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Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources

Hamer, Fannie. I Dont Mind My Light Shining. Speeches of Fannie Lou Hamer, To Tell It
It Is, edited by Maegan Parker Brooks and Davis W. Houck, University Press of
Mississippi, 2011, pp. 3-6.

In this speech in front of a rally, Fannie Lou Hamer promotes the freedom for African-
Americans to vote and states that she wants the world to acknowledge the need for
freedom to vote in the U.S. This source helps me understand what exactly Hamer was
advocating for and how she expressed her opinion.

Hamer, Fannie. I'm Sick and Tired of Being Sick and Tired. Speeches of Fannie Lou
Hamer, To Tell It Like It Is, edited by Maegan Parker Brooks and Davis W. Houck,
University Press of Mississippi, 2011, pp. 57-63.

This speech Fannie Lou Hamer gave at a rally gives the reader a first-hand view on her
perspective as a literate African-American in Mississippi. Her style of talking, which is
similar to that of a personal narrative, helps me understand what she was fighting for and
standing up to.

Correspondence and Interviews

Hamer, Fannie. Interview. By Neil McMillen, 14 April 1972 and 25 Jan. 1973.

Fannie Lou Hamers interview helped me understand where her inspiration and resolution
to vote stemmed from. Also, it provided me details of how Hamer was mistreated due to
her beliefs.


Fannie Lou Hamer in Color at the 1964 National Democratic Convention. Bio, A&E
Television Networks, Accessed
16 Jan. 2017.

A photo of Fannie Lou Hamer was taken while she was speaking at the 1964 National
Democratic Convention; it is reformatted in color.

Fannie Lou Hamer Talking on the Mic. PowerPAC+, PowerThru, Accessed 16 Jan. 2017.

Fannie Lou Hamer is seen here trying to empower her audience through a microphone
with passion.
Leffler, Warren K. Fannie Lou Hamer, Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party delegate, at the
Democratic National Convention, Atlantic City, New Jersey, August 1964. Library of
Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress, 22 Aug. 1964,

A black-and-white photo of Fannie Lou Hamer is shown while she was speaking at the
1964 National Democratic Convention in Atlanta.

MFDP Convention in Jacksonville, Mississippi. Civil Rights Teaching, Accessed 16 Jan.

A black-and-white photo of the MFDP Convention in Jacksonville, Mississippi is shown.

Vote for Fannie Lou Hamer. National Association of Social Workers California Chapter, 2015
Aug. 1,

A color picture of Vote for Fannie Lou Hamer poster is shown.


Fannie Lou Hamers Testimony at the 1964 Democratic Convention. NBC Learn, NBC, 22
Aug. 2016,

In this documentary clip, Fannie Lou Hamer addresses on television the oppression she
faced by officials during voter registration at the 1964 Democratic National Convention.
This helped me understand her bravery and confidence while she spoke. This
documentary gave me details about how Hamer led the civil rights movement despite
hindrances created by authorities, especially when Lyndon B. Johnson intentionally cut
her speech off to give an impromptu speech at the White House.


Hamer, Fannie. Testimony Before the Credentials Committee. American Rhetoric,
Accessed 15 Jan. 2017.

Fannie Lou Hamers speech consists of her testimony and general experiences when she,
with several others, traveled six miles to a courthouse to register as first class citizens.
Hamer and her peers received heavy criticism in a multiple forms, she describes in her
testimony. Through Hamers first person account, I can better understand her perspective
as well as the situation which lead her to her activism.

Johnson, KC. Lyndon Johnson and Civil Rights. Lyndon Johnson and Civil Rights, Brooklyn
College, Accessed 15 Jan. 2017.

In the audio recordings on the website, while trying to agree on how to represent MFDP
at the 1964 Democratic National Convention with Georgia Governor Carl Sanders,
President Lyndon B. Johnson sought to segregate and elect only two at-large delegates,
whom Hamer was one of them, of Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party instead of
having equal representations of both the MFDP and the Mississippi Democratic Party.
This helped me understand the oppression Hamer and her party faced that can be
applicable to most African Americans wanting to vote during Johnsons presidency.

Secondary Sources
Articles & Letters

Clardy, Brian. Commentary: 50 Years Later - Freedom Summer 1964. WKMS, Accessed 15
Nov. 2016.

This website is written by Dr. Brian Clardy, who provides a hindsight view on the
Freedom Summer movements in 1964. It particularly looks at Fannie Lou Hamers
position in the Freedom Summer project as a leader, and the significant events that also
took place during the year 1964. The information within the article gives me an idea of
the general impact that Freedom Summer had for people of color and Hamers impact on

Fannie Lou Hamer. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, ibiblio, Accessed 11 Nov. 2016.

This website highlights the major influence Hamers speech in front of the Credential
Committee had on progress regarding civil rights. In addition, the website explains
Hamers will of expanding voting rights to her people rather than suppressing them. This
source helped me understand the wide range of issues Hamer tackled through her

Fannie Lou Hamer (1917-1977). National Women's History Museum, NWHM,
Accessed 17 Nov. 2016.

This biography shines a light on Hamers political and humanitarian actions throughout
her life. I learned that in 1965, Hamer helped organize a strike of black cotton pickers.
Later, she established a Farm Cooperative, The Freedom Farm Cooperative of
Sunflower County. This helped my understanding of Fannie Lou Hamers inspiring
grassroots activism.

Fannie Lou Townsend Hamer. FemBio, Accessed 17
Nov. 2016.
This website contains information about the overview of Fannie Lou Hamers life. The
information was about Hamers accomplishments in trying to inspire others to join the
movement for voter freedom. This source will help me understand what Hamer fought for
and how she did it.

Hamer, Fannie Lou (1917-1977). Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Global Freedom Struggle,
Stanford University,
1977.1.html. Accessed 17 Nov. 2016.

This biography of Fannie Lou Hamer helped me understand the adversities Hamer
overcame to fight voter discrimination against African-Americans in which she utilized
nonviolent methods to establish representation. Also, this information gave me details
regarding the cooperation between Martin Luther King Jr. and Hamer in the civil rights

Houck, Davis. "Fannie Lou Hamer, Were On Our Way. Voices of Democracy,
University of Maryland,
content/uploads/2014/07/houck-brooks-hamer2.pdf. Accessed 11 Nov. 2016.

This website is by Dr. David Houck, a rhetoric professor at FSU. He offers up his
expertise through his commentary and analysis of Fannie Lou Hamers Were On Our
Way. Houcks commentary provides me with in-depth research and analysis that allows
me to understand the rhetoric and general finesse behind Hamers speech.

Introduction: Freedom Summer. American Experience, PBS,
Accessed 15 Nov. 2016.

This website provides an in-depth description and timeline of Freedom Summer. It

provides the context required for my understanding in the Freedom Summer Movement
as well as notes Fannie Lou Hamers role in it. This information helps me have an
understanding of what Freedom Summer was about and how Hamer was involved in it.

"Library System - Howard University." Howard University Libraries, Howard University, Accessed 11 Nov. 2016.

This bibliographical essay highlights Hamers life; a life full of events in which she stood
for what was right to her. From her political activism to her speeches on civil rights, this
source helped me understand Fannie Lou Hamers bravery shown through the endless
will to fight for equality for African-American constituents.

Life after Death: Malcolm X and American Culture. Columbia Interactive, Columbia
University, Accessed 17
Nov. 2016.

This account of Fannie Lou Hamers influence on Malcolm X helped me understand her
influence of womens rights in addition to her support of African-American rights. This
account gave me details of how Malcolm X sought to respect woman after hearing about
Hamers physical injuries as a result of her support to expand African-American rights.


Fannie Lou Hamer. Americans Who Tell the Truth, Accessed 16 Jan. 2017.

In this page about Fannie Lou Hamer, we used her quote, "Sometimes it seem like to tell
the truth today is to run the risk of being killed. But if I fall, I'll fall five feet four inches
forward in the fight for freedom. I'm not backing off. This means she will fight for
freedom even if it means dying.