179 0.7 0.091 0.076 0.251 0.762 ' 5 3.486 0. 30 3 3.142 0.494 0.267 7.561 ' 3.403 0.141 0.280 0.051 0.102 0.517 — ' 7 3.4 0.300 0.133 0.084 0.7 0.271 0.944 1.870 — ' 7 3.102 0.120 0.212 0.119 0. 40 3 3.010 0.259 0.172 0.4 for × 304.408 2.040 0.051 0.085 0.7 0.584 0.188 0.342 0.009 0.651 1.218 0.424 0.) (inches/month) × 304.062 0.326 0.035 0.032 0.169 0.341 0. 4 ft.068 0.960 0.140 0.7 0.271 2.081 0.063 0.045 0.207 0.269 0.369 0.165 7.205 0.044 0.168 0.311 0.375 5.004 0.7 0.042 0.361 0. 6 ft.074 0.514 0.043 0.5 0.7 0.128 0.5 0.291 ' 3.129 0.58 0.072 0.677 0.016 0.532 1.073 0.029 0.125 0.176 0.301 ' 3.144 0.062 0.144 2.868 2.652 1.514 0.402 2.4 0. 7 ft.046 0.386 ' 3.211 ' 3.4 0.069 0.5 0.658 3.022 0.704 0.027 0.039 0.952 ' 3.159 0.339 0.522 0.4 0.504 7.275 0.027 0.2 0.7 0.098 0.900 0.089 0.105 0.662 0.129 ' 3.043 0.7 0.7 0.093 0.5 0.187 0. 8 ft.7 0.057 0.063 0.7 0.8 for mm ' (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.6 0.480 0.089 0.031 0.264 0.064 0.945 8.059 0.040 0.046 0.234 0.120 0.272 0.258 3.174 0.088 0.2 0.091 0.235 0.211 0.173 0. TABLE 18-III-K 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 18-III-L TABLE 18-III-K—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR A CENTER LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY MONTMORILLONITE CLAY SOIL (30 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.382 0.320 0.165 0.147 0.632 1.367 4.065 0.040 0.014 0.223 0.019 0.5 0.7 0. 5 ft.019 0.019 0.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.186 0.244 0.4 for × 304. 8 ft.377 0.158 0.5 0.050 0.56 0.535 0.100 0.378 0.2 0.058 0. 3 ft.5 0.826 2.743 0.127 0.069 0.394 0.081 0.121 0.116 0.171 0.134 0.5 0.249 0.044 0.672 3.109 0.032 0.972 1.550 0.657 ' 3.027 0.260 0. 7 ft.5 0.399 0.892 1.006 0.769 1.294 0.162 0.268 0.160 1.032 0.147 0.065 0.412 — 2–68 .130 0.229 0.175 0.098 0.) (inches/month) × 304.553 0.753 ' 3. 4 ft.039 0.368 0.203 0.261 0.2 0.639 0.324 0.083 0.145 2.042 0.219 0.5 0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.081 0. 3 ft.185 0.569 0.094 0.

300 0.692 2. 3 ft.185 3.464 8.7 0.8 for mm  (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.854 1.799 1.684  0.026 0.216  0.073 0. 2 ft.7 0.865  0. 7 ft.083 0.677 — — 2–69 .5 0.4 0.026 0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.101 0.646 0.093 0.7 0.7 0.234 0.050 0. 8 ft.341 0.6 0.382 6.331 0.260 1.096 0.097 0.137 0.846  0.7 0.119 0.068 0.294 0.2 0.194 0.4 0.124 0.370 0.412 0.147 0.015 0.553  0.354 0.7 0.059 0.779 1.237 0.220 0.076 0.278 0.176 0.056 2.) (inches/month) × 304.516 0.922 1.299 0.393 0.219  0.6 0.625 4.423 0.143 0.485 0.036 0.147 0.892 1.055 0.372  0.503 0.2 0.526 0.037 0.013 1.152 0.229 0.5 0.724 1.157 0.224 0.5 0.500 0.153 0.627 0.637 0.612  0.522 0.140 0.629 1.5 0.152 1.207 0.923 1.689 6.4 0.721 0.193 0.282 0.407 0.5 0.012 0.441 0.840 3.082 0.5 0.041 0.186 0.907 3.228 0.075 0.237 0.5 0.487 3.7 0.214 0.231 0.060 0.764 1.284 9.549 0.329  0.745 1.7 0.5 0.8 for mm  (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.380 0.153 0.169 0.102 0.609 0.935  0.169 3.686 0.541 3.425 2.4 0.247 5.879 2.055 0.553 3.333 0.2 0.073 0.229 0.161 0.195 0.686 5.286 0.266  0.246 2.320 1.865 1.56 0.256 0.059 3.066 0.702 4. 3 ft.092 2.119 0.044 0.068 0.048 0.444 0.354 0.102 0.240 0.555 0.175 0.7 0.256  0.111 0.2 0.226 0.516 0. 2 ft.435 0.093 0.645 1.103 0.052 0. 60 3 3.524 0.286 0.131 0.272 0.066 1.276 0.574 — — 7 3.395 0.123 0.493 0.301  0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.2 0.038 0.438 0.819 1.283 1.283 0.188 0.507 0.330 0.025  0.5 0.495  0.700 0.446 0.158 0.128 0.558 1.116 0. 8 ft.5 0.7 0.256 3.326 0.280 4.031 0. 6 ft.113 0.912 — 5 3.209 0.143 0.169 0.7 0.7 0.113 0.665 2.5 0.044 0.945 1.508 — — 7 3.519 2.209 3.689 1.037 4.618 0.211 0.4 for × 304.236 2.621 0.081 0.7 0.2 0. 4 ft.119 0.106 0.343 0.320 0.277 0.844 3.189 0.075 0.068 1.528 2.019 1.655 0.268 0.356 0.590 — — TABLE 18-III-N—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR A CENTER LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY MONTMORILLONITE CLAY SOIL (60 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.5 0.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.7 0.56 0.018 0.5 0.101 0.036 0.238 0.120 0.137 0.407 0.065 0.008 2.059 0.420 0.022 0.074 0.030 0.973 1.5 0.5 0.352 0.307 0.053 0.175 5.155 0.204 1.217 0.340 0.734 3. 7 ft.418 0.174 0.360 0.590 — 5 3.091 0.4 0.7 0.247 3.5 0.767 0.587 2.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.182 8. 4 ft. 6 ft.531 0.402 0.1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 18-III-M TABLE 18-III-N TABLE 18-III-M—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR A CENTER LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY MONTMORILLONITE CLAY SOIL (50 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.031 0.895 1.140 1.6 0. 5 ft.5 0.923  0.4 for × 304.648 3.712 4.6 0.7 0.170 0.243 0.192 0. 5 ft.426 0.083 0.394 3.317 2.083 0.189 0.683 3.152 0.291 0.082 0.5 0. 50 3 3.280 0.4 0.191 0.135 0.7 0.) (inches/month) × 304.092 0.7 0.065 0.551 0.

2 ft.178 0.045 0.099 ' 3.088 0.229 0.122 0.110 0.026 ' 3.406 0.4 for × 304.083 0.046 0.502 0.248 ' 3.342 0.7 0.820 3.084 0.814 ' 3. 6 ft.243 ' 3.578 0.821 1.983 9.005 0.225 0.395 0.769 1.010 0.202 ' 3.600 0.064 0.305 0.167 0. 8 ft.084 0.138 0.050 0.003 0.129 0.039 0.501 1.098 0.115 0.203 8.028 0.037 0.525 0.287 0.041 0.141 0.358 1.171 0.207 1.134 0.627 1.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.038 0.186 0.067 1.123 0.078 0.033 0.132 0.7 0.008 0.234 — ' 5 3.759 0.088 0.2 0.100 0.2 0.112 0.441 0.010 0.125 0.4 0.041 0.421 0.485 0.5 0.435 1.076 0.110 0.729 0.018 0.042 0.6 0.015 0.021 0.6 0.145 0.210 0.013 0.141 0.075 0.082 0.131 0.7 0.182 0.007 0.952 1.156 0.928 1.102 0.891 2.121 0.004 0.202 0.5 0.061 0.176 0.7 0.198 0.078 0.698 2.025 0. 3 ft.573 2.8 for mm ' (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.077 0.5 0.187 0.491 0.174 0. 5 ft.080 0.098 1.101 0.5 0.264 0.046 0.5 0.011 0.851 0. 4 ft.052 0.331 0.014 0.5 0.443 0.055 0.717 5.56 0.029 0.013 0.5 0.335 0.341 0.120 0.033 0.868 6.183 0.061 0.195 0.) (inches/month) × 304.145 0.2 0.126 1.7 0.026 0.064 0.044 0.097 0.7 0.436 0.429 0.162 0.052 0.470 0.108 0.5 0.015 0.018 0.727 0.029 0.031 0.353 0.063 1.5 0.5 0.580 ' 3.021 0.016 0.350 0.284 0.157 0.452 0.010 0.5 0.569 2.254 0.7 0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.007 0.052 0.081 ' 3.763 — — TABLE 18-III-P—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR AN EDGE LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY KAOLINITE CLAY SOIL (30 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.5 0.522 0.081 0.089 0.5 0.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25. TABLE 18-III-O 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 18-III-P TABLE 18-III-O—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR A CENTER LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY MONTMORILLONITE CLAY SOIL (70 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.045 0.006 0.182 0.7 0. 2 ft.747 1.8 0.199 6.094 0.640 — — ' 7 3.324 0.7 0.283 0.244 0.658 0.231 0.492 3.351 0.037 0.163 0.147 0.032 0.029 0.273 0.480 0.008 0.4 0.485 3.077 0.227 0.088 0.5 0.079 0.7 0.023 0.7 0.022 0.258 0.781 1.034 0.5 0.7 0.025 0.026 0.031 1.220 0.050 ' 3.013 0.020 0.060 0.624 0.056 0.300 0.2 0.7 0.120 0.2 0.169 0. 7 ft.047 0.7 0.075 0.219 4.395 0.4 0.8 0.270 0.005 0.5 0.032 0.017 0.) (inches/month) × 304.453 3.796 0.180 0.037 0.019 0.034 0.474 ' 7 3.239 3.189 0. 8 ft.336 0.021 0.110 0.056 0.072 0.399 0.016 0.278 0.6 0.041 0.114 0.307 0.7 0.037 0.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.072 0.4 0.338 0.035 0.358 0.258 2.162 0.064 0.060 0.081 0.073 0.392 0.164 0.409 0.149 0.374 0.100 0.030 0.6 0.441 ' 2–70 .249 0.6 0.020 0.044 0.195 ' 5 3.737 1.7 0. 70 3 3.143 0.052 0.057 ' 3.014 0.056 0.057 0.7 0.519 0. 3 ft.7 0.4 for × 304.7 0.383 ' 3.5 0.4 0.822 0.055 0.334 0.097 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.075 0.072 0.192 0.027 0.5 0.048 0.143 0.088 0.055 0.104 ' 3.039 0. 30 3 3.256 0.007 0.104 0.428 5.818 1.114 ' 3. 4 ft.037 0.012 0.065 0. 7 ft.126 0.8 for mm ' (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.010 0.300 0.915 1. 6 ft.027 0.104 11.019 0.655 1.616 0.023 0.228 0. 5 ft.012 0.305 0.5 0.167 0.180 0.017 0.224 0.837 ' 3.2 0.133 0.073 0.251 0.

074 0.217 0.426 0.243 0.050  0.067 0.6 0.4 0.062 0.4 0.044 0.7 0.027 0.247 0.384 0.098 0.7 0.534 0. 40 3 3.169 0.7 0.025 0.7 0.022 0.026 0.328 5 3.057 0.154 0.188 0.043 0.177 0.7 0.195 0.193 0.175 3.) (inches/month) × 304.126 0.262  0.132 0.030 0.210 0.5 0.018 0.080 0.060 0.031 0.058 0.024 0.5 0.5 0.402 0.6 0.085 0.075 0.047 0.5 0.448  0.039 0.020 0.064 0.033 0.236 0. 6 ft.5 0.7 0.6 0.504 0.075 0.028 0.019 0.5 0. 3 ft.295 0.104 0.663 0.732 0.082 0.035 0. 6 ft.061 0.010 0.094 0.009 0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.7 0.149 0.016 0.027 0.080 0.097 0.2 0.167 3.212 0.102 0.004 0.314 0.176 0.136 0.038 0.045 0.529 0. 3 ft.516 0.039 0.2 0.453 0.062 0.135  0.008 0.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.107 0.076 0.081 0.5 0.139 0.171 0.044 0.066 0.020 0.022 0.222 0.126 0.326 3.042 0.162 0.050 0.7 0.8 0.012 0.030 0.4 for × 304.062 0.339 3.010 0.076 3.034 0.145 0.5 0.084 0.092 0.043 3.129 0.7 0.306 0.095 0.501  0.2 0.5 0. 2 ft.795 7 3.147 0.107 0.100 0.411 0.4 0.064 0.025 0.408 3.028 0.167 0.037 0.096 3.006 0.7 0.574 0.103 0.033 0.6 0.056 0.409 0.139 3.117 0.017 0.8 0.170 0.130 0. 5 ft.066 0.5 0.4 0.584 0.261 0.223 0.035 0.010 0.250 0.086 0.032 0.129 0.041 0.369 0.7 0.7 0.087 0.512 0.275 0.127 0.120 0.105 0.4 for × 304.7 0.5 0.094 0.458 0.049 0.340 0.283 0.175 0. 7 ft.591  TABLE 18-III-R—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR AN EDGE LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY KAOLINITE CLAY SOIL (50 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25. 8 ft.122 0.1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 18-III-Q TABLE 18-III-R TABLE 18-III-Q—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR AN EDGE LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY KAOLINITE CLAY SOIL (40 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.038 0.108 0.7 0.067 3.018 0.240 0.069 0.016 0.7 0.049 0.020 0.100 0.050 0.163 0.056 0.112 0.035 0.142  0.056  0.328 0.741  2–71 .013 0.014 0.048 0.244 0.152 3.025 0.015 0.113  0.071 0.5 0.249  0. 8 ft.7 0.046 0.245 0.402 0.024 0.588 0.5 0.052 0.016 0.2 0.107 0.226 0.136 0.074 0.013 0.077 0.103 0.024 0.8 for mm  (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.669 0.042 0.096 0.147 0.2 0.7 0.250  0.469 0.241 0.354 0.045 0.121  0.134 0.241 0.7 0.111 0.014 0.194 0.109 0.381 0.182 0.628  0. 4 ft.047 0.016 0.052 0.5 0.053 0.007 0.022 0.049 0.075 0.022 0.361 0.178 0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.197 0.020 0.) (inches/month) × 304.5 0.092 0.030 0.312  0.126 0.060 0.017 0.2 0.040 0.7 0.063 0.102 0.122 0.026 0.056 0.562  0.079 0.017 0.168 0.299 0.223 0.068 0.054 0.209  0.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.326 0.034 3.4 0.100 0.009 0.8 0.134 0.087 0.074 0.5 0.271 3.033 0.302 0.192 0.409 0.012 0.5 0.8 0.028 0.087 0.7 0.085 0. 50 3 3.036 0.101 0.133 3.140 0.4 0. 7 ft.069 0.168 0.039 0.013 0.054 0. 4 ft.152 0.028 0.019 0.6 0.200  0.018 0.593 0.012 0.022 0.108  0.045 0.009 0.304 0.032 0.023 0.007 0.061 0.191 3.126 0.261 5 3.191 0.022 0.119 0.136 0.220 0.7 0.038 0.5 0.219 0.504 0.266 0.059 0.063  0.333 0.173 0.046 0.280 0.098 0.210 0.075 0.239 0.185 0.232 0.7 0. 5 ft.5 0.041 0.6 0.263 0.141 0.097  0.056 0.049 0. 2 ft.006 0.158 0.473 0.5 0.185 0.634 7 3.084 3.035 0.068 0.029 0.8 for mm  (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.076 0.5 0.070  0.5 0.039 0.073 0.121 0.130 0.307 0.028 0.444 0.007 0.302 0.003 0.092 0.052 0.

2 0.062 0.393 0.022 0.176 0.064 0.240 0.798 0.826 0.544 0.029 0.284 0.512 0.088 0.042 0.028 0.130 0.086 0.518 0.151 0.5 0.030 0.4 0.033 0.005 0.575 0.8 0.027 0.196 0.5 0. 3 ft.111 0.099 0.5 0. 2 ft.460 ' 5 3.122 0. 2 ft.172 0.085 0.7 0.097 0.255 0.062 0.013 0.369 0.7 0. 60 3 3.121 0.5 0.363 0.265 0.4 for × 304.106 0.295 0.341 0.068 0.230 ' 3.036 0.940 1.690 0.7 0.5 0.146 0.) (inches/month) × 304.130 0.7 0.183 0.7 0.078 0.304 0.363 0.153 0.293 0.053 0.199 0.101 0.4 0.2 0.7 0.2 0. 6 ft.050 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.062 0.343 0.092 0.069 0.147 0.075 0.082 0.058 0.039 0.492 0.228 0.053 0.195 0.880 0.058 0.620 0.123 0.315 0.408 ' 3.114 0.5 0.039 0.115 ' 3.084 0.7 0.061 ' 3.5 0.754 0.024 0.708 0.027 0.079 0.145 0.026 0.093 0.7 0.205 0.024 0.150 0.806 0.267 0.133 0.071 0.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.103 0.151 0.131 0.309 0.018 0.6 0.031 0.386 0.046 0.185 0.015 0.008 0.105 0.036 0.7 0.5 0.036 0.6 0.301 0.268 0.048 0.059 0.095 0.019 0. 7 ft.118 ' 3.128 0.046 0.6 0.5 0.177 0.028 1.092 0.330 0.090 0.152 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.105 0.068 0.024 0.252 0.7 0.719 0.326 0.016 0.5 0.090 0.7 0.420 0.146 0.057 0.012 0.6 0.314 0.) (inches/month) × 304.038 0.228 0.534 0.022 0.616 0.7 0.039 0.041 ' 2–72 .095 0.046 0.132 0.179 0.040 0.7 0.425 0.232 0.104 0.210 ' 3.107 0.079 0.054 0.129 0.316 0.4 0.724 0.098 0.5 0. TABLE 18-III-S 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 18-III-T TABLE 18-III-S—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR AN EDGE LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY KAOLINITE CLAY SOIL (60 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.369 0.109 0.033 0.8 0.017 0.096 0.179 0.270 0.147 0.031 0.021 0.111 0.082 0.075 0.072 0.539 0.370 0.2 0.195 0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.119 0.017 0.881 0.297 0.201 0.338 0.394 0.8 0.201 ' 3.176 0.159 0.190 0.065 0.7 0.2 0.713 0.222 0.623 0.053 0.029 0.068 0.113 0.052 ' 3.169 0.151 0.461 0.5 0.088 0.058 0.032 0.337 0.6 0.331 0.833 0.021 0.5 0. 8 ft.789 0.5 0.932 1.010 0.4 for × 304.045 0.235 0.6 0.157 0.5 0.574 ' 3.050 0.079 0.8 for mm ' (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.020 0.394 ' 5 3.068 0.155 0.038 0.606 0.113 0.279 0.804 0.268 ' 3.707 0.201 0. 6 ft.060 0.219 0. 5 ft.031 0.012 0. 5 ft.033 0.153 0.476 ' 3.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25. 4 ft.222 0.033 0. 8 ft. 4 ft.034 0.074 0.7 0.086 0.121 0.124 0.049 0.229 0.170 0.024 0.377 0.034 0.956 ' 7 3.080 0.058 0.015 0.468 0.5 0.111 0.5 0.8 for mm ' (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.066 0.207 0.064 0.606 0.431 0.891 ' TABLE 18-III-T—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR AN EDGE LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY KAOLINITE CLAY SOIL (70 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.256 0.076 0.347 0.441 0.444 0.111 0.055 0.011 0. 70 3 3.150 0.398 0.044 0.026 0.042 0.074 0.205 0.460 0.7 0.7 0.170 0.143 0.014 0.023 0.245 ' 3.070 0.457 0.134 ' 3.028 0.292 0. 7 ft.260 0.7 0.198 0.044 0.675 0.189 0.5 0.598 0.341 0.235 0.8 0.117 ' 7 3.113 0.2 0.424 0.181 0.015 0.534 0.210 0.491 ' 3.007 0.162 0. 3 ft.144 0.375 0.167 0.067 0.209 0.163 0.259 0.042 0.129 0.708 0.067 0.132 0.239 0.084 0.169 0.092 0.298 0.079 0.360 0.191 0.129 0.5 0.438 0.141 0.170 0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.011 0.054 0.043 0.636 0.234 ' 3.006 0.172 0.040 0.047 0.268 0.4 0.289 0.038 0.5 0.101 ' 3.400 0.087 0.7 0.246 0.074 0.351 0.311 0.7 0.049 0.177 0.

074 3.078 0.152 0.359 0.8 for mm  (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.028 0.539 0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.5 0.609 0.264 0.399 0.7 0.4 0.047 0.519 0.243  0.145 3.487 0.110 0.037 0.5 0.789 0.145 0.701 3.252 0.7 0.007 0.145 0.057 0.035 0.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.6 0.183 0.161 0.112 0.600 0.108  0.064 0.365 0.076 0.071 0.010 1.010 0.062 0.7 0.7 0.360 0.5 0.199 0.486 3.036 0.020 0.176 0.313 0.886 0. 3 ft.014 0.328 0.583 3.5 0.210 0.7 0.298  0.796 0.5 0.068 0.193 0.203 0.333 0.233 0.049 0.067 0.5 0.024 0.5 0.058 0. 40 3 3. 5 ft.424 0.253 0.046 0.451  0.258 0.7 0.133 0.021 0.5 0.029 0.066 0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.300 0.294 0.535  0.390 5 3.453 0.052 0.6 0.7 0.081 0.227 0.227 3.7 0.184 0.121 0.149 0.472 0.033 0.2 0.6 0.123 0.168 0.8 0. 6 ft.110 0.600 0.160  0.078  0.706 0.219 0.563 5 3.161 0.045 0.015 0.880 1.006 0.7 0.014 0.048 0.4 0.125 0.216 0.081 0.030 0.053 0.158 0.041 0.038 0.683 0.041 0.184 0.087 0.7 0.083 0.021 0.100 0.117 0.413 0.222 0.703 0.128 0.762 0.030 0.127 0.019 1.7 0.097 0.5 0.327 0.039 0.020 0.138 0. 7 ft.514 0.157 0.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.2 0.007 0.084 0.242 0.088 0.882  TABLE 18-III-V—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR AN EDGE LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY ILLITE CLAY SOIL (40 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.456 0. 6 ft.288 0.208  0.117 0.866 0.127 0. 2 ft.210 0.6 0.051 0.356 0.7 0.372 0.039 0.4 0. 8 ft.186 0.015 0.746  0.7 0.206 0.065 0.208 0.430  0.317 0.273  2–73 .5 0.7 0.149 1.078 0.129 0. 2 ft.946 7 3.7 0.041 0.061 0.278 0. 4 ft.073 0.164 3.059 0.149 0.089 0.107 0.5 0.439 0.699 0.027 0.381 0.016 0.7 0.015 0.668  0.037 0.131 0.094 0.777 0.5 0.129 0.5 0.074 0.7 0.250 0.313 0.289 0.040 0.022 0.2 0.654 0.113 0.4 0.102 0.079 0.300 3.208 0.7 0.5 0.331 0.292 0.481 0. 8 ft.373 0.659 0.337 0.5 0.224 0.163 0.051 3.103 0.027 0.7 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.063 0.154 0.276 0.507 0.031 0.7 0.155 0.985 1.010 0.083 0.452 0.065 0.) (inches/month) × 304.120  0.328 3.2 0.122 0.158 0.177 0.015 0.187 0.150 0.054 0.390 0.231  0.112 0.075  0.229 0.103 0.029 0.161 0.539 0.333 0.076 0.067 0.396 0.058 0.112 0.058 0.286 0.096 0.042 0.175 0.044 0.199 0.8 0.572 0.019 0.027 0. 4 ft.033 0.059 0.7 0.043 0.6 0.965  0.281 0.202 0. 30 3 3.073 0.034 0.8 0.032 0.528 0.7 0.227 0.5 0.404 3.290 0.257 1.114 3.145 0.023 0.286 3.5 0.098 0.045 0.871 0.5 0.071 0.021 0.487 0.119 0.113 0.255 0.149 0.085 0.135 0.279 0.371  0.091 0.144 0.5 0.5 0.405 0.563 0.081 0.364 0.143 0.208 3.166 0.029 0.172 0.048 0.2 0.288 0.312  0.384 0.419 0.056 0.144  0.030 0.091 0.139 1.168  0.054 0.058 0. 7 ft.220 0.634 0.417 0.613 0.022 0.2 0.216 0.019 0.366 7 3.158 0.262 0.071 0.198 3.047 0.092 0.083  0.038 0.527 0.066 0.4 for × 304.4 0.110 0.106 0.4 for × 304.054 0.011 0.044 0.177 0.096 0.130 0.518 0.060 0.194 0.096 0.1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 18-III-U TABLE 18-III-V TABLE 18-III-U—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR AN EDGE LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY ILLITE CLAY SOIL (30 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.049 0.011 0.026 0.089 0.239 0.731 0.100 3. 3 ft.8 for mm  (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.092 0.149 0.105 0.272 0. 5 ft.5 0.360 0.378 0.) (inches/month) × 304.866 1.217 0.6 0.294 0.266 0.084 0.217 0.

193 0.331 0.172 0.7 0.740 0.429 ' 3.956 1.7 0.7 0.062 0.748 0.512 0.486 0.870 1. 7 ft.194 0. 3 ft.545 0.026 0.195 0.356 0.430 1.032 0.5 0.463 ' 3.619 0.5 0.106 0.398 1.055 0.838 0. 4 ft. 5 ft.7 0.700 0.2 0.207 0.8 0.644 1.064 1.616 0.025 0.099 0.7 0.177 0.350 0.274 0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.023 0.147 0.234 ' 3.522 0.7 0.4 0.106 0.060 0.761 0.2 0.685 0.7 0.465 0.837 0.255 1.851 1.4 0.450 0.471 0.5 0.2 0.412 0.644 0.2 0.012 0.047 0.530 ' 3.132 1.056 0.7 0.286 0.138 0.096 0.) (inches/month) × 304.645 1.672 0.361 0.099 0.5 0.474 0.654 0.7 0.093 0.134 0.8 0.) (inches/month) × 304.231 0.147 0.138 0.664 TABLE 18-III-X—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR AN EDGE LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY ILLITE CLAY SOIL (60 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.736 ' 5 3.171 0.100 0.231 1.092 0.196 0.505 0.909 ' 5 3.103 0.077 0.173 0.158 1.376 0.332 1.924 1.305 0.173 0.121 0.174 0.297 0.188 0.016 1.097 ' 3.534 0.582 0.7 0.165 0.494 0.207 0.5 0.080 0.4 0.365 0.601 0.415 0.374 0.208 0.189 0.353 0. 2 ft.864 0.5 0.148 0.207 0.5 0.127 0.393 0.548 0.5 0. TABLE 18-III-W 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 18-III-X TABLE 18-III-W—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR AN EDGE LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY ILLITE CLAY SOIL (50 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.133 ' 3.153 0.2 0.777 0.054 0.061 0.6 0.143 0.694 0.076 0.223 0.297 0.135 1.997 1. 60 3 3.2 0.292 0. 8 ft.432 0.013 0.286 0.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.919 1.501 0.366 0.132 1.075 0.057 0.7 0.229 0.554 0.917 ' 3.039 0.050 0.4 for × 304.5 0.055 2–74 .485 ' 3. 6 ft.762 ' 3.067 0.214 0.318 0.829 0.678 0.611 0.730 0.320 1.075 0.116 0.736 0.588 0.8 for mm ' (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.861 1.7 0.219 0.290 0.490 1.062 0.077 0.215 ' 3.313 0.190 0.7 0.240 0.159 0.016 0.020 0.119 0.134 0.112 0.615 0.283 0.636 0.097 0.037 0.629 0. 6 ft.093 0. 5 ft.4 0.677 0.181 1.225 0.126 0.261 ' 0.540 0.296 0.087 0.376 0.234 0.260 0.135 0.130 0.168 0.398 0.5 0.786 0.728 0.156 0.150 1.092 0.382 0.241 0.156 0.240 0.009 0.562 0. 4 ft.334 0. 2 ft.408 0.282 0.7 0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.392 ' 3.125 0.6 0.208 0.265 ' 3.036 0.212 0.5 0.409 0.241 0.667 0.255 0.274 0.288 1.211 0.071 0.029 0.856 2.079 0.158 0.272 0.7 0.303 0.4 0.6 0.283 0.498 0.034 0.272 0.5 0.109 0.169 0.114 0.028 0.083 0.333 0.451 0.7 0.384 0.189 ' 3.038 0.7 0.6 0.303 0.109 0. 8 ft.071 0.055 1. 7 ft.119 ' 3.071 0.5 0.135 0.182 0.107 0.785 ' 7 3.530 0.409 0.830 1.109 0.087 0.128 0.631 1.386 0.4 for × 304.140 0.282 0.048 0.348 0.062 0.336 0.260 0.8 0.854 0.8 0.558 ' 0.180 0.5 0.070 0.077 0.086 0.122 0.256 0.127 0.679 0.337 0.591 0.203 0.278 0.689 0.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.589 0.316 0.476 0.028 0.019 0.339 0.153 0.088 0.050 0.155 0.348 0.908 1.393 0.034 0.057 0.339 0.375 ' 3.591 1.074 0.030 2.021 0.213 0.067 0.376 0.256 0.051 0.045 0.025 0.5 0.941 ' 3.7 0.269 0.240 0.211 0.7 0.674 0.164 0.5 0.485 0. 50 3 3.155 0.7 0.5 0.048 0.054 0.5 0.062 0.5 0.4 0.062 0.024 1.472 0.138 0.044 0.170 0.391 0.5 0.036 0.364 0.428 0.245 0.358 0.6 0.7 0.296 0.529 0.6 0.041 0.465 0.8 for mm ' (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.182 0.5 0.141 0.840 2.263 0.114 0.5 0.085 0.205 ' 7 3.7 0. 3 ft.503 1.104 0.123 0.704 0.149 0.044 0.067 0.421 1.045 0.439 0.

831 0.072 0.636 0.941 2.068 0.998 1.467  0.062 0.2 0.369 0.815 0.153 0.297 0.2 0.170  0.079 0.459 0.260 0.631 3.573 0.414 0.142 3.331 0.068 0.7 0.036 0.354 0.572 3.120 3.906 0.551 3.062 0.013 0.022 0.8 0.266 1.634 0.5 0.308 0.044 0.144 0.083 0.879  0.597 0.699 0.436 0. 70 3 3.447  TABLE 18-III-Z—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR AN EDGE LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY MONTMORILLONITE CLAY SOIL (30 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.110 0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.577 3. 6 ft. 6 ft.182 0.5 0.7 0.564 0.203 0.718 0.426 0.170 0.175 0.397 0.098  0.403 0.8 for mm  (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.929 1.2 0.027 0.024 0.826  0.459 5 3.079 0.084 0.5 0.625 7 3.4 0.348 3.030 0.104 0.352 0.080 0.032 0.068 0.4 0.) (inches/month) × 304.095 0.737 0.185 0.235 0.190 2.448 0.252 0.181 0.430 0.465 0.340 0.5 0.234 0.107 0.029  0.190 0.894 2.577 0.248 0.092 0.7 0.732 0.5 0.958 2.360 0.042 0.036 0.247 0.036 1.147 0.8 0.7 0.102 0.4 0.050 0.056 0.198  0.722 0.419 0.195 0.029 0.053 0.202 0.294 0.039 0.132 0.111 0.396 0.523 0.996 1.400  0.224 0.7 0.303 0.304 0.346 0.5 0.222 0.4 for × 304.351 1.230  0.038  2–75 .065 0.805 0.245 0.228 0.706 0.7 0.2 0.7 0.074 0.5 0.058 0.184 0.160 0.108 0.074 0.5 0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.279 0.150 0.164 0.038 0.486 0.706 0.048 0.270 0.105 0.4 0.385 0.086 0.5 0.7 0.041 0.854  0.779 0.018 0.7 0.437  0.209 2.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.2 0.4 0.5 0.099 0.5 0.4 0.420 0.869 0.124 0.160 0.105 0.6 0.079 0. 3 ft.423 0.7 0.6 0.128 0. 7 ft.084 0.537 0.016 0.7 0.129 0.141 0.176 0.122 0.208 0.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.5 0. 5 ft.313 0.071 0.5 0.171 0.012 0.207  0.622 0.5 0.067 0. 5 ft.092 0.057 0.6 0.267 0.168 0.517 0.490 0.238 0.170 0.017 0.7 0.313 0.118 0.691 1.255 0.186 0.794 0.430 0.5 0.038 0.066 0.171 0.058 0.7 0.824 0.136 0.095 0.031 0.017 0.715 0.925 1.6 0.088  0.118 3.7 0.054 0.176 0.337 0.131 0.104 0.025 1.225 0.401 0.6 0.6 0.039 0.7 0.241 0.028 0.013 1.112 0.034 0.361  0.664 1. 4 ft.7 0.368  0.459 0.143 0.330 0.494 1.185 0.259 0.5 0.219 1.465 1.053 0.126 0.5 0.5 0.049 0.342 0.008 0.146 0.099 1.216 0.028 0. 7 ft.417 0.804 0.445  0.475 3.121 0.255 0.315 3.217 0.188 0.197 0.4 for × 304.177 0.205 0.070 0. 8 ft.417 2.024 0.060 0.006 0.087 0.082 5 3.7 0.046 0.5 0.7 0.935 1.533 0.019 0.553 0.234 3.2 0.072  0.311 0.235 0.1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 18-III-Y TABLE 18-III-Z TABLE 18-III-Y—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR AN EDGE LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY ILLITE CLAY SOIL (70 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.012 0.664 1.099 0.074 0.610 0.150 0.041 0.109 0. 3 ft.466 0.305 0.114 0.014 0.206 0.054 0.256 1.092 0.064 0.702 1.305 0.340 0.7 0.245 3.5 0.129 0.285 0.415 0.114 7 3.118 0.309 0.047 0.537 0.268 3.089 0.177 0.039 0.392 0.265 0.8 0.423 0.802 1.601 0.692 0.287 0.8 for mm  (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.403 0. 8 ft.563 0.196 0. 4 ft.937 1.091 0.630 0.278 3.081 1.562 0.) (inches/month) × 304.150 0. 30 3 3.866  0. 2 ft.178 0.075 0.092 0.060 3.787  0.439 0.7 0.133 0.129 0.326 0.7 0.5 0.406 1.078 0.042 0.767 1.023 0.034 0.155 0.535 0.026 0.151 0.030 0.727 1. 2 ft.134 3.044 0.189  0.078 0.8 0.988 1.062 0.310 0.116 0.7 0.239 0.5 0.354 0.227 0.161 0.136 0.086 0.337 0.

152 0.268 0.772 0.019 0.431 0.5 0.224 0.274 0.056 0.023 0.618 0.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25. 8 ft.048 0.970 ' 2–76 .218 0.4 for × 304.465 ' 3.339 ' 3.217 0. 7 ft.064 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.) (inches/month) × 304.421 0.284 0.375 0.753 0.049 0.7 0.047 1.100 0.163 0.340 1.5 0.101 0.7 0.040 1.501 0.163 0.087 ' 3.032 0.7 0.479 0.358 0.045 0.031 0.299 0.113 0.054 0.5 0.8 for mm ' (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.068 0.023 1.129 0.871 0.689 ' 3.180 1.563 0.079 0.533 0.633 0. 50 3 3.361 0.138 0.577 1.656 0.041 0. 40 3 3.829 0.391 0.285 0.698 0.343 0.7 0.044 0.246 0.2 0. 3 ft.7 0.7 0.676 0.649 0.665 0.073 0.7 0.388 ' 3.245 0.614 ' 7 3.122 0.302 0.355 0.493 0.4 0.287 0.231 0.834 1.637 0.323 0.346 0.452 0.981 1.491 0.049 0.504 ' TABLE 18-III-BB—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR AN EDGE LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY MONTMORILLONITE CLAY SOIL (50 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.614 0.084 0.369 0.078 0.613 0.576 0.590 0.627 0.099 0.072 0.148 0.089 0.026 0.563 1.009 0.192 0.203 0.668 0.181 0.5 0.248 0.140 0.089 0.325 0.138 0.176 0.034 0.074 0.040 0.244 0. 8 ft.115 ' 3.831 1.035 0.064 0.329 0.330 0.6 0.6 0.158 0.4 0.5 0.095 0.871 ' 5 3.286 0.371 1.114 ' 7 3.110 0.387 0.033 0.585 0.370 0.607 0.864 1.274 0.557 0.056 0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.175 0.095 0. 6 ft.187 0.512 0.255 0.093 0.194 ' 3.507 0.141 0.5 0.103 0.071 0. 5 ft.245 0. 6 ft.8 0.5 0.6 0.194 0.5 0.060 0.056 0.101 0.5 0. 5 ft.116 0.446 0.252 0.375 0.117 0.018 0.163 0.191 0.064 0.7 0.052 0.700 0.149 0.088 1.067 0.321 0.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.077 0. 4 ft.816 1.137 0.254 ' 3.109 0.193 1.133 0.046 0.153 0.023 1.129 0.059 0.5 0.248 0.6 0.256 0.185 0.5 0.090 0.164 1.885 1.2 0.128 0.076 0.025 0.2 0.176 0.4 for × 304.362 1.7 0.187 0.067 0.224 ' 3.207 0.073 0.132 1.486 1.525 1.088 0.099 0.205 0.7 0.347 1.055 0.5 0.070 0.779 1.447 0.086 ' 3.246 0.804 0.199 0.148 0.084 0.160 0.074 0.114 0.092 0.188 0.764 1.426 0.8 0.217 0.2 0.796 1.7 0.7 0.347 0.594 0.902 ' 3.157 0.730 0.187 0.121 0.8 0.453 0.5 0.150 0.340 0.450 0.946 2.093 0.484 0. 2 ft.433 0.534 0.155 0.430 0. 4 ft.020 1.5 0.829 ' 3.5 0.052 0.4 0.351 0.152 0.012 1.143 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.144 0.271 0.345 0.334 0.249 0.024 0.494 0.033 0.052 0.472 0.204 1.033 0.802 0.745 0.255 0.2 0.901 1.7 0.114 0.919 1.575 0.335 0.665 0.109 0.025 0.275 0.) (inches/month) × 304.057 0.258 0.165 0.376 0.274 0.107 0.2 0.495 0. 3 ft.126 0.7 0.084 0.7 0.7 0.181 0.340 0.779 0.167 0.016 0.7 0.042 0.440 0.7 0.262 0.5 0.445 0.171 ' 3.339 0.319 0.209 0.358 1.024 0.204 1.568 0.130 0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.5 0.290 0.267 0.334 0.132 0.508 ' 3.204 0.558 0.011 0.285 0.443 ' 3. 7 ft.098 0.8 for mm ' (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.230 0.125 0.639 0.035 0.391 0.190 0.4 0.171 0.6 0.125 0.646 0.200 0.4 0.454 0.213 0.250 0.141 0.465 0. 2 ft.395 0.7 0.5 0.012 0.4 0.061 0. TABLE 18-III-AA 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 18-III-BB TABLE 18-III-AA—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR AN EDGE LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY MONTMORILLONITE CLAY SOIL (40 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.283 0.245 0.221 0.068 0.118 0.022 0.017 0.355 ' 3.325 0.8 0.749 0.488 0.508 0.341 1.665 ' 5 3.264 0.105 0.046 0.174 0.133 0.322 0.7 0.043 0.045 0.210 0.125 0.064 0.037 0.084 0.7 0.623 0.

172 1.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.206  0.246 0.339 0.071 0.7 0.266 0.554  0.303 0.367 0.5 0.109 0.510 0.575 3.031 1.117 0.4 0.724 1.029 0.100 0.847  0. 8 ft.830 0.657 1.041 0. 4 ft.7 0.146 0.598 0.886 2. 3 ft.251 1.921 1.2 0.5 0.823  0.244 0.160 0.233 0. 6 ft.251 0.669 0.202 0.5 0.048 0.035 0.329 3.151 0.019 0.399 0.123 0.5 0.415 0.343 3.284 5 3.131 0.087 0.5 0. 4 ft.173 0.110 0.8 for mm  (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.030 0.548 3.219 0.533 0.992 1.5 0.115 3.109 0.933 2.697 0.2 0.094 0.104 0.459 1.668 2.577 0.5 0.155 0.903  2–77 .607 0.207 0.502 1.5 0.256 0.050 0.5 0.336 0.116 0.041 0.162 0.822 0.402 0.4 for × 304.420 0.434 0.7 0.8 0.724 0.) (inches/month) × 304.684 3.190 0.084 0.551 0.188 0.267 0.314 0.286 0.6 0.229  0.277 3.205 0.603 1.309 0.114 7 3.) (inches/month) × 304.458 0.090 0. 2 ft.7 0.216 0.488 1.113 0.492 0.479 0.6 0.7 0.637 0.138 0.633 0.303 0.135 0.713 0.097 1.304 1.5 0.446 0.160 0.084 0.950 2.108 0.955 1.077 5 3.7 0.125 0.262 1. 7 ft.221 0.582 0.278 0.309 0.330 0.028  0.063  0.8 for mm  (%) (pF) mm/month 1 ft.142 3.506 0.614 7 3.5 0.184 0.413 0.174 0.458  0.437  TABLE 18-III-DD—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR AN EDGE LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY MONTMORILLONITE CLAY SOIL (70 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.169 3.200 2.419 0.5 0.2 0.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.2 0.690 0.109 0.395 0.398  0.247 2.984 1.223 0.802 0.016 0.747 0.240 0.545 0.352 0.531 0.598 2.261 1.286 0. 2 ft.174 0.7 0.223 0.254 0.083 0.106 0.8 0.433  0.754 0.374 3.903 0. 70 3 3.091 0.183 0.118 0.6 0.077 1.303 2.202 0.666 0.407 2.418 0.073 0.484 0.470 0.7 0.331 0.849 0.246  0.186 0.056 0.088 0.994 1.077 0.303 0.551 0.6 0.400 1. 5 ft.552 0.177 0.528  0.371 0.5 0.032 0.330 3.7 0.351 0.865 0.685 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.7 0.428 0.066 0.025  0.293 0.303 0.074 0.241 0.790 0.490 1.931 1.060 0.283 1.098 0. 7 ft.258 0.189 0.5 0.656 0.341 0.980  0.7 0.5 0.202 0.127 0.425 0.240 0.191 0.5 0.517 0.799 1.635 0.729 0.042 0.314 3.219 0.2 0.071 0.229 1.233 0.748 3.145 0.054 0.210 0.031 1.403 0.136 0.7 0.075 1.5 0.7 0.224 0.064 0.311 0.147 0.628 3.052 0.179 0. 60 3 3.038 0.656 1.104 0.140 0.475  0.195 0.7 0.7 0.067 0.739 1.308 0.393 0.479 0.951 1.200  0.875 1.4 for × 304.027 0.045 0.862 1.214 1.079 0.684 1.368 0.419 0.402 0.195 0.8 for mm PERCENT CONSTANT CLAY SUCTION × 25.068 0.284 0.4 for mm DEPTH TO CONSTANT VELOCITY OF Edge Distance Penetration SUCTION MOISTURE FLOW (ft.712 0.942 1.492 0.653 3.863  0.734 0.048 0.499 0.658 1.775 0.400 0.159 0.182 1.764 1.149 0.6 0.621 2.465  0.7 0.057 0.124 0.559 0.910 1.259 0.184 1.014 0.323 2.264 0.163 0.494 0.151 0.5 0.812 0. 3 ft.079 0.475 0.129 0.339 0.161 0.695 1.463 0.135 0.773 2.1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 18-III-CC TABLE 18-III-DD TABLE 18-III-CC—DIFFERENTIAL SWELL OCCURRING AT THE PERIMETER OF A SLAB FOR AN EDGE LIFT SWELLING CONDITION IN PREDOMINANTLY MONTMORILLONITE CLAY SOIL (60 PERCENT CLAY) DIFFERENTIAL SWELL (inch) × 25.124 0.2 0.095 1.8 0.020 2.4 0.4 0.7 0.294 0.627 0. 8 ft.867 3.427 0.974 2.345 1.4 0.079 0.869 0.361 0.094 0.181 2.090 0.062 0.575 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.006 2.5 0.099 0.7 0.562 0.065 0.215 0.009 1.221  0.5 0.8 0.359 0.521 0.361 0.967 1.620 0.488 0.7 0.413 0. 5 ft.535 0.091 0.273  0.110 1.975 2.299 0.036 0.600 3.184 0.361 0.924 1.023 0. 6 ft.247 0.169 0.446 1.277 0.352 0.6 0.

96 0.920 Prefab Roof Trusses1 1.C.8 73 .5 41.000 2.06 21.2 31 .0 50.5 16.0 32.84 0.4 0.2 26.000 1Trusses that clearspan the full length or width of the foundation from edge to edge.0 25./100 gm) CEAC PREDOMINANT CLAY MINERAL SOIL PERCENT Flame Correlation Flame Correlation Flame Correlation X-ray Defraction SAMPLE CLAY PL PI Photometer Equation AC Photometer Equation Photometer Equation Analysis 31-02 33.01 21.0 43.1 20.17 Smectite Smectite Smectite 86-08 47.77 0.6 18.02 28.6 0.1 36.43 1.80 Smectite Smectite Smectite 72-06 50.5 26.0 72 .06 71.2 53 .79 0.7 0.8 71.E.7 7.6 28.4 72.84 1. (meq.08 45.TABLE 18-III-EE 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE TABLE 18-III-GG TABLE 18-III-EE—COMPARISON OF METHODS OF DETERMINING CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY (meq/100gm) SOIL SAMPLE Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer1 01 .0 1Bausch & Lomb “Spectronic-20.4 45.05 14.9 86 .2 26.” TABLE 18-III-FF—COMPARISON OF CLAY MINERAL DETERMINATION METHODS ATTERBERG LIMITS C.4 58.92 Smectite Smectite Smectite TABLE 18-III-GG—SAMPLE VALUES C∆ MATERIAL CENTER LIFT EDGE LIFT Wood Frame 240 480 Stucco or Plaster 360 720 Brick Veneer 480 960 Concrete Masonry Units 960 1. 2–78 .

1 0.000 SLAB REINFORCING 5.2 0.1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE FIGURE 18-III-1 FIGURE 18-III-1 6.000 0 0.4 0.45 for N) 3.6 (1-C) FIGURE 18-III-1—(1-C) VERSUS As fy 2–79 .000 2.000 As fy (× 4.5 0.c.3 0.000 NOTE: Maximum bar spacing 18 inches (457 mm) o.000 4.0 0. 1.

0 1.0 Co 0.6 1.0 CS 1.6 0.2 1.8 0.4 0.9 for kPa) FIGURE 18-III-2—UNCONFINED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH VERSUS OVERCONSOLIDATED CORRECTION COEFFICIENT 2.2 0 4 8 12 16 20 UNCONFINED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (qu ) KSF (x 47.8 1.FIGURE 18-III-2 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE FIGURE 18-III-3 2.0 0 10 20 30 SLOPE % (OF NATURAL GROUND) FIGURE 18-III-3—SLOPE OF NATURAL GROUND VERSUS SLOPE CORRECTION COEFFICIENT 2–80 .4 1.

S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 40 WEATHER BUREAU 45 35 40 30 35 30 30 35 40 45 25 20 45 15 40 35 30 25 35 30 30 25 35 20 25 15 FIGURE 18-III-4—CLIMATIC RATING (CW ) CHART 2–81 .1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE FIGURE 18-III-4 FIGURE 18-III-4 45 U.

6 .5 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 L or L′ FIGURE 18-III-5—L or L′ VERSUS k 2–82 .9 .FIGURE 18-III-5 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE FIGURE 18-III-5 1.7 .8 k .0 .

5 .6 1-C FIGURE 18-III-6—1-C VERSUS CANTILEVER LENGTH (lc) 2–83 .1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE FIGURE 18-III-6 FIGURE 18-III-6 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 Ic 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 .1 .3 .4 .2 .

1 .3 .5 .FIGURE 18-III-7 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE FIGURE 18-III-7 30 SPACING (s) IN FEET 20 (x 304.6 1-C FIGURE 18-III-7—1-C VERSUS MAXIMUM BEAM SPACING 2–84 .4 .2 .8 for mm) 10 0 0 .

1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE FIGURE 18-III-8 FIGURE 18-III-8 0.5 0.2 30 35 0.1 40 0 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 PI FIGURE 18-III-8—PI VERSUS (1-C) 2–85 .6 0.4 15 1-C 0.3 Cw 20 25 0.

FACTOR = 1 ELEV.0 PI 60 1 FT. FACTOR = 3 PI 70 2 FT. 0 IN.FIGURE 18-III-9 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE FIGURE 18-III-9 ELEV.0 WT. 10. 0 IN. 0 IN.0 ELEV. WT.0 6 FT. 3. ELEV. 15. 0 IN.0 Weight Factor Depth F D F×D PI F × D × PI 3 3 9 30 = 270 3 2 6 70 = 420 2 4 8 70 = 560 2 1 2 60 = 120 1 5 5 60 = 300 30 1670 Weighted PI = 1670/30 = 55. 15.0 ELEV. 0 IN. 9. FACTOR = 2 ELEV. 4 FT.00 GROUND SURFACE PI 30 3 FT. WT.67 = 56. ELEV. 6 FT. 5 FT. 0.67 FIGURE 18-III-9—DETERMINING THE WEIGHTED PLASTICITY INDEX (PI) 2–86 . 5. 0 IN. 0 IN.

1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE FIGURE 18-III-10 FIGURE 18-III-10 SLAB 1 COMBINED SLABS SLAB 2 FIGURE 18-III-10—SLAB SEGMENTS AND COMBINED 2–87 .

FIGURE 18-III-11 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE FIGURE 18-III-11 1 1 2 2 1 3 2 FIGURE 18-III-11—DESIGN RECTANGLES FOR SLABS OF IRREGULAR SHAPE ' 2–88 .

1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE FIGURE 18-III-12 FIGURE 18-III-12 20 100 100 100 0 0 0 0 20 –20 20 20 20 –20 0 20 0 –40 80 –20 –20 60 40 –20 10 40 0 60 80 0 20 –20 40 40 20 80 100 –40 –20 0 20 80 0 –20 –20 40 80 100 –20 20 40 60 0 –20 80 20 –40 60 –40 –20 0 02 20 20 0 40 20 –40 0 0 20 0 20 –20 60 60 100 –40 –20 –20 –40 –20 40 80 –20 20 40 –20 –20 100 0 80 –20 –20 –20 –20 40 –20 0 –20 –20 100 60 –20 40 40 –20 –20 20 –20 0 0 20 –40 –20 –20 –40 –40 40 40 20 20 20 20 –40 0 –20 FIGURE 18-III-12—THORNTHWAITE MOISTURE INDEX DISTRIBUTION IN THE UNITED STATES 2–89 .

1955-1974) 2–90 .FIGURE 18-III-13-1 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE FIGURE 18-III-13-1 –20 Amarillo –20 –10 10 30 50 50 –20 0 20 40 –20 40 –30 Dallas Abilene –40 Odessa El Paso –40 Bryan Austin Houston 30 –30 –40 San Antonio 20 –30 10 0 –10 –20 –30 –40 –40 –30 FIGURE 18-III-13-1—THORNTHWAITE MOISTURE INDEX DISTRIBUTION FOR TEXAS (20-YEAR AVERAGE.

1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE FIGURE 18-III-13-2 FIGURE 18-III-13-2 100 20 0 –20 0 –20 100 0 20 –40 –20 –20 0 –20 –40 –20 0 0 –20 –20 –40 –20 FIGURE 18-III-13-2—THORNTHWAITE MOISTURE INDEX DISTRIBUTION IN CALIFORNIA 2–91 .

0 <–30 –20 –10 0 +10 +20 >+30 THORNTHWAITE MOISTURE INDEX FIGURE 18-III-14—APPROXIMATE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THORNTHWAITE INDEX AND MOISTURE VARIATION DISTANCE 2–92 .8 for mm) 3 2 EDGE LIFT NOTE: The existence of extremely active clays has been reported. the above curves should be used only in conjunction with a site-specific soils investigation by geotechnical engineers knowledgeable about local soils conditions. These clays may generate larger values of edge moisture variation 1 distance and consequently larger values of vertical movement than reflected by the above curves and related tables.FIGURE 18-III-14 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE FIGURE 18-III-14 6 5 EDGE MOISTURE VARIATION DISTANCE. 4 CENTER LIFT em FT. (× 304. For this reason.

CEAC 0.6 0.1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE FIGURE 18-III-15 FIGURE 18-III-15 2.4 0.2 HALLOYSITE CHLORITE KAOLINITE 0.4 ATTAPULGITE ILLITE 0.5 3.0 1.0 1.8 1.8 0.6 INTERSTRATIFIED 0.5 MONTMORILLONITE 1. AC FIGURE 18-III-15—CLAY TYPE CLASSIFICATION TO CATION EXCHANGE AND CLAY ACTIVITY RATIO AFTER PEARRING AND HOLT 2–93 .1 0.2 0.0 CATION EXCHANGE ACTIVITY.0 ACTIVITY RATIO.1 0.

pf 4 3 2 1 0 –60 –50 –40 –30 –20 –10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 THORNTHWAITE MOISTURE INDEX ' FIGURE 18-III-16—VARIATION OF CONSTANT SOIL SUCTION WITH THORNTHWAITE INDEX 2–94 . FIGURE 18-III-16 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE FIGURE 18-III-16 7 6 5 SOIL SUCTION.

4 ATTAPULGITE ILLITE 0. AC Flame photometer Equation 86–08 Sample no.0 ACTIVITY RATIO.0 1.8 1.5 72–06 MONTMORILLONITE 86–08 1.2 0.8 INTERSTRATIFIED 0.1 0.4 0.2 HALLOYSITE CHORITE KAOLINITE 0. FIGURE 18-III-17—COMPARISON OF CLAY MINERAL DETERMINATION USING ATOMIC ABSORPTION AND CORRELATION EQUATIONS 2–95 .0 1.6 0. CEAC 0.0 31–02 CATION EXCHANGE ACTIVITY.1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE FIGURE 18-III-17 FIGURE 18-III-17 2.1 0.5 3.

Weigh the fraction retained on the 3-inch (76 mm) sieve. 200 (75 than the 3-inch (76 mm) sieve and shall be obtained as follows: µm) sieve.102 — APPARATUS Select test samples from the material passing the 3-inch (76 mm) sieve for the determination of particle-size characteristics. such as GW-GC or the test sample is retained on the No. Extracted. or clayey sand. from the Annual Book of ASTM Standards. dark brown to black color. that is. Classify the sample as clayey gravel. S. and organic odor mulative particle size distribution curve. if either the Cu or the Cz criteria for SECTION 18. and separate portion of the test sample passing the No. if the the percentage of plus 3-inch (76 mm) material in the field sample results of the limits tests show that the fines are silty. determine the liquid limit and the plasticity index of a Air dry the field sample. Procedure for the determination of percentage finer than the No. 200 (75 µm) sieve. GW. a pedologic horizon or a location description D 10 with respect to a permanent monument. the and note this percentage as auxiliary information. cordance with approved methods. if 50 percent or more of the coarse fraction [plus No. From the material passing the 3-inch (76 mm) sieve. PA 19428 See Sections 1801. if SECTION 18. Classify the soil as fine-grained if 50 percent or more of the test sample passes the No. and coeffi- cient of curvature. 4 (75 mm) sieve. CLASSIFICATION OF COARSE-GRAINED SOILS (MORE THAN 50 PERCENT RETAINED) SECTION 18. (In doubtful cases the rule is to favor the less plastic clas- 3–327 . 200 (75 Thin-walled Tube Sampling of Soils. should be designated as a highly organic soil. select a the “A” line or falls above the “A” line but the plasticity index is in test sample and determine the percentage of the test sample finer the range of 4 to 7. (A soil which is composed pri. Compute Classify the sample as silty gravel. compute the coefficient of uniformity. Determine the cumulative particle-size lowing tests and procedures: Preparation of soil samples. the soil should be given a borderline classifica- than the No. the 200 (75 µm) sieve is as follows: plot of liquid limit versus plasticity index falls on or practically on 1.1. SM. such as GM-GC or SM-SC. SP. SC. liquid Apparatus of an approved type shall be used to perform the fol. if more than 50 percent of the coarse fraction [plus No.75 mm) sieve.105 — PRELIMINARY CLASSIFICATION the fines are clayey.) sieve.) sand. G. Cz  (18-1-2) D 10  D 60 The sample should also be described in accordance with an ap- proved visual-manual procedure. and for If less than 5 percent of the test sample passed the No. 200 (75 µm) sieve. the plot of liquid limit versus plasticity PROCEDURE index falls above the “A” line and the plasticity index is greater than 7. Cz . ods for soil investigation and sampling by auger borings. 200 (75 µm) sieve] is retained on the No. than 4. and not sub. limit test. that is. West Conshohocken. Uniform Building Code SECTION 18. Classify the sample as sand. a grid system or a station (D 30) 2 number and offset with respect to a stated center line. (This step may be omitted if the tion. D30 and D60 are the particle size diameters corre- marily of undecayed or partially decayed organic matter and has a sponding respectively to 10. liquid limit and SECTION 18. SP-SM. Classify the sample as well-graded gravel. or silty sand. Classify the soil as coarse-grained if more than 50 percent of both its gradation and limit test characteristics. PT. with permission. SW. This standard describes a system for classifying mineral and or- ganomineral soils for engineering purposes based on laboratory determination of particle-size characteristics.103 — SAMPLING 4 (4. as given in Formulas 18-1-1 and 18-1-2: The sample shall be carefully identified as to origin by a boring number and sample number in conjunction with a job number. for Pene- tration Test and Split-barrel Sampling of Soils. limit and plasticity index. and Cz is between 1 and 3. Classify the sample as gravel. If the fines are intermediate between silt and clay. SECTION 18. 200 (75 µm) tion. µm) sieve.104 — TEST SAMPLE well-graded soils are not satisfied. Thoroughly plot of the liquid limit versus plasticity index falls below the “A” mix the fraction passing the 3-inch (76 mm) sieve and select test line (see Plasticity Table 18-1-A) or the plasticity index is less samples. if Cu is greater than 4 for gravel and 6 for sand.2 and 1803. in which D10. weigh the field sample. 200 (75 µm) sieve] passes Sampling shall be conducted in accordance with approved meth. Cu . 200 (75 µm) sieve. GP.101 — SCOPE 3. a D C u  60 (18-1-1) geologic stratum.1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE STANDARD 18-1 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE STANDARD 18-1 SOILS CLASSIFICATION Based on Standard Method D 2487-69 of the American Society for Testing and Materials. 100 Barr Harbor Drive. Test samples shall represent that portion of the field sample finer If more than 12 percent of the test sample passed the No. plastic limit test and particle-size analysis.106 — PROCEDURE FOR plasticity index. the No. the soil should be given a borderline classification based on 2. GC. 30 and 60 percent passing on the cu- fibrous texture. liquid distribution of the fraction coarser than the No. 200 (75 µm) sieve. soil can obviously be classified as fine-grained by visual inspec. GM. or well-graded jected to the classification procedures described hereafter. If 5 to 12 percent of the test sample passed the No. that is. copyright American Society for Testing and Materials. 40 (425 µm) sieve in ac- the field sample into two fractions on a 3-inch (76 mm) sieve. Classify the sample as poorly graded gravel. or poorly graded sand.

micaceous or diatomaceous fine sands or silts. gravelly clays. or as organic silt or silt-clay of low taining organic matter or irreversible mineral colloids. gravel-sand-silt mixtures GRAINED WITH FINES SOILS GC Clayey gravels. C. if the plot of liquid limit tic classification. In order to indicate their borderline characteristics. CLASSIFICATION OF FINE-GRAINED SOILS Classify the soil as organic silt or clay. Example: A gravel with 10 percent fines. sand-clay mixtures Inorganic silts. Table 18-1-A. 40 (425 µm) sieve. versus plasticity index falls above the “A” line and the plasticity MH. O. ML. fat clays OH Organic clays of medium to high plasticity Highly Organic Soils PT Peat. if the plot of liquid limit Classify the soil as inorganic silt of medium to high plasticity. retained on No. sand-silt mixtures WITH FINES SC Clayey sands.) TABLE 18-1-A—SOIL CLASSIFICATION CHART GROUP MAJOR DIVISIONS SYMBOLS TYPICAL NAMES CLEAN GW Well-graded gravels and gravel-sand mixtures. or as or- dex. as MH and OH on the Plasticity Chart of Table 18-1-A. Chart of Table 18-1-A. the plasticity If the plot of liquid limit versus plasticity index falls on or prac- chart may be expanded by maintaining the same scales on both tically on the line liquid limit = 50. if the tically on the “A” line or above the “A” line where the plasticity liquid limit is greater than 50 and the plot of liquid limit versus index is in the range of 4 to 7. little or no fines GRAVELS GRAVELS GP Poorly graded gravels and gravel-sand mixtures. or as organic clay or silt-clay of medium to high plasticity. If the plot of liquid limit versus plasticity index falls on or prac- Classify the soil as inorganic clay of high plasticity. silty clays. doubtful cases the rule for classification is to favor the more plas- Classify the soil as inorganic silt. (In identified as CH on the Plasticity Chart. Classify the soil as inorganic silt of low plasticity. ganic silt of low plasticity. ML. little or no fines 50% or more of coarse fraction COARSE. sus plasticity index falls above the “A” line and the plasticity in. the Plasticity Chart.0. and a plasticity index of 6 would be classified as tentatively classify the soil as organic silt or clay. OH. the soil should be given an ap- axes and extending the “A” line at the indicated slope. MH elastic silts SILTS AND CLAYS Liquid Li id limit li i greater than h 50% CH Inorganic clays of high plasticity. limit exceeds 100 or the plasticity index exceeds 60. The method for wet preparation shall be used for soils con. select a test sample for the determination of the liquid limit and plasticity in. index is greater than 7. OL. if the liquid limit is less than 50 and the plot of liquid limit ver. then Cz of 2. muck and other highly organic soils 1Based on the material passing the 3-inch (76 mm) sieve. the soil should be given an appropri- plasticity index falls above the “A” line. lean clays FINE-GRAINED FINE GRAINED SOILS 50% or more passes OL Organic silts and organic silty clays of low plasticity No 200 (75 µm) No.) If the soil has a dark color and an organic odor when moist and warm. Classify the soil as inorganic clay.75 mm)) sieve GRAVELS GM Silty gravels. sandy CL clays. a second liquid limit test should be performed on a test sam- SECTION 18. See area identified as CL on the Plasticity fine-grained soils should be classified by dual symbols. Example: a fine-grained soil with a liquid limit versus plasticity index falls below the “A” line or if the plasticity of 50 and a plasticity index of 22 would be classified as CH-MH index is less than 4. See area identified CL. 3–328 . In cases where the liquid ate borderline classification such as CL-ML or CH-OH. silty or clayey fine ML sands SILTS AND CLAYS Liquid limit 50% or less Inorganic clays of low to medium plasticity. GW-GM rather than GW-GC. very fine sands. O. some dex is greater than 7. M. No 200 SANDS (75 µm) sieve* sieve SANDS SP Poorly graded sands and gravelly and sands.STANDARD 18-1 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE sification.75 p ( mm)) sieve SANDS SM Silty sands. a present in sufficient amounts to influence the soil properties. See area identified as ML and OL on of the test sample passing the No. plasticity. 4 ((4. unless it is suspected that organic matter is rather than CL-ML. rock flour.107 — PROCEDURE FOR ple which has been oven dried at 110°C ± 5°C for 24 hours. From the material passing the 3-inch (76 mm) sieve. 4 (4. Table 18-1-A. See areas propriate borderline classification such as CL-CH or ML-MH. gravel-sand-clay mixtures More than 50% CLEAN SW Well-graded sands and gravelly sands. versus plasticity index falls below the “A” line. little or no fines retained on No. CH. if the liquid limit is more than 50 and the plot of liquid limit Classify the soil as inorganic clay of low to medium plasticity. if the liquid limit after (50 PERCENT OR MORE PASSING) oven drying is less than three fourths of the liquid limit of the origi- nal sample determined before drying. m) sieve1 Inorganic silts. a Cu of 20. if the liquid limit is less than 50 and the plot of liq- uid limit versus plasticity index falls below the “A” line or the Determine the liquid limit and the plasticity index of a portion plasticity index is less than 4. little or no fines More than 50% of coarse fraction passes No.

GC. 200 (75 µm) sieve GW. CH A-Line 40 Equation of A-line: Plasticity Index PI = 0. SW. 200 (75 µm) sieve GM.73 (LL — 20) 30 CL 20 MH & OH ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ 10 7 4 0 0 10 CL-ML 20 30 40 ML & OL 50 60 70 80 90 100 Liquid Limit Visual-Manual Identification 3–329 . Pass No. SM. SC 5% to 12% Pass No. 200 (75 µm) sieve Borderline Classification Cu = D60/D10 Greater than 6 requiring use of dual symbols (D 30) 3 Cz  D  D Between 1 and 3 10 60 Not meeting both criteria for SW Atterberg limits plot below “A” line or plasticity index Atterberg limits plotting less than 4 in hatched area are bor- derline classifications Atterberg limits plot above requiring use of dual “A” line and plasticity index symbols greater than 7 60 PLASTICITY CHART For classification of fine-grained soils and fine fraction of coarse-grained 50 soils Atterberg limits plotting in hatched area are borderline classifications requiring use of dual symbols.1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE STANDARD 18-1 TABLE 18-1-A—SOIL CLASSIFICATION CHART—(Continued) CLASSIFICATION CRITERIA Cu = D60/D10 Greater than 4 (D 30) 3 Cz = D  D Between 1 and 3 10 60 Not meeting both criteria for GW Atterberg limits plot below “A” line or plasticity index Atterberg limits plotting less than 4 in hatched area are bor- derline classifications Atterberg limits plot below requiring use of dual CLASSIFICATION ON BASIS OF PERCENTAGE OF FINES “A” line and plasticity index symbols Less than 5%. SP greater than 7 More than 12% Pass N. GP.

A metal tamper having a 2-inch-diameter above the top of the soil.1. Repeat Section 18.8 mm) circular face and weighing 5.3 Weighing. Record the 18.2 Tamper.75 mm) chine after the final reading and weigh the specimen to the nearest sieve and discard. after which that the temperature of the sample does not exceed 140°F (60°C).204 — SPECIMEN PREPARATION procedures no attempt has been made to duplicate any particular moisture or loading conditions which may occur in the field.205. 18.3 Trim Specimen. Place the soil specimen in a consoli- SECTION 18.205 — EXPANSION MEASUREMENT 18. spoons. or a suitable mechanical de.91 kg) or more.202.8 mm) above the base.204.204. mine the percent saturation.7.6 Sieves. weighing ap- proximately 2 pounds (0.0005 inch (0. 4 (4. vice for thoroughly mixing the sample of soil with increments of water. Sieve an adequate quantity of the representa- tive pulverized soil over the No.75 mm) sieve.203.4 mm) are possibly expansive.120-inch (3. shale or weathered volcanic rock. The lower section of the mold is 18.63 pounds 18. avoid reducing the natural size of the individual particles.. Form a specimen by compacting designed to retain a removable stainless steel ring 1. of the soil prepared as de- The expansion index test is designed to measure a basic index scribed in Sections 18. Compact each layer by 15 uniformly distributed blows of the tamper dropping free from a height of 12 inches (305 mm) 18.4 Drying Oven.204. straight edge.1 Moisture Determination. trowels. 0.2 and 18. (51 mm). rigid foundation.203.202.75 mm) sieve.010 mm).2 above.0051 mm) per hour but not less than three hours submerged time.202.202.3 above. SECTION 18.204.75 mm) sieve conforming to the re.203. Adjust the moisture content to achieve 50 percent saturation by the addition of water or air drying 18.2 Sample Submersion. when a sleeve-type rammer is used.7 Mixing Tools.1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE STANDARD 18-2 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE STANDARD 18-2 EXPANSION INDEX TEST Based on Recommendations of the Los Angeles Section ASCE Soil Committee See Sections 1801.3 Balance. Uniform Building Code SECTION 18. tilled water. 4 (4.3 Sample.4 until the 18. In formulating the test SECTION 18. Following compaction. 51 percent for a specific gravity of 2.5 kg) shall be from 12 inches (305 mm) above the approximate elevation of each equipped with a suitable arrangement to control height of drop to a finally compacted layer when a stationary mounted type of tamper free fall of 12 inches (305 mm) above the top of the soil. SECTION 18. mixing.204. A thermostatically controlled drying upper and lower portions of the mold from the inner ring and oven capable of maintaining a temperature of 230°F ± 9°F (110°C carefully trim the top and bottom of the ring by means of the ± 5°C).00 inches (50. Place on the specimen a total load of 12. 18.2 N). If 18.205. lected representative sample with sufficient distilled water to ence the expansive characteristics of a particular soil and still bring the soil to approximately optimum moisture content. quirements of the specifications for sieves for testing purposes.202 — APPARATUS Weigh the moisture sample immediately and dry in an oven at 230° ± 9°F (110°C ± 5°C). the sample. making periodic readings on the dial indicator for a such as claystone. Allow the specimen to trowel.205.1 Mold. Repeat Sections 18.1 gram.4 the cured soil in the 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) mold in two equal mm) in height.1 Preparation for Sieving. Rath.2 Sieving. 4 (4. Moisture sample shall metal and have the capacity and dimensions indicated in Figure not weigh less than 300 grams.2 Specimen Molding. 18. Select a representative sample.1 gram.201 — SCOPE 18. such as provided by a cube of concrete weighing 18. remove the 18.0002 inch (0.202. A No. for drying moisture samples. 4. an attempt has been made to control all variables which influ.202. During the compaction the mold shall rest on a uniform.203 — SAMPLE PREPARATION dometer or equivalent loading device with porous stones at the top and bottom. Remove the sample from the loading ma- percentage of coarse material retained on the No.01-inch (101. time make the initial reading on the consolidometer dial indicator Then thoroughly break up the aggregations in such a manner as to to an accuracy of 0. for at least 12 hours or to a constant 18.00 inch (25.1 Consolidometer. If the soil sample is damp (56.204.203. Thoroughly mix the se- er. Weigh the compacted sample and deter- in length and having one bevelled edge. 4 (4.5 Straight Edge.5 Specific Gravity. Submerge the sample in dis- particles larger than 1/4 inch (6. 18. take a representative sample of the material for moisture determination and seal the remainder of the soil in a close-fitting airtight container for a period of at least six hours.048 mm) wall thickness. A balance or scale of at least 1. After retain a practical test for general engineering usage. 0. 18.2 and 1803. 18-2-1. pacity sensitive to 0. Steel straight edge 12 inches (305 mm) 18. or (50. property of the soil and in this respect is comparable to other index tests such as the Atterberg limits. they should period of 24 hours or until the rate of expansion becomes less than be broken down so as to pass the No.202.4 Saturation. dry it until it becomes friable under a unbalanced weight of the loading machine. spatula. is used.85 mm) internal diameter and layers to give a total compacted depth of approximately 2 inches 0. Miscellaneous tools such as mixing saturation of the compacted sample is between 49 percent and pans. It shall have a detachable collar inscribed with a mark 2.72 kg). etc.204.000-gram ca- at least 200 pounds (90.1 and 18. 3–331 . Drying may be in air or by use of drying apparatus such consolidate under this load for a period of 10 minutes. The mold shall be cylindrical in shape. made of weight to determine the moisture content.5 pounds (2.204.203. including the weight of the upper porous stone and any when received from the field.

INSIDE DIAMETER 1/ IN. 2 (12.2 mm) (25. 2 (12. mation of the products obtained by multiplying the expansion tial sample thickness is greater than the final sample thickness.3 mm) (12.1 mm) (14. Calculate the expansion index as initial dry density of the specimen should accompany the follows: expansion index in the complete presentation of results.05 mm) 1/ IN. (9. 1 IN. index by the factor appropriate to its elevation.206.01 IN. 8 (3. (final thickness – initial thickness) × 1.I. If the ini. (25.000 E.206.1 Expansion Index. 1 IN.120 IN. (3. 16 2 (11.4 mm) 7/ 9/ IN. 1/ IN.4 mm) 7/ IN. 2 (12.7 mm) 0. The molding moisture content and 18.3 mm) 1/ IN. The weighted expansion index for a particular soil profile shall be determined as the sum- Report the expansion index to the nearest whole number.5 mm) 8 15/8 IN. (9.7 mm) 3/ IN. = initial thickness 18.7 mm) 1/ IN. 16IN. re.7 mm) DIAMETER FIGURE 18-2-1—EXPANSION TEST MOLD 3–332 . (5.STANDARD 18-2 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE SECTION 18.2 Weighted Expansion Index.206 — CALCULATIONS AND REPORT port the expansion index as 0. (41.7 mm) 3/ IN.5 mm) HOLE 32 4. (139.5 mm) 8 51/2 IN.

4 Minimum slab thickness.4 Additional Design and Construction Requirements. VIII.2 Allowable stress design. I 1900. CHAP. It shall be permitted to use the alternative load- tures using the Allowable Stress Design Method shall be in factor and strength-reduction factors in accordance with Division accordance with the requirements of Division VI.4. 19. 1900.4.3. All concrete structures shall be requirements of Division IV.2 General Requirements.4. DIV.4. Reinforced gypsum 1900. II. Division I — GENERAL SECTION 1900 — GENERAL 1900. Section 1927. In addition to the requirements of Division II. The design of concrete structures of cast-in-place anchors to concrete shall be in accordance with Division III.4.1 Scope. 1900. plain.1 Anchorage. Anchorage of bolts and headed stud 1900. DIV.4. less than 31/2 inches (89 mm).6 Chapter 19 CONCRETE NOTE: This is a new division.5 Unified design provisions for reinforced and pre- 1900.3. CHAP. I 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1900 1900.3 Reinforced gypsum concrete.6 Alternative load-factor combination and strength- 1900.3 Design Methods. designed and constructed in accordance with the requirements of Division II and the additional requirements contained in Section 1900. 2–97 . reduction factors. The design of concrete structures shall concrete floor slabs supported directly on the ground shall not be be in accordance with one of the following methods. The minimum thickness of 1900. Section 1928. concrete shall be in accordance with Division V. The design of concrete struc.4 of this division. 1900. stressed concrete flexural and compression members. design and construction of shotcrete structures shall meet the 1900. reinforced or prestressed shall con- form to the rules and principles specified in this chapter.1 Strength design (load and resistance factor design). It shall The design of concrete structures using the strength design be permitted to use the alternate flexural and axial load design pro- method shall be in accordance with the requirements of Division visions in accordance with Division VII.4. Section 1926. or precast construction. 19. 1900.2 Shotcrete.

blended hy.6_C to 26. all or part of the bonded reinforcement is interrupted. DEAD. For additional background information and research controlled strain limit. DIV.) the code. crushed stone and iron blast-furnace slag. the section designations of this division have been made CONCRETE is a mixture of portland cement or any other hy- similar to those found in ACI 318. CHAP. weight as determined by definition above. or tooled ADMIXTURE is material other than water. specimen cured for seven days with neither loss nor gain of mois- EFFECTIVE DEPTH OF SECTION (d) is the distance mea- ture at 60_F to 80_F (15.3. and in general COMPRESSION-CONTROLLED SECTION is a cross conformity with. sawed. square root of numerical value only is intended.3. II 1901 1900. See Section 1909. JACKING FORCE is the temporary force exerted by device COMPOSITE CONCRETE FLEXURAL MEMBERS are that introduces tension into prestressing tendons in prestressed concrete flexural members of precast and cast-in-place concrete concrete. is con- construction. curves in the specified prestressing tendon profile. excluding effects tendons to concrete member.1_C). or such materials in of a concrete structure. reinforced or prestressed. groove in a concrete structure to create a weakened plane and reg- draulic cement used as an ingredient of concrete and added to con. In this code. tion such as to interfere least with performance of the structure. usually a vertical plane. EFFECTIVE PRESTRESS is the stress remaining in pre- ANCHORAGE in posttensioning is a device used to anchor stressing tendons after all losses have occurred. CONTRACTION JOINT is a formed. is the dead weight supported by a member. CURVATURE FRICTION is friction resulting from bends or AGGREGATE is granular material. ISOLATION JOINT is a separation between adjoining parts draulic cements and expansive cement. such as to allow relative movement in three directions and avoid COLUMN is a member with a ratio of height-to-least-lateral formation of cracks elsewhere in the concrete and through which dimension of 3 or greater used primarily to support axial compres.6 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1902 Division II Copyright E by the American Concrete Institute and reproduced ' with their consent.’’ cialized definitions appear in individual sections. or ground granulated blast-furnace slag. such as sand. The design of structures in concrete of cast-in-place or precast CONCRETE. chor tendons during hardening of concrete. see the referenced American Concrete Institute (ACI) publi. and when used with a cementing medium forms a hydraulic cement concrete or mortar. is the compressive strength of concrete used in design differs substantively from the ACI standard. EMBEDMENT LENGTH is the length of embedded rein- BONDED TENDON is a prestressing tendon that is bonded to forcement provided beyond a critical section. 1. ex- pressed in pounds per square inch (psi) (MPa). Whenever the SECTION 1901 — SCOPE 1901. welded smooth wire fabric AGGREGATE. defined by Section 1602 (without load factors). compression fiber. DEVELOPMENT LENGTH is the length of embedded rein- forcement required to develop the design strength of reinforce- AIR-DRY WEIGHT is the unit weight of a lightweight concrete ment at a critical section. concrete either directly or through grouting. aggregate. DIV. gravel.0_C $ forcement. SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH used in this chapter to indicate where the Uniform Building Code OF (f ′c ). fine aggregate. loose weight of 70 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (1120 kg/m3) or less. EXTREME TENSION STEEL is the reinforcement (pre- CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS are materials as specified stressed or nonprestressed) that is the farthest from the extreme in Section 1903 which have cementing value when used in con.7_C) and dried for 21 days in sured from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension rein- 50 $ 7 percent relative humidity at 73. in pretensioning. the provisions of Building Code Requirements section in which the net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-95) and commentary—ACI at nominal strength is less than or equal to the compression- 318 R-95. 19. and welded deformed wire fabric. or hy.4. a lightweight concrete without natural sand is termed ‘‘all-lightweight concrete’’ and lightweight con- SECTION 1902 — DEFINITIONS 1902. bar and rod mats. The first two digits of a section draulic cement. termed “sand-lightweight concrete.2. at a designed loca- combination with fly ash.4_F $ 2_F (23. LIGHTWEIGHT. elements or both constructed in separate placements but so inter. yet silica fume. The contents of this division are patterned after. a device used to an. shall conform to the crete containing lightweight aggregate having an air-dry unit rules and principles specified in this chapter. Italics are CONCRETE. crete either by themselves. 19. LOAD. 2–98 . CHAP.0 quantity f ′c is under a radical sign. All rights reserved. coarse aggregate and water. COMPRESSION-CONTROLLED STRAIN LIMIT is the cation.0 crete in which all fine aggregate consists of normal-weight sand is The following terms are defined for general use in this code. ACI chapter and section designation wherever possible. DEFORMED REINFORCEMENT is deformed reinforcing bars. with number indicates this chapter number and the balance matches the or without admixtures. raw or other calcined natural pozzolans. ulate the location of cracking resulting from the dimensional crete before or during its mixing to modify its properties. deformed wire.3. data. plain. Spe. as connected that all elements respond to loads as a unit. of dead load and superimposed load. (See Section To make reference to the ACI commentary easier for users of B1910. not exceeding 115 pcf (1840 kg/m3). such as portland cement. is aggregate with a dry. and evaluated in accordance with provisions of Section 1905. change of different parts of the structure. sive load. STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT. and result has units of psi (MPa). II net tensile strain at balanced strain conditions.

creep. used to enclose or sepa- in other than its final position in the structure. (See Sections 3503 and shapes and located perpendicular to or at an angle to longitudinal 3504.1. The other standards listed in wire fabric (smooth or deformed) bent into L. PRETENSIONING is a method of prestressing in which ten. rate spaces. sumptions of the strength design method of this code before appli- LOAD. CHAP.1. strength is greater than or equal to 0. Expansive Hydraulic Cement STRENGTH. is the live load specified by Section 1602 (with. or yield point of reinforcement in psi.” POSTTENSIONING is a method of prestressing in which ten. concrete and construction loads shall be made in accordance with the standards listed in Section above. ASTM C 150. bar. is the load. cation of any strength-reduction factors. TIE is a loop of reinforcing bar or wire enclosing longitudinal reinforcement. TENDON is a steel element such as wire. ment or with less reinforcement than the minimum amount speci- fied for reinforced concrete. See Sections 1908. is the strength of a member or cross section required to resist factored loads or related internal LOAD. STRENGTH. used to proportion members by the strength design cross section calculated in accordance with provisions and as- method of this code. 3. DESIGN. Such tests carry the weight of the formwork. Portland Cement a strength-reduction factor φ. is acceptable. used to impart prestress to concrete. A continuously wound bar or wire in the form of a PLAIN REINFORCEMENT is reinforcement that does not circle.2 Cement. REQUIRED. 1903. FACTORED.” 1. NOMINAL. PRECAST CONCRETE is a structural concrete element cast WALL is a member. is friction internal stresses have been introduced to reduce potential tensile caused by unintended deviation of prestressing sheath or duct stresses in concrete resulting from loads.3 A complete record of tests of materials and of concrete SPIRAL REINFORCEMENT is continuously wound rein.) See “tie. SERVICE. SPAN LENGTH. PEDESTAL is an upright compression member with a ratio of unsupported height to average least lateral dimension of 3 or less. REINFORCED CONCRETE is structural concrete rein- forced with no less than the minimum amounts of prestressing ten. ment. See Section 1909.5. reinforcement in flexural members and the term ‘‘ties’’ to those in compression members. PRESTRESSED CONCRETE is structural concrete in which WOBBLE FRICTION in prestressed concrete. from its specified profile. See Section 1909. terials used in concrete construction to determine if materials are ing construction loads applied prior to the installation of the of quality specified. reshores. See “stirrup. YIELD STRENGTH is the specified minimum yield strength dons are tensioned before concrete is placed. TENSION-CONTROLLED SECTION is a cross section in which the net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel at nominal PLAIN CONCRETE is structural concrete with no reinforce. 1903. shall be available for inspection during progress of work and for forcement in the form of a cylindrical helix. LIVE.1 The building official may require the testing of any ma- structural member to deflect and support its own weight and exist. or a bundle of such elements. strength of concrete.5.005.1.1.0 Notation. two years after completion of the project.2. Part II. cable. is the strength of a member or load factors. SECTION 1903 — SPECIFICATIONS FOR TESTS AND dons or nonprestressed reinforcement specified in this code.1. II 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1902 1903. 1903.1 Tests of Materials. psi (MPa).2 Tests of materials and of concrete shall be made by an SHORES are vertical or inclined support members designed to approved agency and at no expense to the jurisdiction.3. ASTM C 845. is the live and dead loads (without load moments and forces in such combinations as are stipulated in this factors).1. been removed from a larger area.2 LOAD. See Section 1909. 1903.1. strand. DIV. corresponding strain for tensile or compressive stresses below proportional limit of material.1. rectangle or other polygon shape without re-entrant corners conform to definition of deformed reinforcement. TRANSFER is the act of transferring stress in prestressing ten- dons are tensioned after concrete has hardened. MATERIALS REINFORCEMENT is material that conforms to Section 1903. See Section 1905. 1903. Blended Hydraulic Cements 2–99 .) reinforcement. ASTM C 595 or ASTM C 1157. is the nominal strength multiplied by 2. The standards listed in STIRRUP is reinforcement used to resist shear and torsion this chapter labeled a “UBC Standard” are also listed in Chapter stresses in a structural member. U or rectangular this chapter are recognized standards.1.3. RESHORES are shores placed snugly under a concrete slab or other structural member after the original forms and shores have 1903. and are part of this code. See Section 1908.1 and 1909. (The term “stirrups’’ is usually applied to lateral 1903. multiplied by appropriate STRENGTH. 19. excluding prestressing tendons unless specifically in- fy = specified yield strength of nonprestressed reinforce- cluded. typically bars.4 Material and test standards. dons from jacks or pretensioning bed to concrete member.7. wires. thus requiring the new slab or 1903. and shall be preserved SPLITTING TENSILE STRENGTH (fct ) is the tensile by the inspecting engineer or architect for that purpose. usually vertical. or welded 35. out load factors).4. code. rod or shrinkage and temperature. MODULUS OF ELASTICITY is the ratio of normal stress to STRESS is the intensity of force per unit area. including plain and reinforced concrete.1. NET TENSILE STRAIN is the tensile strain at nominal strength exclusive of strains due to effective prestress. See Section 1908. STRUCTURAL CONCRETE is all concrete used for struc- tural purposes.

not be larger than: For deformed wire for concrete reinforcement. A 706. A 615. 2–100 .5.5.3. A 767 and A 775 and ASTM A 934 Strength test comparison shall be made on mortars.3 Aggregates. mixing water contributed in the form of free moisture on aggre- gates. Type and location of welded splices and other required welding of reinforcing bars shall be in.7 MPa).3. A 616. A 617.7 MPa).000 psi (413. ASTM C 33. fy shall be the stress corresponding to a strain of 0.5 ASTM A 185. A 706. bundles of bars.4.3.4.13.000 psi (413. fy shall be the stress 1903. steel pipe or steel 1903. Steel Welded Wire.5. 1903. see such that concrete can be placed without honeycomb or voids. except that for wire with a specified yield strength fy exceeding 60. See Sec- 4.6 ASTM A 497. in the judgment of the building official. crete see ASTM A 615.5.4.3. ual reinforcing bars or wires.1 Plain bars for spiral reinforcement shall conform to 1903.1.7 MPa).3 Nonpotable water shall not be used in concrete unless corresponding to a strain of 0.7 2.4.3. see ASTM A 615. which have been shown by special test or actual service to produce For reinforced bars used in bar mats.7 MPa). 1903.000 psi (413.5 Steel Reinforcement. and the bars otherwise conform to approved national standards.7 MPa). shall be 60.000 psi (413.4. Plain for Concrete Reinforcement. Aggregates failing to meet the above specifications but 1903. 1903. except that for wire with a specified yield strength fy exceeding 60.3.35 percent. or prestress- ing tendons or ducts. sponding to a strain of 0. if the yield strength specified in design to conform to requirements in UBC Standard 19-1. A 616. see ASTM A 615.4 and 1903. epoxy-coated welded wire fabric shall conform to Section cept that plain reinforcement may be used for spirals or tendons. Lightweight Aggregates for Structural Con.4. A 767 or A 775. accordance with Section 1912. Fabric. 1903. A 767 and A 775. acids.2 Mortar test cubes made with nonpotable mixing water 1903. if the yield strength specified in design exceeds 60.2 1903. A 616.5. 496.5.3.4.4 ASTM A 496.2 Welding of reinforcing bars shall conform to approved approved national standards. ASTM C 144. 1903.4 Water. Lightweight Aggregates for Insulating Con. ASTM 185.000 psi (413.000 psi 3.2 For plain wire for spiral reinforcement. organic mate.5.35 percent.5.3 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1903. except for wire fabric used as stir- concrete mixes using water from the same source.1 Water used in mixing concrete shall be clean and free shall not be spaced farther apart than 12 inches (305 mm) in direc- from injurious amounts of oils. A 616. (413. if the yield strength specified in design exceeds 60.5. 1903. 5. nationally recognized standards.4. 1.5. 1903. 1903.1 ASTM A 615. 1903. Aggregate for Masonry Mortar tion 1909.3. alkalis.5. prepared and tested in accordance with ASTM C 109 (Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mor. Fabricated Deformed Steel Bar Mats. See For welded deformed wire fabric for concrete reinforcement.7 MPa).CHAP. ASTM C 332. exceeds 60. (Epoxy-Coated Steel Reinforcing Bars). or MPa).3. A 767 and A 775. comply with ASTM A 884 (Standard Specification for Epoxy- Coated Steel Wire and Welded Wire Fabric for Reinforcement). shall not contain deleterious amounts of chloride ions. Section 1904.3.5. epoxy coated.35 percent. Welded intersec- tions shall not be spaced farther apart than 16 inches (406 mm) in 1903. including that portion of for Concrete Reinforcement.3. if the yield strength spe- the following are satisfied: cified in design exceeds 60. see ASTM A 497. except that wire shall not be smaller than size D4.7 MPa).5. tubing may be used as specified in this chapter. For zinc or epoxy-coated reinforcement. fy shall be the stress corresponding to a supplemented to require a report of material properties necessary strain of 0. A 706.3. Three fourths the minimum clear spacing between individ.2. and for wire or with a specified yield strength fy exceeding 60.35 per- cent.000 psi (413.5 or 1903. 1903. and reinforcement consisting of structural steel. 19. provi- ded fy shall be the stress corresponding to a strain of 0. 82 except that for wire with a specified yield strength fy exceeding ASTM reinforcing bar specifications.1 Recognized standards. One fifth the narrowest dimension between sides of forms. 1903. 1903.2 Deformed reinforcing bars with a specified yield crete strength fy exceeding 60.8 Epoxy-coated wires and welded wire fabric shall tars).5. authorized by the building official. Welded Deformed Steel Wire Fabric that will contain aluminum embedments.4.3. Steel Wire.1 Reinforcement shall be deformed reinforcement. Concrete Aggregates 2. Welded intersections 1903.7 Deformed reinforcing bars may be galvanized or shall have seven-day and 28-day strengths equal to at least 90 per. ex.14.6. see ASTM A dicated on the design drawings or in the project specifications.3. DIV. see ASTM cent of strengths of similar specimens made with potable water. A 617. 1903. fy shall be the stress corre- 1903.5.000 psi (413.4. II 1903. workability and methods of consolidation are For welded plain wire fabric for concrete reinforcement. ASTM C 330. A 706. These limitations may be waived if.3.2 The nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate shall Reinforcement. identical ex. A concrete of adequate strength and durability may be used where 617. for Concrete 1903.5.5. A 617. Epoxy-coated wires shall conform to Section 1903.2 Mixing water for prestressed concrete or for concrete 1903. rups in accordance with Section 1912. Deformed. tion of calculated stress. Reinforcing Bars for Concrete. see ASTM A 1. A 616 and A 617. cept for the mixing water. except for A 706. salts.5. One third the depth of slabs.1 Selection of concrete proportions shall be based on direction of calculated stress.7 MPa) may be used.000 psi (413.4 Plain reinforcement.3 Deformed reinforcements.35 percent 3.3 ASTM A 184. except for wire fabric used as stirrups in rials or other substances deleterious to concrete or reinforcement.

1.6. 1903.2. Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens relieved Steel Strand for Prestressed Concrete in the Laboratory 2. II 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1903. A 572 and A 588. reduction of air content indicated in Table 19-A-1 by 1. Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural fly ash and other pozzolans meeting ASTM C 618.3.7 UBC Standard 19-1. Uncoated Stress-relieved Wire for Pre.5 1904.5 percent. ASTM C 496. 2. slag meeting Pozzolans for Use as Admixtures in Portland Cement Concrete ASTM C 989. A 242. Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete 1903.5. CHAP.5.6.5 ASTM C 494 and C 1017. DIV. silica Concrete and Mortars fume.2 An admixture shall be shown capable of maintaining es.1 Admixtures to be used in concrete shall be subject to prior approval by the building official.5.2.4.5. Chemical Admixtures for Tables 19-A-2 and 19-A-4 shall be calculated using the weight of Concrete cement meeting ASTM C 150. Uncoated Seven-wire Stress. 6. aluminum.7. Metal 4.1. water-cementitious materials ratios and minimum specified con- crete compressive strength requirements of that table. 2–101 .2 Any material that has deteriorated or has been contami.2 1903. Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Con- crete Specimens 1903. 1904.2.2 and 1904. provided they conform to 5. 1903. 1. expansive cements shall be compatible with the cement and pro. Practice for Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete Panels.1 The water-cementitious materials ratios specified in 1903. Concrete Made by Volumetric Batching and members composed of a steel-encased concrete core meeting re. A 421 and A 722 may be used.11 Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete. See Sections 1904. For specified compres- crete and Mortar). strands and bars not specifically listed in ASTM Specimens A 416. 7. ASTM A 722. if any.1 Water-Cementitious Materials Ratio.1 1. in concrete containing embedded 1904.5.6. concrete that will be exposed to deicing chemicals shall conform nated shall not be used for concrete.16.8 Concrete Testing. 1904.2. metal inserts and connections in reinforced concrete construction shall con- 1903.2. ASTM C 39. sive strength f ′c greater than 5.6. Continuous Mixing quirements of Section 1910. Sampling Freshly Mixed Concrete minimum requirements of these specifications and do not have properties that make them less satisfactory than those listed. Mill-mixed Gypsum Concrete and Poured Gypsum Roof Diaphragms 1903. 1. ASTM C 685. mitted. Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Inserts and Connections in Reinforced Concrete Construction Mortars 1903. sentially the same composition and performance throughout the work as the product used in establishing concrete proportions in 1903.5. 19.5.6 ASTM C 618.2 Freezing and Thawing Exposures.5 Prestressing tendons.1 Cementitious materials and aggregate shall be stored in 1904.16. to the limitations of Section 1904. form to UBC Standard 19-1.2 For steel pipe or tubing for composite compression 2. ASTM A 416. 1903.4. Uncoated High-strength Steel Bar for Pre.6 Structural steel. ASTM C 94.6. C 595 or C 845 plus the weight of 1903.2 Wire. Manual 128. ASTM C 109. Ground-iron Blast-furnace Slag for Use in tion 1904.7 ASTM C 989. ASTM C 192. The welding of reinforcing steel.16. Tolerance on air con- ASTM C 1240 (Silica Fume for Use in Hydraulic Cement Con.7 or 1910.000 psi (34. Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens stressed Concrete in the Field 3.6. ASTM C 31. see ASTM A 53.6. except that when concrete is exposed to deicing chemicals.2.6. steel pipe or tubing. Sec- 1903.7. 1903.0 percent shall be per- 1903. 1903. 1903. ASTM C 567. pozzolans. Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and 3.5.6 Admixtures. or in concrete cast against stay-in-place galvanized steel forms.2 Concrete that will be subjected to the exposures given in such manner as to prevent deterioration or intrusion of foreign Table 19-A-2 shall conform to the corresponding maximum matter. Air-entraining Admixtures for Concrete 1904.5. psi (MPa).8. 3. freezing and thawing or deicing chemicals shall be air entrained 1903. In addition. crete posite compression members meeting requirements of Section 1903. f ′c = specified compressive strength of concrete.6. slag or the combination of these materials.1 Normal-weight and lightweight concrete exposed to duce no deleterious effects.7 Storage of Materials. tent as delivered shall be $ 1.3 further limits the amount of fly ash. and silica fume meeting ASTM C 1240.4 ASTM C 260.10 Welding. 5.9 Concrete Mix.1 For structural steel used with reinforcing bars in com. 1903. ASTM A 421. see ASTM A 36. Water-Soluble Chloride in Mortar and Con- 1903. ASTM C 42. Recommended accordance with Section 1905.47 MPa).9 Silica fume used as an admixture shall conform to with air content indicated in Table 19-A-1. UBC Standard 19-2. A 500 and A 501.6. 1903. ASTM C 172.6. Unit Weight of Structural Lightweight Con- crete 1903.3 Calcium chloride or admixtures containing chloride from other than impurities from admixture ingredients shall not be SECTION 1904 — DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS used in prestressed concrete. Ready-mixed Concrete 1903.8 Admixtures used in concrete containing ASTM C 845 1904. 1910.5. Sawed Beams of Concrete stressing Concrete 4.3. ASTM C 1218. Welding Reinforcing Steel.0 Notation.

1905. 1905.4 Where design criteria in Sections 1909.2. Conformance with strength test requirements of Section concrete to be exposed to severe or very severe sulfate-containing 1905.1. have a record based on 15 to 29 consecutive tests. psi (MPa).3. psi 1905. 2. the maxi.000 psi (6.1 Where a concrete production facility has test records. Must consist of at least 30 consecutive tests or two groups of f ′cr = required average compressive strength of concrete used consecutive tests totaling at least 30 tests as defined in Section as the basis for selection of concrete proportions.3.4 Corrosion Protection of Reinforcement. When testing tion 1904.1.CHAP.1. Resistance to special exposures as required by Section 1904. f ′c = specified compressive strength of concrete. 1905. psi (MPa).2.2. provide for use of a splitting tensile strength value field strength test records for calculation of standard deviation of concrete. including water. silica fume or slag that is for field acceptance of concrete.1.33s * 500 (5-2) concrete f ′c for which each part of structure is designed. fied for proposed work.1.1 Concrete to be exposed to sulfate-containing solutions 1.1. 19.34s (5-1) design drawings or specifications.3.3 Proportioning on the Basis of Field Experience and Trial Mixtures. each combination shall be evaluated. test records meeting requirements of Section 1905.1.3). test procedures shall conform to ASTM C 1218.14 for unbonded pre.2.2 Requirements for f ′c shall be based on tests of cylinders the basis for selection of concrete proportions shall be the larger of made and tested as prescribed in Section 1905.3.1 For corrosion protection of reinforcement in concrete. 1905. and/or trial mixtures with materials to be employed (see Section ents.2 Selection of Concrete Proportions.3. lished to provide: 1904.1 Standard deviation. for water-cementitious materials ratio and concrete strength and a standard deviation shall be established.2. 1905. brackish water.2 If concrete with reinforcement will be exposed to chlo- 1905.0 Notations.5.2. 1911. laboratory tests shall be made to establish value of fct meeting requirements of Section 1905.2 Required average strength. included in the concrete shall not exceed the percentages of the to- tal weight of cementitious materials given in Table 19-A-3.3. aggregates.3. 1905. In addition.1 Concrete shall be proportioned to provide an average consecutive tests that span a period of not less than 45 calendar compressive strength as prescribed in Section 1905.3.2.4.1 or 1905. Must represent materials.2.3. For SI: f Ȁcr + f Ȁc ) 2. salt water. minimum compressive strength set forth in Table 19-A-4.3 Unless otherwise specified.4.2.1 or 1905. re- corresponding to specified values of f ′c . a standard devi- s = standard deviation.1.5 Splitting tensile strength tests shall not be used as a basis mum weight of fly ash. conditions similar to those expected. Formula (5-1) or (5-2) using a standard deviation calculated in ac- cordance with Section 1905. other pozzolans.2.6. 1905. or Design drawings shall show specified compressive strength of f Ȁcr + f Ȁc ) 2. except as permitted in Section 1905.3.1. sea water or spray from these sources. ation may be established as the product of the calculated standard deviation and the modification factor of Table 19-A-6. To be ac- 1905.1.2. 1905.6.2. If other than 28 days.6.1.7 shall a standard deviation is calculated: be satisfied.2. Workability and consistency to permit concrete to be worked or soils shall conform to the requirements of Table 19-A-4 or shall readily into forms and around reinforcement under conditions of be concrete made with a cement that provides sulfate resistance placement to be employed without segregation or excessive and that has a maximum water-cementitious materials ratio and bleeding. ceptable.3 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1905.45 1905. quired average strength f ′cr shall be determined from Table 19-B 2–102 .1. Items 1 and 2.3 Concrete proportions.1.33s * 3.1. 3.3. portions of proposed work.4 or required by Sec- mixtures shall not exceed the limits of Table 19-A-5. MIXING AND stricted than those for proposed work.1 Proportions of materials for concrete shall be estab- 1904. salt. 1904. and changes in materials and proportions within the test records shall not have been more re- SECTION 1905 — CONCRETE QUALITY.3. cementitious materials and ad. PLACING 2. and represent only a single record of 1905.2 When a concrete production facility does not have and 1912.3. II 1904.3 For concrete exposed to deicing chemicals.3. is performed to determine water soluble chloride ion content. quality control procedures and stressed tendons.1. requirements of Table 19-A-2 1905. solutions. psi (MPa). DIV. including water-cementitious maximum water soluble chloride ion concentrations in hardened materials ratio.3.1. scribed in Section 1905.3 Sulfate Exposure.2 1904.3.2 Where different materials are to be used for different 1904. f ′c shall be based on 28-day tests. 1905. Test records from which the minimum concrete cover requirements of Section 1907. (MPa).3. 1905. Concrete shall be produced to minimize frequency of strengths below f ′c as pre.2.2. 1904. rides from deicing chemicals.2 Calcium chloride as an admixture shall not be used in 3.1 General.2 Where a concrete production facility does not have fct = average splitting tensile strength of lightweight aggre.6. test age for f ′c shall be as indicated in f Ȁcr + f Ȁc ) 1.1. 1904. 1905. as defined in Table 19-A-4. see Section 1918. but does gate concrete. shall be established on the basis of field experience concrete at ages from 28 to 42 days contributed from the ingredi.2.4.89 MPa) of that speci- 1905. the test record must meet the requirements of Section 1905.4.1 Required average compressive strength f ′cr used as 1905. satisfy the durability criteria of Section 1904. Must represent concrete produced to meet a specified strength or strengths f ′c within 1. 1905. as well as days. except as provided in Section 1905.3. 1.3.2.

6. two cylinders made from the same sample of concrete and tested at in $ 0. unless a 1905.3. 6.3 are lower water-cementitious materials ratio or higher strength not met. tests shall be made from at least five randomly selected 1. Required concrete proportions may be placed each day shall be taken not less than once a day.2. materials content.6. For each water-cementitious materials ratio or cementitious 1905. and materials and conditions similar to those expected.4 Procedures for protecting and curing concrete shall be strength test criteria of Section 1905.4 and documentation of average strength shall be in accordance 1905. DIV.2 When an acceptable record of field test results is not 1905.3. The required tests of cylinders cured under field conditions shall be provided.2 On a given project.2. 1905. 2.3.3 Field-cured specimens.1 When test records are used to demonstrate that pro. As data become avail- with requirements of Section 1905.1 If required by the building official. a curve shall be plotted show.3 is not 1905.4 shall conform to the durability requirements of Section 1904 and to compressive 1905. Thirty or more test results are available and average of test pressive strength (see Section 1905. For the purpose of documenting average strength potential. 1905.1.6.4 If either of the requirements of Section 1905.5 percent of maximum allowable air content. strength test results.3. able during construction.3. be considered satisfactory if both the following requirements are ing relationship between water-cementitious materials ra. psi (8.6.8.6. the average strength required by Section 1905. air-entrained concrete.4 Proportioning without Field Experience or Trial Mix. concrete proportions established from trial mixtures such that the frequency of testing required by Section 1905. strengths encompassing the required average strength f ′cr.3 MPa) greater than the specified compressive strength.2 Cylinders for strength tests shall be molded and labo- age shall be made and cured.3. Cylinders shall be tested at 28 ratory cured and tested.2 Laboratory-cured specimens.2.6.6.3.3 Documentation of average strength. materials. f c . From results of cylinder tests.6. 4.3.3 When total quantity of a given class of concrete is less quired for proposed work shall be made using at least three than 50 cubic yards (38 m3).6. strength tests are not required when different water-cementitious materials ratios or cementi. at least three test cylinders for each test 1905.6 Evaluation and Acceptance of Concrete.2. met.6.1. Trial mixture shall be designed to produce a slump with. provided test records encompass a period of 1905. if approved by the building official.4 shall be observed if the requirement of Item 2 of Section 1905.1. ard deviation calculated in accordance with Section 1905.6. or not less tions of two or more test records each of which meets other re. average compressive strength f cr of concrete produced with 1905.3.3.4. This alternative shall not be used for specified compressive 1905. Fifteen to 29 test results are available and average of test re- posed concrete proportions will produce the required average sults exceeds that required by Section 1905.1 Frequency of testing. 2.2. Combination of materials shall be those for proposed work. No individual strength test (average of two cylinders) falls cementitious materials content for concrete to be used in proposed work shall be that shown by the curve to produce below f ′c by more than 500 psi (3. conditions and proportions within the test records shall 1905. using a standard strength f ′cr (see Section 1905. met: tio or cementitious materials content and compressive strength at designated test age. results of strength information. concrete proportions shall be based upon other experience or 1905. Changes in 3.6.3.3.3. it shall be permitted to reduce the amount by which f ′cr must exceed the specified value of f ′c . test rec.6. Special exposure requirements of Section 1904 are met. slabs or walls. 1905. than once for each 5.3 are not available.2).6. evidence of satisfactory strength is submitted to and approved by tious materials contents that will produce a range of the building official. or trial mixtures.3 Field-cured test cylinders shall be molded at the same strength greater than 4.5 Average Strength Reduction.6. such records shall represent deviation calculated in accordance with Section 1905. 1905. within $ 0. in accordance with Section 1903.6.1.3.6.1.2 Concrete proportioned by Section 1905. 1905. if the total volume of concrete is available. Documentation vided: that proposed concrete proportions will produce an average com- pressive strength equal to or greater than required average com.1. time and from the same samples as laboratory-cured test cylin- ders.6. and for 28 days or at test age designated for determination of f ′c . tures.1 Samples for strength tests shall be taken. 1905. ords consisting of less than 30 but not less than 10 consecutive tests may be used. II 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1905. Trial mixtures having proportions and consistencies re. not have been more restricted than those for proposed work.2.2.6.1 meeting the following restrictions shall be permitted: would provide less than five strength tests for a given class of con- crete.3. CHAP.3. 1.1.6.6. Maximum water-cementitious materials ratio or minimum 2. days or at test age designated for determination of f ′c.4 A strength test shall be the average of the strengths of 3.000 psi (27.2.1.58 MPa). batches or from each batch if fewer than five batches are used. than once for each 150 cubic yards (115 m3) of concrete.75 inch ($ 19 mm) of maximum permitted. or 1905. 19. or not less established by interpolation between the strengths and propor. several strength test records.45 MPa). 1905.2 Field-cured cylinders shall be cured under field materials similar to those proposed for use shall be at least 1. Every arithmetic average of any three consecutive strength tests equals or exceeds f ′c. 1905.2. Requirements of Section 1905.2 1905.3.2.3.1 If data required by Section 1905. pro- 1905.200 conditions. 1. 1905. steps shall be taken to increase the average of subsequent is required by Section 1904.3.1.2) shall consist of a field results exceeds that required by Section 1905.1.3.000 square feet (465 m2) of surface area for quirements of this section.2. using a stand- strength test record. improved when strength of field-cured cylinders at test age desig- 2–103 .4.3 Strength level of an individual class of concrete shall 5.1 Samples for strength tests of each class of concrete time not less than 45 days.

6.7 When construction joints are required. 19. made in accordance with Section 1906.6. Mixing shall be continued for at least 11/2 minutes after all load-carrying capacity of the structure is not jeopardized.3 Concrete that has partially hardened or been contami- nated by foreign materials shall not be deposited in the structure.11.1 Number of batches produced.4). plasticity between successive increments.6. 1905. tests of cores drilled from the area in question 4.4. 3.8.6. the responsible authority 1905.10.1 Concrete shall be conveyed from mixer to place of final deposit by methods that will prevent separation or loss of materi- 1905. unless a shorter time is shown to be satis- factory by the mixing uniformity tests of ASTM C 94 (Ready- 1905.45 MPa) (see Section 1905. mixed after initial set shall not be used unless approved by the pied by concrete. mitted by the building official. structure will be more than superficially wet under service condi- tions. considered structurally adequate if the average of three cores is equal to at least 85 percent of f ′c and if no single core is less than 1905. it shall be carried on as a continuous operation until placing of a panel or section.4) of labora.CHAP. take other appropriate action. 1905. 1905.45 MPa) below specified value 5. 1905. In such case.6 C to 26. building official. crete is at all times plastic and flows readily into spaces between reinforcement. as defined 4. Water shall be removed from place of deposit before con. conditions.2.2 If the likelihood of low-strength concrete is con.3. A detailed record shall be kept to identify: of f ′c .1 nated for determination of f ′c is less than 85 percent of that of com.9.4 Time and date of mixing and placing. permitted or prohibited by Section 1906. 1. and if 1905. able means during placement and shall be thoroughly worked fore additional concrete is placed against hardened concrete. 1905. around reinforcement and embedded fixtures and into corners of 1905. supply of concrete at site of placement without separation of in- tions represented by erratic core strength results shall be per. materials are in the drum.3 If concrete in the structure will be dry under service 5. ly level.6.6.7.7 C).6 Top surfaces of vertically formed lifts shall be general- terious coatings.4.4. curing (see Section 1905.1 All concrete shall be mixed until there is a uniform dis- tribution of materials and shall be discharged completely before 1905. forms. 1905. cores shall be air dried [temperatures 60 F to 80 F (15. 1905. 1905. three cores shall be taken for each applicable provisions of ASTM C 94 (Ready-Mixed Concrete).4.9 Conveying. Masonry filler units that will be in contact with concrete by its boundaries or predetermined joints.11 Curing. batching and mixing shall conform to shall be permitted.2 Proportions of materials used.10. 1905.3 Job-mixed concrete shall be mixed in accordance with the following: 1905. If concrete in the 5. DIV.7 Preparation of Equipment and Place of Deposit.1 Preparation before concrete placement shall include the following: 1905.10.1 Concrete (other than high-early-strength) shall be mixer is recharged.4.10. The 85 percent limitation shall accordance with requirements of ASTM C 94 (Ready-Mixed Con- not apply if field-cured strength exceeds f ′c by more than 500 psi crete) or ASTM C 685 (Concrete Made by Volumetric Batching (3.8. strength test more than 500 psi (3.8 Mixing.2 Concreting shall be carried on at such a rate that con- 1905. 1905. maintained above 50 F (10.3. 1905.1.10. Materials handling. steps shall be taken to ensure that 3. Mixing shall be done in a batch mixer of an approved type.1 If any strength test (see Section 1905. All debris and ice shall be removed from spaces to be occu.6. Item 2) or if tests 2. 5.0 C) and in a moist condition for at 2–104 .45 MPa).6.6.11.10. tested wet.4 Retempered concrete or concrete that has been re- 2.8.3 Approximate location of final deposit in structure. 5. All laitance and other unsound material shall be removed be.4.5 After concreting is started.4. 6. All equipment for mixing and transporting concrete shall be clean. Mixed Concrete). Reinforcement shall be thoroughly clean of ice or other dele. tory-cured cylinders falls below specified values of f ′c by more than 500 psi (3. Mixer shall be rotated at a speed recommended by the man- of field-cured cylinders indicate deficiencies in protection and ufacturer. 1905. Forms shall be properly coated. gredients and without interruptions sufficient to permit loss of mitted. II 1905. relative humidity less than 60 percent] for 5.4 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1905. 1905. except as shall be well drenched.4 are not met. or ing.4 Investigation of low-strength test results.10. 1. structural adequacy remains in doubt.4 Concrete in an area represented by core tests shall be als.3.10. cores shall be immersed in water for at least 40 hours and be 1905. Additional testing of cores extracted from loca. and Continuous Mixing). joints shall be crete is placed unless a tremie is to be used or unless otherwise per.10 Depositing.8 All concrete shall be thoroughly consolidated by suit- 7.1 Concrete shall be deposited as nearly as practicable in shall be permitted to order a strength evaluation in accordance its final position to avoid segregation due to rehandling or flow- with Section 1920 for the questionable portion of the structure.2 Ready-mixed concrete shall be mixed and delivered in panion laboratory-cured cylinders. 1905.6.5 If criteria of Section 1905.4. 1905.9.2 Conveying equipment shall be capable of providing a 75 percent of f ′c . firmed and calculations indicate that load-carrying capacity is sig- nificantly reduced. is completed. seven days before test and shall be tested dry.6.

when that portion of the structure in combination with remaining forming and shoring system has sufficient strength to support 1905.11.2 Removal of Forms. except when cured in ac. AND CONSTRUCTION JOINTS 1906.11. pipes and sleeves passing through a slab. wall 1906.11. Rate and method of placing concrete. any part of the structure under construction except 1905. 1905.3.1 Curing by high-pressure steam. handling.4 When required by the building official.2.3. system and concrete strength data. 1906.1. 1906. requested. including vertical. with a durability at least equivalent to the curing method of Sec.3.6. DIV. forms. horizontal and im- 1906. 1905.3 Frozen materials or materials containing ice shall not be used.5 Design of formwork shall include consideration of the 1906. concrete materials and protecting concrete during freezing or 3. production meth.6 Forms for prestressed concrete members shall be de- cordance with Section 1905.2. crete. unless analysis indicates adequate strength to support such ods.1 Removal of forms. 1906.5 Except when plans for conduits and pipes are approved pact loads. Sufficient strength shall be demonstrated by structural anal- near-freezing weather. 1906. Shores and Reshoring.1 Design of Formwork.3 Forms shall be properly braced or tied together to main. conduits and pipes embedded within a 3. with their fittings.3. Special form requirements for construction of shells. supplemen. or any shoring performed to assure that curing is satisfactory.2. placing. on other procedures to evaluate concrete strength. in structural concrete unless effectively coated or covered to pre- vent aluminum-concrete reaction or electrolytic action between 1906.11.1 Forms shall result in a final structure that conforms to bedded in concrete with approval of the building official. 1.  1905.3.3. tain position and shape.3. 1906. Construction loads shall not be supported on.2 Accelerated curing shall provide a compressive 1906.0 C) and in a moist condition for at least the first 1906. 1905.3 Conduits and Pipes Embedded in Concrete. for fire protection. CHAP.11. 1906.2. planning and implementing form removal and shoring shall be furnished by the contractor to the building official when so 1905.2.2.3 Curing process shall be such as to produce concrete the structure during the process. the contractor shall strength of the concrete at the load stage considered at least equal develop a procedure and schedule for removal of shores and to required design strength at that load stage. 1906.1 through 1906.1 or 1905.5 least the first seven days after placement. ysis considering proposed loads. satisfy the following: 2–105 . 1906.2 Conduits and pipes of aluminum shall not be embedded vent leakage of mortar.11.12.1. domes. pipes and sleeves of any material not harmful to concrete and within limitations of this subsection may be em- 1906.3. by the building official.3.12. 2. protection and curing to prevent excessive additional loads. manner as not to impair safety and serviceability of the structure.2 High-early-strength concrete shall be maintained above 50 F (10. The provisions of ic pressure.1. when approved by the be free from frost.2 All concrete materials and all reinforcement. steam at atmospher. installation of reshores and for calculating the loads transferred to 1905. architectural concrete or similar types of elements. provided shapes. wall or beam (other than those merely passing through) shall plates. 1906. 19. Construction loads.1 Conduits.1 1906. lines and dimensions of the members as required by the they are not considered to replace structurally the displaced con- design drawings and specifications. except when cured in accordance with Section 1906. embedded with- following factors: in a column shall not displace more than 4 percent of the area of cross section on which strength is calculated or which is required 1. tary strength tests in accordance with Section 1905.2.1 Before starting construction.2.3 Conduits. three days. heat and moisture or other accepted processes.3 Accelerated curing. EMBEDDED PIPES pated construction loads.11.4 Forms and their supports shall be designed so as not to or beam shall not impair significantly the strength of the construc- damage previously placed structure. folded slab.1 Adequate equipment shall be provided for heating safely its weight and loads placed thereon.11.2. signed and constructed to permit movement of the member with- out damage during application of prestressing force.12 Cold Weather Requirements.13 Hot Weather Requirements.1. tion. Forms shall be removed in such a 1905. tion. aluminum and steel. may be Section 1906.2. 1906. II 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1905. building official.2 Removal of shores and reshoring.12.2 Construction loads exceeding the combination of superimposed dead load plus specified live load shall not be sup- 1905.11.3 shall apply to slabs and employed to accelerate strength gain and reduce time of curing. beams except where cast on the ground. not be removed until sufficient prestressing has been applied to enable prestressed members to carry their dead load and antici- SECTION 1906 — FORMWORK.11.3.4 Conduits and pipes.2 Forms shall be substantial and sufficiently tight to pre.1.2.1. During hot weather.3. ported on any unshored portion of the structure under construc- proper attention shall be given to ingredients. strength of forming and shoring 1905. removed from. The structural analysis and concrete strength data used in tion 1905.3 Form supports for prestressed concrete members shall quired strength or serviceability of the member or structure.3 shall be 2.2. 1905. concrete temperatures or water evaporation that may impair re.3.11. Concrete strength data may be fillers and ground with which concrete is to come in contact shall based on tests of field-cured cylinders or.2. Concrete to be exposed by form removal shall have sufficient strength not to be damaged by removal operation.

bending or displacement of reinforcement from its deformed) for stirrups and ties shall not be less than 4db for de- proper location will not be required.9 In solid slabs. placing structurally in compression the displaced concrete. all con. plus 12db exten- 1906. construction. For bars larger than No. ‘‘Standard hook’’ as used in this code is one of the following: 1906. fy = specified yield strength of nonprestressed reinforce- ment.34 MPa) pressure.1.5.4.2 Reinforcement.3 Prestressing tendons shall be clean and free of oil. formed wire larger than D6 and 2db for all other wires.3. Bends with inside diameter of less than 8db shall not be less than 4db from 1906.5.2 Ninety-degree bend plus 12db extension at free end of 1906. 1907. Joints in girders bond.3 1906.5.4.7 Pipes and fittings shall be designed to resist effects of 1. thinner than standard Schedule 40 steel pipe. 1903. transfer of shear and other forces through construction joints.3. pipes and sleeves may be considered as re- ld = development length.4. psi (MPa). 2. unless otherwise 1906. otherwise shown in design drawings or specifications.1 All reinforcement shall be bent cold.1.4.4.3. beams and girders. at free end of bar. or widths on center. be less than the values in Table 19-B.5 Beams. reinforcement shall be 1906. 1907. conduit and fittings shall not be less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) for concrete exposed to earth or 1907. 8 bar and smaller. and laitance removed.3.5. secting beams. 5.3 They have a nominal inside diameter not over 2 inches bar.2 Minimum Bend Diameters.1.6.3. 90-degree bend. A light oxide shall be permitted. 1907. No. 90-degree bend plus 6db extension at the material.3 For stirrup and tie hooks: 1906. oth- weather.3.2 They are of uncoated or galvanized iron or steel not but not less than 21/2 inches (64 mm) at free end of bar. unless 1907. forcement. struction joints shall be wetted and standing water removed. 7 and No.2.6.4 Surface Conditions of Reinforcement. girders.4 Construction joints in floors shall be located within the free from mud. 1907. inches (mm). 1906.CHAP. 1907.4. No. 1906. the area of concrete section shall be provided normal to the piping. 1907. For stirrups and tie hooks in Seismic Zones 3 and 4. except as shown on the design drawings or permitted to impair the strength of the structure.9. 2–106 .11 Reinforcement with an area not less than 0. 5.1 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1907.5.1.1 Surface of concrete construction joints shall be cleaned 1907.1 Standard Hooks.7 shall be permitted.3. No. pressure and temperature to which they will be sub. 1907.3.3. shall be considered satisfacto- shall not be cast or erected until concrete in the vertical support ry. except prestressing tendons.4. mations) and weight of a hand-wire-brushed test specimen are not less than applicable specification requirements. 19. piping. 8 bar. See Section 1911. the hoop and crosstie provisions of Section 1921.12 Piping and conduit shall be so fabricated and installed 1907. d = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of 1906.3. 1907. permitted by the building official. drop panels and capitals shall be placed monolithically as part of a slab system. Provision shall be made for by the building official.2 Inside diameter of bends for stirrups and ties shall not be 1906.7.3.3. free end of bar.3 Inside diameter of bends in welded wire fabric (plain or that cutting. diameter of bend shall be in accordance with Table 19-B.1 They shall not be larger in outside dimension than one SECTION 1907 — DETAILS OF REINFORCEMENT third the overall thickness of slab. gas or vapor. (51 mm) and are spaced not less than three diameters on centers. or 90 F (32. No.4 Construction Joints. Epoxy coatings of bars in accordance with Section shall be offset a minimum distance of two times the width of inter. 1906. 6.3 Bending.2. girders or slabs supported by columns or walls mill scale or a combination of both. scale. haunches. inches (mm). oil or other nonmetallic coatings that decrease middle third of spans of slabs.10 Concrete cover for pipes.4.3.6 Conduits. wall or beam in which they are embedded.6. 1906.3 Construction joints shall be so made and located as not be field bent.2 C) or 50 psi (0. shall be placed between top and bottom rein.2. 1906.1 At the time concrete is placed. or less than 3/4 inch (19 mm) for concrete not exposed to er than for stirrups and ties in sizes No. with rust.3. refer to or snow melting. See Section 1912. 1906. DIV. 1906. 5 bar and smaller.0 Notations. II 1906. provided the minimum dimensions (including height of defor- members is no longer plastic.2 They shall be spaced not closer than three diameters tension reinforcement.3. 1907.2 Reinforcement partially embedded in concrete shall not 1906.6 Beams.002 times less than 4db for No.4. 135-degree bend plus 6db extension pipes until the concrete has attained its design strength. nearest welded intersection. shall not weather or in contact with ground. pro- vided: 1907. except water not exceeding sion at free end of bar.4. 3 through No.1 Diameter of bend measured on the inside of the bar. dirt. 1907. 1907. or jected. 5 bar and smaller. 1906.3 They shall not impair significantly the strength of the ches (mm). db = nominal diameter of bar.1 They are not exposed to rusting or other deterioration.8 No liquid. pitting and excessive rust.1 One-hundred-eighty-degree bend plus 4db extension.3. in- 1906.2 Immediately before new concrete is placed. shall be placed in the 3. unless it is used for radiant heating 4. wire or prestressing strand.3.

. . 1907. .2 Where parallel reinforcement is placed in two or more Shells. . Primary reinforcement. . and shall be secured against displacement within toler. The following minimum concrete cover shall be splices or bars. . .5 mm) cover are based on bar diameter db . The fol- chored at. 2 (51) 1903.3 Bars larger than No. 3 (76) 2. 1. 6 through No. . prestressing tendons and ducts shall be than three times the wall or slab thickness. ties. 11 shall not be bundled in beams. See also Section No. 18 bar .6 Bundled bars. Closer vertical spacing and bundling of tendons shall be permitted in the middle portion of a 1907. provided such reinforcement is either continuous over.6. . .6. . Concrete exposed to earth or weather: crossing bars for assembly purposes in Seismic Zones 0.6. except that tolerance for the clear distance to formed soffits shall be minus 1/4 inch (6. . . .5. . 11 bar and smaller . .5. . . accurately placed and adequately supported before concrete is placed. bars in the upper layers shall be placed directly above bars No.3 Welded wire fabric (with wire size not greater than W5 ing through the duct. . . . and minimum concrete cover in 1907.5. (203 mm) $ 3/8 in. .4 Individual bars within a bundle terminated within the lows: span of flexural members shall terminate at different points with at least 40db stagger. inches (mm) EXCEPTIONS: 1. .6. . walls and compression members shall be as fol- 1907. .1 Tolerance for depth d. .7.4 Clear distance limitation between bars shall apply also 1907.7) 1 inch (25 mm). . . 3. .7. .6 Spacing Limits for Reinforcement. .3 In spirally reinforced or tied reinforced compression rigid horizontal surface. . . 14 and No. W31 or D31 wire. .1 Reinforcement. . . . . . .6. prestressing tendons and prestressing ducts shall be placed within the following tolerances: 1907. (203 mm) $ 1/2 in. . 2 4. or 3db for approved plans or specifications. See also Section Beams.3. . 1 (25) No. . .1 Clear distance between pretensioning tendons at each ceed minus one third the minimum concrete cover required by the end of a member shall not be less than 4db for wire. TOLERANCE ON TOLERANCE ON MINIMUM 1907. . . 1907. joists: No. . . . 11/2 (38) 1907. . . . . 1/ (12. inforcement.6.4 Welding of crossing bars shall not be permitted for as- MINIMUM COVER. welding of 2. CHAP. . . (9. .6. . (12. . . Concrete not exposed to weather or in contact with ground: 1907. 11/2 (38) member as a result of welding of the crossing bars. a unit of bundled bars shall be treated as a single bar of a diameter derived from the equivalent d > 8 in.7 mm) total area. .3. (12. Concrete tilt-up panels cast against a 1907. . clear distance between longitudinal bars shall not be concrete slab. ances of this section.6. . re. 1907. it is shown that concrete can be satisfactorily placed and if provi- sion is made to prevent the tendons. .7 mm) – 1/2 in.5 1907. or 18 inches (457 mm). . .7.2. primary flexural reinforcement shall not be spaced farther apart 1907. or securely an. . . 6 bar and larger .3. . 19. . from break- 1907. lowing minimum concrete cover shall be provided for reinforce- ment: 1907.5db or less than 11/2 inches (38 mm). .5 Placing Reinforcement. . . 8 and smaller .1 Cast-in-place concrete (nonprestressed). W31 or D31 wire. . . of reinforcement shall be $ 2 inches ($ 51 mm) except at discon- tinuous ends of members where tolerance shall be $ 1/2 inch 1907.1 The minimum clear spacing between parallel bars in a No. .2.5. . . . . 18 bar . .5 mm) – 3/8 in. . Concrete cast against and permanently exposed to earth . .6.6. 9 through No. .1 Groups of parallel reinforcing bars bundled in contact 1907.2 Bundled bars shall be enclosed within stirrups or ties. . . . II 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1907.2 Bundling of posttensioning ducts shall be permitted if ($ 12.2.7 Concrete Protection for Reinforcement. Reinforcing steel not required by design. spirals . provided for reinforcement: 2–107 . .7 mm). . Slabs. .7. .6. . . sembly of reinforcement.6. 5 bar. or D5) used in slabs not exceeding 10 feet (3048 mm) in span shall be permitted to be curved from a point near the top of slab over the 1907. . and to show that there is no detrimental effect on the action of the structural smaller .7. . 3/ (19) 4 in the bottom layer with clear distance between layers not less than No.5. . strands. walls. .4 mm) and tolerance for cover shall not ex. . . 1907. . 1907.6. See also Section 1903.2.6. . stirrups. folded plate members: layers.2. . 1907. 5 bar. . . . exposed to the weather: less than 1. . .6. support to a point near the bottom of slab at midspan.5 Where spacing limitations and minimum concrete d CONCRETE COVER d v 8 in. . columns: 1903. to act as a unit shall be limited to four bars in one bundle. . DIV. . . 1907. . . provided that data are submitted to the building official No. When specifically approved by the building official. . . . . . . . flexural members. 18 . . .6. (9. 1 and 2 may No. . 2 (51) be permitted. . 3/ (19) 4 layer shall be db but not less than 1 inch (25 mm).6. . .2 1907.6. . such as a members. when tensioned.5.5 In walls and slabs other than concrete joist construction.2 Precast concrete (manufactured under plant control to the clear distance between a contact lap splice and adjacent conditions). . .7 Prestressing tendons and ducts. support. . . and smaller .2 Tolerance for longitudinal location of bends and ends span. 11/2 (38) 1907. . 1907.6.2 Unless otherwise approved by the building official. . .

. . . . . . 5 bars.2 Steel cores.1. . . steel core only.8. . .7 is required. .7. . . . .1 Lateral reinforcement for compression members shall or other severe exposure conditions. shall be provided.3. . 1. . if used. . the horizontal component of the computed force in the inclined and smaller . ducts and end fittings.5 2–108 . .4 Offset bars shall be bent before placement in the 1907. . .17. .1 At connections of principal framing elements (such as 1907. joists . minimum cov. .3.4 Bundled bars. . Concrete cast against and permanently exposed to earth . 11/4 (32) Section 1907. . . .3 Prestressed concrete. beams and columns). .2. . . . . inserts No. by reinforcement. 1907. and smaller . . .1. . . 18 bar . 6 through No. W31 or D31 wire. . . such greater thickness shall be used. 1 1 /2 (38) effective to transfer not more than 50 percent of the total compres- Ties. . .1 The following minimum concrete cover shall be pro. Primary reinforcement . is exceeded.1. . Exposed reinforcement. spirals . 14 and No.7. with positive provision for in contact with ground: alignment of one core above the other in concentric contact. db but not less than 5/ (16) and need 1907. 5 bar. . . minimum cover shall be 3 inches (76 mm). minimum concrete minating in such connections.3 For prestressed concrete members manufactured un.3 Transfer of stress between column base and footing No. . .7 Fire protection. 1907.8. against and permanently exposed to earth. vided for prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement. . the base may be designed to transfer the load from the 1907.8. . Other members: No. spirals or parts of the floor construction.8. 19. . . 3/ (9. . . .7. . spirals or stirrups. 11 bar and smaller . .8. . . . . 6 bar and larger . . 1907.5) 1907. walls. . . . Concrete exposed to earth or composite compression members shall be provided by the follow- weather: ing: Wall panels.2 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1907. Concrete not exposed to weather or 1907. DIV. . . 14 and No. Offset bent longitudinal bars shall con- No.5) 8 Other reinforcement .1. 4 Beams.1.2 Enclosure at connections may consist of external con- need not be greater than 2 inches (51 mm). . shall be designed in accordance with Section 1915. columns: 1907. . 1 (25) sive stress in the steel core. greater. .CHAP. . . in contact with ground: Slabs. 11/2 (32) 1907. Item 3. 11 bar . . faces. 11/2 (38) protection greater than the minimum concrete cover specified in No. . stirrups. .10. . .8. .10. 3/ (19) Slabs. . 11 bar and smaller . inches (mm) tion shall be suitably increased. but 1907.7. II 1907. columns: column shall not exceed 1 in 6. .3. 5/ (16) support provided shall be designed to resist one and one-half times 8 No. .8 Special Reinforcement Details for Columns. .2 and 1907. slabs. . walls. bearing shall be considered Primary reinforcement .10 Lateral Reinforcement for Compression Members. 11/2 (38) and plates intended for bonding with future extensions shall be No. 3/ 8 (9. . 1907. . and smaller . Load transfer in structural steel cores of 2. .5 Corrosive environments.1 Ends of structural steel cores shall be accurately fin- 3. 18 bar .7. . der plant control conditions. 11/4 (32) form to the following: No. For bundled bars.2. and denseness and nonporosity of protecting concrete shall be considered.7. . 5 bar W31 or D31 wire.2 At end-bearing splices. .4.2 Portions of bar above and below an offset shall be par- 8 not exceed allel to axis of column. . . . . .3. shall be placed not more than 6 inches (152 mm) from points of bend.3. 8 by lateral ties. . . folded plate members: 1907. spirals . . Concrete not exposed to weather or ished to bear at end-bearing splices. . . . . transfer of the portion of the total load carried by the reinforced sile stress of Section 1918. provided ample concrete section is available for weather or corrosive environments. . joists . . When a thickness of cover for fire No.7. .4 and 1907. 11/2 (38) 3/ (9. cover shall be equal to the equivalent diameter of the bundle. or other protection shall 1.2. except for concrete cast crete or internal closed ties.3.1 Slope of inclined portion of an offset bar with axis of Beams. .6 Future extensions.3.7.8. 1 (25) Other members . enclosure shall be provided for splices of continuing reinforcement and for anchorage of reinforcement ter- 1907. .9 Connections.2 For prestressed concrete members exposed to earth. lap spliced with the longitudinal bars adjacent to the offset column MINIMUM COVER. 2 (51) 1907. . Lateral ties or spirals.7.9. . concrete section to the footing by compression in the concrete and er shall be increased 50 percent. .7. . 1907. . 5/ (16) 8 1907. joists: 1907. Horizontal Shells. or.1 Offset bars. forms. .8. db but not less 1907. 14 and No. . .8. 18 bar . . longitudinal bars shall not be offset bent.10. . 1907. 2.5) portion of an offset bar. stirrups. weather: Wall panels: 1907. . . . . . . except as provided in Sections 1907.7. In corrosive environments 1907.2. folded plate members: No.3 Horizontal support at offset bends shall be provided Ties. Separate dowels.8.9. W31 or D31 wire. Concrete exposed to earth or be provided. minimum concrete cover for non- prestressed reinforcement shall be as required in Section 1907. . . . amount of concrete protec.8. Lap splices shall conform to Section inches (mm) 1912.8. .4 Base of structural steel section shall be designed to 3 than /4 (19) transfer the total load from the entire composite member to the footing. Shells.5 Where a column face is offset 3 inches (76 mm) or 1907. .1 MINIMUM COVER. . 3/ (19) 4 protected from corrosion. conform to the provisions of Sections 1907.2. See Section 1907. . 3 (76) 1907. . . and in which permissible ten.10. .7. .2. . . . .

4.5 Where beams or brackets frame from four directions conform to provisions of Section 1911. reinforcement for 1907.5 mm) diameter.1 Area of shrinkage and temperature reinforcement 1907.10. 1907.5.2 Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement shall be side along the tie from such a laterally supported bar.0020 1907.3 At all sections where required.2 Vertical spacing of ties shall not exceed 16 longitudi- 0.2.2 Lateral reinforcement requirements for composite be permitted. or anchored in accordance with Section 1903. or least dimension of the compression member.5. size of spirals shall 1907. 4 in size for Nos. 1907. 3 in size for longitudinal bars No.10. 000 nal bar diameters. 1907. Slabs where Grade 40 or 50 deformed shall conform to the following: bars are used 0.10.11 Lateral Reinforcement for Flexural Members. 1910.10.4 Ties shall be located vertically not more than one shrinkage and temperature stresses shall develop the specified half a tie spacing above the top of footing or slab in any story and yield strength f y in tension in accordance with Section 1912. DIV. shall be spaced as provided herein to not more than one half a tie 1907.5.10.12.5 Splices in spiral reinforcement shall be lap splices of only.12. 1907.12 Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement.1. termination of ties not more than 3 inches (76 mm) below reinforcement in shallowest of such beams or brackets shall 1907.12.0018 60.4 Spirals.10. 1907. closed stirrups.5.11.12. Deformed wire or welded wire fabric of equivalent 3. the requirements of Sections 1908.4 of a column.12. requirements of Sections 1907.12.2. Lateral reinforcement requirements for prestressing tendons shall con.12. Tie reinforcement for compression members 1. 1912.10.1 Spirals shall consist of evenly spaced continuous bar subject to stress reversals or to torsion at supports shall consist of or wire of such size and so assembled as to permit handling and closed ties.13.2 Where shrinkage and temperature movements are 1907. 1907. ported above.10. 1907.4 Anchorage of spiral reinforcement shall be provided by one and one-half extra turns of spiral bar or wire at each end of a 1907.2.7 shall be considered.3.2. a com. plete circular tie shall be permitted. or spirals extending around the flexu- placing without distortion from designed dimensions. 18 inches (457 mm). 1907. spirals shall extend to a 1903.4.3 It shall be permitted to waive the lateral reinforcement 1907.0018 and at least No. 11. and 1909.0018 413.1 Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement shall be 1907. closed by ties or stirrups satisfying the size and spacing limitations ity of construction. into a column.9.10.3 used for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement shall level at which the diameter or width of capital is two times that of be provided in accordance with the following: the column.10. 1907.3 and to the following: where compression reinforcement is required.10. CHAP.10.5.5 spacing below the lowest horizontal reinforcement in members used for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement shall be pro- supported above. or formed in one or two pieces lap spliced with a Class B ches (76 mm) or be less than 1 inch (25 mm). spaced not farther apart than five times the slab thickness.4.16.10.11. where shear or torsion reinforcement is required.4. 14 and 18 and bundled longi- tudinal bars. compression members shall conform to Section 1910.3 Closed ties or stirrups may be formed in one piece by not be less than 3/8-inch (9. 1907. at least No.10. 48 tie bar or wire diameters.3 ld ).10.8 In columns with capitals.3 Prestressing tendons conforming to Section 1903.5.5 or by welded wire fabric of equivalent area. Where longi.2.35 percent is used 1907.12. Slabs where Grade 60 deformed bars or welded wire ties.2 or story to level of lowest horizontal reinforcement in members sup.3.3 Ties shall be arranged such that every corner and al.2 Deformed reinforcement conforming to Section 1907.10.7 ternate longitudinal bar shall have lateral support provided by the fy corner of a tie with an included angle of not more than 135 degrees and a bar shall be not farther than 6 inches (152 mm) clear on each 1907.1.3 and. shall provide at least the following ratios of reinforcement area to gross concrete area.7 Where beams or brackets do not frame into all sides significantly restrained.1. See also Section splice (lap of 1.1 1907.10.10. II 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1907.1 Compression reinforcement in beams shall be en- tests and structural analyses show adequate strength and feasibil.0014: 1907.1 All nonprestressed bars shall be enclosed by lateral 2. in Section 1907.11.6 Spirals shall extend from top of footing or slab in any provided in accordance with either Section 1907.12. 1907. vided in accordance with the following: 2–109 . overlapping standard stirrup or tie end hooks around a longitudi- 1907. 1907. tom of slab or drop panel. Spiral reinforcement for compression mem.4.12.2. Slabs where reinforcement with yield stress area shall be permitted.4. but not less than 0. 19. or tudinal bars are located around the perimeter of a circle. 48db .5. 1907. 1907.6 Column ties shall have hooks as specified in Section form to Section 1918.4. Such ties or stirrups shall be provided throughout the distance bers shall conform to Section 1910.000 psi (413.9 Spirals shall be held firmly in place and true to line.11 where 1907.10. nal bar. but not less than 12 inches (305 mm) or welded.4. shall also 1907.16 and 1918.10. For SI: 0.2 Lateral reinforcement for flexural framing members 1907.10. fy 1907.12. fabric (smooth or deformed) are used 0. 10 or smaller.2 For cast-in-place construction. exceeding 60.11.4.1 Reinforcement for shrinkage and temperature stresses spiral unit.3 Clear spacing between spirals shall not exceed 3 in.3 below.5 Ties.10.7 MPa) measured at a yield strain of 0. normal to flexural reinforcement shall be provided in structural slabs where the flexural reinforcement extends in one direction 1907.5. ral reinforcement. ties shall extend above termination of spiral to bot.

69 MPa) on gross square inch (MPa). members shall be pro- reinforcement required at midspan made continuous around the portioned for adequate strength in accordance with provisions of perimeter and tied with closed stirrups or stirrups anchored around this code. see Sections 1913. 1907.2 Loading. inches (mm). the required continuity shall be 1908.3. be permitted.1 In joist construction.3 Methods of Analysis.7. ture reinforcement conforming with Section 1907.3.6. at least one-quarter of the positive moment rein- forcement required at midspan shall be continuous or shall be 1908. II 1907.13. after losses.2.12.2. vibration. approximate methods A′s = area of compression reinforcement. pounds per square inch (MPa). moment at the support and one-quarter of the positive moment 1908.13.2. tion that structures shall be designed to resist all applicable loads.3.3 1907.12.13. in accordance f ′c = specified compressive strength of concrete. creep. φ = strength-reduction factor.1.2 Except for prestressed concrete. 1907. 1908.3.13 Requirements for Structural Integrity.13.8. ture changes. pounds per with Section 1918. provided between the tendons at slab edges extending from the wc = unit weight of concrete.2 Beams at the perimeter of the structure shall have at least one sixth of the tension reinforcement required for negative 1908.13.1 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1908. slab edge for a distance equal to the tendon spacing. See Section 1910. improve integrity of the overall structure. 1913.12. square inch (MPa). tempera- ments together. 1908.3 In other than perimeter beams.5. at least 135 degrees.2.1 All members of frames or continuous construction shall SECTION 1908 — ANALYSIS AND DESIGN be designed for the maximum effects of factored loads as deter- mined by the theory of elastic analysis.3. 1907. ment. The provisions of Section 1916. provided in the transverse.2.3. impact.2 For cast-in-place construction.4. additional bonded shrinkage and tempera.8. constitute minimum requirements: ρ′ = ratio of nonprestressed compression reinforcement. the following shall = As /bd.3 In design for wind and earthquake loads. of continuous beams and one-way slabs (slabs reinforced to resist Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete. integral struc- 1907.3. are not provided.2 Nonprestressed reinforced concrete members shall be provided with top reinforcement spliced at midspan and bottom permitted to be designed using the provisions of Section 1926. 1907.12.4 For lift-slab construction. wu = factored load per unit length of beam or per unit area of 1907. continuous supports be terminated with a standard hook. shrinkage. spans and story heights. pounds per square flexural stresses in only one direction). reinforcement spliced at or near the support with Class A tension 1908. using load factors and strength-reduction factors φ spe- the negative moment reinforcement with a hook having a bend of cified in Section 1909.5.12. 1907.13. assumptions specified in Sections 1908. tion 1908.1.0 Notations.13. concrete area using effective prestress.2 and 1908. 2–110 . except as modified by Sec- 1908. It is permitted to simplify the design by using the As = area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement.3.6.12.2.1 In the detailing of reinforcement and connections. 1907. 19. b = width of compression face of member. DIV. 1. 1908. at least one bottom bar shall be = A′s /bd. Stirrups need not be extended through any joints. ρb = reinforcement ratio producing balanced strain condi- sion splice and at noncontinuous supports be terminated with a tions.3 Design of reinforced concrete using Section 1927 shall splices.1 Design Methods. 1908.1.3.3 For precast concrete construction.6 and 1918. There are two or more spans.1.2.2.3. ches (mm2). When splices are needed.2. square inches of frame analysis may be used for buildings of usual types of con- (mm2). ln = clear span for positive moment or shear and average of 1907. when closed stirrups 1908.4 For two-way slab construction.1 Design provisions of this code are based on the assump- spliced over the support with a Class A tension splice and at non.3 As an alternate to frame analysis. provided: inch (MPa). struction.2 Service loads shall be in accordance with Chapter 16 1907.CHAP. inches (mm).3.3.9. See Section 1909. and vertical directions 1908. expansion of shrinkage-compensating con- crete and unequal settlement of supports. longitudinal.3. adjacent clear spans for negative moment.13. See Section 1908. ρ = ratio of nonprestressed tension reinforcement. 1908. prestressing.4 Consideration shall be given to effects of forces due to and around the perimeter of the structure to effectively tie ele.3 When the spacing of prestressed tendons exceeds 54 inches (1372 mm). square in.2. pounds per cubic foot (kg/m3). 1908. β1 = factor defined in Section 1910.2 Spacing of prestressed tendons shall not exceed fy = specified yield strength of nonprestressed reinforce- 6 feet (1829 mm). tension ties shall be tural parts shall be designed to resist the total lateral loads. continuous or shall be spliced over the support with a Class A ten. slab.3.6 through 1908. pounds per mum average compressive stress of 100 psi (0. 1907.5 shall apply. εt = net tensile strain in extreme tension steel at nominal members of a structure shall be effectively tied together to strength.1 In design of structural concrete. crane loads. Es = modulus of elasticity of reinforcement.2 shall be Vc = nominal shear strength provided by concrete. standard hook.1 Tendons shall be proportioned to provide a mini. see Section with appropriate live load reductions as permitted therein. the following approx- d = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of imate moments and shears shall be permitted to be used in design tension reinforcement. See Sections 1908.5.

. . . . wu ln 2/24 1908. . . .4. and 2–111 .3 In computing gravity load moments in columns. . . where 1908. . . . . . . . . .9 Arrangement of Live Load. . . . . . . . . . see Section 1918. .7. .8. . CHAP. . . . . and 2420 kg/m3). .2 Effect of haunches shall be considered both in deter- More than two spans . . . . interior supports .4. .4 For criteria on moment redistribution for prestressed concrete members. . walls. Discontinuous end integral with support . 3. . . .7 Span Length. .5 Modulus of Elasticity.043 Ǹf Ȁc (in 1. . . . . .7. .4 It shall be permitted to analyze solid or ribbed slabs built Where support is a column . 1908. . design on the members built integrally with supports: basis of moments at faces of support shall be permitted. . . . .6 Stiffness. . . .6. . . wu ln /2 1908. . Negative moment at other faces of 1908. . Positive moment: 1908. and beams where ratio of sum of column stiffnesses 1908.8 Columns. and ment shall be permitted to be taken as 29. 1908. II 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1908. . ρb + (8-1) fy 87. . . . . .5 33 Ǹf Ȁc (in psi) [For SI: w c1. 1908.4. .2 The modified negative moments shall be used for calcu- lating moments at sections within the spans. . . . 000 column stiffnesses and conditions of restraint. . . .5. .7. . . .2 In frames or continuous construction.4 Resistance to moments at any floor or roof level shall be provided by distributing the moment between columns immedi- ately above and below the given floor in proportion to the relative 0.2 Modulus of elasticity Es for nonprestressed reinforce- 4. . is so designed that ρ or ρ – ρ′ is not greater than 0. . . For normal-weight concrete. .2 2.1 Modulus of elasticity Ec for concrete shall be permitted load is limited to combinations of: to be taken as w c1. . . with the larger of two adja.1 Use of any set of reasonable assumptions shall be per- Interior spans . .2 It is permitted to assume that the arrangement of live 1908.5. .85 b 1 f Ȁc 1908. .5. . consideration ǒ 20 1 * ρ * ρȀ ρb Ǔ percent shall be given to the effect of unbalanced floor or roof loads on both exterior and interior columns and of eccentric loading due to other causes. with clear spans not more than 10 feet Shear in end members at face of first (3048 mm).000 Ǹf Ȁc (For SI: 4730 Ǹf Ȁc). . mitted to be taken as 57. . but Slabs with spans not exceeding 10 feet (3048 mm). 1908. . . . . . . .1 Span length of members not built integrally with sup- Negative moment at face of all supports for: ports shall be considered the clear span plus depth of member. .3 1908. . . roof under consideration. .8. . .9. wu ln 2/10 mining moments and in design of members. . 1908. .4. . . 1908. . . . . . . the live load is applied only to the floor or roof under consid- eration. . . as continuous slabs on knife edge supports with spans interior support . . . . . .7. . . . . . . 2. . Shear at face of all other supports . Spans are approximately equal. . . . . . . . . . Where support is a spandrel beam . . . . . . . .3 Modulus of elasticity Es for prestressing tendons shall be determined by tests or supplied by the manufacturer. . . . . wu ln 2/16 mitted for computing relative flexural and torsional stiffnesses of columns. .1 Columns shall be designed to resist the axial forces from factored loads on all floors or roof and the maximum mo- 1908. span length shall be taken as the distance the span .3 For beams built integrally with supports. .15 wu ln /2 equal to the clear spans of the slab and width of beams otherwise neglected. . .5 0. . .1 It is permissible to assume that: For SI: ρb + 600 fy 600 ) f y 1. . Negative moment at interior face of exterior support for 1908. it is permitted to increase or decrease negative moments cal. . when the section. . floors and roof systems. MPa).9. wu ln 2/16 integrally with supports.8. Factored dead load on all spans with full-factored live load MPA)] for values of wc between 90 pcf and 155 pcf (1440 kg/m3 on two adjacent spans. . . . . 0.1 Except where approximate values for moments are ment from factored loads on a single adjacent span of the floor or used. . . and 1908. . Unit live load does not exceed three times unit dead load. . . . . . . . wu ln 2/9 1908. . .85 b 1 f Ȁc 87. . at which moment is reduced. . . . bers for any assumed loading arrangement by not more than 1908. . . . . . . . . 000 ) f y 1908. .2 In analysis of frames or continuous construction for de- to beam stiffness exceeds eight at each end of termination of moments. End spans Discontinuous end unrestrained . DIV. . . wu ln 2/11 1908.000. the far ends of columns built integrally with the structure are considered to be fixed. it shall be permitted to assume far ends of columns built integrally with 1908. . . . . ratio of moment to axial load shall also be considered.000 psi (200 000 5. .50 ρb . . Loads are uniformly distributed. 1. . The assumptions adopted Negative moment at exterior face of first interior support shall be consistent throughout analysis. .3. . . . .9. 19. . . . Loading condition giving the maximum culated by elastic theory at supports of continuous flexural mem. . . . . . Two spans . . wu ln 2/11 1908. . wu ln 2/14 1908.6.3 Redistribution of negative moments shall be made only the structure to be fixed. wu ln 2/12 center to center of supports. . . and 1908. need not exceed distance between centers of supports. . .4 Redistribution of Negative Moments in Continuous Nonprestressed Flexural Members. Members are prismatic. Ec shall be per- cent spans not greater than the shorter by more than 20 percent. .8. . .

2 Ribs shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm) in width compression reinforcement. It shall be permitted to increase shear 2.5. related internal moments and forces. 1908.10.1 Joist construction consists of a monolithic combination d = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of of regularly spaced ribs and a top slab arranged to span in one di- tension reinforcement.8 For joist construction. and shall have a depth of not more than three and one-half times ds = distance from extreme tension fiber to centroid of ten- the minimum width of rib.4 Isolated beams. the full width of overhanging Ag = gross area of section. cified in Section 1911. inches (mm). reinforcement perpendicular to the beam ness for nonstructural considerations. or less than 2 inches (51 mm). DIV.11.11.6 When removable forms or fillers not complying with on alternate spans. pounds per square inch (MPa). considering load concentra- 1908. less than one twelfth the clear distance between ribs nor less than fct = average splitting tensile strength of lightweight aggre- 11/2 inches (38 mm).5 When permanent burned clay or concrete tile fillers of inch (MPa).11.3 are embedded within the slab.2 Transverse reinforcement shall be spaced not farther b = width of compression face of member. 1908.5 are used: 1908. or strength using shear reinforcement or by widening the ends of the ribs.11. pounds per square 1908.1 For shear and negative-moment strength computa.6. E = load effects of earthquake. only the effective A′s = area of compression reinforcement. square inches (mm2).11. 1908. sion reinforcement.0 2.11. gate concrete. square inches overhanging slab width need be considered. For isolated beams.12. inches (mm). Eight times the slab thickness. contribution of concrete to shear strength Vc is permitted to be 10 percent more than that spe- 1.2 Reinforcement normal to the ribs shall be provided in the slab as required for flexure. or 1908. Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete. inches (mm). 1908.2 Slab thickness over permanent fillers shall not be crete.5.4 Joist construction not meeting the limitations of the preceding two paragraphs shall be designed as slabs and beams.1 In T-beam construction. inches (mm). but not less than required by Section 1907. II 1908. ceed one fourth the span length of the beam. and the effective overhanging slab width on each side of the web shall not exceed: 1908.1 Slab thickness shall not be less than one twelfth the clear distance between ribs. Section 1908. Factored dead load on all spans with full-factored live load 1908.9. apart than five times the slab thickness or 18 inches (457 mm). For other T-beams. if any. c = distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis 1908. 1908. the effective overhanging flange width shall not exceed: 1908. Ǹf Ȁ = square root of specified compressive strength of con- c 1908.3 In one-way joists. shall have a flange thick.11. slab thickness shall be at 1.1 Transverse reinforcement shall be designed to carry the factored load on the overhanging slab width assumed to act as a 1909. it shall be permitted to include the vertical shells of fillers in f ′c = specified compressive strength of concrete. and forces.10 T-beam Construction. D = dead loads. 1908.2 Width of slab effective as a T-beam flange shall not ex.10.2 It shall be permitted to consider all concrete floor fi- considered as a T-beam flange (excluding joist construction) is nishes may be considered as part of required cover or total thick- parallel to the beam. One twelfth the span length of the beam. tions. 1908. d′ = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of 1908. pounds per square inch (MPa).11. 1908. 3. tions. or least 1 inch (25 mm) greater than the total overall depth of the con- 2. pounds per square inch shall be provided in the slab as required by Section 1907. shall be provided in the top of the slab in accordance with the fol- lowing: SECTION 1909 — STRENGTH AND SERVICEABILITY REQUIREMENTS 1908.5.2 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1909. flange shall be considered.11.5.10.CHAP. 1908. inches (mm). material having a unit compressive strength at least equal to that of F = loads due to weight and pressures of fluids with well- the specified strength of concrete in the joists are used: defined densities and controllable maximum heights.5 Where primary flexural reinforcement in a slab that is 1908. reinforcement normal to the ribs fr = modulus of rupture of concrete.10.6. (mm2).3 For beams with a slab on one side only. See Section 1908.10.11. rection or two orthogonal directions. 2–112 .7 Where conduits or pipes as permitted by Section 1906.1. duits or pipes at any point.12 Separate Floor Finish.0 Notations. in inches (mm). tension steel. 1908.11.11. the flange and web shall be built integrally or otherwise effectively bonded together. signed in accordance with requirements of Section 1917. One half the clear distance to the next web.12. Six times the slab thickness.11. Conduits or pipes shall not impair sig- nificantly the strength of the construction. 1908.1 A floor finish shall not be included as part of a structur- ness not less than one half the width of web and an effective flange al member unless placed monolithically with the floor slab or de- width not more than four times the width of web. 19.11. in which the T-shape is used to provide a flange for additional compression area.10.10. (MPa).5. cantilever. Other portions of fillers shall not be included in square inch (MPa).12. pounds per contact with ribs.12. or related internal moments 1908. or related internal moments and forces. 1908.11 Joist Construction. One half the clear distance to the next web. strength computations.3 Clear spacing between ribs shall not exceed 30 inches dt = distance from extreme compression fiber to extreme (762 mm).

4D ) 1. in Section 1909.3. culated in accordance with requirements and assumptions of this tions. greatest required strength U. shrinkage. neglect.2.1 fy = specified yield strength of nonprestressed reinforce. other materials.75 (1.7L ) 1. Mcr = cracking moment. listed in Section 1928. shall be based on a realistic assessment of such effects occurring in λ = multiplier for additional long-time deflection as defined service.4D ) 1.2. 1909.2. in terms of flexure.2. See Section U + 1.3 If resistance to specified earthquake loads or forces E Ma = maximum moment in member at stage deflection is are included in design.1. or related internal moments and forces.3W (9-3) struction. shrinkage. such loading shall have a load fac- wc = weight of concrete. expansion of shrinkage-compensating concrete Section 1913. 1909.4.1. Estimations of differential settlement.75 (1.4 If resistance to earth pressure H is included in design. or temperature change may be significant in design.3 Design Strength. as defined in Sec. clear projection of cantilever. except that where D or L reduces the effect of H.2. L and H.2. L = live loads.1. L and W shall be investigated to determine the greatest required strength Ig = moment of inertia of gross concrete section about cen. A′g /bd.3. 1909. code.5. line of adjacent panel (if any) on each side of beam.5. See Formula (9-8). strength U shall be at least equal to β = ratio of clear spans in long-to-short direction of two-way U + 0.2. creep. pounds per cubic foot (kg/m3). 1909.7L) (9-5) slabs. See creep.7L (9-1) Ie = effective moment of inertia for computation of deflec.1 and the load-factor combinations in binations as are stipulated in this code. axial inforcement. 1909. or related internal moments and forces. tor of 1.5.6 If resistance to impact effects is taken into account in α = ratio of flexural stiffness of beam section to flexural design. not be less than Formula (9-1). value of L to determine the more severe condition. DIV.2.7W) (9-2) l = span length of beam or one-way slab. U troidal axis. ρ = ratio of nonprestressed tension reinforcement. fluids with well-defined densities and controllable maximum W = wind load. shrinkage. or related internal moments and forces. 1909.5. where load combinations shall include both full value and zero tion 1908. 1909. or 1909.3. and ln = length of clear span in long direction of two-way con.1. ports in other cases. 1909.2.1. H = loads due to weight and pressure of soil.1 General. shall be at least equal to Icr = moment of inertia of cracked section transformed to concrete.1.1 Required strength U to resist dead load D and live load L h = overall thickness of member. shall be taken as the nominal strength cal- ρb = reinforcement ratio producing balanced strain condi.4D ) 1. its connection to other members and its cross sections. the following combinations of D. 2–113 . 1909. 1909.1 Design strength provided by a member.2 Required Strength.3. II 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1909. expan- εt = net tensile strain in extreme tension steel at nominal sion of shrinkage-compensating concrete or temperature change strength.7 Where structural effects T of differential settlement.1 If the structural framing includes primary members of other materials proportioned to satisfy the load-factor combina- 1909. L and W. Pb = nominal axial load strength at balanced strain condi.4T ) 1. multiplied by a strength-reduction factor φ in Sections φ = strength-reduction factor.4D ) 1. required strength U shall be at least equal to tions. to extreme fiber in tension. 1909. ρ′ = reinforcement ratio for nonprestressed compression re. ing reinforcement. required strength U shall not be less than Formula (9-1).3.2 and 1909. U + 1. measured face to face of supports in slabs but for any combination of D. live load. stituted for 1.4D and zero value of L shall be used to determine the ferential settlement and shrinkage compensating con. required αm = average value of α for all beams on edges of a panel.2. For any combination of D. U + 0.9D ) 1.1 Structures and structural members shall be designed to tions of Section 1928. See Section B1910.2. such effects shall be included with live load L. U = required strength to resist factored loads or related inter. heights F is included in design. 19. f.1. water in soil. See Section 1909.3. code to ensure adequate performance at service load levels. CHAP.3. shear and tension. load.1 computed. U + 0. it shall be permitted to proportion the have design strengths at all sections at least equal to the required concrete members using the set of strength-reduction factors. inches (mm).5 If resistance to loadings due to weight and pressure of nal moments and forces. required strength U shall without beams and face to face of beams or other sup. See Section 1910.7H (9-4) Pn = nominal axial load strength at given eccentricity.2. strengths calculated for the factored loads and forces in such com. neglecting reinforcement. but required strength U shall not be less than ξ = time-dependent factor for sustained load. inches (mm). shall apply.4 and be added to all loading combinations that include yt = distance from centroidal axis of gross section. As /bd.7.7L ) 1.3.2. crete. Section 1928. load combinations of Section 1612. 0.2 Members also shall meet all other requirements of this ment. dif.2.2 If resistance to structural effects of a specified wind load tion. U + 1.4 (D ) T) (9-6) 1909. 1909.0 1909. stiffness of a width of slab bounded laterally by center 1909. creep. W are included in design. pounds per square inch (MPa).9D shall be sub- T = cumulative effects of temperature.

unless computation of deflection indicates a lesser thickness may be used without adverse effects. 0. 1909. . f r + 7. . . . . .8fct ) for Ǹf Ȁc. . .6 Deflection computed in accordance with this section 1909. . .10 f ′c Ag or φ Pb . flection caused by the sustained load considered. Axial tension and axial tension with flexure .3. . . . .5 Strength reduction factor f for flexure compression. .3. .2. II 1909.3 Unless stiffness values are obtained by a more com- Axial compression and axial compression with flexure: prehensive analysis. For prismatic members.3 Shear and torsion (See also Section 1909. sections.8fct ) shall not exceed Ǹf Ȁc. . 19. .2. . . . . and at support for be 0.5.4 Bearing on concrete (See also Section 1918.5.3. . .2 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1909.5.1 Flexure. one of the following modifications shall apply: 1909.3 . be permitted to be taken as the value obtained from Formula (9-7) quake effects. . . and with (h – d′ – ds )/h not fr Ig M cr + y (9-8) less than 0. . and at support for cantilevers.000 where ρ′ shall be the value at midspan for simple and continuous psi (551. . . . shrinkage of flexural members (normal-weight or lightweight concrete) shall be determined by multiplying the immediate de- 1909.5. effective moment of inertia shall sponding to the most critical factored axial loads including earth. (For axial load that occur immediately on application of load shall be computed with flexure.2 Where deflections are to be computed. Designs shall not be based on a yield strength of reinforcement fy in excess of 80. . .90 1909. . .1 (normal-weight or lightweight concrete) and with the ef- Section 1910. .5. .3. . both axial load and moment nominal strength shall by usual methods or formulas for elastic deflections. 1909.2. but not greater than Ig . .0 1909. . .5.4 For continuous members. . if their nominal shear strength is less than the shall be permitted to be taken as the average of values obtained shear corresponding to development of their nominal flexural from Formula (9-7) for the critical positive and negative moment strength. . DIV.2 Reinforcement used for diaphragm chords or collec. . additional longtime deflection resulting from creep and be designed using a strength-reduction factor of 0. cantilevers.3 Development lengths specified in Section 1912 do not stituting fct /6. .70 except that for low values of axial compression. . .3.6 MPa). φ shall be per- mitted to be increased in accordance with the following: Ie + ǒMM Ǔ I cr a 3 g ) ƪ1 * ǒMM Ǔ ƫI cr a 3 cr (9-7) For members in which fy does not exceed 60.3.5.5 Unless values are obtained by a more comprehensive tors placed in topping slabs over precast concrete members shall analysis. concrete members and structural framing members. . .65.75 fective moment of inertia as follows. .6. . . . .3. and 0. except for prestressing tendons. . spans. . .85 for “sand-light- 1909. .1 The shear strength-reduction factor shall be 0. .7 (For SI: 1. topping slabs used as diaphragms over precast be used when partial sand replacement is used.5. . .2 Strength-reduction factor φ shall be as follows: tions.CHAP. . 1909. . .1 This section shall govern the minimum thickness of titions or other construction likely to be damaged by large deflec. 0.3.5. . . . . .2.2.5. . .4. 0.90 as φ Pn decreases from 0. whichever is smaller.3. .75 for shall be as given above except for the following: ‘‘all-lightweight’’ concrete. . but the value of require a φ factor. 0. . 0.3.2 deformations that affect strength or serviceability of a structure Three months 1. . without axial load .6 for weight’’ concrete.3 Two-way construction (nonprestressed). . .) effects of cracking and reinforcement on member stiffness. φ shall be permitted to be in. .7 WHERE: MPa). . slabs or other two-way construction designed in accordance with 2–114 .85. .90 1909. .2. fr shall be modified by sub- 1909. . . . .4 be designed to have adequate stiffness to limit deflections or any Six months 1. effective moment of inertia exception of joints. .000 psi (413. . . strength-reduction factors φ 2.62 Ǹf Ȁc 1909. . . .2.4.1 Reinforced concrete members subject to flexure shall 12 months 1. The nominal flexural strength shall be determined corre. .2. .90 t as φ Pn decreases from 0. φ shall be permitted to be increased linearly to 0. .70. . shall not exceed limits stipulated in Table 19-C-2. . . When fct is not specified. .3. .5 Ǹf Ȁc (9-9) creased linearly to 0. 1909. . with the 1909. 0. Five years or more 2. Other reinforced members .4 for shear walls and frames in Seismic Zones 3 and 4) . . Linear interpolation shall be permitted to the design of walls. . . .3. to zero. .4 In Seismic Zones 3 and 4. fct /6. considering be multiplied by appropriate single value of φ.1 1909.2 One-way construction (nonprestressed). . . 1909. 1909. . .2. . immediate deflection shall be computed with the modulus of elasticity Ec for concrete as specified in Section Members with spiral reinforcement conforming to 1908. by the factor shear and bearing of structural plain concrete in Section 1922 shall be 0.4 Design Strength for Reinforcement.85 When lightweight aggregate concrete is used. . fr shall be multiplied by 0. The shear strength reduction factor for joints shall at midspan for simple and continuous spans.5. and for normal-weight concrete For other reinforced members.7 (For SI: 1.13) .2 Axial load and axial load with flexure. . . When fct is specified and concrete is proportioned in ac- cordance with Section 1905.70 1. It is permitted to assume the time-dependent factor for sustained loads to be equal to 1909.1 Minimum thickness stipulated in Table 19-C-1 shall apply for one-way construction not supporting or attached to par. . For SI: f r + 0. . c l + (9-10) 1 ) 50ρȀ 1909. 1909. .3.0 adversely. with symmetric reinforcement.5. .2. .2. .5 Control of Deflections.3.10 f ′c Ag to zero. . deflections 1909. .9. . 1909.

0. If the thickness of a non- h+ (9-11) prestressed precast flexural member meets the requirements of 36 ) 5b(a m * 0. square inches (mm2). CHAP.2 shall apply.3. DIV.0 Notations. but the long-time deflec- 36 ) 5b(a m * 0. . deflection need not be computed.5.1 and 1913.1 1910. 2.3.2) Table 19-C-1. and of axial creep effects in a prestressed concrete member.1 For flexural members designed in accordance with satisfy the requirements of Section 1909. quirements of Section 1913.5. 1909.5.5.2 For slabs without interior beams spanning between crete members shall be computed taking into account stresses in the supports and having a ratio of long to short span not greater concrete and steel under sustained load and including effects of than 2. tion is computed. For αm greater than 2. thickness required by Formula (9-11) or (9-12) shall be in.7. squared (mm2).5.5. the but not less than 3. an edge beam shall be provided area of reinforcement divided by the area of the largest with a stiffness ratio α not less than 0. square in- permitted to be used if shown by computation that the deflection ches (mm2).1.2 Unshored construction. Additional long-term de.5.000 Ǔ 1909. Ac = area of core of spirally reinforced compression member creased by at least 10 percent in the panel with a discontinu.1.5. 2–115 . square inches per foot (mm2/m).0. A = effective tension area of concrete surrounding the flexu- ǒ fy l n 0.5.1. Slabs without drop panels as defined in Sections 1913. 1.80.4.3.5. divided by the number of bars or 36 ) 9b wires.3. Ag = gross area of section. ite section.8 ) 200. the minimum thickness shall be in accordance with the pro.5.5. for normal-weight or lightweight concrete shall apply.5. Ask = area of skin reinforcement per unit height in one side The modulus of elasticity of concrete Ec shall be as specified in face.7. For αm greater than 0. At discontinuous edges.3 For slabs with beams spanning between the supports section. ǒ fy l n 0.7. number of bars or wires shall be computed as the total 4. visions of Table 19-C-3 and shall not be less than the following values: 1909.8 ) 1370 Ǔ ral tension reinforcement and having the same centroid For SI: h+ as that reinforcement. measured to outside diameter of spiral.000 Ǔ SECTION 1910 — FLEXURE AND AXIAL LOADS h+ (9-12) 36 ) 9b 1910. See Section 1910. it is not required to compute deflection occurring For SI: h+ after the member becomes composite.3.2 Additional long-time deflection of prestressed con- 1909. 1909. For nonprestressed members.5 Composite construction.3 Deflection computed in accordance with this section 3. (mm2).2 or 1909. If the thickness of ǒ fy l n 0. and the all sides shall satisfy the requirements of Section 1909.3. immediate deflection shall be com- Thickness of slabs with beams spanning between the supports on puted by usual methods or formulas for elastic deflections.5.5.5. The thickness of slabs without interior beams spanning between the supports on all sides shall 1909. Section 1908.5.3 Deflection computed in accordance with this section shall not exceed limits stipulated in Table 19-C-2. 1909.3. 4 inches (102 mm) bers are supported during construction so that. it shall be permitted to consider the composite member on all sides. 1909.5. other values shall be permitted to be used Ast = total area of longitudinal reinforcement (bars or steel if they result in computed deflections in reasonable agreement shapes). 19. account shall be taken of curvatures resulting ness shall not be less than from differential shrinkage of precast and cast-in-place compo- nents.5. the thick. Slabs with drop panels as defined in 1909.2 and 1909.2 .2. will not exceed the limits stipulated in Table 19-C-2. the thickness shall not be less than shall not exceed limits stipulated in Table 19-C-2.3 shall be As = area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement.8 ) 1370 Ǔ a nonprestressed composite member meets the requirements of Table 19-C-1. with the results of comprehensive tests. square inches (mm2).3 or moment of inertia of the gross concrete section shall be permitted 1909.4. inches shall be computed taking into account size and shape of the panel.7. or the minimum bar or wire used. dead load is resisted by the full composite 1909. II 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1909.4 Slab thickness less than the minimum thickness re.2 . Deflections As. ǒ fy l n 0. 5 inches (127 mm) 1909.min = minimum amount of flexural reinforcement.2. the provisions of Section in compression shall determine whether values in Table 19-C-1 1909.3.5 inches (89 mm). to be used for uncracked sections. and nature of restraints at the panel edges.1 Shored construction. after removal of temporary supports. square inches ous edge.4. square inches (mm2).5.2) tion of the precast member shall be investigated for magnitude and duration of load prior to beginning of effective composite action. but not less than 5 inches (127 mm). 1909. creep and shrinkage of concrete and relaxation of steel. the minimum thickness shall be as follows: equivalent to a monolithically cast member for computation of de- flection.5. If composite flexural mem- Sections 1913.3.4 Prestressed concrete construction.4. pipe or tubing in a compos- flection shall be computed in accordance with Section 1909.3.3.3.5. When the flexural rein- forcement consists of different bar or wire sizes.0 the provisions of Section 1913 and conforming with the re.3.5. square inches (mm2).3.5.2. the portion of the member 1.5.5.1 and 1913. For αm equal to or less than 0.3.3. The effective moment of inertia shall be that given by Formula (9-7). . conditions of support.5. quired by Sections 1909. If deflec- 2.4.2 but not greater than 2.8 ) 200.6. provisions of Section 1918. At = area of structural steel shape.

fk = stiffness reduction factor. ∆o = relative lateral deflection between the top and bottom of Ise = moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal a story due to Vu . cone. pipe or tub. square inch (MPa). See Section 1908. sidesway. kips factored axial dead load to the total factored axial load. inches (mm).3.2 and 1908.3. ρs = ratio of volume of spiral reinforcement to total volume of core (out-to-out of spirals) of a spirally reinforced M1ns = factored end moment on a compression member at the compression member. Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete. against sidesway to reflect lateral drift resulting from lu = unsupported length of compression member. Section 1910. at which M2 acts.0 A1 = loaded area.6. II 1910.6. strength. M1s = factored end moment on compression members at the A2 = the area of the lower base of the largest frustum of a pyra.CHAP. end at which M1 acts. square inch (MPa). negative if tions. (10-9).13.1. accordance with Section 1910. zontal (50% slope). neglecting reinforcement. DIV. troidal axis. always positive. computed using a first-order elastic axis of member cross section.5. Pn = nominal axial load strength at given eccentricity. bd is the ratio of the maximum fs = calculated stress in reinforcement at service loads.2.4. dc = thickness of concrete cover measured from extreme ten. due to loads that cause appreciable mid. Pu = factored axial load at given eccentricity v φ Pn . the ratio of the maximum factored sustained shear ment. Cm = a factor relating actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform moment diagram. end at which M1 acts. per square inch (MPa). inches (mm). due to loads that cause no appreciable bw = web width. EI = flexural stiffness of compression member. ρ = ratio of nonprestressed tension reinforcement. or tapered wedge contained wholly within the sidesway. inch (MPa). lateral and gravity loads.2. See Section 1910. except as required in Item 3. calculated using a first-order elastic frame analysis. measured δs = moment magnification factor for frames not braced from center to center of the joints in the frame. M2 = larger factored end moment on compression member. h = overall dimension of member in direction of action con. inches (mm). tions. inches (mm).11.1. inches (mm). r = radius of gyration of cross section of a compression Es = modulus of elasticity of reinforcement.7. 2–116 .3. Pc = critical load. 19. See Section 1910. calculated using a first-order elastic φ = strength-reduction factor. sidesway to reflect effects of member curvature between k = effective length factor for compression members. bd is the ratio of the maximum factored sustained axial load to the total fac- Ig = moment of inertia of gross concrete section about cen. See Section 1910. = (c) for stability checks of sway frames carried out in sidered. pounds per square Q = stability index for a story.min = minimum value of M2 . Mu = factored moment at section. calculated using a first-order elastic frame support and having for its upper base the loaded area. bd = (a) for nonsway frames.3. frame analysis and stiffness values satisfying Section It = moment of inertia of structural steel shape. pounds per β1 = factor defined in Section 1910. a = depth of equivalent rectangular stress block as defined in M2. tored axial load. and having side slopes of 1 unit vertical in 2 units hori. See Formula z = quantity limiting distribution of flexural reinforcement. 1910. ing about centroidal axis of composite member cross δns = moment magnification factor for frames braced against section. ends of compression members. Vu = factored horizontal shear in a story. pounds per member.7. pounds per square inch (MPa). ρb = reinforcement ratio producing balanced strain condi- positive if member is bent in single curvature. M1 = smaller factored end moment on a compression member. calculated using a first-order elastic frame inches (mm). = As/bd.2. Ms = moment due to loads causing appreciable sway. f ′c = specified compressive strength of concrete. bent in double curvature. sion fiber to center of bar or wire located closest thereto.5. Mc = factored moment to be used for design of compression et = net tensile strain in extreme tension steel at nominal member. d = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of Pb = nominal axial load strength at balanced strain condi- tension reinforcement.0 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1910.11. bd is fy = specified yield strength of nonprestressed reinforce. M2s = factored end moment on compression member at the end at which M2 acts. analysis. See Section 1909. analysis. frame analysis.3. sidesway.1. lc = length of a compression member in a frame. dt = distance from extreme compression fiber to extreme tension steel. = (b) for sway frames. M2ns = factored end moment on compression member at the end b = width of compression face of member. See Section 1910. See Sections 1908. due to loads that cause no appre- ciable sidesway. within a story to the total factored shear in that story. inches (mm). due to loads that cause appreciable c = distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis. Po = nominal axial load strength at zero eccentricity. See Formula (10-9).5.2.

reinforcement.3.2.7.7.6 Distribution of Flexural Reinforcement in Beams and load strength φPn is less than the smaller of 0. 19.) + 0.min + b wd (10-4) fy psi (27. but β1 shall not be taken less than 0.85f Ȁc (A g * A st) ) f y Ast] (10-1) ple spans.2 For nonprestressed members with tie reinforcement See Section 1910.5.003.3 Maximum usable strain at extreme concrete compres.2.003.65.2 Distance c from fiber of maximum strain to the neutral axis shall be measured in a direction perpendicular to the axis.75 of the ratio 1910. β1 shall be reduced continuously at a rate 6 Ǹf Ȁ c of 0.6 Members subject to compressive axial load shall be de- to fy.6. a nonlinear distribution of strain shall be considered. signed for the maximum moment that can accompany the axial load.2.85f Ȁc (A g * A st) ) f y Ast] (10-2) sion fiber shall be assumed equal to 0.1 Design of cross section subject to flexure or axial loads need not be applied if at every section the area of tensile reinforce- or to combined flexure and axial loads shall be based on stress and ment provided is at least one-third greater than that required by strain compatibility using assumptions in Section 1910.3.3. satisfied by an equivalent rectangular concrete stress distribution defined by the following: 1910. 1910. and for members subject to com- bined flexure and compressive axial load when the design axial 1910.2. conforming to Section 1907.89 MPa) of strength in excess of 4.7. conforming to Section 1910. stress in reinforcement shall be considered independent of strain and equal 1910.5. or Formula (10-3) with bw set equal to the width of the flange.4. 1910. forcement need not be reduced by the 0.4. the area As provided shall edges of the cross section and a straight line located parallel to the not be less than that given by: neutral axis at a distance a = β1c from the fiber of maximum com- pressive strain.2.7. 1910.3 For flexural members.1 Scope.2.4 or composite members directly proportional to the distance from the neutral axis.1 and 1910. For strengths above 4. shall be based on assumptions given in the following items and on satisfaction of applicable conditions of equilibrium and compati.2. the minimum area of tensile reinforcement in the direction of span cified yield strength fy just as concrete in compression reaches its shall be the same as that required by Section 1907. trapezoidal.5.2.3 The requirements of Sections 1910. CHAP.6. 1910.5 Design axial load strength φ Pn of compression mem- bility of strains.min + b wd and not less than (10-3) fy fy 1910. 1910.3.5.85 (for members with spiral 1910.58 MPa).1 Spacing of lateral supports for a beam shall not exceed of strength in substantial agreement with results of comprehensive 50 times the least width b of compression flange or face.3.5.6 may be considered account in determining spacing of lateral supports.3. tests. the portion of ρb equalized by compression rein- ure and axial loads. Provisions of Section 1910 shall apply for design under flexure without axial load. Maximum assumed ultimate strain of 0.2 Effects of lateral eccentricity of load shall be taken into 1910.3 For prestressed members.2 For a statically determinate T-section with flange in ten- sion.5.58 MPa).1 1910.000 A s.5.2 1910.2 Balanced strain conditions exist at a cross section when 1910. except.2 Strain in reinforcement and concrete shall be assumed ment conforming to Section 1907. fR n(max. bers shall not be taken greater than the following: 1910. tension reinforcement reaches the strain corresponding to its spe.2. 1910. the One-way Slabs.05 for each 1. The factored axial load Pu at given eccentricity shall not ex- 1910. 1910.5 Tensile strength of concrete shall be neglected in axial ceed that given in Section 1910.1 1910. 1910.000 psi (27.5. bers.3 Factor β1 shall be taken as 0.16: for deep flexural members with overall depth-to-clear-span ratios greater than two fifths for continuous spans and four fifths for sim.000 psi (6. DIV.10. analysis. 1910.4 Stress in reinforcement below specified yield strength fy reinforcement) or 0.58 MPa).2.12. parabolic or any other shape that results in prediction 1910. spacing of this reinforcement shall not exceed the lesser of three times the thickness and 18 inches (457 mm).000 psi (27. 1910.4. 1910.min shall be equal to or greater than the smaller 1910.3. the area As.5.3. except where ment Mu shall be magnified for slenderness effects in accordance meeting requirements of Section 1918.85 for concrete strengths value given either by: f ′c up to and including 4.5: 1910. For strains greater than that corresponding to fy. design axial load strength φPn shall not be taken greater than 0.5.3.3 and 1910. 1910.1 The rules for distribution of flexural reinforcement to ρb that would produce balanced strain conditions for the section control flexural cracking in beams and in one-way slabs (slabs re- 2–117 . 1910.) + 0.2. ratio of reinforcement ρ provided shall not exceed 0.4 For structural slabs and footings of uniform thickness. II 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1910.2.1 At every section of a flexural member where tensile 1910.4. fR n(max. 3 Ǹf Ȁ c 200b wd A s. For members with compression of members subject to flexure or axial loads or to combined flex.1 For nonprestressed members with spiral reinforce- 1910.85f[0.3.10 f ′c Ag or φPb .2.3 General Principles and Requirements. strain.75 factor.85f ′c shall be assumed uniformly reinforcement is required by analysis.5 Minimum Reinforcement of Flexural Members.4 Distance between Lateral Supports of Flexural Mem- tribution and concrete strain shall be assumed to be rectangular.10. The maximum factored mo- and flexural calculations of reinforced concrete. with Section 1910.80f[0.5.1 Concrete stress of 0.10.5.4 Use of compression reinforcement shall be permitted in conjunction with additional tension reinforcement to increase the 1910.5.6 Relationship between concrete compressive stress dis.80 (for members with tie reinforcement) of for grade of reinforcement used shall be taken as Es times steel the design axial load strength at zero eccentricity φ Po .7 Requirements of Section 1910.2 Design Assumptions. 1910.1 Strength design of members for flexure and axial loads strength of flexural members. except as provided in Sec- distributed over an equivalent compression zone bounded by tions 1910. 1910.

8.6.1 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1910. members.6 MN/m) for interior expo- sure and 145 kips per inch (25. the design of lesser of d/6 and 12 inches (305 mm). it square inch) (MPa) shall be computed as the moment divided by shall be permitted to base the minimum reinforcement and design the product of steel area and internal moment arm. 1910.6.6.6 Where flanges of T-beam construction are in tension. If the effective 1910. 1910.2 Compression member built monolithically with as required by Section 1910.6.3 Minimum flexural tension reinforcement shall conform 1910.7. it strength on a reduced effective area Ag not less than one half the shall be permitted to take fs as 60 percent of specified yield total area.11 Magnified Moments—General. skin reinforcement. 1910. DIV.2 and 1914.4 MN/m) for exterior exposure.7.2 Minimum number of longitudinal bars in compression members shall be four for bars within rectangular or circular ties.4 When design yield strength fy for tension reinforcement ly with a concrete wall or pier shall be taken not greater than exceeds 40. lows: 1910. within maximum flexural tension zones of a member cross section 1910. restraining beams.6. 1910.8. some longitudinal rein. and other supporting members on axial forces and moments from the analyses described in Section 1910.6. shown to result in prediction of strength in substantial agreement tios greater than two fifths for continuous spans. restraining beams and other supporting clude such reinforcement in strength computations if a strain com.1 Isolated compression member with multiple spi- 1910. M1 and M2 . to Section 1910.000 psi (413.5. longitudinal skin reinforcement shall be uni- formly distributed along both side faces of the member for a dis.9.3.8 and 1911.7.6.6.000 psi (275.CHAP.012 (d – 30) [For SI: w 0. The maximum spacing of the skin reinforcement shall not exceed the 1910.3.1 Flexural members with overall depth-to-clear-span ra. into account nonlinear distribution of strain and lateral buckling. compression members.9.3 As an alternate to using the full gross area for design of a compressive member with a square.45 g * 1 c (10-6) 1910. value given by ǒAA Ǔ ffȀ forcement shall be provided in the outer portions of the flange. member with two or more interlocking spirals shall be taken at a distance outside the extreme limits of the spirals equal to the mini- 1910. three for bars within triangular ties. shall be computed using an 1914. whichever is smaller.4.9 Limits for Reinforcement of Compression Members. it shall be permitted to base the design of compression cordance with Section 1911.4 Minimum horizontal and vertical reinforcement in the 1910.3 Flexural tension reinforcement shall be well distributed mum concrete cover required by Section 1907.10.8. taking indeterminate reinforced concrete structures.012 (d – 762)]. For a compression member with a Calculated stress in reinforcement at service load fs (kips per cross section larger than required by considerations of loading.10. octagonal or other shaped z + fs Ǹ3 dc A (10-5) cross section. ∆o .2 As an alternate of the procedure prescribed in Section 1910. elastic first-order frame analysis with the section properties de- 2–118 .7.4 Limits of section.08 times gross area Ag of section. as well as the effects of member curvature and lateral both faces need not exceed one half of the required flexural tensile drift. the supporting foundation. shrinkage and creep. Alternatively.9 or Sections relative lateral story deflections.8 MPa). dimensions of the members shown on the design drawings and the analysis shall be repeated. 1910.1 The factored axial forces. tions are required.10 Slenderness Effects in Compression Members. does not exceed 175 kips per inch (30. 11/2 inches (38 mm) outside the spiral or tie reinforcement. For such structures.2. 1910.3.11.8. 19. The dimensions of each member cross section used in the analysis shall be within 10 percent of the 1910.6. 1910. it shall be permitted to use a circular section with a diameter equal to the least lateral dimension of the actual shape.5 Provisions of Section 1910.1 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for noncomposite structures subject to very aggressive exposure or designed to be compression members shall not be less than 0. face shall be w 0.8 Design Dimensions for Compression Members. wall. 1910. II 1910.2 Distribution of flexural reinforcement in two-way slabs rals. This provision shall not apply in Seismic Zones 3 and 4.1 Except as allowed in Section 1910. and interaction with reinforcement. where fy is the specified yield strength of spiral reinforcement but tance d/2 nearest the flexural tension reinforcement.10.8.8. Outer limits of the effective cross section of a compression shall be as required by Section 1913. strength fy. Ask .7 Deep Flexural Members. at the ends of the column and. tive and negative moment shall be so proportioned that the quanti- ty z given by: 1910.11.11. It shall be permitted to in. per foot (per mm) of height on each side 1910.10.01 or more than watertight.2 Shear strength of deep flexural members shall be in ac. duration of loads. side faces of deep flexural members shall be the greater of the re. 1910. Pu . and six for bars enclosed by part of the flexural tension reinforcement shall be distributed over spirals conforming to the following ratio: an effective flange width as defined in Section 1908. Outer limits of the effective cross section of a spirally rein- forced or tied reinforced compression member built monolithical- 1910. the quirements of Sections 1911. 1910. cross sections of maximum posi. or a width equal to one tenth the span. the factored moments.8. shall be designed as deep flexural members. The analysis procedure shall have been 1910.3 Ratio of spiral reinforcement ρs shall not be less than the flange width exceeds one tenth the span.7. 0.3.7 If the effective depth d of a beam or joist exceeds c y 36 inches (914 mm). or four fifths for with the results of comprehensive tests of columns in statically simple spans. The total area of longitudinal skin reinforcement in cracking.1 inforced to resist flexural stresses in only one direction) are as fol. members shall be based on the factored forces and moments from patibility analysis is made to determine stresses in the individual a second order analysis considering materials nonlinearity and bars or wires.1. special investigations and precau.9. ρ s + 0. where required. The area of not more than 60.10.7 MPa).4 may not be sufficient for 1910.

unless analysis shows that a lower value is justified. Cm shall be taken as 1910.35 Ig where M1 /M2 is not taken less than –0. The term M1 /M2 is posi- Flat plates and flat slabs 0. in the story in question and ∆o is the first-order rela.12. the 1 ) bd unsupported length shall be measured to the lower extremity of the capital or haunch in the plane considered. Area 1. of more than 100. where 0.11.1 For compression members in nonsway frames. it shall be permitted to compute the radius of gyra.13. or tion being considered. Cm shall be taken as 1.75P u c is being considered for rectangular compression members and P c + p EI2 0.11.0.0 Ag 1910.4 (10-14) M2 nonsway frames or stories shall be based on Section 1910.2 It shall be permitted to take the radius of gyration. based on the E and I values used in Section 1910.13. it shall be permitted to use the 1910. (0.11.11. Cm d ns + P w 1.4.2 For compression members not braced against side- 1910.10.2 The factored moment M2 in Formula (10-9) shall not second-order effects does not exceed 5 percent of the first-order be taken less than end moments.11.11.6 and h are in inches. For 2 (10-11) other shapes. 1910.1.6 ) 0.6 For compression members subject to bending about 1910.0 (10-10) equal to 0.2 In nonsway frames. 2.2 It also shall be permitted to assume a story within a about each axis separately.4 w 0.4.70 Ig kl u r v 34 * 12 (M 1ńM 2) (10-8) Walls—Uncracked 0.3 termined taking into account the influence of axial loads. 1910.2 Where column capitals or haunches are present.35 Ig derness effect for compression members which satisfy: Columns 0.70 Ig —Cracked 0. compression member shall be taken as fied separately based on the conditions of restraint corresponding to that axis. frame has a slenderness.13 Magnified Moments—Sway Frames. klu /r. Section 1910. Pu .40E c I g EI + (10-13) 1910.4 Columns and stories in structures shall be designated M1 as nonsway or sway columns or stories. where ΣPu and Vu are the total vertical load and the story shear. r.1 and shall be greater 1910. or shall be based on Q + is less than or equal to 0. sustained lateral loads act. (10-7) the ratio of the computed end moments M1 and M2 .6.12.11.1 The unsupported length lu of a compression member 1 ) bd shall be taken as the clear distance between floor slabs.1 It shall be permitted to assume a column in a struc- ture is nonsway if the increase in column end moments due to 1910.0. Moment of inertia: 1910. ence of cracked regions along the length of the member and effects of duration of loads. M 1 + M 1ns ) d sM 1s (10-16) 2–119 .5. 1910.3. than 22.12. Alternatively. WHERE: 1910. the following properties for the members in the structure: effective length factor k shall be taken as 1. The design of columns in sway frames or stories shall be based on Sec.3. effects of slenderness may be neglected when klu /r is less frame.25 times the diameter for circular compression members.5. The design of columns in C m + 0. 1910.13.1 shall be used to compute the forces and moments in the sway.3.25 Ig tive if the column is bent in single curvature. M 2. respectively.13.0.1.6 ) 0. 3. the effective length factor k shall be determined using E and I values in accordance with Section 1910.13.12. where M1 /M2 is positive if the column is bent in single curvature. 19. beams or other members capable of providing lateral support in the direc. The calculation of k shall be 1. DIV.03h) (10-15) 1910. as follows: 1. (kl u) tion for the gross concrete section. For structure is nonsway if: members for which M2.11. II 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1910.min + P u (0.12. Modulus of elasticity = Ec from Section 1908. CHAP. 0.30 times the overall dimension of the direction stability 1 * 0.0.1 For members without transverse loads between sup- ports.2E cI g ) E sI se) EI + (10-12) 1910. EI shall be taken as 1910. or for M c + d ns M 2 (10-9) 2.11. stability checks made in accordance with Section 1910.11.min exceeds M2 .3 The moments M1 and M2 at the ends of an individual both principal axes.5 Where an individual compression member in the than 1. the value of Cm in For- ȍP D u o mula (10-14) shall either be taken equal to 1. and the moment amplified for the effects of The moments of inertia shall be divided by (1 + ßd ) when: member curvature. the moment about each axis shall be magni.11. tion 1910.12. For members with transverse loads between supports.12 Magnified Moments—Nonsway Frames. sway.11. the pres.1 1910.05. 1910.3 Compression members shall be designed for the fac- tored axial load.13. Mc .3. it shall be permitted to ignore slen- Beams 0.3 Unsupported length of compression members. V ul c 1910.1 For compression members not braced against side- tive deflection between the top and bottom of that story due to Vu .

4. (E c A gń5) ) E s A t 1. 1910.16.60. as 1910.16. Column concrete shall be well integrated with floor 1910.4. 1 ) bd the value of Q computed using ΣPu for 1.3. 19.3 Any axial load strength assigned to concrete of a com- ru (10-20) Ǹ Pu f Ȁ cA g posite member shall be transferred to the concrete by members or brackets in direct bearing on the composite member concrete.1 shall be designed as provided 1910.3. When the specified compressive strength of concrete in a where δs Ms and δs M2s shall be computed according to Section column is greater than 1.16.5 If an individual compression member has concrete members. When δs Ms is computed according to Section 1910. 1910. Top surface of the col- the column end moments calculated using a second-order elastic umn concrete shall extend 2 feet (610 mm) into the slab from face analysis based on the member stiffnesses given in Section of column. Pu .7 Spiral reinforcement around structural steel in Section 1910 and in accordance with the additional require. When δs Ms is computed from Section 1910. 1 – Q If δs calculated in this way exceeds 1. crete core shall be permitted to be used in computing At and It . 3. A composite member with spirally reinforced concrete ments of Section 1913.7 M 2 + M 2ns ) d sM 2s (10-17) 1910. Axially loaded members supporting slab system included within the scope of Section 1913.15.3.7 live load plus lateral load applied to the (10-11) shall be taken either as Formula (10-12) or structure shall not exceed 2. II 1910. the ratio of second-order lateral deflections to first-order lateral deflections and.11.4.1.13.4 Calculation of δsMs .75SP u c 1910.1.5 For evaluation of slenderness effects. radius of gyra- tion 1910.13. around a structural steel core shall conform to the following: 2–120 .6. thickness of the steel encasement shall not be less than Ǹ live loads shall be positive and shall not exceed 2.14 Axially Loaded Members Supporting Slab Sys. concrete.16.3 For columns laterally supported on four sides by using Section 1910.CHAP. load shall not exceed 0. pipe or tube.15.16.2 Strength of a composite member shall be computed for 1910.1 Concrete of strength specified for the column shall be 1910.13.4.2 Alternatively. beams of approximately equal depth or by slabs. lu 35 1910. Pc shapes.1 For a composite member with concrete core encased puted using ΣPu and ΣPc corresponding to the factored dead and by structural steel. is calculated using Formula (10-11) using k from Section 1910. 1910.16. for each face of width b maximum factored sustained axial load to the total factored axial 3E s load. 2 and 3 above.16.12.6 Structural steel-encased concrete core. transmission of load through the floor system shall be provided by one of the following: 1910. 1910.16.4. E c Igń5 EI + ) E s It (10-22) 2.3 Alternatively.4 dead load and 1.5.6.6. δs com.4 All axial load strength not assigned to concrete of a it shall be designed for the factored axial load.3 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1910.13. bd as defined for the load combination under consideration and k as defined in Sec. 1910. 1 * 0.3 in which M1 and M2 are structural steel shape. nor 1910.13. pipe or tubing with or without longitudinal bars.4 dead load plus 1.2 Longitudinal bars located within the encased con- 1910.15 Transmission of Column Loads through Floor Sys- tem. it shall be permitted to calculate the umn joint equal to 75 percent of column concrete strength plus 35 magnified sway moment δs Ms as percent of floor concrete strength.13.1 and EI from Formula (10-12) or (10-13). δs Ms shall be calculated 1910.13.4. as an alternative to a more accurate calculation. computed in accordance with Section 1910.2 Strength of a column through a floor system shall be Ms based on the lower value of concrete strength with vertical dowels d sM s + w Ms (10-18) and spirals as required.13.16. strength of the column may be based on an assumed concrete strength in the col- 1910.1 or 1910.4.13.4.7 live 1910. composite member shall be developed by direct connection to the Mc .5 and 1906.2. When δs Ms is computed from Section 1910.1 Composite compression members shall include all where SPu is the summation for all the vertical loads in a story and such members reinforced longitudinally with structural steel SPc is the summation for all sway resisting columns in a story.16 Composite Compression Members. it shall be permitted to calculate δs Ms 1906. tion of a composite section shall not be greater than the value giv- en by: Ǹ 1910.15.16.1 The magnified sway moments δs Ms shall be taken as placed in the floor at the column location. 1910.13.4.4.13. DIV.13.1. the same limiting conditions applicable to ordinary reinforced 1910.12.5. flexural members shall be designed for the total magnified end moments of the compression members h Ǹ fy 8E s . bd shall be taken as the ratio of the b .4. fy In cases 1. tem. EI in Formula for 1.13. Ms d sM s + SP w Ms (10-19) 1910. the strength and stability of the structure as a whole under factored (E c I gń5) ) E s I t r + (10-21) gravity loads shall be considered. core.13. and the moment.4 times that specified for a floor system.13.13.6 In addition to load cases involving lateral loads. and shall be placed in accordance with Sections 1910.5. for circular sections of diameter h at the joint.7 In sway frames. calculated using Section 1910.

16. square inches (mm2). 1910.5 Longitudinal bars located within the spiral shall be Aoh = area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed permitted to be used in computing At and It . b = width of compression face of member.1 measured in the direction of the span for 1910. a rectangular cross section.1 1911. distance between concentrated load and face 1910. tored moment [Vu a + Nuc (h–d)]. Avf = area of shear-friction reinforcement. 1910.500 psi (17. DIV. bo = perimeter of critical section for slabs and footings. crete. square inches 1910. A composite member with laterally tied concrete around a structural Aps = area of prestressed reinforcement in tension zone.7 MPa). be less than 0. ex- cept that ties shall not be smaller than No.80h for prestressed members.08 times net area of concrete sec.8. square inches (mm2). 16 longitudinal bar diameters. or area of used but not to exceed 50.5 Vertical spacing of lateral ties shall not exceed of supports. or one half times the least side dimension of the composite member. inches squared (mm2).17 Bearing Strength.16.8. design bearing strength on the loaded c2 = size of rectangular or equivalent rectangular column. inches squared (mm2). d need not be less than the distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension 1911. Ǹf Ȁc = square root of specified compressive strength of con- tion. bt = width of that part of cross section containing the closed 1910. not be less than 2.24 MPa). or diameter of circular section.16.7.8.7. Welded wire fabric of equivalent area shall be reinforcement within a distance s2.16. 1911. An = area of reinforcement in bracket or corbel resisting ten- 1910. 1910. inches (mm).2 Design yield strength of structural steel core shall be a distance s. 1910. At = area of one leg of a closed stirrup resisting torsion within 1910. Acp = area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross sec.000 psi (344.01 or more than 0.7. the span for which moments are being determined. steel core shall conform to the following: square inches (mm2). 3 and are not required to Avh = area of shear reinforcement parallel to flexural tension be larger than No. 1910.500 psi (17. in- ches (mm). 1910. inches (mm).9. 1910. bers. inches squared tion.0 1910.7 MPa).7.16. inches (mm). shear reinforcement perpendicular to flexural tension 1910.7 A longitudinal bar shall be located at every corner of stirrups resisting torsion.3 Lateral ties shall extend completely around the reinforcement within a distance s for deep flexural mem- structural steel core. permitted to be used in computing At for strength but not in com.8.4 Longitudinal bars located within the spiral shall not sile force Nuc .12. (mm2).6 Longitudinal bars located within the ties shall not be ches (mm). the specified minimum yield strength for grade of structural steel Av = area of shear reinforcement within a distance s. square f ′c = specified compressive strength of concrete. a = shear span. the specified minimum yield strength for grade of structural steel Ah = area of shear reinforcement parallel to flexural tension used but not to exceed 50. As = area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement. See Section 1911.17 does not apply to posttensioning an.16. square inches (mm2). Ao = gross area enclosed by shear flow.1.17.17. inches (mm). reinforcement.7.8 Tie reinforcement around structural steel core. less than 0.16.6. 1/ 50 times the greatest side dimension of composite member. (mm2). square inches (mm2).8. 5.6. with other longitudinal bars spaced not bw = web width.8. 1911. 2–121 .16.1 measured in the direction perpendicular to b1. sides than the loaded area.16. b2 = width of the critical section defined in Section puting It for evaluation of slenderness effects.16.) Ac = area of concrete section resisting shear transfer.85f ′c A1).2 Section 1910. b1 = width of the critical section defined in Section ite member. d = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of chorages. reinforcement in opposite half of member. inches (mm). in- 1910. CHAP.1 Specified compressive strength of concrete f ′c shall Af = area of reinforcement in bracket or corbel resisting fac- not be less than 2.1 Specified compressive strength of concrete f ′c shall ches (mm2). inches (mm).12.4 Lateral ties shall have a diameter not less than (mm2).6. except when the supporting surface is wider on all for which moments are being determined.16.16.24 MPa).000 psi (344. 1910. longitudinal tension reinforcement. pounds per inches (mm2).7.8 Longitudinal bars located within the ties shall be which moments are determined. square in- 1910. c1 = size of rectangular or equivalent rectangular column. 19.0 Notations.16. square inches (mm2). 48 tie bar diameters.1 Design bearing strength on concrete shall not exceed φ capital or bracket measured in the direction of the span (0.08 times net area of concrete section.16.16.3. square inches permitted. square inches (mm2). (For SECTION 1911 — SHEAR AND TORSION circular sections. but not more capital or bracket measured transverse to the direction of than 2.8.2 Design yield strength of structural steel core shall be Ag = gross area of section. pounds per square inch (MPa). Al = total area of longitudinal reinforcement to resist torsion.8. transverse torsional reinforcement. but need not be less than 0.01 or more than 0. square inch (MPa).3 Spiral reinforcement shall conform to Section square inches (mm2). area shall be permitted to be multiplied by ǸA 2ńA 1 . II 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1910. farther apart than one half the least side dimension of the compos.

inches (mm). Vu = factored shear force at section. inches (mm). Mcr = moment causing flexural cracking at section due to ex.12.CHAP. inches (mm). Tu = factored torsional moment at section. See fyv = yield strength of closed transverse torsional reinforce. ρw = As /bw d. βc = ratio of long side to short side of concentrated load or lw = horizontal length of wall. factored loads. tion. µ = coefficient of friction. load or reaction. ment. section where tensile stress is caused by externally Tn = nominal torsional moment strength.0 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1911. αv = ratio of stiffness of shearhead arm to surrounding com- lv = length of shearhead arm from centroid of concentrated posite slab section.12.7. hv = total depth of shearhead cross section. pression. 1911. at extreme fiber of ing of horizontal reinforcement in wall. ρh = ratio of horizontal shear reinforcement area to gross con- crete area of vertical section. perpendicular to longitudinal reinforcement—or spac- fd = stress due to unfactored dead load. 19. pounds per square inch (MPa). α = angle between included stirrups and longitudinal axis of member. DIV.1 Design of cross sections subject to shear shall be based s1 = spacing of vertical reinforcement in wall. = 1 – γf . (In a composite member. See Section 1911.2. prestress losses) at centroid of cross section resisting ex. q = angle of compression diagonals in truss analogy for tor- sion. ment. s2 = spacing of shear or torsion reinforcement in direction gate concrete. Vs = nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforce- fy = specified yield strength of nonprestressed reinforce. Ph = perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. and to include effects of tension due to creep and shrinkage. on 2–122 . αf = angle between shear-friction reinforcement and shear I = moment of inertia of section resisting externally applied plane. slab-column connection. ity of shear at slab-column connections. λ = correction factor related to unit weight of concrete. Vc = nominal shear strength provided by concrete. tion. ln = clear span measured face to face of supports. inches (mm). See Section 1913. Nu = factored axial load normal to cross section occurring si.2. Vp = vertical component of effective prestress force at sec- fpu = specified tensile strength of prestressing tendons. parallel to longitudinal reinforcement. yt = distance from centroidal axis of gross section. ternally applied loads or at junction of web and flange Vci = nominal shear strength provided by concrete when diag- when the centroid lies within the flange. Nuc = factored tensile force applied at top of bracket or corbel ρn = ratio of vertical shear reinforcement area to gross con- acting simultaneously with Vu to be taken as positive for crete area of horizontal section. pounds per square inch (MPa). Mv = moment resistance contributed by shearhead reinforce. pounds per square inch (MPa).1. to extreme fiber in tension.1 Shear Strength. pounds per square inch (MPa). extreme fiber of section where tensile stress is caused by Vn = nominal shear strength. due to both prestress and moments re. negative for tension. to be taken as positive for com. hw = total height of wall from base to top.1. Pcp = outside perimeter of the concrete cross section.1. vn = nominal shear stress.4.4.6. See Section 1911. inches (mm).3. βd = constant used to compute Vc in prestressed slabs. square inch (MPa).) Vd = shear force at section due to unfactored dead load. η = number of identical arms of shearhead. pounds per square inch (MPa).4. inches (mm).1 fct = average splitting tensile strength of lightweight aggre. Mu = factored moment at section. inches (mm).5. 1911. fpe = compressive stress in concrete due to effective prestress Vi = factored shear force at section due to externally applied forces only (after allowance for all prestress losses) at loads occurring simultaneously with Mmax . fpc is resul- tant compressive stress at centroid of composite section. ρ = ratio of nonprestressed tension reinforcement. neglect- h = overall thickness of member. tension. Mmax = maximum factored moment at section due to externally γv = fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentric- applied loads.3. sisted by precast member acting alone. Vcw = nominal shear strength provided by concrete when diag- or at junction of web and flange when the centroid lies onal cracking results from excessive principal tensile within the flange. pounds per square inch (MPa). See Section 1911. pounds per onal cracking results from combined shear and moment.1. ment. Section 1911. ment.2.5. applied loads. ing reinforcement. fyl = yield strength of longitudinal torsional reinforcement. s = spacing of shear or torsion reinforcement in direction 1911. multaneously with Vu . γ f = fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure at Mm = modified moment. See Section 1909. inches (mm). ternally applied loads. inches (mm). αs = constant used to compute Vc in slabs and footings. stress in web. externally applied loads.3.6.12. = As /bd. II 1911. fpc = compressive stress in concrete (after allowance for all t = thickness of a wall of a hollow section. φ = strength-reduction factor. inches (mm). inches (mm). See Section Mp = required plastic moment strength of shearhead cross sec. reaction area.

2.3. where Vu is factored shear force at section considered and Vn is nominal shear strength computed by 1911.2.3.85 for sand-lightweight concrete.1 Provisions for shear strength Vc apply to normal-weight 1911. ǒ 500A Ǔ Ǹf Ȁ b concrete.1 fV n w V u (11-1) 1911. 500A g 1911.1. Vc shall be computed by For- mula (11-7). ǒ1. 1911.2 For members subject to axial compression. and Vs is nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement in accordance V c + 2 Ǹf Ȁc b wd (11-3) with Section 1911.2.1 through allowed in computing Vc . 1911.5.2. Quantity Nu /Ag shall be expressed in psi (MPa).2.3.1 When fct is specified and concrete is proportioned in N Ǹ u accordance with Section 1905.3 Computations of maximum factored shear force Vu at Vd u supports in accordance with Section 1911. Members.6.1.47) times. (4h * d) Mm + Mu * Nu (11-6) signed for the same shear Vu as that computed at a distance d.1 In determining shear strength Vn .2. where Vc is nominal shear strength provided by concrete in ac.1.2 For SI: Vc c w w shall be permitted when both of the following two conditions are M u satisfied: but not greater than 3. but not more than 1911.3. where 1911. Quantity Nu /Ag shall be expressed in psi (MPa).1.2 When fct is not specified.3.3.5. unless 2–123 .1. II 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1911.1 Shear strength Vc shall be computed by provisions of Sections 1911.9 Ǹf Ȁ ) 2. and mula (11-5).1.4. introduces Vu d/Mu shall not be taken greater than 1.5.3.69 MPa) is the more detailed calculation of Sections 1911. CHAP.2.1.4.1.1 or 1911.3.166 ǒ1 ) 0.2 In determining shear strength Vc .5 Ǹf Ȁc b wd Nu distance h/2 from face of support shall be permitted to be designed 1 ) (11-7) for the same shear Vu as that computed at a distance h/2.3.3.1. where Nu is negative for tension. all values of Ǹf Ȁc affecting 1911.29 Ǔ fȀ b d 1911. For SI: Vc c w A fied by substituting fct /6. more detailed analysis is made using Section 1911.1 through 1911.1 1911. the special provisions of Sections 1911. sections located less than a distance d from face of support shall be permitted to be de. crete and 0.3.29 Ǹf Ȁc b wd).0 in computing Vc by For- compression into the end regions of member.4 Shear Strength Provided by Concrete for Prestressed Vc .0.2 For members subject to axial compression. but the value g of fct /6. No concentrated load occurs between face of support and lo.1.75 for all-lightweight con. puted by Formula (11-6) is negative.3.2.1 For nonprestressed members.3 or Section 1911. Quantity Nu /Ag shall be expressed in psi (MPa).000 (f ′c /34.2.073 Ǔ Ǹf Ȁ b d ble.1.3 unless a more detailed Vn + Vc ) Vs (11-2) calculation is made in accordance with Section 1911. but not less than zero.7 (For SI: 1.1.4 For deep flexural members. reinforcement equal to f ′c /5.3.2 For prestressed members. N u strained members shall be considered and effects of inclined For SI: Vc c w A g flexural compression in variable-depth members shall be per- mitted to be included. 2. Vc shall not be taken greater than Ǹ 1911.1.6.3 For members subject to significant axial tension.1 For members subject to shear and flexure only. 1911.166 Ǹf Ȁc b wd 1911. 8 However.3. 19. 1911. in direction of applied shear.8 Ǹf Ȁc) shall not exceed Ǹf Ȁc.1 For members with effective prestress force not less than shall be permitted when partial sand replacement is used. sections located less than a V c + 3.3 For members subject to significant axial tension.2. 1911.3. V ci and Vcw for reinforced or prestressed concrete beams and concrete joist construction having minimum web 1911. permitted to compute Vc using Formula (11-5) with Mm substi- tuted for Mu and Vu d/Mu not then limited to 1.158 Ǹf Ȁ ) 17.5 Ǹf Ȁc b wd (For SI: 0. When Mm as com- 1911. Linear interpolation 1911.3. Support reaction. Tc and Mcr shall be multiplied by 0. When lightweight aggregate concrete is used. Vc + c w u w (11-5) u + ǒ0.3.5.1. cordance with Section 1911.2.1. unless a 100 psi (0. 1911. where Mu is factored moment occurring simulta- neously with Vu at section considered.3 Shear Strength Provided by Concrete for Nonpre- stressed Members.2 The values of Ǹf Ȁc used in Section 1911 shall not exceed shear reinforcement shall be designed to carry total shear. DIV. For SI: V c + 0. 1911.166 ǒ1 ) 0.8 For SI: V c + 0. 000 A g c w (11-4) 1911.2 Lightweight Concrete.1. openings in members shall be considered.5. Vc + 2 1 )ǒ Ǔ Ǹf Ȁ b d Nu 2.12 shall apply.29 Ǹf Ȁc b wd Ǹ 1 ) 0.1.3.2.1. walls and slabs and footings. Quantity 1.5. one of the N following modifications shall apply: Vc + 2 1 ) u c w (11-8) g + 0. provisions for Vc shall be modi.8 Ǹf Ȁc) for Ǹf Ȁc.29 Nu Ag through 1911.7 (For SI: 1. brackets and corbels.69 MPa). 1911. whenever applica- + 0.3.3.1ρ Ǔb d 1911. 40 percent of the tensile strength of flexural reinforcement. effects of axial tension due to creep and shrinkage in re. it shall be cation of critical section defined in this section.2 Shear strength Vc shall be permitted to be computed by EXCEPTION: Values of Ǹf Ȁc greater than 100 psi (0.1.1 For members subject to shear and flexure only. the effect of any 1911. 500ρ VMdǓ b d three times the amounts required by Sections 1911.4 and 1911.3.4.

This value of Vcw shall nonprestressed) where factored shear force Vu exceeds one half also be taken as the maximum limit for Formula (11-9).2 For nonprestressed members.4. Stirrups making an angle of 45 degrees or more with longi- accordance with Sections 1911. 1911.5 Ǹf Ȁc ) 0.5 Shear Strength Provided by Shear Reinforcement.2.3f pc) b wd ) V P (11-12) 1911. extending toward the sile stress of 4 Ǹf Ȁc (For SI: 0.1 A minimum area of shear reinforcement shall be pro- transfer length of the prestressing tendons.3 When Vs exceeds 4 Ǹf Ȁc b wd (For SI: 0. the width of web. but Vc need not be taken less than 2 Ǹf Ȁc b wd (For SI: 1911.4.1 Types of shear reinforcement.5. Alternatively.1 Spacing of shear reinforcement placed perpendicular to axis of member shall not exceed d/2 in nonprestressed members For SI: V cw + (0.8h. shear reinforcement centroid of prestressed reinforcement.13 to nation causing maximum moment to occur at the section.4.4.5.2 a more detailed calculation is made in accordance with Section (11-9). d shall be the dis.42 Ǹf Ȁc b wd) or the value given in Section 1911.4. 1911.5. where Mu is factored moment occurring simultaneously with Vu at 2.3 In Formulas (11-10) and (11-12).5. 2.4.33 Ǹf Ȁc) at centroidal axis of reaction from middepth of member d/2 to longitudinal tension re- member.4 In a pretensioned member where bonding of some ten. shall be computed using the cross section that resists live load. V cw + (3.2.4 Spacing limits for shear reinforcement. maximum spacings given in the paragraphs above shall be re- tance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of prestressed duced by one half. Value of Vcw calculated using the reduced tion 1911. extend to end of member may be assumed to vary linearly from ǒ0.4.5 Minimum shear reinforcement. 19.4. assumed to be u 50 diameters for strand and 100 diameters for single wire. Longitudinal reinforcement with bent portion making an 1911.166 Ǹf Ȁc b wd) nor shall Vc be taken greater than 5 Ǹf Ȁc b wd (For be permitted: SI: 0. shall be the lesser of Vci or Vcw. assumed to be 50 diameters for strand and 100 diame- ters for single wire. shall be so spaced that every 45-degree line.5. Beams with total depth not greater than 10 inches (254 mm).2 Minimum shear reinforcement requirements of Sec- 1911.4.4. develop the design yield strength of reinforcement. 1911. reinforcement or 0.2 Shear strength Vc shall be permitted to be computed in 1. dons does not extend to end of member. Concrete joist construction defined by Section 1908.000 M cr + (lńy t) (6 Ǹf Ȁc ) f pe * f d) (11-11) psi (551. The quantity Vu d/Mu shall not be taken greater than 1.1 Shear reinforcement consisting of the following shall 0.5.1 and 1911. Spirals. DIV.8 Ǔb d Vd u 1911.4. shall be crossed by at least one line of shear rein- is in the flange. M max but Vci need not be taken less than 1.7 MPa). a reduced prestress shall be considered when computing Vc in accordance with Section 1911.2 Design yield strength of shear reinforcement shall not where exceed 60. Welded wire fabric with wires located perpendicular to axis section considered.5. and shall be anchored at both ends according to Section 1912.2. Stirrups perpendicular to axis of member.1 or 1911. + 0. or at intersection of flange and web when centroidal axis inforcement.1 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1911.4.3f pc) b wd ) V P and (3/4)h in prestressed members or 24 inches (610 mm). When applying Formula (11-9). two and one half times thickness of flange or one half 1911.2. II 1911.000 psi (413. 1911.2.05 Ǹf Ȁc b wd ) V d ) i cr V M For SI: V ci 4. 1911.4.1 Shear strength Vci shall be computed by angle of 30 degrees or more with the longitudinal tension reinforcement.5.1. to a maximum at a distance from end of tendon equal to the trans- 2. Prestress the shear strength provided by concrete φVc . whichever is greater.6 Ǹf Ȁc b wd ) V d ) V i M cr (11-10) 3.2 where Vc tudinal tension reinforcement.4.5. Vcw may be computed as the shear force corre. shall be permitted to also consist of: 1911. whichever is greater.5.5.5.1.4. the reduced prestress vided in all reinforced concrete flexural members (prestressed and shall be considered when computing Vcw. For SI: M cr + (lńy t) (0.5. fer length.3 or 1.2.0. Prestress force due to tendons for which bonding does not 1911. principal tensile stress forcement.2 Inclined stirrups and bent longitudinal reinforcement sponding to dead load plus live load that results in a principal ten.7 Ǹf Ȁc b wd (0.29 Ǹf Ȁc ) 0. Vu d/Mu shall be the distance from extreme compression fiber to 1911. 1911. 1911. except that the design yield strength of welded deformed wire fabric shall not exceed 80. except: force may be assumed to vary linearly from zero at end of tendon 1. V ci + 0.5.1 shall be waived if shown by test that required nom- prestress shall also be taken as the maximum limit for Formula inal flexural and shear strengths can be developed when shear 2–124 . Combination of stirrups and bent longitudinal reinforce- M max ment.5.14 Ǹf Ȁc b wd). 3.5 Ǹf Ȁc ) f pe * f d) 1911.3 Stirrups and other bars or wires used as shear reinforce- ment shall extend to a distance d from extreme compression fiber and values of Mmax and Vi shall be computed from the load combi.4. + ǒ0. In composite members. For SI: Vc c w M u 1911.11. Slabs and footings.3 In a pretensioned member in which the section at a dis- tance h/2 from face of support is closer to end of member than the 1911.05 Ǹf Ȁ ) 4.4.6 MPa). 1911.5.4.33 Ǹf Ȁc b wd).2 Shear strength Vcw shall be computed by 1911.CHAP.5.2.5.6 Ǹf Ȁ ) 700 VMdǓ b d zero at the point at which bonding commences to a maximum at a Vc + c u w (11-9) distance from this point equal to the transfer length. d in the term of member.

6.1 It shall be permitted to neglect torsion effects when the b s factored torsional moment Tu is less than: A v + 50 w (11-13) fy 1. Such tests shall simulate effects of dif. A 2cp f pc f 4 Ǹf Ȁ c 1 ) 1911.2 When shear reinforcement perpendicular to axis of member is used. II 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1911.25 Ǹf Ȁc b wd).5.6.5 When shear reinforcement consists of a series of par.5. 1.6. shall be computed as the sum of the Vs values computed for the ice. 1911.5. DIV.6.6.2.5. 8 Ǹf Ȁc b wd (For SI: 0. for nonprestressed members: For SI: A v + 0.6. Av + A ps f pu s 80 f y d Ǹbd w (11-14) For members cast monolithically with a slab. the correspondingly redistributed bending Vs + s (11-16) moments and shears in the adjoining members shall be used in the design of those members.6. computed by Formula (11-13) or (11-14).6 Only the center three fourths of the inclined portion of less than the torsion Tu computed at a distance h/2.2.5.6 Design of shear reinforcement.4 For prestressed members with effective prestress force not less than 40 percent of the tensile strength of flexural re. 1911.1. If a concentrated 1911.5. the critical section for reinforcement. the critical section for design allel bent-up bars or groups of parallel bent-up bars at different shall be at the face of the support. sion to be neglected.6.6.7 Where more than one type of shear reinforcement is ferential settlement. V s + A v f y sin a (11-17) 1911. 1911. the member shall be designed to carry cordance with Sections 1911.2.6.5.3 Unless determined by a more exact analysis.4. the overhanging flange width used in computing Acp and Pcp shall conform to Sec- tion 1913. 1911.1 or for strength and where Section 1911. prestressed members shall be computed by: 1911.5.5 In prestressed members. creep.3 through 1911. distributed along the member.6. 2. used to reinforce the same portion of a member.2. sections located less than but not greater than 3 Ǹf Ȁc b wd (For SI: 0. a distance d from the face of a support shall be designed for not less than the torsion Tu computed at a distance d. shear strength Vs shall be computed by Formula (11-16). 1911. sections located less than a distance h/2 from the face of a support shall be designed for not 1911.6. 1911. the area used to compute Vc shall be 0. given in Section 1911.5. The shear strength Vs provided by the circular transverse rein- forcing shall be computed by p A b f yh DȀ f 4 Ǹf Ȁ c ǒ Ǔ A 2cp P cp Vs + (11-15-2) 2 s 2. A v f y (sin a ) cos a)d In such a case.1 Where factored shear force Vu exceeds shear strength 1911. If a concen- any longitudinal bent bar shall be considered effective for shear trated torque occurs within this distance. where shear strength Vs shall be computed in ac. shear strength Vs based on a realistic assessment of such effects occurring in serv.4: Ag . for nonprestressed members.5.5.5 reinforcement is omitted.2 through 1911.3 When inclined stirrups are used as shear reinforce. CHAP.6 Design for Torsion.2.4 In nonprestressed members.5.5. P cp 4 Ǹf Ȁ c ment.5.6. various types.5. at the sections described in For circular columns.5.5. at the sections described in Section where Ab is the area of the hoop or spiral bar of yield strength fyh 1911.2 1911. 1911. 2–125 . 1911. the area of shear reinforcement shall not be less than P cp the smaller Av. 1911.2 In a statically indeterminate structure where reduction A v f yd of the torsional moment in a member can occur due to redistribu- Vs + s (11-15-1) tion of internal forces upon cracking.6.6. for prestressed members: ǒ ǓǸ 1911.5. design shall be at the face of the support.5: ǒ ǓǸ with pitch s and hoop diameter D.2. shear reinforcement shall be provided to satisfy Formulas required to maintain equilibrium and exceeds the minimum value (11-1) and (11-2).6.6. it shall be single group of parallel bars. the maximum factored tor- sional moment Tu shall be permitted to be reduced to where Av is the area of shear reinforcement within a distance s. the minimum area of shear reinforcement for prestressed (except as provided in Section 1911.8.8 Shear strength Vs shall not be taken greater than 1911. distances from the support. for prestressed members.6.2.6. that torsional moment in accordance with Sections 1911.1 allows tor.34 b ws fy f Ǹf Ȁc ǒ Ǔ A 2cp P cp where bw and s are in inches. torque occurs within this distance. A 2cp f pc f Ǹf Ȁ c 1 ) 4 Ǹf Ȁ c inforcement.2. all bent up at the same distance from permitted to take the torsional loading from a slab as uniformly the support.66 Ǹf Ȁc b wd).3 Where shear reinforcement is required by Section 1911.6.2 Calculation of factored torsional moment Tu .6.4 When shear reinforcement consists of a single bar or a 1911.6.5.4) and non.5.5. 19.2.1 If the factored torsional moment Tu in a member is φ Vc .6. shrinkage and temperature change. 1911.6.8 Section 1911.6.

7 MPa). it shall be permitted to reduce the area of longitudinal torsional reinforcement on the side of the 1911. 1911.3 Where torsional reinforcement is required by Section where θ shall be the same value used in Formula (11-21) and At /s 1911. or 2. 1911.4.1.2 or fT n w T u (11-20) 1912.3 If the wall thickness is less than Aoh /ph .6.5.6.3.3. The spacing of the longitudinal reinforcement including ten- Vu b wd ) ǓT up h 1. 19.6. spiral reinforcement. designed using: 1911.6. 3.9 It shall be permitted to reduce the area of longitudinal torsion reinforcement in the flexural compression zone by an 1911.6.1 The spacing of transverse torsion reinforcement shall amount equal to Mu /(0.6.4. based on the factored torsion at that section.1. 37.4 For hollow sections in torsion. Formula (11-19) shall be evaluated at the location tion 1911.6.10 In prestressed beams: Ǹǒ Vu b wd Ǔ ) ǒ1. take q equal to: 1.5 Minimum torsion reinforcement.3.6.2 Transverse torsional reinforcement shall be anchored inforcement shall not exceed 60.6.6.5 The reinforcement required for torsion shall be deter. 1911.7TA tǓ u oh 1. 1911.7A 2 Tp u h 2 oh Ǔ 2 vf ǒbV d ) 8 Ǹf Ȁ Ǔ (11-18) c w c 1.6.CHAP. the distance measured where Ao shall be determined by analysis except that it shall be from the centerline of the transverse torsional reinforcement to the permitted to take Ao equal to 0.7 The additional longitudinal reinforcement required 1911.5. less prestress than in Item 2 below. The total longitudinal reinforcement including tendons at each section shall resist the factored bending moment at that sec- tion plus an additional concentric longitudinal tensile force equal to Al fyl . 1911. II 1911.6.6. the minimum area of transverse closed stirrups shall for torsion shall not be less than: be computed by: ǒǓ 50b ws A f yv (A v ) 2A t ) w (11-23) Al + st ph cot 2 q (11-22) f yv f yl 1911.3 or 1911. 1911. 45 degrees for nonprestressed members or members with 1911.3 in regions where the concrete surrounding the anchorage is restrained against spalling by a flange or slab or simi- 1911.2 If the wall thickness varies around the perimeter of a member in compression due to flexure below that required by Sec- hollow section.13. 1911. A 135-degree standard hook around a longitudinal bar.3.1. reinforcement spacing and placement must be met.3.2.6 Spacing of torsion reinforcement.10 in accordance with Section 1911.6.4 Design yield strength of nonprestressed torsion re.6.1 Torsion reinforcement shall consist of longitudinal term in Formula (11-19) shall be taken as: bars or tendons and one or more of the following: ǒ1. The most restrictive requirements for where At /s shall not be taken less than 25bw /fyv. provided in all regions where the factored torsional moment Tu stress force not less than 40 percent of the tensile strength of the exceeds the values specified in Section 1911.6.6.5.3 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1911. It shall be permitted to 0. 2–126 .min + f vl * ǒAs Ǔ p t h f yv f yl (11-24) that required for the shear.6 The transverse reinforcement for torsion shall be lar member.1 1911.13.000 psi (413.6.1 The cross-sectional dimensions shall be such that: 1911.3.6. A closed cage of welded wire fabric with transverse wires where t is the thickness of the wall of the hollow section at the perpendicular to the axis of the member.5Aoh /ph .5. except that the rein- forcement provided shall not be less than that required by Section 1911.2 or 1911.3.6.6.11 In prestressed beams.3 Longitudinal torsion reinforcement shall be devel- 2A oA t f vv Tn + s cot q (11-21) oped at both ends.9dfyl ). In nonprestressed beams.5.6. by one of the following: 1911. DIV. According to Section 1912.3.8 Reinforcement required for torsion shall be added to A l. or mined from: 2. longitudinal reinforcement.2.6. perpendicular to the axis of the member. 1. 1911.2. where the left-hand side of Formula (11-19) is a maximum.6. acting at the section in combination with Tu .3 Torsional moment strength.3. where Mu is the factored moment not exceed the smaller of ph /8 or 12 inches (305 mm).5.6.4.7A 2oh ǒvf Ǔ ǒbV d ) 8 Ǹf Ȁ Ǔ w c c (11-19) dons shall satisfy the requirements in Section 1911.6.3.5. θ shall not be taken smaller inside face of the wall of a hollow section shall not be less than than 30 degrees nor larger than 60 degrees. Closed stirrups or closed ties. moment and axial force that act in com- bination with the torsion.6.6. 1.3.1. or location where the stresses are being checked.4.3.2. 1911.6. 1911.5 degrees for prestressed members with an effective pre.3. and 2.9. the second 1911.6.4 Details of torsional reinforcement.6.6.6.3. for hollow sections: Ǹǒ 2.2.6. the minimum total area of longitudinal torsional rein- shall be taken as the amount computed from Formula (11-21) not forcement shall be computed by: modified in accordance with Section 1911.6. 1912.6.85Aoh .5.6. for solid sections: 1911.6.2 Where torsional reinforcement is required by Section 1911. 5 Ǹf Ȁc A cp 1911.13.6.1 A minimum area of torsion reinforcement shall be 2.

75 for all-lightweight con.2 The longitudinal reinforcement required for torsion crete.3 A crack shall be assumed to occur along the shear plane approximately 1/4 inch (6.2f ′c Ac or 800 Ac in pounds (5.10 When shear is transferred between as-rolled steel and 1911.8.10 shall apply for all calculations of shear transfer strength.7. hooks or 1911.7.7.7.8. II 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1911. shear strength Vn shall be computed by isfying equilibrium and strength requirements.8.5 Ac in newtons).8.4 Shear-friction design methods.7. 1911. 0.1 through 1911.7.85 for sand-lightweight concrete and 0.4 or any other shear transfer design methods that result in concrete using headed studs or welded reinforcing bars. (see Section 1911.8.3 placed against previously hardened concrete.6. interface shall be roughened to a full amplitude of 1911.8 Special Provisions for Deep Flexural Members.6. If µ is assumed equal to 1. specified yield strength on both sides by embedment. where V n + A vf f y m (11-25) shear strength Vc shall be in accordance with Section 1911.8. 1911.2 Design of cross sections subject to shear transfer as de.8 Shear-friction reinforcement shall be appropriately existing or potential crack. 1911.50a for beams with concentrated loads.7. shear transfer shall be clean and free of laitance.6 Unless a more detailed calculation is made in accord- by headed studs or by reinforcing bars ance with Section 1911. of at least (bt + d) beyond the point theoretically required.6 or 1911.4 Shear strength Vn for deep flexural members shall not be where α 1 is angle between shear-friction reinforcement and shear plane.8. where Ac is area shall have a diameter at least 1/24 of the stirrup spacing but not less of concrete section resisting shear transfer.6.7 Net tension across shear plane shall be resisted by addi- 1911.6. Required area of shear-friction reinforcement Av f across the shear plane may be designed using either Section 1911.1 Provisions of Sections 1911.8. 1911. propriate to consider shear transfer across a given plane.6. See also Section 1912.7.7.6λ Concrete anchored to as-rolled structural steel 1911.5 with Sec- plane such that the shear force produces tension in shear-friction tion 1911. with a maximum spacing of 12 inches (305 mm). 1911.4. opposite face so that the compression struts can develop between the loads and the supports.4.7.5 Critical section for shear measured from face of support Concrete placed against hardened concrete not shall be taken at a distance 0.3.7.7.7. taken greater than 8 Ǹf Ȁc b wd (For SI: 0. 1911.4. 1911. considered. Bars 0.9 1.7.7.055 10 ) ǒ ln Ǹ d Ǔ f Ȁc b wd with surface intentionally roughened as specified in Section 1911. the interface for or 1911.3 Torsion reinforcement shall be provided for a distance shall not exceed 60.7. When ln /d is between 2 and 5.0 for normal-weight concrete.6 1911.000 psi (413. DIV.8. Linear interpolation shall be permitted when partial shall be distributed around the perimeter of the closed stirrups sand replacement is used.10.3 Coefficient of friction µ in Formula (11-25) and For- mula (11-26) shall be 3 ǒ d Ǔ V n + 2 10 ) n Ǹf Ȁc b wd l (11-27) Concrete placed monolithically 1. placed along the shear plane and shall be anchored to develop the als.1 The following provisions shall be applied where it is ap.7.2 1911.7.8. shear strength Vn shall be computed by 1911.1.2 When shear-friction reinforcement is inclined to shear shear shall be based on Sections 1911. shear-friction reinforcement A vf fy when calculating required Avf .5 Shear strength Vn shall not be taken greater than one longitudinal bar or tendon in each corner of the stirrups. welding to special devices. 1911.7 MPa). tional reinforcement.7 Shear-friction. Permanent net compression across shear plane shall be permitted to be taken as additive to the force in the 1911.4.7. or an interface between two concretes cast at different times. 1911.5 substituted for Section 1911. There shall be at least 1911.10. 1911.7.7.3.7.6.8.7. the design shall also satisfy Sections 1911.0λ 1911.4. such as an 1911. comprehensive tests.7 shall be based on Formula (11-1) where 1911.0λ.1 Provisions of this section shall apply for members with ln /d less than 5 that are loaded on one face and supported on the 1911. 1911. scribed in Section 1911.6 Design yield strength of shear-friction reinforcement 1911.10) 0. 3 bar.8. intentionally roughened 0. than a No.166 Ǹf Ȁc b wd 2–127 .2 The design of simple supported deep flexural members for shear shall be based on Formulas (11-1) and (11-2).8. when concrete is Vn is calculated in accordance with provisions of Section 1911. or on methods sat- reinforcement. 19.5 through 1911.4.15ln for uniformly loaded beams and 0.9 For the purpose of Section 1911.4 mm).8.66 Ǹf Ȁc b wd) when ln /d is less than 2.3. an interface between dissimilar materi. The longitudinal bars or tendons shall be inside the stirrups. For SI: V c + 0. but not greater than d. In either case.7.7λ V c + 2 Ǹf Ȁc b wd (11-28) where λ = 1.1 When shear-friction reinforcement is perpendicular to shear plane. and shear strength Vs shall be in accordance with Sec- where µ is coefficient of friction in accordance with Section tion 1911.6.7.9 and V n + A vf f y (m sin a 1 ) cos a 1) (11-26) 1911.4λ Concrete placed against hardened concrete For SI: V n + 0.3 The design of continuous deep flexural members for 1911. CHAP.8.8. steel shall prediction of strength in substantial agreement with results of be clean and free of paint.

9. shall be based on Formulas (11-1) and (11-2).9 Ǹf Ȁ ) 2. 1911. less than 0.10.5 – 1. plane of wall shall not be taken greater than 10 Ǹf Ȁc hd (For SI: fined in Section 1911.10 Area of horizontal shear reinforcement Avh shall not be shear strength Vs shall be in accordance with Section 1911.8. primary tension rein- forcement As shall be anchored by one of the following: (1) by a simultaneously with Vu at the critical section defined in Section structural weld to a transverse bar of at least equal size.5 or 1911. Tensile force Nuc shall be regarded as a live load even when tension results from creep.8.8. For SI: Vc + ǒ3.25 Ǹf Ȁc ) 0.10.6 and 1911.9. a moment [Vu a + Nuc (h – d)]. shear strength Vn shall N ud For SI: not be taken greater than 0.1 Design for shear forces perpendicular to face of wall ural tension reinforcement within a distance s.2 and 1910. 1911. mula (11-31) or (11-32). 0. or Vc shall not be taken greater than the value multaneously a shear Vu .27 Ǹf Ȁc hd ) 1911.3. DIV.83 Ǹf Ȁc hd). with a total area An not less than 0.1 In all design calculations in accordance with Section Formulas (11-31) and (11-32).2.2 For all lightweight or sand-lightweight concrete.3. II 1911.4 Closed stirrups or ties parallel to As .10.3 Shear strength Vn at any horizontal section for shear in 1911.8.4 For design for horizontal shear forces in plane of wall. and s shall not exceed d/5 or 18 inches (457 mm).5. A larger value of d.3.10.5 Ǹf Ȁc b wd).16 Ǹf Ȁ ) 17.1 The following provisions apply to brackets and corbels distance from extreme compression fiber to center of force of all with a shear span-to-depth ratio a/d not greater than unity. 500ρ VMdǓ b d c w u u w (11-29) less than 0.6 1911.9.9. where shear strength Vs shall be computed by 1911.10. Mu is factored moment occurring 1911.2 – 0.2 lwuhǓ N ȳhd shear strength Vn shall not be taken greater than (0.8. greater than 2 Ǹf Ȁc hd (For SI: 0. and a hori.9. reinforcement in tension shall be permitted to be used when deter- ject to a horizontal tensile force Nuc not larger than Vu .2f ′c bw d nor 800 bw d in pounds (5.10.3 Reinforcement Af to resist moment [Vu a + Nuc (h–d)] ǒ3. 1911. shear strength Vc shall not be taken than 0. 1911.85.3 Section at face of support shall be designed to resist si. strength-reduction factor φ shall be taken equal to 0.9.8 lw.9 a/d) bw d in Mu lw Vu * 2 newtons].2 Depth at outside edge of bearing area shall not be less dance with Section 1911. V c + 3.9.2 through 1911.2 Design of shear-friction reinforcement Avf to resist (11-31) shear Vu shall be in accordance with Section 1911. where Vc shall be the lesser of For- 1911.5 VMdǓ u thirds of the effective depth adjacent to As .5.8.5 Area of primary tension reinforcement As shall be made equal to the greater of (Af + An ) or (2Avf /3 + An ). Nu in compression. ȱ0. and Avh is area of shall be in accordance with provisions for slabs in Section shear reinforcement parallel to flexural reinforcement within a 1911. where shear strength Vc shall be in accordance with Section 1911.0015 bw s.7. where Av is area of shear reinforcement perpendicular to flex. Design for horizontal shear forces in plane of wall shall distance s2.1 For normal-weight concrete. (11-1) and (11-2).10.8. d shall be taken equal to 0. or 1911.8 Where factored shear force Vu exceeds shear strength bending primary tension bars As back to form a horizontal loop. Vc + u 1911. weld to be 1911.3.10. or φVc .7 Bearing area of load on bracket or corbel shall not proj- Vs + ƪ ǒ Ǔ Av s 1 ) 12 ln d A ) svh 2 ǒ 11 * 12 ln d Ǔƫ fy d (11-30) ect beyond straight portion of primary tension bar As .7 Shear strength Vc shall be permitted to be computed by 1911.5 bw d 4l w in newtons).5 * 2.07 a/d) Vc + ȧ ) ȧ (11-32) Ȳ ȴ c f ′c bw d or (800 – 280 a/d) bw d in pounds [(5.3. 1911.10 Special Provisions for Walls.10.12.7 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1911.9.11 Shear reinforcement required at the critical section de.9.2ρ VMdǓ b d u u c w u u w 1911.3. designed to develop specified yield strength fy of As bars.04 (f ′c /fy). and Vc shall not be taken greater than 6 Ǹf Ȁc b wd (For SI: 0.9. 19.6 At front face of bracket or corbel. shrinkage or temperature change. equal to the 1911.4 Reinforcement An to resist tensile force Nuc shall be u determined from Nuc v φAn fy.5 * 2.8.10. 2–128 .3.2.2 Design of horizontal section for shear in plane of wall 0.5 VMd Ǔ shall be computed in accordance with Sections 1910. be in accordance with Section 1911.9. 1911.9.2. shall be measured at face of support.10.CHAP. shear reinforcement shall be provided to satisfy Formulas (3) by some other means of positive anchorage. (2) by 1911.5 VMd Ǔ ǒ0.5 shall be used throughout the span. or project beyond interior face of transverse anchor bar (if one is provided).9.166 Ǹf Ȁc hd) for walls subject to 1911. given in Section 1911. zontal tensile force Nuc . 1911. u shall not exceed 2.9.5 (As –An ). except that the term 1911.9.0025 bw s2.6 Shear strength Vc shall be permitted to be computed by 1911.2 Vu unless special provisions are made to avoid tensile forces. shall be uniformly distributed within two ǒ3.5 Unless a more detailed calculation is made in accor- 1911. Distance d mined by a strain compatibility analysis.3.6 Ǹf Ȁ l wǒ1. 1911.9 Special Provisions for Brackets and Corbels.8.5d.9 Area of shear reinforcement Av shall not be less than 1911.5 * 2.6.10.3 Ǹf Ȁc hd ) N ud 1911.3 for walls subject to Nu in tension. 1911.10.5 Ratio ρ = As /bd shall not be less than 0.3. 4l w V c + 0. Tensile force Nuc shall not be taken ǒ1. and s2 shall not exceed d/3 or 18 inches (457 mm). and sub.9.

Edges or corners of columns.12.1 Where factored shear force Vu exceeds shear strength φVc . II 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1911. 2. c o (11-36) h o ρ n + 0.12.1 The shear strength of slabs and footings in the vicinity apply: of columns. with Section 1911. α s is 40 for interior slabs of approximately equal depth. where Nu is negative for tension. wind. When (Mu /Vu – lw /2) is negative.8 When factored shear force Vu is less than φVc /2.2 or 1911. if the following are satisfied.12. 3. CHAP.9 or in accordance with Section 1914.1 When gravity load. Section 1911.9. Vn shall be in accordance with Section Vs + s2 (11-33) 1911. Vs shall be computed in accordance with Section 1911.12.1. Vc shall be permitted to be computed by Formula (11-38) 1911.2 lwuhǓ N ȳhd 1911. component of all effective prestress forces crossing the critical section.1 shall 1911.0025) (11-34) + 0.083 ǒ ) 2 Ǔ Ǹf Ȁ b d lw ad s For SI: Vc c o or 0.1 Beam action where each critical section to be inves- For SI: Vc ) ȧ tigated extends in a plane across the entire width.083 2 ) 4 Ǹf Ȁc b od bc Ǔ not exceed lw /5.4.12.0025.12.5 * w (ρ h * 0.2 Ratio ρh of horizontal shear reinforcement area to 1. For Av fy d slabs with shear heads. For SI: V c + 0. panels. 30 for edge columns and 20 for corner columns.12.10.3f pc) b od ) V p (11-38) umns.10. whichever is less. Vc shall be computed in ac- be computed by cordance with Section 1911.3: ments to columns. concentrated loads or reaction be designed for the same Vc as that computed at a distance lw /2 or areas. 1911.1.2.6 1911.4.2.12.1.2.5.0025 ) 0.1.05 Ǹf Ȁ l wǒ0. When Vu exceeds φVc /2.9.2. 30 for edge columns and 20 for corner columns.9. shall be permitted to 1.1. where βc is the ratio of long side to short side of the column.10. the critical sections with four straight sides shall be permitted.10.10 Ǹf Ȁc ) 0. and 1911. DIV. but need not approach closer than d/2 to: or one half the wall height.12 Special Provisions for Slabs and Footings. and Vp is the vertical tion of framing elements to the columns. Vc shall be the Vertical shear reinforcement shall be provided in accordance with smallest of: Section 1911.12.3 Spacing of horizontal shear reinforcement s2 shall For SI: ǒ V c + 0.083 b p Ǹf Ȁc ) 0. No portion of the column cross section shall be closer to the more severe of two conditions: discontinuous edge than four times the slab thickness.7 Sections located closer to wall base than a distance lw /2 mum. where shear strength Vs shall based on Formulas (11-1) and (11-2).33 Ǹf Ȁc b od 1911.2 At columns of two-way prestressed slabs and foot- forces cause transfer of moment at connections of framing ele.10.6.10.2 through 1911. rimeter of critical section defined in Section 1911. wall For two-way action.9. 1911.0025.9 Design of shear reinforcement for walls. 3h or 18 inches (457 mm). or one half the height. horizontal shear reinforcement shall be provided to 1911.4. otherwise. 1911. rein. For beam action Ȳ ȴ c Mu lw * the slab or footing shall be designed in accordance with Sections Vu 2 1911. When moment is transferred between a slab and a col- umn. 1911. where Av is area of horizontal shear reinforcement within a dis- tance s2 and distance d is in accordance with Section 1911.5 2.11. where α s is 40 for interior columns.2 The design of a slab or footing for two-way action is satisfy Formulas (11-1) and (11-2).9.1.12.4 Ratio ρn of vertical shear reinforcement area to gross concentrated load or reaction area concrete area of horizontal section shall not be less than Vc + ǒab d ) 2 Ǔ Ǹf Ȁ b d s ǒ Ǔ 2. connections shall have lateral columns. Vc + ǒ2 ) b4 Ǔ Ǹf Ȁ b d c c o (11-35) gross concrete area of vertical section shall not be less than 0.1 For nonprestressed slabs and footings.5 or (α s d/bo + 1. forcement shall be provided in accordance with Section 1911.12. the slab of footing shall be designed in ac- reinforcement for resisting shear shall be provided in accordance cordance with Sections 1911.1 through 1911. concentrated 1911.3. 1911. the shear resulting from moment transfer shall be considered in the design of lateral reinforcement in the col.2 Two-way action where each of the critical sections to Formula (11-32) shall not apply. 1911.12. be investigated shall be located so that its perimeter.2. V c + 4 Ǹf Ȁc b od (11-37) 1911. ings that meet the requirements of Section 1918.12.10. For SI: V c + (0. 3h or 18 inches (457 mm). bo .10.9.3f pc) b od ) V p 1911. 1911.9.12. 19.2. V c + (b p Ǹf Ȁc ) 0. bo is pe- reinforcement not less than that required by Formula (11-13) with.10. fpc is the in the column for a depth not less than that of the deepest connec.11 Transfer of Moments to Columns.12.10. Section 1911.10.6 shall apply.12.11. average value of fpc for the two directions.3.5 Spacing of vertical shear reinforcement s1 shall not exceed lw /3.12. earthquake or other lateral 1911.9. See also Section 1907.12.2.10. loads or reactions areas.10. 1911. concentrated loads or reactions is governed by the 1. is a mini- 1911.2 Except for connections not part of a primary seismic load-resisting system that are restrained on four sides by beams or where βp is the smaller of 3. and 2–129 .9.2 ȱ + ȧ0. but need not be greater than the required horizontal b o shear reinforcement.5). Changes in slab thickness such as edges of capitals or drop 1911.3 For square or rectangular columns.

and a column. cordance with Section 1912. Section slab sections for shear defined in Section 1911.3 2.12. II 1911.12. shearhead must have adequate anchorage to transmit Mp to col- umn. When shearhead reinforcement is provided.58 Ǹf Ȁc b od).6.5.5 and anchored in ac.or 0. Thirty percent of the total factored moment required for each slab column strip. where Vc shall not be taken greater than 2 Ǹf Ȁc b od (For SI: 0.47 MPa).7 The critical slab section for shear shall be perpendic- ular to the plane of the slab and shall cross each shearhead arm at For members with shear reinforcement other than shearheads: three fourths the distance [lv – (c1 /2)] from the column face to the fv n + f(V c ) V s)ń(b od) (11-43) end of the shearhead arm.4.12.2. the 0. 1911. DIV.3.000 1911.2 and Section 1911.13. and column strip computed by a shearhead shall not be taken greater than 3. a fraction γ f Mu of the unbalanced moment shall be cated within 0.6 The plastic moment strength Mp required for each arm of the shearhead shall be computed by 1911.12.4. transferred by flexure in accordance with Section 1913. Where moment is transferred to columns.1. η is the num- ber of arms. The value of Mp computed by Formula (11-39).12.1.12.1 Each shearhead shall consist of steel shapes fabri.12. vided the plastic moment strength of the remaining tapered sec.3d of compression surface of slab. the ineffective portion of 1911.12.12. moment transferred by eccentricity of shear about the centroid of 2–130 .7 and the shear stresses resulting from critical section defined in Section 1911.12.12. but need not be closer than the where Vc and Vs are defined in Section 1911. between a slab 1911.50 Ǹf Ȁc b od).12.12.5. 1.12.2. 1911.4.12.CHAP.4.3 Shear reinforcement consisting of bars or wires shall be permitted in slabs and footings in accordance with the follow. or be taken greater than 500 psi (3. that part of the perime- cated by welding with a full penetration weld into identical arms at ter of the critical section that is enclosed by straight lines project- right angles. 1911. tion is adequate to resist the shear force attributed to the arm of the shearhead.4.8 Vn shall not be taken greater than 4 Ǹf Ȁc b od (For SI: 1911.3.86 MPa). where φ is the strength-reduction factor for flexure.4.12. If shear rein- perimeter defined in Section 1911.6.4.12. area and tangent to the boundaries of the openings shall be consid- 1911. 1911. 1911.4. Item 1.4 All compression flanges of steel shapes shall be lo.12. 1911. and the required area of shear reinforcement Av and Vs shall be cal- culated in accordance with Section 1911.3 The ends of each shearhead arm shall be permitted to the perimeter shall be one half of that defined in Section be cut at angles not less than 30 degrees with the horizontal. the sum of the 1911.2.9 shall apply trated load or reaction area. Mv shall not be taken larger than the smaller of: 1911. 1911.1 Vn shall be computed by Formula (11-2). The remainder of the unbalanced moment given by γv Mu shall be con- 1911.4.5 The ratio αv between the stiffness of each shearhead sidered to be transferred by eccentricity of shear about the cen- arm and that of the surrounding composite cracked slab section of troid of the critical section defined in Section 1911.2 For slabs with shearheads. 19.12. the design shall take into account the varia- tion of shear stress around the column.5 Opening in slabs.2.2 The shear stress resulting from moment transfer by eccentricity of shear shall be assumed to vary linearly about the fM p + Vu ƪ c ǒ h ) av lv * 1 2h v 2 Ǔƫ (11-39) centroid of the critical sections defined in Section 1911.12.2 A shearhead shall not be deeper than 70 times the ered ineffective.12. The maximum shear stress due to the factored shear force and mo- ment shall not exceed φvn : where φ is the strength-reduction factor for flexure.10 When unbalanced moments are considered.3 shall apply.9 The moment resistance Mv contributed to each slab psi (34.12.12. Vn shall shear stresses due to vertical load acting on the critical section de- not be taken greater than 7 Ǹf Ȁc b od (For SI: 0.6.3.1.2.1 When gravity load.or channel.4 Shear reinforcement consisting of steel I.15. g v + (1 * g f) (11-41) 1911. Item 1.12.7.12. Shearhead arms shall not be interrupted within the ing from the centroid of the column.4.2 where: width (c2 + d) shall not be less than 0.7 shall be modified as follows: 1911. Mu . f ′c in Formula (11-38) shall not be taken greater than 5. forcement is provided. at a distance less than 10 times the slab thickness from a concen- visions of Sections 1911.8. The critical section shall be located so that its perimeter bo is a minimum.5.4.1.45 MPa). 1911. η is the num- ing: ber of arms.3 When shear reinforcement consisting of steel I.1 through 1911.166 Ǹf Ȁc b od). earthquake or other lateral forces cause transfer of unbalanced moment.12.6. or when openings in flat slabs are lo- where shear due to gravity load is transferred at interior column cated within column strips as defined in Section 1913. on the critical section defined in Section channel-shaped sections (shearheads) is provided.6.12.33 Ǹf Ȁc b od).2 Vn shall not be taken greater than 6 Ǹf Ȁc b od (For SI: 1911. The change in column strip moment over the length lv. and lv is the minimum length of each shearhead arm For members without shear reinforcement: required to comply with requirements of Section 1911.12.12.12.7 and fv n + fV cń(b od) (11-42) 1911.2. web thickness of the steel shape.4.12. 1911.2. on the fined by Section 1911. The pro.5. 3. 2. 1911.1 For slabs without shearheads.3.12.4.12.1 and 1911.1. When openings in slabs are located shaped sections (shearheads) shall be permitted in slabs. However. where Vc is as defined in Section 1911. Mv + fa vV u 2h ǒ lv * 1 c 2 Ǔ (11-40) 1911.12. 1911.12.4.12. wind.4.12. concentrated load or reaction column section.6 Transfer of moment in slab-column connections. pro.12. and lv is the length of each shearhead arm actually pro- vided.4.1.2 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1911. fpc in each direction shall not be less than 125 psi (0. the critical supports.12.12.4.

ld /db shall be: ldh = development length of standard hook in tension. kips per square inch (MPa).3 the critical section defined in Section 1911. REINFORCEMENT N = number of bars in a layer being spliced or developed at a 1912.1.2 or 1912. ldb = basic development length. 6 AND SMALLER BARS AND DEFORMED NO. See Section 1912. crete. n = number of bars or wires being spliced or developed along the plane of splitting. bw = web width. each section of structural concrete members shall be developed on d = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of each side of that section by embedment length. pounds per 100 psi (0. ing developed.2.4. square inches (mm2). inches (mm). deformed bars and deformed wire in tension shall be determined gate concrete. DIV. in- ches (mm). or diameter of circular section. ld . II 1997 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1911. or a combination thereof.2. See Section Section 1910. As = area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement. and stirrups or (MPa). forcement within ld . inches (mm).2.4.3. psi db . WIRES BARS fy = specified yield strength of nonprestressed reinforce. CHAP. less than the prescribed minimum Ktr = transverse reinforcement index. c ) K tr in which the term shall not be taken greater than 2. Vu = factored shear force at section. cal device. kips per square inch NO. spliced not less than db 25 Ǹf Ȁ c db 20 Ǹf Ȁ c fyt = specified yield strength of transverse reinforcement. inches (mm). db = nominal diameter of bar. 1912.2.1 Calculated tension or compression in reinforcement at 1912. inches (mm). 19.5. ties throughout ld not h = overall thickness of member. 1912.2. fps = stress in prestressed reinforcement at nominal strength.500 carries the unit lb. or Clear spacing of bars A tr f yt being developed or = (constant 1. Mn = nominal moment strength at section. db 50 Ǹf Ȁ c db 40 Ǹf Ȁ c = ldb  applicable modification factors. wire or prestressing strand. inches (mm).1.2 The values of Ǹf Ȁc used in Section 1912 shall not exceed f ′c = specified compressive strength of concrete. a = depth of equivalent rectangular stress block as defined in λ = lightweight aggregate concrete factor.1 Development length. square inch (MPa). clear cover not less than db .2. γ = reinforcement size factor. SECTION 1912 — DEVELOPMENT AND SPLICES OF = As fy (d – a/2). 1912. Other cases ld 3f yabl ld 3f yabl + + ld = development length. ld /db shall be as follows: fse = effective stress in prestressed reinforcement (after al- lowance for all prestress losses). See Section 1912.3 For deformed bars or deformed wire.7. square in- s = maximum center to center spacing of transverse rein- ches (mm2). 1912. inch-pounds (N·m).69 MPa).12. Ab = area of an individual bar. 1912.12. in terms of diameter. inches (mm).2 Development of Deformed Bars and Deformed Wire Ǹf Ȁc = square root of specified compressive strength of con. hook or mechani- tension reinforcement. in Tension.2 For deformed bars or deformed wire. for fct = average splitting tensile strength of lightweight aggre.4.2. 1912.2. 7 AND LARGER (MPa).2. Clear spacing of bars ld f yabl ld f yabl being developed or + + ment.2 shall not exceed lhb = basic development length of standard hook in tension. pounds per square inch (MPa). f4 Ǹf Ȁc (For SI: f0.2. pounds per square inch (MPa). inches (mm). inches (mm). ld fy abgl + 3 (12-1) sured from critical section to outside end of hook [straight embedment length between critical section and db 40 Ǹf Ȁ c c ) Ktr ǒ db Ǔ start of hook (point of tangency) plus radius of bend and one bar diameter]./in.1.0 Notations.33 Ǹf Ȁc). See Section 1912.2. which is within the spacing s and which crosses the po- tential plane of splitting through the reinforcement be. inches (mm). 500sn 2db and clear cover la = additional embedment length at support or at point of in.). critical section. inches (mm2). square β = coating factor. db . inches (mm).4.6. c = spacing or cover dimension. pounds per square inch (MPa). sion reinforcement at section. 1912.3 1912. Atr = total cross-sectional area of all transverse reinforcement sw = spacing of wire to be developed or spliced. See Section 1912. but ld shall not be less than 12 inches (305 mm). α = reinforcement location factor. square inches (mm2).2.1 Development of Reinforcement—General. inches squared (mm2).4. Hooks shall not be used to develop bars in compression. not less than db flection. spliced not less than 1. inches (mm). mea. Av = area of shear reinforcement within a distance s. db 2–131 . from either Section 1912. βb = ratio of area of reinforcement cut off to total area of ten- Aw = area of an individual wire to be developed or spliced. = lhb  applicable modification factors.1.

. . . . in- creased 20 percent for 3-bar bundle. . . .3. .0 bundle. . . . .5 Development of Standard Hooks in Tension. DIV. . Where anchorage or de- 1912.3. . . . . . . . . . . . 1912. 500sn (For SI: 99. . . . in inches.3 Development of Deformed Bars in Compression. . .5 Lightweight aggregate concrete . . .1 Bar yield strength.5. . . . . . . .19 are as follows: (For SI: 0. factor of Section 1912. . .2.0 (102 mm) on center . [(As required)/(As provided)] ber is in excess of that required by analysis except where anchor- age or development for fy is specifically required or the 1912. . .3. . . . . . .5.3. . . . . . . .3. . . . .2. cover (normal to plane of the hook) not less than 21/2 inches s = maximum spacing of transverse reinforcement within (64 mm). 1.3. . . cover on bar extension beyond ld . . . . . 0.2. .3 reinforcement is designed under provisions of Section 1912. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . shall be that for the individual bar. . . for deformed bars in er over hook less than 21/2 inches (64 mm).1 Development length of individual bars within a bundle. .7) fyt = specified yield strength of transverse reinforcement. . . . . .3.5. .3. . .5. taken as 6. . . .7 d bń Ǹf Ȁc) WHERE: 1912. . . . .2 Concrete cover. . . . . 1912. but ld shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm). . λ = lightweight aggregate concrete factor. . . . .3.1 Excess reinforcement.2 For determining the appropriate factors in Section When lightweight aggregate concrete is used . . . .4 Excessive reinforcement. . 0. . . . . 1.8 1912. . For No. .3. . . . . . . fy /60. . . . (As required)/(As provided) β = coating factor Epoxy-coated bars or wires with cover less than 3db . . . . (For SI: fy /413. 6 and smaller bars and deformed wires . .4 Development of Bundled Bars. . . . γ = reinforcement size factor 1912. No. 1. . . For No. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. .CHAP.3 1912. . λ shall be permitted to be diameter derived from the equivalent total area. . .2 Basic development length lhb for a hooked bar with fy A tr f yt equal to 60. 0. . . .5 spiral reinforcement not less than 1/4-inch (6. . . . . . . . .2 Sp