The Multi-Universe Cosmos

A New Cosmological Theory on the Birth of the Cosmos, our Universe and It’s Fate
A. Karel Velan
Montreal, Canada

COSMOLOGY IN CONSTANT CHAOS (1) The present leading cosmological theory of the classical Big Bang with its various refinements, as well as the prevailing theory of chaotic inflation, do not provide any explanation on the creation of the Singularity, matter and energy, the nature of the Nothingness or the environment in which the Singularity appeared as well as the explosion process of the Singularity or an acceptable explanation for the creation of cosmic structures (galaxies). The most striking recent development in cosmology has come from explosion studies of supernovae which seemingly reveal that the expansion speed of the universe changes with time and presently the Universe accelerates, having a negative pressure to counterbalance the energy density. Here I present a few comments on the difficulties and issues published by the world’s leading cosmologists.

ON THE BIG BANG THEORY S. HAWKING (1995) (2) "According to the general relativity, there should be a singularity in our past. At this singularity, the field equations could not be defined. This, classical general relative brings about its own downfall: it predicts that it can’t predict the universe. The only way to have a scientific theory is if the laws of physics hold everywhere, including at the beginning of the universe. One can regard that as a triumph for the principles of democracy. Why should the beginning of the universe be exempt from the laws that apply to other points? If all points are equal, one can’t allow some to be more equal than others". "The universe was created quite literally out of nothing, not just out of vacuum but of absolutely nothing at all, because there is nothing outside the universe." A. GUTH (1997) (3) "How did it start? The Big Bang theory does not really address this question as it describes the universe from immediately after its creation onward." "Given the present understanding of conservation laws, is there any hope for a scientific description of the creation of the universe? If conservation laws imply that "nothing can be created from nothing" as Lucretius put it, then how could the universe have come into being? If the creation of the universe is to be described by physical laws that embody the conservation of energy, then the universe must have the same energy as whatever it was created from." "The Big Bang theory does not really address the origin as it describes the universe from immediately after its creation onwards."

ON COMPOSITION OF THE SINGULARITY P.J.E. PEEBLES (1995) (9) "Roughly 15 billion years ago, all matter and energy we can observe was concentrated in a region smaller than a dime." JOSEPH SILK (1997) (7) "The very early universe might have been empty and contained only an intense gravitational field which itself created matter and radiation out of a vacuum of space-time."


ON EXPANSION P.J.E. PEEBLES (1995) (9) "The expansion has had little influence on the size of galaxies or even clusters of galaxies bound by gravity; space is simply opening up between them. In this sense, the expansion is similar to a rising loaf of raisin bread, or a balloon." HUBERT REEVES (1994) (9) In Dernières Nouvelles du Cosmos (1994), "...Do galaxies themselves have a movement or are they simply carried along by the expansion of space? A priori, both statements are possible..."

ON CREATION OF COSMIC STRUCTURES (GALAXIES) NATHALIE DERUELLE (1998) (9) "The "standard" big bang model has a serious setback: it has difficulty explaining the existence of a multitude of material objects which populate the universe - the galaxies. What is the origin of this dilemma? If we consider a volume of space-time containing a mass of particles equal to a cluster of galaxies, (1015 solar masses) this region could collapse gravitationally only if its small density variations were unstable and grew with time. Galaxies appeared after the recombination era - after hydrogen and helium atoms formed - and when the photons which we observe today as the microwave background radiation (400 photons/cm3) decoupled from matter and were free to propagate. The temperature had cooled to 3,000K and objects were 1,000 times closer together than they are today. Consequently, the ratio of density variations is 1,000 times greater now than it was back then. If Ω=1 as current theories predict, the ratio of density variations during the decoupling era should have been 1/1000 (10-3) what it is today. But this is where the standard big bang theory runs into difficulty. The temperature/density variations found by COBE, in the cosmic microwave background radiation, were less than 1 part in 100,000 (10-5) - which is 100 times (10-2) too small to precipitate gravitational collapse and galaxy formation."

ON CREATION OF MATTER AND ENERGY JOSEPH SILK (1992) (9) "The very early universe might have been empty and contained only an intense gravitational field which itself created matter and radiation out of a vacuum of space-time." J.D. BARROW (1993) (9) "All mass in the universe was compressed into a state of infinite density." P.J.E. PEEBLES (1994) (9) "Roughly 15 billion years ago, all matter and energy we can observe was concentrated in a region smaller than a dime." S. HAWKING (1995) (9) "The very early universe was created quite literally out of nothing, not just out of the vacuum but out of absolutely nothing at all, because there is nothing outside the universe."


ON INFLATION A.H. GUTH (1997) (3) "Conceivably, everything can be created from nothing. And "everything" might include a lot more than we can see. In the context of inflationary cosmology, it is fair to say that the universe is the ultimate free lunch." If inflation is correct, then the inflationary mechanism is responsible for the creation of essentially all the matter and energy in the universe. The theory also implies that the observed universe is only a minute fraction of the entire universe, and it strongly suggests that there are perhaps an infinite number of other universes that are completely disconnected from our own." ANDREI LINDE (1998) (9) "Inflationary cosmology is still in the process of active development. It changes in parallel with the rapid development of the theory of elementary particles. There exist some particle theories where inflation cannot apply. It may happen also that some models will be in conflict with future astronomical observational data which may show, for example, that the universe is not flat but open, or the Hubble constant happens to be very large. Many cosmologists believe that inflation or something very similar should be a necessary ingredient of any internally consistent cosmological theory."

ON CREATION OF COSMIC STRUCTURES (GALAXIES) IN THE INFLATION THEORY JOSEPH SILK (1997) (7) "The density fluctuations responsible for cosmic structure existed before radiation decoupled - but where did they come from originally? Without the magic of inflation, any physical origin for fluctuations fails dramatically." ANDREI LINDE (1994) (9) "Density perturbations produced during inflation affected the distribution of matter in the universe by leaving their imprint on the microwave background radiation. This imprint was detected by the COBE satellite in 1992. As the universe expanded, early quantum fluctuations in the scalar field were stretched out until they were smooth; however, later fluctuations were "frozen" on top of the older ones. These later disturbances caused the density perturbations that are crucial for the subsequent formation of galaxies. In this way, inflation can simultaneously explain why the universe is so homogenous and still have the ripples in space discovered by COBE." ALAN GUTH (1997) (3) "In the standard big bang cosmology without inflation, an entire spectrum of density perturbations had to be included arbitrarily in the hypothesized initial conditions, or else galaxies would never form. The mere fact that inflation provides a context in which density perturbations can be calculated, rather than assumed, is itself a big step forward."

ON THE "ACCELERATING UNIVERSE" (9) “So far, the data gathered by the Supernova Cosmology Project, based on observations of more than 72 type Ia supernovae, points to neither a flat universe as depicted by inflation theories or a universe that is closed depicted by the Velan theory. Instead, the data imply an open, accelerating universe with a positive cosmological constant (Λ>0). Though these results are truly revolutionary, at present they are still being tested and remain highly speculative.”


THE MULTI-UNIVERSE COSMOS A NEW COSMOLOGICAL THEORY ON THE BIRTH OF THE COSMOS AND THE HISTORY AND FATE OF OUR UNIVERSE by A. Karel Velan, P. Eng. I propose an entirely new approach to the origin of our universe, one of many in a Multi-Universe Cosmos. The new model eliminated the mysterious singularity at time 0, the origin of which and its explosion no one can explain. It is the first cosmological theory (1) which goes beyond the creation of our own Universe, (2) introduces many innovations to explain the present mysteries: a) what was created first? The Cosmic Space-Time with all the prevailing laws of physics; b) the Cosmic Space-Time contains a primordial radiation field which, together with "virtual particles" plays a major role in creation of matter and energy, resulting in the birth of universes in the Cosmos, (3) it is the first cosmological theory where "the laws of physics hold everywhere, including at the beginning of the universe and at the same time embody the conservation of energy" (as demanded by Stephen Hawking). Then approximately 18 billion years ago, our Universe emerged from a superhot, dense fireball of matter and radiation created in the 4-dimensional cosmic space-time vacuum. A massive appearance of virtual particle pairs due to quantum fluctuations in the cosmic space-time (Quantum Field Theory) was followed by interaction with a powerful primordial cosmic radiation field, the missing link to any viable theory of creation, which provided the virtual particle pairs their rest mass (new hypothesis), creating a large cloud of matter and radiation. Gravitational implosion of the just created cloud led to the formation of a fireball with a much hotter and denser core. During the implosion, more elementary particles were created, now directly from radiation at temperatures far exceeding their threshold creation levels. Finally, the enormous pressure created by the large thermal energy of the trapped superheated radiation and matter overpowered the gravitational forces, causing a gigantic explosion of the entire fireball which initiated the expansion and evolution of our universe. As the universe expanded and cooled, it spawned galaxies, stars, planets and life as we observe on earth. While the Big Bang theory, despite its successes, cannot explain satisfactorily the origin of density ripples leading to the formation of large structures, the new theory provides a unique and complete solution to this important issue.

Figure 1.

Our Universe, one of many in the multi-universe cosmos.

INTRODUCTION In this paper I explore dramatically new ideas on the origin of the Cosmos and our Universe as one of many, a unique cosmological model free of an initial singularity, yet compatible with the large-scale features of the Universe which we observe today. Section 1 outlines the concept of the 4-dimensional Cosmic Space-Time continuum with the same features as found in our Universe but containing a primordial radiation field. The particle creation process and the birth of our Universe as a large fireball is developed in Section 2. Section 3 covers the physics of the gravitational implosion leading to the gigantic explosion and expansion of the fireball. 4 The consequences of the ensuing explosion of the fireball on current observational discoveries are discussed in Section 4, including the formation of large structures. Section 5 concludes with the description of the fate of the Universe. All relevant sections contain the mathematical calculations of thermal and gravitational energies in the imploding and exploding fireball, the expansion speeds and the parameters related to the fate of the universe. Using well established laws of physics and formulas and respecting the laws of conservation of energy that "nothing can be created from nothing", except the initial Cosmic Primordial Space-Time.

SECTION 1 THE CREATION OF THE 4-DIMENSIONAL COSMIC SPACE-TIME CONTINUUM First there was Nothingness. To ask what conditions prevailed is meaningless as there was no space, no matter, no energy, no time - only Nothingness - a deep mystery beyond human comprehension. Then, by an unknown process or Divine Power, a secret of nature that may remain forever a mystery to intelligent beings, the Nothingness was transformed into the 4-dimensional Cosmic Space-Time Continuum, together with all the laws of physics and nature known to us, and maybe others, to self-govern all subsequent events in the Cosmos, including the creation of universes. Time started to click. To designate the Cosmic SpaceTime as 4-dimensional is another way of saying that the Cosmos became a world of events, not just points in space, and it required 4 numbers to designate each event: 3 dimensions for space (x, y, z) and 1 for time (t).



Figure 2. THE 4-DIMENSIONAL COSMIC SPACE-TIME Quantum fluctuations of space are depicted graphically on top and the primordial radiation field (vertical waves) is shown together with virtual particle pairs (+, –) appearing spontaneously, interacting and annihilating.

The Cosmos at this stage was in profound darkness with no matter but it contained 3 basic characteristics designed to create large clouds of matter and radiation which, by gravity, were transformed into fire balls, or baby universes: 1. Tiny space cells of 10-33 cm undergo dynamic fluctuations in their topology. They vibrate, expand and collapse in a most active way just as in our own vacuum of space-time in compliance with General Relativity. (Figure 2) 2. Virtual particles (Figure 2) emerge from the vacuum, which has a very small but non-zero energy, appearing spontaneously as particle-antiparticle pairs such as electrons and positrons. Their lifetime is extremely short, 10-23 to 10-10 second before disappearing back into the vacuum. Such virtual particle pairs, however, can be brought into permanent existence by the application of an energy input equal to the rest mass of the particles, in accordance with the equivalence equation of Einstein: E = Mc2. (3) The density of virtual particles in cosmic space-time, equal to the space-time in our universe in accordance with the Quantum Field Theory of 1094 g/cm3 is enormous. Theoretically, less than 1 cm3 of cosmic space-time has the potential to create the total mass of our universe of 5.7×1056 g in presence of an equivalent energy providing the virtual particles their rest mass. As the energy equivalent of 1 gram of matter is 5.6×1023 GeV, it would require an energy of 5.7×1056×5.6×1023 or 32×1079 GeV to create our universe from 1cm3 of cosmic space-time. (3) (8)

The lifetime of virtual particles (∆t) can be calculated from Heisenberg’s equation of quantum uncertainty, which relates time and energy in the following way: ∆t = h/∆E, where h is Planck’s constant and ∆t and ∆E are the uncertainties of time and energy. For the smallest particle pair of an electron-positron and a mass of 0.00102 GeV, the lifetime is 10-10 second. (3) (8) 3. The cosmic primordial energy field (Figure 2) a major hypothesis introduced in the new theory, is a powerful electromagnetic field with an energy density of 1012 - 1014 GeV/cm3 which permeates the inter-universe cosmic space-time and provides the missing link to any theory of creation that is consistent with energy conservation. Virtual particle pairs are transformed into real matter - antimatter particle pairs when the primordial radiation field interacts. Direct detection of the primordial radiation field in our universe is difficult because it is shielded by a curved region of spacetime outside our universe, created by the tremendous amount of mass-energy contained within. However, as I first predicted in 1985, the primordial gamma radiation can occasionally enter our universe from the cosmic space-time by penetrating the surrounding space-time shell and in my view accounts for the super energetic γ rays and cosmic radiation observable bursts detected by space probes. (7)


THE MULTI-UNIVERSE COSMOS Over the eons, primordial space-time transformed itself into a vast cosmos containing millions of universes – each with its own initial configuration, and each in various stages of development. Some illuminate the profound darkness of the "inter-universe" space-time continuum, appearing like flashes of light or shining like mighty galaxies; others are opaque or invisible. Created at different times, each universe is filled with matter and radiation, some similar in structure to our own. Some are still young and active, full of galaxies and stars: all are guided from birth by the same universal physical laws. They expand, evolve and collapse - some becoming black holes and others beginning a new cycle of expansion. If one could stand 20 billion light-years away, in the gravitationally curved space-time surrounding our universe, it would look like a sphere covered with galaxies (Figure 3). However, this view would be obscured by a sphere of radiation, located ahead of the expanding universe, which escaped at the speed of light during the radiation decoupling era, some 815,000 years after the initial explosion.

Each of these universes are self-contained units and do not influence one another (Figure 4). Space-time is gravitationally curved around each one, and each has a horizon – or maximum spherical space – in which it can expand. The radius (R) of the shell can be calculated from the equation: R = GM/c2 where G is the gravitational constant, M is the total mass and c is the speed of light. In 1950, Einstein said: "It is imaginable that the proof will be given that the world is spherical if its density (dc) is 3H02 (1) ____ greater than critical dc= 8πG ;



it is hardly imaginable that one could prove it is pseudospherical."[3] H0 = Hubble constant, G = gravitational constant

Figure 3.

Our universe in the Multi-Universe Cosmos.

Figure 4. Curved space sphere around universes.


SECTION 2 THE BIRTH OF OUR UNIVERSE THE PARTICLE CREATION PROCESS FROM VIRTUAL PARTICLES AND PRIMORDIAL RADIATION About 18 billion years ago, an area of the cosmic space-time vacuum underwent sudden dynamic quantum fluctuations of extreme intensity. Small space-time cells of 10-33 cm vibrated, expanded, attained maximum size, collapsed and exploded most actively. Suddenly, whether by pure chance or determined by divine power, a secret of nature that may remain forever a mystery to intelligent beings, the particle creation process was triggered following established laws of nature. The powerful topological distortions were passed on from one area to another like tidal waves. This wave effect caused the simultaneous, widespread appearance of virtual particle pairs of electrons, electron-neutrinos, up & down quarks (u, d) and their anti-particles. These were all swept up by the primordial radiation field, and a great transformation of virtual particles to real particles ensued. (Figure 5) Many other types of particles and anti-particles appeared but were quickly annihilated, due to their very short lifetimes into photons. The powerful cosmic radiation field provided the virtual particles with their rest mass necessary to release them into the real world following the equivalent formula of Einstein M = E/c2. (4) Meanwhile, a sea of photons originated from the primordial radiation and from the annihilation of particleantiparticle pairs. In seconds, a vast dense cloud of radiation and elementary particles had formed. (Figure 2, 5) The photons, electrons, electron-neutrinos, and quarks (which were later confined in protons and neutrons) became the building blocks of our universe. As there was no other justification established, so far, for the presence of virtual particles in the cosmic space-time, it is logical to conclude that their high density presence together with the cosmic primordial radiation field was assigned a major role in the creation process of universes. Space-time in our Universe is an extension of the cosmic space-time. The required energy for transformation can be calculated using Einstein’s formula E = mc2. In case of an electronpositron pair, it is 1 million electron volts. The heavier quarks (3 quarks to 1 proton or neutron) have a mass of ~.313 GeV. Quark-antiquark pairs are produced at an energy level above ~.616 GeV. As the energy density of the primordial radiation field was Ed = 1012-1014 GeV/cm3, the cosmic space-time involved in the process was equivalent to a ball with a radius R = 1022 cm. As the energy equivalent to 1g of mass is 5.6×1023 GeV we can calculate the created mass of particles as follows: Volume of the sphere active in the creation process: 4 4 VSP= – π R3 = – π (1022)3= 4.18 × 10 66 cm3 3 3

FIGURE 5. THE PARTICLE CREATION PROCESS A cloud of elementary particle pairs is being borne from virtual particles (+, –) acquiring their rest mass from the primordial radiation field (vertical waves).

Total mass produced in GeV MT GeV = VSP × Ed = 4.18 × 10 66 × 10 13 = 4.18 × 10 79 GeV Total mass produced in grams MT 4.18 × 10 79 M = ––––––––– = –––––––––– ~ 1056 g

5.6 × 1023

5.6 × 1023

The remaining mass of the new universe was created in the imploding fireball directly from photons at threshold temperatures (see page 9).



Figure 6.

The embryonic universe, a cloud of matter and radiation turned into a sphere created by gravity.

THE CREATION PROCESS IS IN FULL COMPLIANCE WITH ALL THE LAWS OF NATURE AND EMBODYING THE CONSERVATION OF ENERGY. The just created, massive and dense cloud of particles and radiation turned into a sphere subjected to rapid implosion under gravitational forces created by the mass density of matter and radiation. The pressure of the radiation which is proportionate to the 4th power of temperature was too weak to resist. At the early stage, particles and antiparticles annihilated each other into γ photons while other particle pairs from virtual particles were created, maintaining a balance, the number of photons being about the same as the number of particles. The kinetic energy (Mv2 /2) of the infalling particles towards the centre at increasing velocities, as well as the powerful collisions between particles and scattering of photons by electrons and quarks were all turning into thermal energy, substantially increasing the temperature. The entire creation process in this new theory of creation complies with the laws of physics which hold everywhere and all field equations can be defined.

OTHER KNOWN CREATION PROCESSES ARE VIOLATING THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY. 1. BIG BANG. E. Tryon 1973 “The universe was created from a virtual particle.” R. Brout 1978 “A fluctuation in space-time created a superparticle with 1019 GeV mass which triggered more and more superparticles and finally a fireball which exploded.” A. Vilenkin 1982 “The universe appeared from literally nothing by quantum tunneling to a non-empty space.” S. Hawkings 1995 “The universe was created out of nothing, because there is nothing outside the universe”. A. Guth 1997 “The Big bang theory does not address the origin as it describes the universe only after its creation. 2. CHAOTIC INFLATION – A. Linde 1994 “Vacuum of space-time has a scalar field called ‘inflaton’. As the scalar field evolves it produces many inflationary domains. Some will sprout inflationary bubbles. When inflation stops, its energy disintegrates into elementary particles of matter and another big bang follows.” 8

A SUPERHEATED FIREBALL WITH A DENSER AND HOTTER CORE. THE HOT PARTICLE CREATION PROCESS What was a primordial ball in the beginning soon turned into a superheated fireball with the implosion continuing at a rapid pace. Photons moving at speed of light, unable to escape, were scattered at collisions with electrons and quarks, contributing to the ever-increasing temperature and pressure of the fireball, their energy increasing with the fourth power of temperature (E = aT4). Due to the intensive gravitational forces, a much denser and hotter core was developing. THE HOT PARTICLE CREATION PROCESS With the considerable increase of temperature in the fireball, the energy of photons reached levels where particles of matter can be produced by collisions of photons without interaction with virtual particles. All elementary particles have what is called the threshold or creation temperature which can be calculated from the equation: (1) Mc2 T = —— k [6]

where T = Temperature, Mc2 = rest mass in MeV and k = Boltzmann constant = 0.00008617 eV/K

Figure 7.

The superheated fireball with a denser and hotter core.


When the temperature of the cosmic fireball reached 12×109 K, more electron-positron pairs were produced, directly from radiation and at 7×1012 K, heavy pairs of quarks and antiquarks. Under these enormously high temperature and density levels, the number of particles was controlled by the thermal equilibrium between particles and radiation which prevailed in the imploding hot cosmic soup. Soon the temperature of the fireball surpassed considerably the threshold temperature of the heaviest elementary particles of matter and reached a thousand trillion K (1015 K) with an energy level of 100 GeV per photon. The particles of matter and radiation were squeezed into an enormous density of 3.34×1015 g/cm3 (compared to nuclear density of 1014 g/cm3). The core was even much denser and hotter at 1019 K. The particle creation process reached its final stage and it is assumed that the high prevailing energy allowed the transformation of antimatter into matter. Positrons, antiquarks and antineutrinos turned into electrons, quarks and neutrinos. Nature must have had a preference for matter to allow CP symmetry to be violated. How else could antiparticles disappear? The superheated cosmic soup contained at this time approximately 3×1080 quarks, 1080 electrons, 1089 neutrinos 9

and 1076 photons for a total mass of 1.6×1056 g with approximately 25% of it in the core. There were less photons in my theory than in the standard Big Bang model due to the hot particle creation process in the fireball consuming photons. The moment of a gigantic explosion of the fireball was nearing. RADIUS AND DENSITY OF THE AT 1017 K AVERAGE TEMPERATURE Volume Vq of 3 × 1080 quarks (largest particle) with a quark radius of 0.5 × 10-13 cm
4 Vq = – π Rq3 × 3 × 10 80 3 4 = – π (0.5 × 10-13)3 × 3 × 10 80 = 1.57 × 10 41 cm3 3


The radius RFB can be calculated from the volume. 3 4 – πRFB3 = 1.57 × 10 41 RFB = √ 37.5 × 10 39 = 3.34 × 10 13 cm. 3 With a total mass of the fireball MFB = 5.7 × 1056 g 5.7 × 1056 the density was dFB = –––––––––– = 3.6 × 1015 g/cm3 1.57 × 1041 Radius RFB = 3.34 × 1013 cm Density dFB = 3.6 × 1015 g/cm3

SECTION 3 THE EXPLOSION OF THE FIREBALL The explosion of the fireball took place from the center, similar to supernova explosions of large stars. As the outer envelope of the fireball reached the quark-electron density (3.6 ×1015 g/cm3), its core density was 1018 g/cm3 or more. All the electrons, quarks, neutrinos and photons in the core merged to form a single gigantic nucleus. In this form, particles show a strong resistance to further compression. This, however, did not stop the particles in the outer layers of the fireball from imploding further and squeezing the core even more. At the surface of the hard core, the particles stopped suddenly, but not fully. The compressibility of elementary particles is low at this density, but not zero. The momentum of the particles, falling at very high speed, compressed the core to about 10 times the equilibrium density (1018 g/cm3) - or what can be called the point of "maximum squeeze". The outer layer of the core rebounded, like a hard rubber ball that was compressed and released, setting off huge sound shock waves and releasing gravitational energy. The outward pressure generated by the thermal energy of matter and radiation at the core was 2.9 ×10102 erg – 10 million times greater than the gravitational energy (7 ×1095 erg); and about 10 billion times greater than the energy of the envelope (1092 erg) as calculated below. The shock waves and the overpowering outward pressure triggered a titanic cosmic explosion, setting the "baby universe" on an 18 billion year path of expansion and evolution. In the fireball, at temperature way above the threshold level (1017 K) electrons and quarks behaved like photons.[5] As the volume of quarks surpassed the volume of radiation, particles of matter contributed decisively to the total thermal energy, while the mass density of the hot radiation contributed to gravitation. For comparison, the energy which set the universe expanding was 10102 erg – about 1046 times greater than the most powerful supernova detonation known. While the size of the universe in the classical Big Bang theory [5] was only 10-33 cm or smaller than an electron (10-17 cm) 10-45 seconds after the Big Bang, the fireball in our theory before explosion had already a sizeable radius of 3.34×1013 cm or 300 times larger than the sun. The mathematical computations which follow, using proven formulas for thermal and gravitational forces, arrive at meaningful results and substantiate the described events. To my knowledge it is the only meaningful mathematical computation ever presented to back up a theory of cosmology using the same laws of physics applying to the universe, as well as to its birth. THE INTERACTING FORCES DURING THE EXPLOSION OF THE FIRE BALL
FIREBALL MASS 5.7 × 1056 g TEMPERATURE AV. 1017 K DENSITY 3.6 × 1015 g/cm3 RADIUS 3.34 × 1013 cm

THE CORE MASS .4 × 1056 g TEMPERATURE 1019 K DENSITY 4.1 × 1018 g/cm3 RADIUS 8.4 × 1012 cm

1019 K


FIREBALL 5.11 × 1092 1.18 × 1095

THE CORE 7.9 × 1095 2.95 × 10102

1. Gravitation of matter

and radiation 2. Thermal energy of matter and radiation

Figure 9. The interacting forces in the fireball.

CONDITIONS IN THE FIREBALL Total Gravitational Energy G × M2 T (2) EGRAV = ––––––– ergs RFB where MT is total mass of particles of matter Mm and radiation MRT , RFB = radius = 3.34 × 1013 cm, and G the gravitational constant = 6.673 × 10-8 cm3/g sec2 MT = Mm + MRT g Mass of particles of matter Mm = 1.6 × 1056 g Radiation density aT4 (3) dr = ––– g/cm3 where a = 7.5647 × 10-15 erg/cm3 K4 c2 T = 1017 K, c = 2.997 × 1010 cm/sec aT 4 (4) Mass of radiation MRT = ––– × VPH g c2 where VPH is the volume of all photons 10

Figure 8.

The explosion of the fireball.

Number of photons in 1 cm3 = 20.3 × T 3 Total number of photons NPH = 10 76 NPH (6) Total volume of photons VPH = –––––––– cm 3 20.3 × T 3 -15 76 4 7.5647 × 10 × T 10 MRT = ––––––––––––––––– × –––––––––– g 10 )2 (2.997 × 10 20.3 × T 3 or MRT = 4.1 × 10-37 × T × NPT g = 4.1 × 10-37 × 1017 × 1076 = 4.1 × 10 56 g (5) Total Mass MT = MP + MRT = 5.7 × 10 56 g
2 G × MT Total gravitational energy = ––––––– = 5.11 × 1092 ergs RFB

6.67 × 10-8 × (1058)2 EGRAV = –––––––––––––––– = 7.9 × 1095 ergs 8.4 × 1012 Total gravitational Energy = 7.9 × 1095 ergs Thermal Energy ERT = aT 4 × Vc ergs (T = 1019 ) Vc = Volume of quarks 4 = – π Rq3 × Nq 3 4 = – π(0.5 × 10 -13)3 × .75 × 10 80 = 3.9 × 1040 cm3 3 ERT = 7.56 × 10-15 × 1076 × 3.9 × 1040 = 2.95 × 10102 ergs Thermal Energy was 107 or 10 million times larger than Gravitation 2.95 × 10102 > 107 than 7.9 × 1095 and overpowered gravity Alternative with 10% of mass in the core: MP = .1 × 1.6 × 1056 g = 1.6 × 1055 g MCT = MP + MRT = 1.6 × 1055 + 1058 = 1058 g 4 4 V = – π R 3 N = – π (.5×10-13)3 × .3 × 1080 = 1.6 × 1040
c 3 q q 3


Total Thermal Energy ERT = aT 4 ×Vq ergs

Particles of matter at this high temperature behaved equal to photons and the largest volume in the plasma was occupied by quarks. Volume Vq of 3 ×1080 quarks (largest particles) with a quark radius of 0.5 ×10-13 cm:
4 4 Vq = – π Rq3 × 3 ×1080 = – π(0.5 ×10-13) 3 × 3 ×1080 3 3 41 cm3 = 1.57×10

ERT = 7.56 ×


× 1076 × 1.6 × 1040 = 1.4 × 10102 ergs

ERT = 1.4 × 10102 > EGRAV = 3.6 × 1095 There are no significant differences in the overall results with 10, 15, 20 or 25% of the total mass in the core. THE INITIAL VELOCITY OF THE EXPANDING UNIVERSE AFTER THE EXPLOSION The initial speed of the expanding universe of particles of matter and radiation, after the explosion, can be determined in two ways. The first approach is to apply the formulas used in supernova explosions of large stars 30-50 Mo [10]. The thermal energy of the core is “dumped” into the “envelope” of the fireball and using relativistic equations for kinetic energy the initial speed of the explosion is determined. The second approach is to use the virial theorem which takes into consideration the gravitational forces, acting in opposite direction. 1. SUPERNOVA METHOD The thermal energy 2.95×10102 ergs of the core turned into kinetic energy “Wk” and propelled the particles of matter and radiation to the initial speed “u”. The relationship between a moving mass “m” at relativistic velocities “u”, the rest mass “Mo” and total energy “W” is: Moc2 1 Mo Mo2c6 M= –––– g, W= –– Mc2 = –––– erg, u = c2 - –––– cm/sec √ W2 u2 2 u2 1- –– 1- –– √ c2 √ c2 To comply with the law of energy conservation in relativistic dynamics we subtract the static energy “Moc2” of particles from total energy and obtain the final equations for kinetic energy “Wk” and initial speed “u”. 2 1 (8) KINETIC ENERGY Wk = Mo –––– -1 ergs u — √ 1- c22

ERT = 7.56×10-15 ×10 68 ×1.57 × 1041=1.18 ×1095 ergs The Thermal Energy was one thousand times larger than gravity overall. ERT = 1.18 × 1095 > EGRAV = 5.11 × 1092 ergs CONDITIONS IN THE CORE The thermal energy of radiation and particles of matter was even more overwhelming in the core at temperature of T=1019 K with approximately 25% of the total mass. A calculation with 10% of total mass does not change the principle of the model. GM 2 CT Gravitational Energy EGRAV = ––––– Rc where MCT is total mass of MP (particles) + MRT (radiation) MP = 0.4 × 10 56 g (25%) aT 4 MRT = ——— × VPH g c2 Number of photons in 1 cm 3 = 20.3 × T 3 Total of photons NPH = .25 × 1076 = 2.5 × 1075 NP VPH = ––––––– 20.3 × T 3 aT 4 NPH MRT = ––– × –––––––– = 4.1×10-37 × T × NPH g c2 20.3 × T 3 = 4.1×10-37 ×1019 ×2.5×1075 = 1058 g or MCT = 10 58 g The contribution of radiation to the total mass was 102 larger than those of particles of matter Density of the core d = 4.1 × 1018 g/cm3 Volume of core 1058 MCT particles Vc = ––––––––––– = –––––––– = 2.5 × 1039 cm3 density 4.1 × 1018 Radius Re =
3 3 3 3 ––– V = ––– 2.5 × 1039 = 8.4×1012 cm √ 4π c √ 4π






Mo2c6 –––––––––– cm/sec 2 (Wk + Moc )2


The initial speeds in relation to the kinetic energy plotted on the diagram (Figure 10) for a mass of 2 ×1056 g clearly indicate that there was sufficient thermal energy to propel the newly created universe of particles of matter and radiation to a speed of 0.999 of light.


solving Eq. (16) for u yields • GMo2 c2 √ G2 Mo4 c2 + 16 E 2 R4 (17) u = ——— -1+ ———————— • 4 ER2 G Mo2 c with G = 6.67 × 10-8 cm3 /g sec2 R = 4.3 × 1013 cm Mo = 2 × 1056 g c = 2.9973 × 1010 cm



0.8 0.75 0.6

u ––– = c

mo2c4 1 - ––––––––– (Wk+moc2)2 √

The initial speeds in relation to the Energy Time Rate plotted on the diagram (Figure 11) for the mass 2×1056 g clearly indicate that there was sufficient thermal energy to propel the newly created universe of particles of matter and radiation to a speed of 0.999 of light.



0.8 0.2 0.6


9.2 x 1076


Wk [erg]




Figure 10. Initial speed scaled with the speed of light u/c plotted against the kinetic energy Wk of the expanding universe with mass 2 ×1056 g.


2. THE VIRIAL THEOREM METHOD [2] The virial theorem method can also be used to obtain the initial expansion velocity taking the effect of gravitational energy. Its simplest equation formula is: (10) 2Wk = EGRAV = 3PV where “Wk” is total kinetic energy, “EGRAV is total gravitational (potential) energy, “P” is pressure at boundary and “V” is the volume. With “P” surface pressure equal to 0 the gravitational or potential energy “EGRAV” is: 2 (11) EGRAV = GM —— R equation (10) takes form 2 2 (12) Wk = GM or R =GM (radius) —— —— 2R 2Wk Equation (12) can be differentiated: ∂Wk GM2 ∂R (13) —— = —— —— ∂t 2R2 ∂t where derivative of radius “R” with respect to “t” is the expansion speed resulting from energy imbalance of the system. Denoting velocity as “u” and •the time rate of thermal energy propelling the expansion as “E” (power) we get from equation (9). (14) 2ER u = —— GMo2




.1x10 E [erg/sec]





Figure 11. Initial speed scaled with the speed of light u/c plotted against the Energy Time Rate of the expanding universe of mass 2 ×1056 g.

VELOCITY IMPLICATION ON MASS OF MATTER The close to speed of light velocity after explosion increased the original mass of the universe 22.4 times. Today’s expansion speed is still 200,000 km/s and the mass of the universe 1.34 times the original rest mass. All this is in full compliance with the Einstein theory of special relativity.

5 4

Mass (kg)

3 2


Substituting for relativistic meaning of moving mass we obtain • 2 2ER2 (15) u = —— 1- u — or c2 GMo2

( )



• GMo2 u E = ———— u2 2R2 1- — c2



100 000


200 000

EXPLOSION (.999 c)

300 000

Velocity (km/s)

Figure 12. Relationship between velocity and mass.


SECTION 4 THE YOUNG UNIVERSE AFTER EXPLOSION OF THE FIREBALL IN THE VELAN COSMOLOGICAL MODEL JUST AFTER THE EXPLOSION The temperature of the hot electron-quark-gluon plasma, just after explosion, was in the range of 1017 K and was rapidly cooling down, inversely proportional to the rate of expansion of the universe, or radius R (T ~ 1/R ). In other words, when the universe was a billion times hotter than it is at present (3 K), it was a billion times smaller. Radiation dominated and made the fireball nontransparent, foggy, and opaque. All particles intensively collided with each other and scattered the photons and neutrinos, preventing their escape. The photons moved with the speed of light between collisions with electrons and quarks and scattered. Nevertheless, the radiation redshifted with the expansion of the universe. Due to frequent collisions, all particles had the same temperature and the universe was in full thermal equilibrium. The weak and electromagnetic forces acted as one unified force while gravitation and the strong force were always acting.The free quarks were very close to each other and the temperature was too high for the gluons and the strong nuclear force to contain them within protons and neutrons. CONSERVATION LAWS WERE CONSERVED The major conservation laws were respected during the creation process and in the expanding, hot universe now in full thermal equilibrium. Conservation of Energy The total energy of all particles never changed, though collisions transferred energy from one particle to another. The energy of the primordial cosmic radiation field has been partially transformed into particles of matter. A portion of radiation was trapped and became an important part of the newly created universe. Today, it has cooled down to 3 K and lost its dominating role overtaken by matter when the universe cooled down to 3,000 K. Conservation of Electrical Charge Today, the universe is electrically neutral. There are as many positively charged protons (+1) as negatively charged electrons (-1). In the early universe, after the short annihilation period of electron-positron and quark-antiquark pairs, there was a 2 – balance between electrons (-1) and quarks u (+ – ) and d (- 1 ) to 3 3 maintain the electrical neutrality of the young universe. 1 e- to 2 u and 1 d -1 + (2 × 2) + (- 1 ) = 0 – – 3 3 Conservation of Baryon Number A baryon number of +1 is given to protons and neutrons while leptons and photons have a baryon number of 0. Antiprotons have a baryon number of -1. The significance of the baryon number, which does not create an electrical, magnetic, or similar charge, lies in the requirement to be conserved in interactions of particles. The quarks u and d, which were contained in the early universe, – have a baryon number of + 1 . There were three quarks (baryon 3 13 number +1) in the hot electron-quark soup for each electron (-1), and so, during the transformation of quarks into protons and neutrons later, the baryon number was conserved. Conservation of Lepton Number At the creation process, there were as many electrons (lepton number +1) as positrons (lepton number –1) and neutrinos (lepton number +1) as antineutrinos (lepton number –1), with the result of a 0 lepton number during the birth of the universe. Quarks and hadrons have a 0 lepton number. EVENTS IN THE FAST-EXPANDING AND COOLING UNIVERSE In order to determine the type of interactions and events that took place in the fast-expanding and cooling universe, we must establish the relationship between temperature, density, and energy of the particles. The predominant role in the hot, early universe was played by the energy of radiation, which changes with the fourth power of temperature (T 4 ) and was considerably greater than the energy contained in the particles of matter, up to 3,000 K when matter took over. The energy of particles of matter relates to the Einstein formula E = mc 2 and is expressed in the so-called rest mass: 0.938 GeV for protons, approximately 0.312 GeV for quarks u and d, and 0.511×10-3 GeV for electrons. Density and Temperature The behavior of particles and forces in the hot plasma depended entirely on the prevailing density and temperature, and the temperature depended on the size of the universe (T ~ 1/R), directly related to the time elapsed from the explosion, time t = 0. We have established that the energy of radiation Er is Er = aT 4 erg/cm3 where a = 7.564 ×10-15 erg/cm3 K4. Therefore, density in accordance with the Einstein equation E = mc 2 is Er aT 4 (18) dr = –––– = –––– = 0.84×10-35T 4 g/cm3 c2 c2 Equation 18 establishes the relationship between density and temperature of radiation. Time and Density We must now establish the relationship between the time elapsed from the explosion and density, which will give us the basis to interrelate time, temperature, density and energy of particles. We will be using already known formulas from the Hubble expansion laws and the standard Newton formulas of gravitation.

M 1 (PE) R M

As the time after explosion t is reciprocal to the Hubble constant H, we can write (22)
1/2 1 3 t ≅ ––– = ––––– H 8πdG

( )

We know that the density varies with the radius R or rate of expansion and is inversely proportional to R 3 or ~ 1/R 3 for matter and inversely proportional to R 4 or ~ 1/R 4 for radiation. We can say that density varies inversely with R n 1 d ≅ ––– R where n = 3 for matter and n = 4 for radiation.

( )

Taking Eq. (22) we finally arrive at the relationship between expansion and density: (23)
Figure 13. A sphere with mass M, radius R, and mass M1 at the perisphere 1/2 2 3 t = –– ––––– n 8πGd

( )

For the radiation-dominated period of the expanding universe up to a temperature of 3,000 K, the final equation is TIME (24) 3 1 t r = – ––––– 2 8πGd

We take a sphere (Figure 13) with radius R containing the mass M. The mass can be determined from its volume and density d 1: 3 4πR M = ––––– d 1 3 According to Newton’s theory, the potential energy PE of the mass M1 on the rim of the sphere is: M1MG M14πR 2d1G PE = ––––––– = - ––––––––––– R 3 where G is the gravitational constant. The velocity v of M1 according to Hubble’s law is v = HR The kinetic energy KE of the motion of M1 is KE = – M1v 2 = – M1H 2R 2 2 2 The total energy ET of M1 is (19)
1 ET = -PE +KE = M1R2 – H 2 - 4 πdcG – 3 2 1 1

( )


10 = 0.067 ––– d

( ) ( )




For the matter-dominated period of T < 3,000 K TIME (25)

3 2 t m = – ––––– 3 8πGd

( )


10 = 0.089 ––– d



Energy of Photons and Particles of Matter In order to determine the energy Eph of a photon in electron volts at a given temperature T, we proceed as follows Eph = aT 4 = 7.56 × 10-15 × T 4 erg/cm3 As 1 eV = 1.6 × 10-12 erg, (26) 7.56 × 10 Eph = ––––––––– × T 4 = 4.722 × 10 -3 × T 4 eV 1.6 × 10-12 N = 20.3 × T 3 photons/cm3 The energy of one photon is Eph 4.722 × 10 -3 × T 4 (27) = ––– = –––––––––––––– = 0.232 × 10 -3 × T eV N 20.3 × T 3 The rest mass of energy E of particles Proton 0.939 GeV u or d quark 0.313 GeV Electron 0.511 × 10 -3 GeV We have now established all of the required formulas to calculate time, density, and energy of radiation and particles at a given temperature and can proceed to describe the major events that occurred in the early expanding universe after explosion.



The number of photons N is

If M1 eventually ceases to expand in a closed universe with slightly more than critical mass, ET must become 0. Equation (19) therefore becomes (20) – H 2 = – πdc G 2 3 3H 2 dc = –––– = 4.5 ×10-30 g/cm3 8πG with H = 15 km/sec per 106 light-years. From Eq. (20) we can establish that (21) 8πdG 1/2 H = ––––– 3 14
1 4

and we can calculate the critical density dc

( )


Figure 14. The young universe after explosion of the fireball in the Velan cosmological model.

1. s T =1015 K Elapsed Time [ Eq.23] 10 ––– = 7.3 × 10-10 sec d Energy of 1 photon E1ph = 0.232 × 10-3 × T = 0.232 × 1012 = 23.2 GeV t = 0.067 Energy of quark Eq = 0.313 GeV E1ph > Eq The electromagnetic and weak force decoupled. Gravitation and the strong force were always active. Plasma of quarks, electrons, neutrinos and photons. 2. s T =1013 K Density d = 0.84 × 10-35 × 1052 = 0.84 × 1017 g/cm3 Elapsed Time [ Eq.23] 10 ––– =7.3 × 10-6 sec d Energy of 1 photon E1ph = 0.232 × 10-3 × T = 0.232 × 1010 = 2.32 GeV t = 0.067 Energy of quark Eq = 0.313 GeV E1ph > Eq All 4 forces active. Quarks too close to each other to be bound. The universe is still in perfect thermal equilibrium filled with radiation and particles of matter in the form of electrons, a quark-gluon plasma, photons and neutrinos. 15

From the vast spaces of the cosmos, our universe at this stage would look like a non-transparent ball of fog. Photons are scattered by electrons (Figure 14). 3. s T =1012 K Quarks combine to create protons and neutrons Density d = 0.84 × 10-35 × 1048 = 0.84 × 1013 g/cm3 Elapsed Time [ Eq.23] 10 ––– = 7.3 × 10-4 sec d Energy of 1 photon E1ph = 0.232 × 10-3 × T = 0.232 × 109 = 0.232 GeV t = 0.067 Energy of proton Epr = 0.939 GeV E1ph < Epr E1ph > Ee

( )

8 1/2

( )

8 1/2

Energy of electron Ee = 0.00051 GeV

( )

8 1/2

The free quarks u and d in the fireball did not enjoy their asymtotic freedom for very long. They were free when their separation distances were less than 2 ×10-14 cm. Quarks as color singlets with specific charges and gluons responsible for forces acting between them could act as free particles. Now at temperatures of 1012 K, due to the rapid expansion, quarks came within 10-13 cm and even if they passed each other at close to the speed of light they could not escape confinement. Interactions took place as fast as 10-23 sec and the entire quark-gluon plasma turned into protons and neutrons.

Three quarks in three different color singlets became confined into "white" colorless protons and neutrons. The strong nuclear force of confinement, effected by gluons, is very powerful. The force is approximately 15 tons strong in comparison to 10-11 ton for the electric force attracting an electron to a proton in a hydrogen atom. Imagine 15 tons acting on a small pointlike particle such as a quark with a – radius of 1 ×10-13 cm. The universe was transformed suddenly 3 from a quark-gluon-electron-photon-neutrino plasma to a universe of protons, neutrons, electrons, photons, and neutrinos. It is assumed that at this time, much less than 1 sec after the explosion of the fireball, neutrons and protons appeared in equal numbers. However, there was a continuous transmutation of both nuclear particles into each other in weak nuclear force reactions: – p + e-↔ n + ν or n → p + e- + ν
e e

The universe still appeared as one unified cloud of matter and radiation, nontransparent and opaque, though the energy of photons dropped below the energy of protons but surpassed the rest mass of electrons (0.00051 GeV). Its dense fog appearance was caused by scattering of photons by free electrons. When a free electron was hit by an impinging photon, it was accelerated by the pulse of electromagnetic energy of the photon and gained momentum, as shown in Figure 17.

(photon) (electron)

As free neutrons have a half-life of only 10.5 min., more and more neutrons decayed into protons. There were basically two different transmutations of neutrons: (1) the classical, so-called beta radioactive decay where two neighboring neutrons produce a proton, electron, and antineutrino as shown in Figure 15, and

Figure 17. Scattering of photons by electrons.

n n
Figure 15. Decay of neutrons in beta radiation process.

The photon lost some energy and momentum, resulting in a change of direction in propagation of electromagnetic energy or scattering of radiation. This process kept the entire universe in thermal equilibrium. Radiation, which has more energy than the electrons, dominates and could not escape. 4. s T =1011 K Neutrinos uncoupled. Density d = 0.84 × 10-35 × 1044 = 0.84 × 109 g/cm3 Elapsed Time 10 ––– = 7.3 × 10-2 sec d Energy of 1 photon E1ph = 0.232 × 10-3 × T = 0.232 × 108 eV = 0.0232 GeV t = 0.067 Energy of electron Ee = 0.00051 GeV E1ph > Ee

(2) the neutrinoless transformation where the neutrino from the first neutron is absorbed by the second neutron, as shown in Figure 16.

( )

8 1/2

n n
Figure 16. Neutrinoless decay of neutrons.

p p

At 1011 K, 7.3×10-2 sec after explosion when the radiation density dropped to 0.84×109 g/cm3, neutrinos, which were in full thermal equilibrium with matter and radiation until this time, uncoupled and moved out at the speed of light. There were and still are 109 neutrinos for every nuclear particle in the universe. They have lost considerable energy during the expansion of the universe and may now have an energy of only 0.001 eV or an equivalent temperature of less than 1.5 K. It is for this reason that they are very difficult to detect. Though the neutrinos ceased to play an active role in particle interactions, their energy continue to contribute to the overall gravitational field of the universe.

5. s T =109 K Nucleosynthesis creation of helium nuclei. Density d = 0.84 × 10-35 × 1036 = 8.4 g/cm3 Elapsed Time 10 ––– = 231 sec d Energy of 1 photon E1ph = 0.232 × 10-3 × T = 0.232 × 10 6 eV = 0.00023 GeV t = 0.067 Energy of electron Ee = 0.00051 GeV For the first time the energy of a photon dropped below the energy of an electron. E1ph < Ee At 109 K, dramatic events took place in the evolution of the universe. This period is called nucleosynthesis and starts to take shape at 231 sec after explosion when free protons and neutrons become bound into atomic nuclei of helium. At the end of this period, lasting approximately 30 min., almost all neutrons ended up in helium nuclei and the final makeup of the massive clouds of matter and radiating energy consisted of 75% protons or nuclei of hydrogen atoms and 24% nuclei of helium atoms, containing two protons and two neutrons, a total of about 87% of protons and 13% of neutrons. The process of nucleosynthesis, which resembles the thermonuclear reactions taking place in the cores of stars, complies with two basic rules of nature that apply to the formation of atomic nuclei. An atomic nucleus can capture neutrons only one at a time and there cannot be a stable atom with atomic mass 5 or 8. In other words, under normal circumstances, a helium nucleus, which is one of the most stable cannot capture another proton, neutron, or helium nucleus and form another stable element. By the time the atomic helium nucleus was created, the density and temperature of the plasma were not sufficiently high for an alternative process where two helium nuclei capture another

( )

8 1/2

helium nucleus and combine into carbon (24He + 4He → C) and later into oxygen (C + 4He → O). Let us review in more detail the thermonuclear reactions that took place during the nucleosynthesis. At temperatures of 109 K, the collisions between particles, this time between protons, neutrons, and electrons as well as scattering with photons, continued though the energy of photons dropped below the level of electrons for the first time. When protons and neutrons came within a distance of 10-13 cm, they were subjected to the enormously strong nuclear force. The same force responsible for holding quarks firmly in protons and neutrons by the massless gluons, extended its sphere of influence to hold a proton and neutron in a nucleus of heavy hydrogen called deuterium. The nucleus of deuterium does not have a very strong bond between the proton and neutron. The temperature of the plasma had to be exactly right to avoid blasting apart the deuterium nucleus. At a temperature slightly lower than 109 K, the bond between the proton and neutron in deuterium nuclei became strong and the creation of heavier nuclei became possible. The nuclei of deuterium readily capture neutrons. It is for this reason that heavy water or DHO (water enriched in deuterium) is used in nuclear reactors to absorb neutrons. The deuterium nucleus colliding with other particles can capture a proton and create a nucleus of the light isotope of helium-3 (3He), which consists of two protons and one neutron, or it can capture a neutron and create a nucleus of the heaviest isotope of hydrogen called tritium (3H), which consists of one proton and two neutrons. Finally, 3He collides with a neutron and creates the stable helium-4 (4He), or a nucleus of 3H collides with a proton and also creates 4He. Alternatively, a nucleus of 3He collides with another nucleus of 3H, creating 4He and two protons. As well, a nucleus of tritium can collide with another nucleus of tritium and create 4He and two neutrons.The nucleosynthesis process is shown schematically in Figure 18. Since helium core requires equal numbers of protons and neutrons, the formation of helium stopped when all neutrons were used up. The universe consisted of approximately 24% helium nuclei, 75% free protons, with traces of deuterium nuclei, electrons, photons and neutrinos.

Proton hits Neutron and creates Deuteron and Photon (γ) Proton hits Deuteron and creates Helium-3 and Photon (γ) Helium-3 (3He) Helium-3 captures a Neutron and creates Helium-4 (4He) and Photon (γ)


ALTERNATIVE REACTIONS Helium-3 collides with Helium-3 creating Helium-4 (4He) and 2 Protons


Neutron hits Deuteron and creates Tritium (3H) and Photon (γ)

Tritium (3H)

Tritium captures a proton and creates Helium-4 (4He) and Photon (γ) Helium-4 (4He)

Tritium collides with Tritium creating Helium-4 (4He) and 2 Neutrons

Helium-4 (4He)

Figure 18. The reactions of nucleosynthesis


There was obviously one electron present for each free or bound proton. The temperature was still much too high for nuclei to capture electrons and form atoms. Fast-moving photons would knock out the electrons. Nuclei of heavier elements were not created during the nucleosynthesis as the universe was steadily expanding and cooling down. It remained a hot soup of matter and radiation, still in thermal equilibrium. The universe continued to expand and nothing eventful took place for nearly 815,000 years, when the temperature dropped to 3,000K. 6. s T = 3 × 103 K Decoupling of radiation, creation of hydrogen and helium gas Density d = 0.84 × 10-35 × 81 × 1012 = 6.8 × 10-22 g/cm3 Elapsed Time t = 0.067

The universe became transparent and matter became dominant. Local mass concentrations became more pronounced and the universe suddenly became a red supergiant with a brilliant red light in every part of the sky. Every point of the universe at this time glowed with the brilliance of the sun. The decoupling of radiation radically changed the behavior of matter. The small density fluctuations in the early stages now become gravitationally very important. The enormous masses of gravitating hydrogen and helium gas started to break up into individual giant gas clouds, slowly drifting apart as the universe continued its fast expansion. A contributing factor to the breakup of the single mass into individual gas clouds was the sudden drop in pressure when radiation decoupled and moved away with the speed of light. 7. s T=3K Elapsed Time t = ~ 1 billion years At this stage, individual gas clouds which formed earlier, began to collapse gravitationally into protogalaxies and later into galaxies and stars. The radiation temperature continued to drop as the universe expanded and it is presently at 2.73 K. The universe expanded at this time 1000-fold for the radiation temperature to fall from 3,000 K to 2.73 K. Obviously, the wavelength of the radiation also expanded by a factor of 1,000. Matter, after decoupling of radiation, cooled much faster than radiation, as the random motion of the atoms of hydrogen and helium could no longer keep up with the expansion of the universe and the larger and larger distances between the individual atoms. In accordance with the theory of relativity, the photons moving at the speed of light lost the acquired energy slower than did particles of matter, now atoms of hydrogen and helium gas, which moved at a lower speed. Matter was rapidly losing its heat energy and had achieved the 3 K temperature, approximately 1 billion years after expansion and should, presently, theoretically have a temperature of less than 1 K. It is, however, possible that due to outside sources of heat and energy during the formation of galaxies and stars, matter heated up slightly. Using contemporary theoretical physics, interpreting observational astronomical data, and contributing with my own vision expressed in this theory of creation, we were able to go back in time and witness the actual birth of our universe in a cosmos containing other similar or perhaps different types of universes and returned to the time when simplicity and symmetry still prevailed in the universe with no structures, only hydrogen and helium gas, photons, and neutrinos.

( )

10 ––– = 0.0257 × 1015 sec d 1 year = 3.155 × 107 sec

8 1/2

0.0257×1015 t = ––––––––––– = 815,000 years 3.155 × 107 Energy of 1 photon E1ph = 0.232 × 10-3 × T = 0.232 × 10-3 × 3 × 103 = 0.69 eV Energy of 1 electron Ee = 0.51 × 106 eV Ee > E1ph At this stage, a significant event took place in the evolution of the universe. The temperature dropped to a level that made the particle-photon scattering process lose its effect and finally electrons and nuclei could form stable atoms. Protons captured electrons and bound them through the electrodynamic force, in compliance with quantum electrodynamics, into atoms of hydrogen and nuclei of helium-captured electrons, and created stable atoms of helium. Suddenly the entire universe was transformed into a ball of hydrogen (75%) and helium gas (24%) with traces of deuterium. Radiation, which became, much, much less energetic than matter, thinning out with the fourth power of expansion and not being scattered by free electrons, suddenly decoupled from matter and escaped with the speed of light (Figure 19).
Figure 19. Atoms of hydrogen and helium and radiation.


FORMATION OF PROTOGALAXIES, GALAXIES AND PROTOSTARS - BASIC PRINCIPLE ONLY A completely smooth and uniform Universe, when it started to expand, would remain so even after 18 billion years, cold and dull with no galaxies and stars, no chemical elements, no people. Formation of structures as we observe them require ripples or local variations in density created in the early Universe to allow big enough gas clouds with slightly above average density, expanding more slowly than average to condense out because of the extra gravity. Cosmologists, defendants of the standard Big Bang theory, consider the primordial fluctuations of 10-5 discovered by Cobe and corresponding to density fluctuations of matter, sufficient for formation of galaxies. Others think that the Big Bang theory failed completely to explain the formation of large structures and “without the magic of inflation, any physical origin for fluctuations fails dramatically.” [7]

STEP 4: During the decoupling of radiation at 3,000 K with a density of 3 billion photons per cm3, the pressure dropped considerably, moving the particles around once more and allowing gravity to complete the job. This obviously could not be “recorded” on the spectrum of the cosmic background radiation which decoupled.

Figure 20. The explosion of the primordial fire ball.

FROM PRIMORDIAL RIPPLES TO COSMIC STRUCTURE IN 4 STEPS In the Velan cosmological model, the creation of cosmic structures such as galaxies and clusters can be easily explained. STEP 1: The explosion of the primordial fireball took place from the center, similar to supernova explosions of large stars. Just before the explosion, the core after the “maximum squeeze” bounced back like a hard rubber ball, setting off gigantic shock waves which created the original density irregularities in the electron-quark plasma. STEP 2: The plasma expanded with near speed of light, increasing the mass of particles by more than 22 times, soon dropping to 2 and now to 1.34 times. Variation in speed caused variation in mass, adding to the density irregularities. STEP 3: When the electromagnetic force decoupled at 1015 K, electrically charged electrons and quarks were moved around, further increasing the density irregularities. 19

Figure 21. The “Hot Matter Top Down” scenario of layer structure formation.

The Velan model favors the “HOT MATTER TOP DOWN” scenario for the formation of large structures. The formation process calls first for a large cloud typically of 300×1018 light-years across to condense out, then collapsing to form a high density pancake with protogalaxies forming 500 million to 1 billion years after the explosion of the fireball and finally evolving, after 2-3 billion years, into galaxies when rotation balanced off gravity. The pancake then fragmented and a cluster of galaxies was created. Later, clusters merge into superclusters with up to 1,000 galaxies and 300×1018 light-years across.

OBSERVATIONAL SUPPORT FOR THE VARIOUS HYPOTHESIS OF THE NEW VELAN COSMOLOGICAL THEORY 1. The expansion from an extremely hot and dense beginning. a) A.R. Penzias and R.W. Wilson’s discovery of the cosmic background radiation, which decoupled at a temperature of 3,000 K, about 815,000 years after the explosion of the fireball. b) The relative abundance of light elements (Hydrogen 75% and Helium 24%) formed by primordial nucleosynthesis. c) There were 1,000 times more quasars and radio galaxies, 2 to 3 billion years after the explosion of the fireball, than there are now. d) Edwin Hubble’s discovery in 1930, that the universe is expanding. 2. Galaxies receding through static space-time. One hypothesis of this new cosmological model is that galaxies recede through space, rather than being swept along by expanding space-time as suggested in the big bang theory. In fact, there is substantial proof that galaxies do move through space. a) Hubert Reeves writes, in Dernières Nouvelles du Cosmos (1994), “…Do galaxies themselves have a movement or are they simply carried along by the expansion of space? A priori, both statements are possible…” b) The Andromeda galaxy located 2.2 million light-years away, and our own Milky Way, are approaching each other at about 100 km/s on a collision course. c) All the galaxies in our local cluster are moving at a speed of 500 km/s, toward the Virgo Cluster as well together including the Hydra-Centaurus supercluster are moving at a speed of over 600 km/s toward an enormous concentration of galaxies called the Great Attractor or Great Wall. d) Recently astronomers Lauer and Postman observed a billion light-year wide flow of galaxies moving against the outward expansion of the universe.

isotropically distributed across the sky, they could be assumed to be of cosmological origin. At the time, NASA team leader, Dr. Gerald Fishman, declared that: “…this is a fundamentally new aspect of the universe, because the discovery cannot be explained by any existing theory.” In addition, the “Fly’s Eye” observatory in Utah detected cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere with an energy of 3×1011 GeV! Several similar events have been detected by other cosmic ray observatories around the world. Some astronomers suggest that this powerful cosmic radiation bursts originate from colliding neutron stars. These collisions would have to occur, however, consistently in many randomly located galaxies, to account for their even distribution. Perhaps a more reliable explanation might be that the observed gamma ray bursts and cosmic ray events represent penetrations of the primordial cosmic radiation into our universe. As the primordial radiation interacts with distant clumps of matter, it releases great bursts of energy and the powerful cosmic rays of 3×1011 GeV could as well be the result of interaction with the primordial radiation, resulting in the enormous level of energy. Unless another reliable explanation will be forthcoming for the detected high energy gamma ray bursts and cosmic rays, it is conceivable that we are observing penetrations of the primordial, cosmic radiation into our universe.

Figure 23. Virtual particles in vacuum become real particles when the electrical field of a capacitor provides their rest mass.

Figure 24. A high energy electron attracting virtual positrons from the vacuum of space-time.

Figure 22. Clusters of galaxies move towards the Great Wall.

3. The Primordial Cosmic Radiation Field (the major hypothesis in the Velan Theory) NASA’s Compton Gamma Ray Observatory detected powerful gamma ray bursts in 1992. Since these bursts of radiation were 20

4. Do virtual particles & quarks exist? The existence of virtual particles appearing out of the vacuum of space-time has been proven in laboratory experiments using electrically loaded capacitors. a) Virtual electrons and positrons are separated by an electric field of loaded capacitors in vacuum, which also provides the virtual particles with mass. They then appear as particles of real matter attracted to the two plates of opposite charge. (Figure 23.) b) Laboratory experiments also indicate that when two high energy electrons come closer than 10-11 cm, their force of repulsion is weaker than that calculated by Coulomb’s law. The explanation is that a high energy electron attracts virtual positrons, shown schematically in Figure 24. This causes the vacuum around the electron to become polarized which results in a partially shielded charge. Such an electron is called "dressed" or physical, in contrast to a "naked" electron, which has an ideal charge that complies with Coulomb’s law.


In 1988, at CERN (Centre européen pour la recherche nucléaire) a quark-gluon plasma was created by colliding relativistic sulfur ions against stationary ions of gold (Figure 25, 26). The resulting "fireball" of quarks and gluons was extremely dense and short-lived - lasting only 6.5×10-23 second. Similar experiments have been repeated in recent years (1993–1999 at CERN) confirming that at extreme energy densities, quarks can exist freely without

confinement in protons, neutrons and mesons. Colliding nuclei of lead (208 protons and neutrons) at near speed of light with a thin stationary foil of lead has shown (Figure 27) that more than 1,600 particles sprayed out from a single collision, carrying evidence of a quarkgluon plasma. The tremendous energy and pressure of the plasma caused it to explode outward. When temperature and density dropped, the quarks rapidly paired off again into protons and neutrons. 5. The “Missing Mass” or “Dark Matter”? After years of observation at optical, radio, microwave, infrared, ultraviolet, x-ray and gamma ray wavelengths, it has been determined that only 15% of the universe is detectable. Since 95% of the mass is non-luminous, various exotic heavy particles have been postulated to account for part of it. These include axions, and super-symmetry particles – the “mirror” counterparts of standard particles, like quarks and electrons, but with much greater masses. So far none of these have been detected and the theory is highly speculative.

Figure 25 Soup of quarks (dark grey) is set free from protons and neutrons (light grey) when they collided.

In recent years, however, large concentrations of previously unobserved ordinary matter have been found, thereby reducing the need for “dark matter”. These discoveries include supergiant galaxies that contain 100 trillion stars and measure 40 times the diameter of the Milky Way; as well as a new class of previously unseen, low surface brightness galaxies which exist by the millions. Until recently, the largest known galaxy was Markarion 348, 1.3 million light-years wide, or 13 times larger than our own Milky Way and 100,000 light-years across. A newly discovered galaxy in the cluster Abell 2029 is about 6 million light-years in diameter and contains more than 100 trillion stars. In addition, giant agglomerations of supergalaxies, at least 500 million light-years long and 15 million light-years wide, called great walls or great attractors, have been observed and are most probably evenly spread through the entire universe. Thirteen more great walls and the first cluster of great walls have also been seen stretching out in a line of over 7 billion light-years long. To these gigantic clusters of clusters of galaxies we must add the enormous mass contained in powerful quasars formed earlier in the universe, small dark stars, brown dwarfs, billions of white dwarfs, remnant cores of stars of less than 8 solar masses which lived fast and died young, billions of large black holes, remnant cores of large short-lived stars 6–50 solar masses, and 1089 neutrinos with a small mass which fill the universe. According to recent discoveries, the electron-neutrino has a possible rest mass of 1 eV. If this could be confirmed, the total mass contribution from 1089 neutrinos would be: Mνe = 1 eV ×1089 = 1089 eV since 1 eV = 1.72 ×10-33 g, Mνe = 1.72 ×10-33 × 1089 = 1.72 ×1056 g Even at 0.5 eV the mass of neutrinos would contribute considerably to the missing mass. We must also add the increased mass of matter moving at relativistic velocities in the Velan theory 22.4 increase at explosion time at a velocity of 0.999c and today 1.34 at speed of 200,000 km/s. 21

Figure 26 Quark-gluon plasma at Cern, Geneva. 1988

Figure 27 Quark-gluon plasma at Cern, Geneva. 1993-1999







R = 3.34 x 1013 cm

EX PA ex NS pa I ns ON i

sp e



10 1



ra Av e

cm /s

1.25 x 10 28 cm

Present Explosion of the fireball 18
Time cycle


71.5 Billions of years

Figure 28. The fate of the universe.

In the new theory, the initial expansion speed of .999 c is decreasing continuously and the universe will eventually come to a halt, reverse its movement under its own gravity and collapse into a fireball. Soon after, an explosion will set up the universe on a new cycle of expansion and its glorious evolution. For a closed universe the OMEGA (Ω) constant of density must be larger than 1 (>1). d0 today’s density Ω0 = –––– = –––––––––––––– > 1 dcrit critical density With a Hubble constant of 58 km sec-1 Mpc-1 and an 18 billion year universe, the complete cycle would amount to 71.5 billion years. The maximum expansion radius of the universe Rmax and the elapsed time since the explosion of the fireball tmax can be calculated from two familiar equations describing the expansion of a gaseous sphere. (28) 1 ∂R –– ––– R2 ∂t


1 ∂R –– ––– R2 ∂t

–– ( ) - 8πGd 3


where k for a closed universe is 1 and d is density. The R represents a radius of a spherical universe at any moment t. By using the definition of the velocity in the form: (30) u = ∂R –– ∂t The equation (29) can be rewritten in the form: u2 (31) –– = GM + constant –– 2 R When the universe will come to a standstill: ∂R = 0 (32) –– ∂t Taking a time derivative of Eq. (29) and substituting it into Eq. (28) yields the following relation: (33) A ( ) = –– - kc R ∂R –– ∂t
2 2

( )


2 + –– R

( )

2R ∂–– ∂t2


+ –– = 0 R2

k c2

P N ex ew LOS pa un I nd iv ON s er se
kc2 + R2 = 0 ––

0 10

3 x 10 28 cm

2 .5



Where A is the integration constant to be determined from initial values. For our case of k = 1 the positive expansion vanishes and is replaced by contraction at Rm, when Eq. (33) takes zero value. In that case it can be rewritten as: A (34) Rm = –– c2 To evaluate Eq. (34) we need to find the constant A. By applying the present epoch values to Eq. (33) we find that: (35) A = 2 q0 H02 R03

Average deceleration over 56 billion years: 299,999 ––––––– = 5305 km/sec/1 billion years 56 Speed of recession after 18 billion years ∼ 200,000 km/sec Average speed over 18 billion years 2.5 × 1010 cm/sec Present Radius v 2.5 × 1010 × 1024 R0 = ––– = –––––––––––––– = 1.25 × 1028 cm H0 20 × 105 28 cm R0 = 1.25 × 10 Today’s Density d0 4πR03 M = ––––– d0 g 3 where M is the mass of the universe Only particles of matter contribute now to the mass energy of matter as the radiation mass energy at prevailing temperature is relatively low. It nevertheless played a major role when the universe was very hot (above 109 K).

Eq. (26) and (27) gives 2 (36) Rmax = –– q0 H02 R03 c2 By substituting Eq. (36) into Eq. (28) we finally obtain the equation for maximum radius Rmax : (37) Rmax
0 = –––– ––––––––– 3

2q c H0

√ (2 q


- 1)

In order to obtain Eq. (37), q0 was introduced and is called “decelarion parameter” defined as: (38) q0 1 ∂ R0 = - –––––– –––– 2 2 R0 H ∂t

= 1.25 × 1028 cm M = 1.6 × 1056 g
R0 d0 d0 Ω0 3 = ––––– =1.6 × 10 × 3 ––––––––––– 4πR 3 4π 1.9 ×1084

The deceleration parameter relates the deceleration of the universe to it’s radius the same way as Hubble’s constant H relates the velocity of the universe and can be determined from observations and expressed by formula: (39) q0
0 = –––––– 2

= 1.96 × 10-29 g/cm3
d0 1.96 × 10 = –––– = –––––––––– = 2.45 > 1 d 8 × 10-30

for Ω0 >1 the universe is closed.

4πGd 3H

Equation (39) was obtained by subtracting Eq. (28) from Eq. (29) and substituting in Eq. (38). Also, the time tmax elapsed before the maximum radius is reached can be derived as shown in [3] from governing equation Eq. (29) in the following form: q0 -3/2 (40) tmax = π ––––  q0 1-2 H With H = 20 × 10-19 sec-1, c = 3 × 1010 m/sec k = 1 (for closed universe) and q0 = 1 we get Eq. (37) evaluated as: 2 × 1 × 3 × 1010 Rmax = –––––––––––– 20 × 10 -19

13 ––––––––– = 3.37 × 1026 m (2 × 1-1)3
Figure 2. A closed universe in the Velan cosmological theory.

Rmax = 3.37 × 1028 cm ––––––––––––––––––– and Equation (40) 1 tmax = 3.14 –––––––––  1-2 × 1 -3/2 = 1.76 × 1018 sec  20 × 10-19 1 year = 3.155 × tmax = 1018 107 seconds 1.76 × –––––––––– = 0.56 × 1011 years 3.155 × 107

Years from explosion: 18 billion Years to Standstill: 32 billion Average speed up to now: 23

Today’s radius: Maximum radius:

1.25 × 1028 cm 3 × 1028 cm

tmax = 56 × 109 or 56 billion years ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––

Average speed to 250,000 km/sec standstill:

125,000 km/sec

WHAT ARE THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE NEW THEORY TOWARDS THE EVERLASTING QUEST OF HUMANITY TO DISCOVER THE SECRETS OF NATURE AND ITS ORIGINS? The theory introduced the following 5 new ideas/hypotheses: 1. Our Universe was created in a new environment, the cosmic 4-dimensional spacetime of the Multi-Universe Cosmos, contrary to Nothingness, the environment in all other present and past cosmological theories. 2. The primordial cosmic radiation field or the missing link to any viable theory of creation, not violating the law of conservation of energy. 3. The massive interaction of virtual particles contained in the cosmic space-time with the primordial cosmic radiation field as a basis for creation of universes. 4. The hot particle creation process during the gravitational implosion of a baby universe before explosion 5. Galaxies recede through space-time rather than being swept along by the expanding space-time in all other cosmological theories. WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF THE MULTI-UNIVERSE COSMOS THEORY OVER OTHER CURRENTLY PROPOSED MODELS? 1. 2. It eliminates the need for the mysterious primordial singularity, the origin of which was never explained. The new model probes further into the past than anyone has previously ventured explaining the origins of matter and radiation.

3. Its hypotheses are well within the framework of established physics. 4. It does not violate the conservation laws of mass and energy; 5. It accounts for the observed structure of the universe. 6. It provides clear and cogent mathematical explanations to substantiate scientific arguments. 7. The theory breaks through the theoretical constraints of the Big Bang Singularity Model filling the gap in the understanding of the universe. 8. The new multi-universe theory postulates that the cosmic fireball was initially quite sizeable, with a radius of 2.17×1013 cm, or 300 times larger than the sun while in the big bang theory the initial size was only 10-33 cm (smaller than an electron) 10-45 sec. after the explosion. While both theories account for the observed expansion of the universe, the multi-universe theory does so by means of fairly well-understood physical principles.

WHAT IS THE FUTURE OF THE THEORY? 1. The multi-universe theory makes a number of measurable predictions which can be put to the test as more sophisticated technology becomes available. Perhaps the gravitational wave “observatories” of the future might even be able to “see” the relic vibrations of space-time caused by the explosion of the fireball. 2. We need the reconciliation within a single framework of the following theories: Quantum Mechanics (duality of wave particle), Special Relativity (space-time geometry, motion), Newtonian Mechanics (universal gravitation, acceleration), Quantum Field Theory (Virtual Particles) and General Relativity (dynamic space time, equivalence principle). 3. While the parameters of the multi-universe model (such as mass, time, energy and velocity) may change as more precise observational data emerge, the basic principles of the theory should remain unaffected.



What happened before the Big Bang Origin of the Universe Origin of the Singularity Environment around the Universe Contents of the singularity The creation process of matter and radiation


Other Universes created in cosmic space-time A fireball of matter and radiation created in cosmic space-time Singularity eliminated The 4-dimensional cosmic space-time Not applicable From virtual particles & cosmic primordial radiation in the cosmic space-time Full compliance Not applicable ? “The Creator” ? Thermal forces overcame gravitation The galaxies expand in space-time 0.999 of speed of light No. Expansion speed<c Spherical shell Yes. Cosmic space-time No. 18 billion years old No Fully defined Yes Yes Yes Not applicable

Singularity ? Nothingness

? ? Nothingness

Not fully defined ?

Mainly radiation energy Radiation from nothing, matter later from radiation Yes ? Not applicable

Violation of conservation laws Who created nothingness? Who created the 4-dimensional cosmic space-time? Explanation for the Big Bang explosion of the Singularity What expands? Expansion speed at the Big Bang Violation of Einstein theory? Geometry of the Universe Does the Universe have an edge? Age problem Missing visual mass Explanation for formation of galaxies Existence of other Universes? Is the theory fully defined? Do same standard laws of physics apply to the beginning and now? The Horizon Problem

Yes ? Not applicable No explanation. What force could overcome infinite gravity Space-time carrying galaxies

? Space-time carrying galaxies

Up to 1026 times speed of light Up to 101012 times speed of light No. Space can expand>c Not defined yet No. Yes. Stars and elements older than the Universe Yes Difficulty to define No No No Yes No. Space can expand>c Flat No. Yes. Stars and elements older than the Universe Yes Defined Yes No No No


[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [8] Ferreira, P.G.: Hawking, S.W. and R. Penrose: Guth, A.H.: Einstein, A: Rees, M.: Weinberg, S.: Silk, J.: Velan, A.K.: Velan, A.K.: McMahon, A.J.: The Quintessence of Cosmology, Cern Courier, June 1999 The Nature of Space and Time, Princeton Press, New Jersey 1995 The Inflationary Universe, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts 1997 The Meaning of Relativity, Methuen, London 1951 Before the Beginning, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass. 1997 The First Three Minutes, Basic Books Inc., New York 1988 The Big Bang, W.H. Frieman, New York 1997 The Multi-Universe Cosmos, Plenum, New York 1992 The Multi-Universe Cosmos, Velan Inc., Montreal 2001 Astrophysics and Space Science, Prentice Hall, New York 1965


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