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Philconsa v.

Enriquez appropriations for payment of public debt, whether foreign or domestic, are
automatically appropriated pursuant to the Foreign Borrowing Act and Section
FACTS: Petitioners assailed the validity of RA 7663 or General Appropriations 31 of P.D. No. 1177 as reiterated under Section 26, Chapter 4, Book VI of E.O.
Act of 1994. No. 292, the Administrative Code of 1987.
GAA contains a special provision that allows any members of the Congress the 2. Special provisions which authorize the use of income and the creation,
Realignment of Allocation for Operational Expenses, provided that the total of operation and maintenance of revolving funds in the appropriation for State
said allocation is not exceeded. Universities and Colleges (SUCs),
3. Provision on 70% (administrative)/30% (contract) ratio for road
Philconsa claims that only the Senate President and the Speaker of the House of maintenance.
Representatives are the ones authorized under the Constitution to realign 4. Special provision on the purchase by the AFP of medicines in compliance
savings, not the individual members of Congress themselves. with the Generics Drugs Law (R.A. No. 6675).
5. The President vetoed the underlined proviso in the appropriation for the
President signed the law, but Vetoes certain provisions of the law and imposed modernization of the AFP of the Special Provision No. 2 on the Use of Fund,
certain provisional conditions: that the AFP Chief of Staff is authorized to use which requires the prior approval of the Congress for the release of the
savings to augment the pension funds under the Retirement and Separation corresponding modernization funds, as well as the entire Special Provision No. 3
Benefits of the AFP. on the Specific Prohibition which states that the said Modernization Fund
shall not be used for payment of six (6) additional S-211 Trainer planes, 18 SF-
ISSUE: Whether or not RA 7663 is violative of Article VI, Section 25 (5) of 1987 260 Trainer planes and 150 armored personnel carriers
Constitution 6. New provision authorizing the Chief of Staff to use savings in the AFP to
augment pension and gratuity funds.
RULING: Yes. Only the Senate President and the Speaker of the House are 7. Conditions on the appropriation for the Supreme Court, Ombudsman,
allowed to approve the realignment. COA, and CHR, the Congress.

Furthermore, two conditions must be met: 1) the funds to be realigned are Issues:
actually savings, and 2) the transfer is for the purpose of augmenting the items
of expenditures to which said transfer to be made. 1. Whether or not the conditions imposed by the President in the items of
the GAA of 1994: (a) for the Supreme Court, (b) Commission on Audit
As to the certain condition given to the AFP Chief of Staff, it is violative of of (COA), (c) Ombudsman, (d) Commission on Human Rights, (CHR), (e)
Sections 25(5) and 29(1) of the Article VI of the Constitution. The list of those Citizen Armed Forces Geographical Units (CAFGUS) and (f) State
who may be authorized to transfer funds is exclusive. The AFP Chief of Staff Universities and Colleges (SUCs) are constitutional
may not be given authority. 2. Whether or not the veto of the special provision in the appropriation for
debt service and the automatic appropriation of funds therefore is
Facts: House Bill No. 10900, the General Appropriation Bill of 1994 (GAB of
Held: The veto power, while exercisable by the President, is actually a part of
1994), was passed and approved by both houses of Congress on December 17,
the legislative process. There is, therefore, sound basis to indulge in the
1993. As passed, it imposed conditions and limitations on certain items of
presumption of validity of a veto. The burden shifts on those questioning the
appropriations in the proposed budget previously submitted by the President. It
validity thereof to show that its use is a violation of the Constitution.
also authorized members of Congress to propose and identify projects in the
pork barrels allotted to them and to realign their respective operating
The vetoed provision on the debt servicing is clearly an attempt to repeal
Section 31 of P.D. No. 1177 (Foreign Borrowing Act) and E.O. No. 292, and to
reverse the debt payment policy. As held by the court in Gonzales, the repeal of
Pursuant to the procedure on the passage and enactment of bills as prescribed
these laws should be done in a separate law, not in the appropriations law.
by the Constitution, Congress presented the said bill to the President for
consideration and approval.
In the veto of the provision relating to SUCs, there was no undue discrimination
when the President vetoed said special provisions while allowing similar
On December 30, 1993, the President signed the bill into law, and declared the
provisions in other government agencies. If some government agencies were
same to have become Republic Act NO. 7663, entitled AN ACT APPROPRIATING
allowed to use their income and maintain a revolving fund for that purpose, it is
because these agencies have been enjoying such privilege before by virtue of
the special laws authorizing such practices as exceptions to the one-fund
FOUR, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES (GAA of 1994). On the same day, the
policy (e.g., R.A. No. 4618 for the National Stud Farm, P.D. No. 902-A for the
President delivered his Presidential Veto Message, specifying the provisions of
Securities and Exchange Commission; E.O. No. 359 for the Department of
the bill he vetoed and on which he imposed certain conditions, as follows:
Budget and Managements Procurement Service).
1. Provision on Debt Ceiling, on the ground that this debt reduction
The veto of the second paragraph of Special Provision No. 2 of the item for the
scheme cannot be validly done through the 1994 GAA. And that
DPWH is unconstitutional. The Special Provision in question is not an
inappropriate provision which can be the subject of a veto. It is not alien to the
appropriation for road maintenance, and on the other hand, it specifies how the The Special Provision, which allows the Chief of Staff to use savings to augment
said item shall be expended 70% by administrative and 30% by contract. the pension fund for the AFP being managed by the AFP Retirement and
The Special Provision which requires that all purchases of medicines by the AFP Separation Benefits System is violative of Sections 25(5) and 29(1) of the Article
should strictly comply with the formulary embodied in the National Drug Policy VI of the Constitution.
of the Department of Health is an appropriate provision. Being directly related
to and inseparable from the appropriation item on purchases of medicines by Regarding the deactivation of CAFGUS, we do not find anything in the language
the AFP, the special provision cannot be vetoed by the President without also used in the challenged Special Provision that would imply that Congress
vetoing the said item. intended to deny to the President the right to defer or reduce the spending,
much less to deactivate 11,000 CAFGU members all at once in 1994. But even if
The requirement in Special Provision No. 2 on the use of Fund for the AFP such is the intention, the appropriation law is not the proper vehicle for such
modernization program that the President must submit all purchases of military purpose. Such intention must be embodied and manifested in another law
equipment to Congress for its approval, is an exercise of the congressional or considering that it abrades the powers of the Commander-in-Chief and there are
legislative veto. However the case at bench is not the proper occasion to existing laws on the creation of the CAFGUs to be amended.
resolve the issues of the validity of the legislative veto as provided in Special
Provisions Nos. 2 and 3 because the issues at hand can be disposed of on other On the conditions imposed by the President on certain provisions relating to
grounds. Therefore, being inappropriate provisions, Special Provisions Nos. 2 appropriations to the Supreme Court, constitutional commissions, the NHA and
and 3 were properly vetoed. the DPWH, there is less basis to complain when the President said that the
expenditures shall be subject to guidelines he will issue. Until the guidelines are
Furthermore, Special Provision No. 3, prohibiting the use of the Modernization issued, it cannot be determined whether they are proper or inappropriate.
fund for payment of the trainer planes and armored personnel carriers, which Under the Faithful Execution Clause, the President has the power to take
have been contracted for by the AFP, is violative of the Constitutional necessary and proper steps to carry into execution the law. These steps are
prohibition on the passage of laws that impair the obligation of contracts (Art. the ones to be embodied in the guidelines.
III, Sec. 10), more so, contracts entered into by the Government itself. The veto
of said special provision is therefore valid.