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Wave
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about waves in the scientific sense. For waves on the surface of the ocean or lakes,
see Wind wave. For other uses, see Wave (disambiguation).
In physics, a wave is an oscillation accompanied by a transfer of energy that travels through a
medium (space or mass). Frequency refers to the addition of time. Wave motion transfers energy
from one point to another, which displace particles of the transmission mediumthat is, with little or
no associated mass transport. Waves consist, instead, of oscillations or vibrations (of a physical
quantity), around almost fixed locations.
There are two main types of waves. Mechanical waves propagate through a medium, and the
substance of this medium is deformed. Restoring forces then reverse the deformation. For
example, sound waves propagate via air molecules colliding with their neighbors. When the
molecules collide, they also bounce away from each other (a restoring force). This keeps the
molecules from continuing to travel in the direction of the wave.
The second main type, electromagnetic waves, do not require a medium. Instead, they consist of
periodic oscillations of electrical and magnetic fields originally generated by charged particles, and
can therefore travel through a vacuum. These types vary in wavelength, and include radio
waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays and gamma rays.
Waves are described by a wave equation which sets out how the disturbance proceeds over time.
The mathematical form of this equation varies depending on the type of wave. Further, the behavior
of particles in quantum mechanics are described by waves. In addition, gravitational waves also
travel through space, which are a result of a vibration or movement in gravitational fields.
A wave can be transverse, where a disturbance creates oscillations that are perpendicular to the
propagation of energy transfer, or longitudinal: the oscillations are parallel to the direction of energy
propagation. While mechanical waves can be both transverse and longitudinal, all electromagnetic
waves are transverse in free space.

Types of Waves

Waves are around us. It can be Sound waves, string waves, radio waves, visible light waves, water
waves, microwaves, sine waves, stadium waves, earthquake waves, cosine waves, and slinky waves are
some examples in our daily encounters.

All waves are generated through disturbance; for example, when a rock is thrown in water or a boat is
moved through water. These water waves have mainly two parts that are called crest and trough through
which the wave is travelled from one location to other location. Each crest is followed by second crest
which is again followed by next crest. These crests are separated by a trough to generate a pattern of
crests and troughs. In physics, waves are defined as periodical disturbance which are propagated through
a particular medium. Lets us discuss different types of waves.
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Different Types of Waves


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Waves can be classified into three types:

1. Mechanical waves

2. Electromagnetic waves

3. Matter waves.

Mechanical Waves act as the propagation of a disturbance through a material medium due to the
repeated periodic motion of the particles of the medium about their mean positions, the disturbance being
handed over from one particle to the next.

Electromagnetic Waves are the disturbance, which does not require any material medium for its
propagation and can travel even through vacuum. They are caused due to varying electric and magnetic
fields.

Matter Waves are the waves produced in electrons and particles.


Mechanical Waves
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The existence of medium is essential for propagation. The Method of energy propagation in which
disturbance propagates with definite velocity without changing its form is called Mechanical Wave.
Energy and momentum propagates by motion of particles of medium. But medium remains at previous
position. The mass transfer does not take possible here. The Propagation is possible due to property of
medium like elasticity and inertia. Examples: vibration of string, vibration of string, the surface wave
produced on the surface of solid and liquid, sound waves, tsunami waves, earthquake P-waves, ultra
sounds, vibrations in gas, and oscillations in spring, internal water waves, and waves in slink etc.

Mechanical waves are of two types:

1. Transverse Wave

2. Longitudinal Wave.

Transverse Waves
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The medium has particles that vibrate in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the propagation of
wave. This Kind of wave produced is called Transverse Wave.
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Here the formation of crust and trough takes place. Here the direction of propagation of energy is
perpendicular to the direction of oscillations. There are always two directions that are independent of each
other that can be used as the direction of wave.

For example: vibration of string.


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Longitudinal Waves
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Consider a wave moving. if the vibration of the particles of the medium are in the direction of wave
propagation. We call it as Longitudinal Waves.

A Longitudinal wave proceeds in the form of compression and rarefaction which is the stretched rubber
band. For a longitudinal wave at places of compression the pressure and density tends to be maximum,
while at places where rarefaction takes place, the pressure and density are minimum. Longitudinal waves
are known as Compression waves.

Examples of longitudinal waves : Sound waves, tsunami waves, earthquake ,P - waves, ultra sounds,
vibrations in gas, and oscillations in spring, internal water waves, and waves in slink etc.

In gases only longitudinal waves propagate.


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Electromagnetic Waves
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The existence of medium is not essential for propagation. The Periodic changes takes place in electric
and magnetic fields hence it is called Electromagnetic Wave.
Properties:

1. In vacuum E.M waves travel with light velocity.

2. E.M waves can be polarized.

3. E.M waves are transverse in nature.

4. Medium is not required for propagating the E.M waves.

5. E.M waves have momentum.

Example : Radio waves, light waves, thermal radiation, X ray etc. Read More
Matter Waves
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These are also called De Broglie waves. They show or depict the wave nature or wave like nature of all
matter, everything that makes up our body, the atoms etc.

Considering the quantum physics we have a proof that the wavelength of matter waves is very
small. There are various equations called the De Broglie equations which basically suggest the dual
nature of matter. The frequency of these waves is directly depends on their kinetic energy,
Momentum is not directly proportional to the wavelength of the particle and not inversely proportional.

Surface Waves
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These waves can have mechanical nature. They can have an electromagnetic nature. Example is a
ground wave propagating close to the earths surface. It can propagate between two fluids with different
densities. For example a diving sea creature can create a surface wave. They are also called Rayleigh
waves.

Elastic Waves
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The body which is elastic in nature produces this Elastic wave.The elastic body is responsible for setting
the vibratory motion of particles. This vibratory motion basically causes the Elastic wave. For an elastic
wave the particles always tend to come back to their original positions when set in wave motion. This
leads to the formation of the wave.
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Thus Elastic Wave is a type of mechanical wave. Restoring force is provided causing the wave motion. It
also propagates in the visco-elastic medium. The study of the elastic waves is called Elastodynamics.

Example :

When gas which when compressed tend to come to its original position.

When sound is transmitted through the gas then it is transmitted as an elastic wave.

Sound Waves
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For sound waves the existence of material medium is very necessary for the propagation of the waves.
The propagation of waves taking place in solid, liquid and gases which makes us hear the sound is
called Sound wave.

Properties :

1. Sound waves are longitudinal in nature.

2. Material medium is necessary for the propagation of the sound waves.

3. The Speed of sound in air at N.T. P is 332 m/s.

4. The Sound is audible only between 20 Hz to 20 KHz.

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Standing Waves
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When a wave remains in a constant position it is called Standing wave. This is possible due to 2
reasons:

1. When the medium moves in a direction opposite to the direction of propagation of wave it is
possible.

2. When the phenomenon of interference takes place between the two waves traveling in an
opposite direction then it is possible.
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Properties of Waves

When we observe waves in the sea shore, it may be observed that they travel with a definite speed
through a uniform medium. If we watch a particular spot, we find that the waves pass that spot at regular
intervals of time.
Any waves traveling through any medium will be having particular properties related to them. Let us know
about them in detail.

Wave Properties of Matter


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Louis De Broglies hypothesis:


According to Louis De Broglie, Light has a dual nature that is both particle and wave.
Matter wave are probability waves.
Waves are associated with every moving particle which is called matter waves.
If is the associated wavelength with moving particle and p is the momentum then

= hphp
Energy of photon is given by,

E = h vwhere,
h = planck constant
V = frequency of photons

Momentum of moving photon,

p = hh
Effective mass is given by,
m = pcpcwhere,
p = momentum of moving photon
c = Velocity of light.

Properties of Electromagnetic Waves


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The various properties of electromagnetic waves are:

1. The existence of medium is not essential for propagation.

2. Periodic changes takes place in electric and magnetic fields. Hence it is called electromagnetic
wave.
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3. In vacuum, E.M waves travel with light velocity.

4. E.M waves can be polarized.

5. E.M waves are transverse in nature.

6. Medium is not required for propagating the E.M waves.

7. E.M waves have momentum.

8. The velocity in vacuum is 3 108 m/s.

9. There is no deflection on account of magnetic or electric field.

10. They can be polarized waves.

11. They can exhibit diffraction and interference.

12. For electromagnetic wave: c = v


where V = Velocity of light,
= Wavelength of light.

Properties of Mechanical Waves


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The various properties of mechanical waves are:

1. Energy and momentum propagates by motion of particles of medium. But medium remains at
previous position.

2. The mass transfer is not take possible here.

3. Propagation is possible due to property of medium for example: elasticity and inertia.

Examples: vibration of string, vibration of string, the surface wave produced on the surface of solid and
liquid, sound waves, tsunami waves, earthquake P waves, ultra sounds, vibrations in gas, and oscillations
in spring, internal water waves, and waves in slink etc. The existence of medium is essential for
propagation.

Mechanical Waves are of two types:

1. Transverse waves

2. Longitudinal waves.

The medium is essential for propagation.


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Wave Properties of Electrons


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Let the rest mass of the particle like electron be m and moving with velocity v.
Rest mass = m
Effective mass is given by,

m = m1V2c2m1V2c2Momentum p = m v

p = 2mE2mEHere E is kinetic energy.

Kinetic energy is given by,E = q V


Velocity is given by,Ve = 2eVme2eVme

Momentum is given by,Pe = (2meeV)(2meeV)

Wavelength is given by, = hsqrt(2meeV)hsqrt(2meeV)

= 12.27V12.27V AU.

Properties of Light Waves


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These are the properties of light waves:

1. Reflection: When light waves all on a shiny surface they are reflected back. The angle of
incidence and the angle of reflection is equal for a perfect reflection.

2. Refraction: Light waves change speed when they change mediums or travel from one medium to
another. Hence bending of light waves takes place.

3. Dispersion: As the light waves are made up of rays of different wavelength hence when they
pass through prism we see all the 7 colors. Also it is visible in a rainbow due to dispersion form
rain drops.

4. Diffraction: The process of diffraction is also common for light rays.

5. Interference: Light waves follow both constructive and destructive interference.

6. Polarization: Polarization is an phenomena in which orientation of the waves are discussed.

Properties of Radio Waves


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It was discovered by Maxwell. Various properties of radio waves are:


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1. They are the type of electromagnetic waves.

2. Their wavelength is longer than infrared rays.

3. The frequency ranges from 3 KHz to 300 GHz.

4. Wavelength ranges from 1mm 100 km

5. The Velocity of traveling = c or speed of light.

Example: Lightning waves.

Application:

1. They are used in radar, broadcasting and radio communication.

2. They are Used in MRI in hospitals.

3. They are also Used in radio communication this forms an integral part of wireless communication.

Wave Properties of Light


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Huygen's wave theory :


Huygen was a scientist working parallel to Newton who came with a drastically different idea for nature of
light and said that light is not a particle but a wave.
De Broglie states that light has a dual nature that is both light and wave.
If is the associated wavelength with moving particle and
p is the momentum then
= hphpEnergy of photon,E = h vwhere,
h = planck constant
V = frequency of photons

Momentum of moving photon is given by


p = hh

Properties of Sound Waves


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The Properties of sound waves are stated below :

1. Sound waves are mostly longitudinal in common nature.

2. Speed of sound in air at N.T.P is 332 m/s.

3. Sound is audible only between 20 Hz to 20 KHz.


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4. Sound waves cannot be polarized.

5. Sound waves travel in the form of longitudinal wave through air.

In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as a typically audible mechanical


wave of pressure and displacement, through a transmission medium such as air or water.
In physiology and psychology, sound is the reception of such waves and their perception by
the brain.[1] Humans can hear sound waves with frequencies between about 20 Hz and 20 kHz.
Other animals have different hearing rangesmomo sound is amazing sound is hearing.