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Arithmetic Operations Properties of Inequalities

b ab If a < b then a + c < b + c and a - c < b - c

ab + ac = a ( b + c ) a =

c c a b

If a < b and c > 0 then ac < bc and <

a c c

a a ac a b

b = = If a < b and c < 0 then ac > bc and >

c bc b b c c

c

Properties of Absolute Value

a c ad + bc a c ad - bc a if a 0

+ = - = a =

b d bd b d bd -a if a < 0

a -b b-a a+b a b a 0 -a = a

= = +

c-d d -c c c c a a

ab = a b =

a b b

ab + ac ad

= b + c, a 0 b = a+b a + b Triangle Inequality

a c bc

d Distance Formula

Exponent Properties If P1 = ( x1 , y1 ) and P2 = ( x2 , y2 ) are two

an 1

a n a m = a n+m m

= a n-m = m-n points the distance between them is

a a

(a )n m

= a nm a 0 = 1, a 0 d ( P1 , P2 ) = ( x2 - x1 ) + ( y2 - y1 )

2 2

n n

a a

( ab )

n

= a nb n = n Complex Numbers

b b

1 1

a -n = -n

= an i = -1 i 2 = -1 -a = i a , a 0

an a

-n n ( a + bi ) + ( c + di ) = a + c + ( b + d ) i

a b bn

( ) = (a )

n 1 n 1

= = n a = a n m

( a + bi ) - ( c + di ) = a - c + ( b - d ) i

m m

b a a

( a + bi )( c + di ) = ac - bd + ( ad + bc ) i

Properties of Radicals

( a + bi )( a - bi ) = a 2 + b 2

1

n

a = an n

ab = n a n b a + bi = a 2 + b 2 Complex Modulus

m n

a = nm a n

a na

= ( a + bi ) = a - bi Complex Conjugate

b nb

( a + bi )( a + bi ) = a + bi

2

n

a n = a, if n is odd

n

a n = a , if n is even

For a complete set of online Algebra notes visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu. 2005 Paul Dawkins

Logarithms and Log Properties

Definition Logarithm Properties

y = log b x is equivalent to x = b y log b b = 1 log b 1 = 0

log b b x = x b logb x = x

Example

log b ( x r ) = r log b x

log 5 125 = 3 because 53 = 125

log b ( xy ) = log b x + log b y

Special Logarithms x

ln x = log e x natural log log b = log b x - log b y

y

log x = log10 x common log

where e = 2.718281828K The domain of log b x is x > 0

Factoring and Solving

Factoring Formulas Quadratic Formula

x 2 - a 2 = ( x + a )( x - a ) Solve ax 2 + bx + c = 0 , a 0

x 2 + 2ax + a 2 = ( x + a )

2 -b b 2 - 4ac

x=

2a

x 2 - 2ax + a 2 = ( x - a )

2

If b - 4ac > 0 - Two real unequal solns.

2

x3 + 3ax 2 + 3a 2 x + a 3 = ( x + a )

3 If b 2 - 4ac < 0 - Two complex solutions.

x3 - 3ax 2 + 3a 2 x - a 3 = ( x - a )

3

Square Root Property

x3 + a3 = ( x + a ) ( x 2 - ax + a 2 ) If x 2 = p then x = p

x -a

2n 2n

= (x -a

n n

)( x n

+a n

) If b is a positive number

p =b p = -b or p = b

If n is odd then,

x n - a n = ( x - a ) ( x n -1 + ax n - 2 + L + a n -1 ) p <b -b < p < b

p >b p < -b or p>b

xn + a n

= ( x + a ) ( x n -1 - ax n - 2 + a 2 x n -3 - L + a n -1 )

Completing the Square

Solve 2 x - 6 x - 10 = 0

2 (4) Factor the left side

2

3 29

(1) Divide by the coefficient of the x 2 x- =

2 4

x 2 - 3x - 5 = 0 (5) Use Square Root Property

(2) Move the constant to the other side.

3 29 29

x 2 - 3x = 5 x- = =

2 4 2

(3) Take half the coefficient of x, square

it and add it to both sides (6) Solve for x

2 2 3 29

3 3 9 29 x=

x 2 - 3x + - = 5 + - = 5 + = 2 2

2 2 4 4

For a complete set of online Algebra notes visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu. 2005 Paul Dawkins

Functions and Graphs

Constant Function Parabola/Quadratic Function

y = a or f ( x ) = a x = ay 2 + by + c g ( y ) = ay 2 + by + c

Graph is a horizontal line passing

through the point ( 0, a ) . The graph is a parabola that opens right

if a > 0 or left if a < 0 and has a vertex

Line/Linear Function b b

at g - , - .

y = mx + b or f ( x ) = mx + b 2a 2 a

Graph is a line with point ( 0, b ) and

Circle

slope m.

( x - h) + ( y - k ) = r 2

2 2

Slope of the line containing the two ( h, k ) .

points ( x1 , y1 ) and ( x2 , y2 ) is

y2 - y1 rise Ellipse

m= =

( x - h) ( y -k)

2 2

x2 - x1 run

+ =1

Slope intercept form a2 b2

The equation of the line with slope m Graph is an ellipse with center ( h, k )

and y-intercept ( 0,b ) is with vertices a units right/left from the

y = mx + b center and vertices b units up/down from

Point Slope form the center.

The equation of the line with slope m

and passing through the point ( x1 , y1 ) is Hyperbola

( x - h) ( y -k)

2 2

y = y1 + m ( x - x1 ) - =1

a2 b2

Graph is a hyperbola that opens left and

Parabola/Quadratic Function

right, has a center at ( h, k ) , vertices a

y = a ( x - h) + k f ( x) = a ( x - h) + k

2 2

b

The graph is a parabola that opens up if that pass through center with slope .

a > 0 or down if a < 0 and has a vertex a

Hyperbola

at ( h, k ) .

(y -k) ( x - h)

2 2

- =1

Parabola/Quadratic Function b2 a2

y = ax 2 + bx + c f ( x ) = ax 2 + bx + c Graph is a hyperbola that opens up and

down, has a center at ( h, k ) , vertices b

The graph is a parabola that opens up if units up/down from the center and

a > 0 or down if a < 0 and has a vertex asymptotes that pass through center with

b b

b slope .

at - , f - . a

2a 2 a

For a complete set of online Algebra notes visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu. 2005 Paul Dawkins

Common Algebraic Errors

Error Reason/Correct/Justification/Example

2 2

0 and 2 Division by zero is undefined!

0 0

( -3 )

2

-32 9 -32 = -9 , = 9 Watch parenthesis!

(x )

2 3

x5 (x )

2 3

= x2 x2 x2 = x6

a a a 1 1 1 1

+ = + =2

b+c b c 2 1+1 1 1

1 A more complex version of the previous

x -2 + x -3

x +x

2 3 error.

a + bx a bx bx

a + bx = + = 1+

1 + bx a a a a

a

Beware of incorrect canceling!

- a ( x - 1) = - ax + a

- a ( x - 1) - ax - a

Make sure you distribute the -!

( x + a) ( x + a) = ( x + a )( x + a ) = x 2 + 2ax + a 2

2 2

x2 + a2

x2 + a2 x + a 5 = 25 = 32 + 42 32 + 42 = 3 + 4 = 7

x+a x + a See previous error.

More general versions of previous three

( x + a)

n

x n + a n and n

x+a n x + n a

errors.

2 ( x + 1) = 2 ( x 2 + 2 x + 1) = 2 x 2 + 4 x + 2

2

2 ( x + 1) ( 2 x + 2 )

2 2

( 2 x + 2)

2

= 4 x2 + 8x + 4

Square first then distribute!

See the previous example. You can not

( 2 x + 2) 2 ( x + 1)

2 2

factor out a constant if there is a power on

the parenthesis!

1

- x2 + a2 = ( - x2 + a 2 ) 2

- x2 + a2 - x2 + a2

Now see the previous error.

a

a ab

a 1 a c ac

b c = = =

b b 1 b b

c

c c

a a

a

ac b = b = a 1 = a

b

c c b c bc

c b

1

For a complete set of online Algebra notes visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu. 2005 Paul Dawkins

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