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Igneous rocks- form in two very different environments.

All igneous rocks start out as melted


rock, (magma) and then crystallize, or freeze. Bowen's Reaction Series is a proposed sequence
of mineral crystallization from basaltic magma, based on experimental evidence. Volcanic
processes form extrusive igneous rocks. Extrusive rocks cool quickly on or very near the surface
of the earth. Fast cooling makes crystals too small to see without some kind of magnifier. Basalt
is dark rock, gray or black on a freshly broken surface, and weathers brown or red, because it
contains lots of dark-colored minerals. Intrusive igneous rocks cool in plutons (Pluto was the
Roman god of the Underworld.) deep below the surface of the Earth. Slow cooling allows the
growth of large crystals. Crystals in intrusive rocks are visible without magnification.

Metamorphic Rock- Metamorphic rocks form when sedimentary, igneous, or other


metamorphic rocks are subjected to heat and pressure from burial or contact with intrusive or
extrusive igneous rocks. ("Meta" means change, and "morph" means form.) Heat and pressure
from burial cause molecules of flat minerals like mica to line up perpendicular to the direction of
greatest compression. Deep burial means higher pressure and hotter temperatures, and very high
temperature and pressures cause the formation of new minerals, and mineral grains. Low-grade
metamorphic rocks like slate and phyllite break in flat pieces, and have a sheen on the surface.
Layers of dark and light minerals stripe the rock, and sometimes it is possible to see how the
direction of pressure deep in the Earth changed as the minerals formed. The change in direction
forms eye-shaped pods of minerals, called augens ("augen" is German for "eye.")

Sedimentary Rock- Sedimentary rocks are those rocks made up of pieces of other rocks. We call
the pieces of rock "clasts" (Clast means "broken piece"). A clast is a piece of rock broken off of
another rock. Clasts of rock are eroded from larger rocks, transported (moved) by wind or water
and deposited in a basin. After some period of time, the clasts are lithified (lithos is the Greek
word for stone). The sedimentary rocks we see today were once gravel, sand, silt, mud, or living
things. Some limestones have fossils, but most limestones and cherts have recrystallized, and the
remains of the creatures that made them are no longer visible.
Metamorphic
Sedime
rocks
Igneous nts
rocks
Magma
(intrusive)
IgneousLithificat
rocks
(extrusive)
ion
Metamor
Weather
phism
Uplift ing
Meltin
and
Exposure g
Crystallizat
Transportat
ion
ion
Deposi
Consolidat
Sedimentar tion
ion
Igneous
y rocks
rocks- form in two very
different environments. All igneous rocks
start out as melted rock, (magma) and
then crystallize, or freeze. Bowen's
Metamorphic Rock- Metamorphic
Reaction Series is a proposed sequence
rocks form when sedimentary, igneous,
of mineral crystallization from basaltic
or other metamorphic rocks are
magma, based on experimental
subjected to heat and pressure from
evidence. Volcanic processes form
burial or contact with intrusive or
extrusive igneous rocks. Extrusive rocks
extrusive igneous rocks. ("Meta" meansSedimentary Rock- Sedimentary
cool quickly on or very near the surface
change, and "morph" means form.)rocks Heat are those rocks made up of pieces
of the earth. Fast cooling makes crystals
of other rocks. We call the pieces of rock
and pressure from burial cause molecules
too small to see without some kind of
of flat minerals like mica to line "clasts"
up (Clast means "broken piece"). A
magnifier. Basalt is dark rock, gray or
clast is a piece of rock broken off of
perpendicular to the direction of greatest
black on a freshly broken surface, and
compression. Deep burial means higheranother rock. Clasts of rock are eroded
weathers brown or red, because it
pressure and hotter temperatures,from and larger rocks, transported (moved)
very high temperature and pressures by wind or water and deposited in a
cause the formation of new minerals, basin.
and After some period of time, the
mineral grains. Low-grade metamorphicclasts are lithified (lithos is the Greek
word
rocks like slate and phyllite break in flat for stone). The sedimentary rocks
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The Rock Cycle


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