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THE OTOMOTIF COLLEGE

An Effectiveness Study of Electric Vehicle Charging


Station Installation Progress in Malaysia

Diploma in Automotive Technology

Adam Junid (DAT201509-02102)


21 January 2016

Word count: 5193

Abstract

Purpose This paper assesses the effectiveness of Electric Vehicle (EV) charging
station installation progress in Malaysia. Aspects of studied include: (i) planned vs
actual progress of EV charging stations, (ii) main barriers to building an EV charging
network in Malaysia, (iii) how should those barriers be addressed and overcome?.
Methodology The research approach utilised surveys to collect primary data from
three companies in Malaysia selling EVs: Nissan, Mitsubishi, and Renault. The
results are included in this dissertation's chapters.
Findings To meet 2016 targets, past EV station progress has to be increased at
least thirtyfold. A majority of respondents indicated that Regulatory Approvals and
Land/Equipment Cost were barriers to EV station installation. They also indicated
that vandalism/theft was a significant concern. However, the amount of tariff the
respondents were willing to pay and the equipment and labour-only cost of EV
stations indicated that operating a strategically located, well-utilised EV station may
be a profitable business. The strongest recommendation to overcome barriers was
to install sufficient EV stations to allow driving anywhere in Malaysia. Other strong
recommendations were to install EV stations at petrol stations and provide priority
parking at parking lots comparable to the amounts/locations seen for handicapped
A Study of Electric Vehicle Charging Station Installation Progress in Malaysia

parking.
Practical implications EV charging station progress effectiveness findings in this
dissertation can serve as helpful reference to government agencies and other
companies related to building EV charging stations.
Originality This paper's originality is based on the premise that the author as of
this report's date has not found other papers examining effectiveness of Electric
Vehicle (EV) charging station installation progress in Malaysia.
Value EV charging station progress effectiveness has an important significance
due to the relative dearth of EV charging stations hampering sales of EVs in
general. Effective progress of EV charging station installation will deliver more
sustainable transportation and energy solutions in future.

Key Words: Electric Vehicle, Charging Station Progress, Charging Station Barriers,
Tariff, Recommendations

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Acknowledgement

I thank Mr Sarves (The Otomotif College) and Ms Hung (The Otomotif College) for
their help and guidance during the preparation of this report.

I also thank survey respondents Mr Yap Tjun Yao (Nissan), Mr Vincent Tang
(Mitsubishi), Mr Isaac Amal (Renault) and Mr Maybell Chai (Renault). I hope that
readers aiming to sustainably progress mankind and our environment would find
this research useful.

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Table of Contents
Page
Acknowledgement......................................................................................... 2
Table of Contents.......................................................................................... 3
Chapter 1: Introduction.................................................................................. 4
Chapter 2: Literature Review......................................................................... 9
Chapter 3: Methodology................................................................................ 10
Chapter 4: Results and Discussion................................................................ 20
Chapter 5: Conclusion.................................................................................... 28
Appendix I: References................................................................................. 31
Appendix II: Bibliography............................................................................... 34
Appendix III: Abbreviations............................................................................ 35
Appendix IV: Glossary................................................................................... 36
Appendix V: Survey questions....................................................................... 37

Table of Figures

Figure 1: Comparison of EVs......................................................................... 11


Figure 2: The Research Onion....................................................................... 14
Figure 3: Survey feedback from Nissan respondent...................................... 20
Figure 4: Survey feedback from Mitsubishi respondent................................. 21
Figure 5: Survey feedback from Renault respondent.................................... 22
Figure 6: Results for survey questions 1 & 2................................................ 23
Figure 7: Results for survey question 3........................................................ 24
Figure 8: Results for survey question 4 ........................................................ 24
Figure 9: Summary result for survey question 4............................................ 25
Figure 10: Results for survey question 5....................................................... 26
Figure 11: Results for survey question 6....................................................... 27

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Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1 Background of Research


Ever since the Tesla Supercharger network allowed for interstate travel by EV in
North America (CNN 2014), I kept looking forward to the day a similar network
would be available in Malaysia. This sentiment appears to have been echoed by
other Malaysians (Amy 2014).

As of this report's publishing date, travel by a 150km range EV to Johor is possible


with a charging stopover at Melaka's Hatten Hotel EV charging station (Tien Chew
2013). However, there are still no EV charging stations available for EVs heading
north to Kedah and Kelantan.

In 2012, First Energy Networks Sdn Bhd, a Tan Chong subsidiary, announced plans
to build an EV charging station network in West Malaysias Klang Valley (First
Energy Networks 2012). Tan Chong owns both Nissan and Renault distributorships
in Malaysia.

In 2015, Greentech, a company which operates under the purview of The Ministry of
Energy, Green Technology and Water, announced a target to build 300 Charging
Stations by 2016 (Jayaraman 2015), and 25,000 Charging Stations by 2020 (Lim
2015).

However, as of this report's date (end-2015), it appears there are only about 20-30
public Charging Stations throughout West Malaysia (First Energy Networks 2015
and Archibald 2014). Teslas record for Charging Station network buildup is
between 900-1000 per year (Richards 2015) so unless Greentech surpasses
Teslas Charging Station record by at least eightfold, Greentech may fall short of
their 2020 target.

1.2 Problem Statement


How does Greentech plan to meet its targets? Has it taken into account the
electricity distribution network, traffic planning issues, and space needed for EV
Charging Stations? Has it taken into account incentives needed for property owners
to install such stations? If yes, what are those incentives?

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Could petrol stations and carpark operators earn more revenue than selling petrol
and parking by charging EVs?

Curiosity about the answers to the above questions motivated me to propose the
research question:

How effective has EV charging installation been, what are its barriers, and
how can they be overcome?

The answer to the above question, for the purposes of this report, can be broken
down into three distinct questions, stated in section 1.3 below.

1.3 Objectives of Research

The purpose of the research project for this dissertation addresses the following
question: "How effective has EV charging installation been, what are its
barriers, and how can they be overcome?"

Further specific research objectives were identified in order to respond to the above
research question:

1) Planned vs actual progress of EV charging station installation

2) Barriers to effective installation progress

3) How to overcome such barriers

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1.4 Significance of Research


Companies surveyed in this report are Nissan, Mitsubishi, and Renault. The
information they provide on barriers to EV Charging Station installation growth and
ways to overcome them will be useful to other countries in terms of:

1) Infrastructure planning

2) Budgetary allocations

3) Government/regulatory incentives

1.5 Research Approach


To study the above with some empirical measure of stakeholder perception, a
survey was given out to companies involved in and responsible for EV charging
station installation. The surveys (and interviews, for respondents unwilling to
respond by email) focused on efforts governing EV charging station installation
progress, and any barriers hindering them.

The questionnaire prepared for the survey was multiple choice answer type, with
opportunity for participants to write subjective feedback for each question.

Where applicable and relevant, quotes and paraphrasing from respondent input will
be included as part of research data.

1.6 Scope of Research


The scope of this research is mainly on EV charging station progress, cost-benefits
and ways to make installation progress more effective.

The target participants for the survey are the 3 (only) companies currently selling
and distributing EVs in Malaysia. A brief EV-related historical background of these
companies are below.

1.6.1 Nissan

Nissan launched their Leaf EV in Malaysia in late 2013 (Post 2013). The Nissan
Leaf has a range of approximately 195km (Shah 2015a). When launched in 2013, a
new Leaf cost about RM168,000 with full import duty exemption. However, in 2015

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GST was applied & its cost increased to RM180,000. The price of the Nissan Leaf
for 2016 is uncertain, and dependent on government decisions to apply import
duties or maintain exemptions.

Nissan Malaysia's vehicle distributorship is owned by Tan Chong. Tan Chong also
owns First Energy Networks, a company that builds EV charging stations.

1.6.2 Mitsubishi

Mitsubishi launched their i-MiEV EV in Malaysia in early 2013 (Shah 2013). The i-
MiEV is the first EV to have launched in Malaysia. It has a range of approximately
150km.

The price of an i-MiEV in 2013 was about RM136,000.

1.6.3 Renault

Renault launched their Zoe and Twizy EVs in Malaysia in 2015 (Shah 2015b). They
have a range of 210km and 100km respectively. Renault Malaysia's distributorship
is also owned by Tan Chong.

The price of a Renault Zoe is about RM139,000. The Renault Twizy is about
RM80,000.

1.7 Conclusion and Structure of Report


This report proposes to investigate the effectiveness of EV Charging Station
progress in Malaysia, barriers to its development progress (if any), and proposed
recommendations to overcome such barriers.

The report has been structured to allow either modular or sequential reading. Post
Introduction (Chapter 1), Chapter 2 will be a literature review of research topics in
relation to EV charging station installations. Concepts, definitions and ideas from
published and available literature will be reviewed and considered for applicability in
this research project.

Chapter 3 describes the research methodology selected for this research project,
along with reasons why such methodology was chosen.

Chapter 4 presents survey data findings along with analysis and commentary on
salient points and issues in relation to answering the research question.

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Chapter 5 is aimed at providing a brief summary of the research question followed


by evaluations and conclusions of survey findings. Recommendations are also
derived and suggested for improving the rate of EV charging station installations.

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Chapter 2. Literature Review

This chapter focuses on existing literature related to key concepts of this report's
research and addresses the following research objectives:

1) EV Charging Station progress


Planned
Actual Implementation Effectiveness
2) Barriers to EV charging station installation progress
Cost
Power Availability
Equipment reliability / vandalism
Tariff charged to users
EV charging station operator profit
3) Ways to overcome barriers to installation progress
Installation at Petrol Stations
Installation at carparks

2.1 EV Charging Station Progress


Most projects would require some sort of planning stage and tracking of project
progress. So far there has been some published literature about planning
(Archibald 2014), but literature on the actual amount of EV Charging Stations
installed appears contradictory and may be out of date (Archibald 2014 and First
Energy Networks, 2015).

2.1.1 Planned

Despite best planning efforts by exemplary cities (Nelson Nygaard 2014), the take-
up of EV Charging Stations has been slow due to poor payback incentives. There
are 300 stations planned by 2016 (Archibald 2014), and a total of 25,000 planned by
2020 (Lim 2015).

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2.1.2 Actual Implementation Effectivenes

According to First Energy Networks, about 20 EV Charging Stations were built in


West Malaysia during 2013-15, with an additional 1 in Sarawak (First Energy
Networks 2015).

On the other hand, Archibald (2014) stated that in 2014, there were about 40
Charging Stations, with 30 of them available for non-government and public use,
and another 260 planned for 2015.

As of this report's preparation (late 2015 early 2016, it appears that about 14% of
the intended 300 Charging Stations for 2015 have been installed.

The next subsection will explore existing published literature on barriers to EV


charging station installation progress.

2.2 Barriers to EV charging station installation progress


2.2.1 Cost

According to Renault Malaysia's EV spokesperson during an informal meeting in


2015, the cost of a 22kW EV Charging Station is about RM12,000.

For property owners and small businesses, this cost is significant. Unless a
property owner or business is able to get cost incentives from Greentech, payback
would take a long time. For example, even with RM8 income per charge
(Reloadfood.com 2015), tariff paid to the utility company would be about RM7 for a
22kWh Renault Zoe battery at RM0.31 per kWh. With three EVs charged per day,
profit would be only RM1 x 365 ~ RM365 per year. At this rate, payback would be
almost 40 years.

Thus capital cost is one significant barrier hindering EV Charging Station progress
(Nelson and Nygaard 2014).

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2.2.2 Power Availability

EV Charging Stations require anywhere from 6kW to 22kW of electrical power per
charger unit for existing EVs in Malaysia. Charging time needed for these EVs
varies from about one to four hours (MyRenaultZoe.com 2013).

On the other hand, Tesla's EV "Supercharger" Charging Station is currently rated at


about 120kW and takes about half an hour to fully charge a Tesla EV (Loveday
2013). However, Tesla vehicles and Superchargers are currently unavailable for
sale in Malaysia.

The above power requirements indicate that each car will utilise a significant
amount of power: roughly the size of a small household. In other words, prior to EV
Charging Station installation, clearance would be needed from a local electricity
utility company (e.g. TNB) to make sure that there is sufficient power generation and
distribution network capacity at the proposed EV Charging Station location.

2.2.3 Equipment Vandalism

EV Charging Station vandalism and copper theft is another factor plaguing EV


station owners and potential EV buyers (Gordon-Bloomfield 2014a and King 2013).

2.2.4 Charging Tariff

An estimated sample of EV charging tariffs around the world is as follows.

Company Approx. tariff Approx. Approx. RM per


RM range per 100km
equivalent price
Chargemaster, 7kW: 2.50/hr 17.50 20-30km 59.50
UK 22kW:8.50/halfhr 59.50 80-100km
Chargemaster 7kW: 2/hr 14.00 20-30km 49.00
Polar, UK 22kW: 7/ half hr 49.00 80-100km
Chargemaster 7kW: 1.90/hr 13.60 20-30km 42.00
Econ. Plus, UK 22kW: 6 / half hr 42.00 80-100km
SCE peak rate, 7kWh: $2.52 10.80 20-30km 18.92
USA 22kWh: $7.92 34.06 180km
SCE offpeak rate, 7kWh: $0.84 3.61 20-30km 6.31
USA 22kWh: $2.64 11.35 180km
TNB, Malaysia 20kWh: RM7 7.00 160km 4.38

Sources: Gordon-Bloomfield, 2014b, Southern California Edison (SCE), 2015 and


Reloadfood.com, 2015

Figure 1: Estimated sample of EV charging tariffs

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2.2.5 EV Charging Station Operator Profit

A reasonable amount to charge EV users would be the amount they would pay for a
low fuel-consumption car per 100km. Using the Perodua Viva as an example, a
reasonable charge per 100km worth of usable battery charge would be RM14
(Kereta.info 2008). Applying TNB's tariff in Figure 1 above, potential profit per
100km charge would be approximately RM9.

A fast-charge station loaded at 50% EVs per 24-hr day could charge about 12-24
vehicles per day, which translates into a profit of about RM100-200 per day, or at
least RM36,000 per year. Given that EV station equipment cost is about RM12,000
(see section 2.2.1 above), there seems to be potential profit for EV station operators
in Malaysia.

2.3 Ways to overcome barriers to installation progress


To address cost concerns by potential EV station owners, Greentech is offering EV
station installation for free (Greentech 2015).

Electricity availability concerns come under the purview of utility (TNB) planning
(TNB 2014 and Ismail et al 2012)

Vandalism may be addressed by EV owners carrying their own charging cable to


EV stations (Harris 2014).

2.4 Summary

This concludes the literature review, which presents some available literature
pertaining to this report's topic, and its structure. The next Chapter describes
methods used to conduct this research, and provides justification for the chosen
methods.

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Chapter 3. Research Methodology

The goal of this research project and was to evaluate how effective EV Charging
Station Installation Progress, Barriers, and Ways to overcome them.

3.1 Research Methodology Overview


Analogous to approaches described by Fisher (2010), an overview of steps applied
in this research can be summarised as follows:

1. Formulating the research question;

2. Completing the literature review and distilling relevant issues of the topic
areas;

3. Reviewing literature surrounding the topic of interest, deciding on the


research method, and preparing a suitable survey questionnaire;

4. Collecting data through surveys

5. Extracting survey data;

6. Analysing survey results to determine the effectiveness of the Change


Management for Capability Development.

3.2 Research Philosophy


The term "research methodology" is closely linked (Bryman 1984) to research
philosophy and epistemology, i.e. the nature of how we perceive knowledge, and
what actual knowledge consists of itself. Saunders et al (2009) further explain that
research methods, which include the application of mixed sampling methods (such
as qualitative and quantitative sampling techniques), are a subset of tools within
epistemology itself (see Fig. 3.1).

Since epistemology is the study of how we perceive, define and qualify knowledge,
many researchers view that the methods of obtaining knowledge (e.g. data
sampling techniques) should be qualified against the research philosophy that
governs the epistemological approach. An interpretivistic epistemological
philosophy is that the nature of knowledge is dependent on the interpreter, and this
affects the "direct realism" (Saunders et al 2009) accuracy of data obtained. For the

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purposes of this dissertation, the author has attempted to minimise such


interpretivistic factors by applying a mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative)
survey approach as a data correlation check to arrive at findings that are as close
as possible to what a positivist or pragmatist researcher would consider acceptable
data and knowledge.

Figure 2: The research "Onion", reproduced from Saunders et al (2009)

In terms of research "approach", Saunders et al (2009) explain that an inductive


research approach is taken when data is analysed to form a hypothesis/theory,
whereas a deductive approach is taken when a theory/hypothesis already exists
and the researcher attempts to design and run tests to validate or disprove the
theory.

Bryman (1984) uses the term "methodology" synonymously with "philosophy" and
uses the term "method" synonymously with the researcher's available choice of
quantitative vs qualitative research strategies.

Saunders et al (2009) describe the research philosophy term "interpretivism" as an


epistemological view that knowledge (which is observed and/or sampled) may not
be an absolute truth. Causes could be due to the mere act of sampling or
observation that may bias the information, and/or that the information

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sampled/observed would only be valid for that sample but not necessarily a repeat
sample at a different point in time or circumstance. Bryman (1984) uses the term
"phenomenological" as a synonym to "interpretivism". This reflects the concept that
an interpretation at any instance in time is a one-off phenomenon and not
necessarily repeatable at a different time or circumstance. Saunders et al (2009)
also describes the research philosophy term "positivism" as an epistemological view
that knowledge (which is observed and/or sampled) can be reliably captured and
treated as reliable information by applying suitable experimental methods such as
large batch sampling and multiple (quantitative and qualitative) techniques to reduce
uncertainty and make the data collection aggregation as accurate (and as positivist)
as possible.

Using such terminology, this research approach applied observations to shape


questions, and applied deductive testing to test the author's observations. The
research methodology uses an interpretivist (Saunders et al 2009) philosophical
position about EV charging station installation progress effectiveness, barriers and
ways to overcome barriers when preparing surveys. It was envisioned that the
survey participants' answers would to some extent either validate or filter the
author's observations into more positivistic and objective data.

3.3 Survey Strategy


This project research method applied and qualitative approaches in terms of data
capture. A 6-question survey was prepared that contained multiple choice answers.
In addition, participants were allowed to provide subjective feedback on top of any
objective multiple-choice answers chosen.

The survey questionnaire was limited to six questions to minimise time spent by the
respondents answering it. Also, in the event of no participants agreeing to respond
via e-mail, the author planned to meet respondent staff requesting verbal feedback
on "just 6 questions".

In the event of a shortage of respondents, the author's strategy was to meet


alternate participants, e.g. Greentech, First Energy Networks, IP INFRA (IP INFRA
2015), or The New Motion (Shubhash 2015) to interview them and fill up the
questionnaire himself based on the interview.

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3.3.1 Questionnaire
The survey introduction, questions and multiple choice answers was as follows.

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A Study of Electric Vehicle Charging Station Installation Progress in Malaysia

This questionnaire is intended to gauge Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Station


installation progress effectiveness in Malaysia, barriers faced to install them, and
recommendations to overcome such barriers.

Please circle or tick the most correct answer (if any). Please also elaborate with
written feedback if none of the answer options are correct/suitable. Thanks!
Respondent Name / Company / Agency: _________________________________
Date of response: _________________________________

A) Installation progress effectiveness


1) What are your company's/agency's planned targets for EV Charging Station
installations?
a) 300 Charging Stations by end-2015
b) 300 Charging Stations by end-2016
c) 260 Charging Stations by end-2015
d) 260 Charging Stations by end-2016
e) 25,000 Charging Stations by 2020
f) Other : _______________________

2) What are your company's/agency's current achievements for EV Charging


Stations, in terms of amount of stations installed so far?
a) 31-40 installed
b) 21-30 installed
c) 11-20 installed
d) 1-10 installed
e) Other / more precise amount (if available): _____________________

B) Barriers
3) What barriers do you face when installing such stations?
Please rank in terms of most difficult to overcome:
Rank
a) Equipment cost ____
b) Land cost ____
c) Regulatory approvals ____
d) Poor/uncertain payback ____
e) Lack of shade ____
f) Vandalism ____

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g) Other: ______________ ____

4) How much does it cost a premise owner to install an EV charging station, broken
down into equipment, labour & land? Please tick one row in each column:
Equipment Labour Land
RM1k - <10k
RM 10k - 20k
> RM 20k
Other subjective feedback: ___________________________________________

C) Ways to overcome barriers


5) If the following became a reality:
(i) EVs cost, look and perform similarly to your preferred petrol/diesel/hybrid car
in terms of speed and acceleration, and
(ii) 100km EV range recharge in 10 minutes were available at every petrol
station,
what would be your highest acceptable recharge price per 100km of EV driving
range which would make you decide on making your next vehicle an EV ? *
a) RM5 - <RM10
b) RM10 - <RM15
c) RM15 - <RM20
d) RM20 - <RM30
e) RM30 - <RM50
f) I cannot accept a 100km range limit for every 10 minutes of charging

6) What actions/policies/practices would you recommend to overcome the main


barriers to EV charging station installation progress? Please rank your
recommendations:
Rank
a) Install EV stations at petrol stations ____
b) Install more EV stations at car parks ____
c) Develop regulations that enforce a minimum % of EV-only parking ____
d) Allow free charging indefinitely at all EV stations ____
e) Ensure sufficient EV stations to allow driving anywhere in Malaysia ____
f) Other: ______________ ____

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3.4 Use of Literature


Prior to and during the research, literature related to EV charging station installation
issues were reviewed and distilled (see Chapter 2) to serve as a basis and
understanding of what concepts and theories already existed in relation to the topic
of this report.

Published literature relating to this dissertation's topic also helped guide and
reinforce the selection and definition of research methods (Saunders et al 2009).

3.5 Limitations of Research Methodology Applied


Using terminology by Bryman (1984) and research considerations by Saunders et al
(2009), limitations of this dissertation's research methodology may include:

1) The survey did not include actual owners of EVs, who may have their own idea
on how to expedite EV charging station installation progress.

2) The survey was only cross-sectional, not longitudinal (Saunders et al 2009), and
even as this dissertation is being prepared, Greentech may be closing in on its
declared EV station targets.

3) Survey participants were West-Malaysia centric. None of them were East-


Malaysia based.

4) A lack of time to pursue other respondents, e.g. First Energy Networks,


Greentech, and The New Motion. To be specific, the survey was readied and
emailed in mid-December. After one week of no respondents replying, the
author decided to interview personnel to get immediate feedback. By 25th
December 2015, there were sufficient survey responses (3) to complete the
report.

3.6 Summary

The methodology and available results should provide rich pickings and opportunity
for future researchers to resolve remaining issues that prevent EV charging station
installation progress

Survey participant responses will be presented and analysed in the next chapter.

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Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.1 Introduction

This chapter presents an overview of research findings. Further discussion of


findings and the author's observations are also included.

4.2 Results of survey

None of the respondents emailed were able to respond by email This chapter
presents an overview of research findings. Further discussion of findings and the
author's observations are also included.

4.2.1 Respondent 1: Nissan


A summary of survey results from Nissan is as follows.

Survey date : 14.12.15


Location: Tan Chong Nissan, PJ
Interviewee: Mr Yap Tjun Yao, Manager
Email: tjunyao.yap@tanchonggroup.com
Question# Info asked Answer received
Q1 Planned EV stations 300 by end 2016
Q2 Current amount of EV stations 30
Q3 Barriers faced 1) Regulatory approvals
2) Land cost
3) Equipment cost
4) Vandalism
5) Poor/uncertain payback
6) Lack of shade
Q4 Cost of EV stations Equipment <RM10k (22kW)
Labour RM1 - 10k
Land <RM10k - 20k
Q5 Willing cost per 100km range RM10 - 15
Q6 Action/practices/policies to 1) Sufficient EV stations to
overcome barriers to EV drive anywhere in
charging stations Malaysia
2) Install EV stations at all
petrol stations
3) Install more EV stations
at car parks
4) Allow free charging
indefinitely at all EV
stations
5) Develop regulations that
enforce a minimum % of
EV-only parking
Figure 3: Survey feedback from Nissan respondent

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Other recommendations that Nissan gave were:

1) To spread more awareness of EVs, especially publicising to students

2) Hopefully people and the next generation of students will help influence
government to maintain or re-introduce exemption of import tax/duties for EVs.
Hopefully we can avoid what happened to hybrid vehicles, where hybrids sold
quickly when there were no import duties, but after duties were imposed, the
affordable full-hybrid vehicle market was practically killed.

4.2.2 Respondent 2: Mitsubishi


A summary of survey results from Mitsubishi is as follows.

Survey date : 16.12.15


Location: Ingress Motors Mitsubishi, Seri Kembangan
Interviewee: Mr Vincent Tang, Sales Consultant
Email: vincent.imc@ingresscorp.com,my
Question# Info asked Answer received
Q1 Planned EV stations Info not available
Q2 Current amount of EV stations <5, Klang Valley only
Q3 Barriers faced 1) Equipment cost
2) Land cost
3) Low volume of EVs (initial
cost & charging issues)
Q4 Cost of EV stations Equipment <RM20k
Q5 Willing cost per 100km range RM5
Q6 Action/practices/policies to 1) Sufficient EV stations to
overcome barriers to EV drive anywhere in
charging stations Malaysia
2) More space needed for
an EV than a normal car,
due to clearances
needed for charger
installation and cabling
accessible from both
sides of EV
3) Technician training for EV
station installation
Figure 4: Survey feedback from Mitsubishi respondent

Other recommendations that Mitsubishi gave were:

1) To reduce the price of EVs by training/developing the next generation of students


to make EVs locally designed and manufactured

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4.2.3 Respondent 3: Renault


A summary of survey results from Renault is as follows.

Survey date : 23.12.15


Location: Renault, Setapak
Interviewees: Mr Isaac Amal & Mr Maybell Chai, Sales Consultants
Email: isaac_amal@yahoo.com
maybell1991@gmail.com
Question# Info asked Answer received
Q1 Planned EV stations Not confirmable
Q2 Current amount of EV stations 30
Q3 Barriers faced 1) Vandalism
2) Lack of shade
3) Regulatory approvals
4) Equipment cost
5) Land Cost
6) Poor/uncertain payback
Q4 Cost of EV stations Equipment <RM2k (6kW)
Q5 Willing cost per 100km range RM20
Q6 Action/practices/policies to 1) Sufficient EV stations to
overcome barriers to EV drive anywhere in
charging stations Malaysia
2) Install more EV stations
at car parks, especially
shopping malls

Figure 5: Survey feedback from Renault respondent

Other recommendations that Renault gave were:

1) Location/quantities for EV parking at car parks should be comparable to those


available for handicapped parking

4.3 Comparison of results

A comparison of results for each of the respondents is as follows.

For survey questions 3 and 6, a simple linearly weighted scoring system was
applied. For example, if there were 5 ranked choices, the highest ranked one would
receive 5 points, the second highest 4 points, and so on -- from each respondent.

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For question 4, if a range of pricing was given by a respondent, an average price


was plotted in the results.

Result for survey Questions 1 & 2


1) What are your company's/agency's planned targets for EV Charging Station
installations?
2) What are your company's/agency's current achievements for EV Charging
Stations, in terms of amount of stations installed so far?
300
EV stations

30 30
5 N/A N/A
2013-5 2016 2013-5 2016 2013-5 2016

Nissan Mitsubishi Renault

Fi di
Figure 6: Results for Survey Questions 1 & 2 (Planned vs Actual progress)

From the above results, the following findings may be submitted:


1) Targets unlikely to be met at existing EV station installation rate
2) EV manufacturers will need more government/regulatory incentives for EV
charging stations to meet targets

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Result for survey Question 3


3) What barriers do you face when installing such stations?
14

12

10

8
Sum

6
Ranking

0
a) Equipment Cost b) Land Cost c) Regulatory d) Poor/Uncertain e) Lack of Shade f) Vandalism
Approvals payback
Barriers to EV stations

Figure 7: Results for Survey Question 3 (Barriers)

From the above results, the following findings may be submitted:


1) Payback and lack of shade are not major barriers
2) However, capital cost, regulatory approvals and vandalism are significant barriers

Result for survey Question 4


4) How much does it cost a premise owner to install an EV charging station, broken
down into equipment, labour & land?
RM
35000
30000
25000
20000 Land
15000 Labour
10000 Equipment
5000
0 N/A N/A
Nissan Mitsubishi Renault

Figure 8: Results for Survey Question 4 (Barriers)

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From the above results, the following findings may be submitted:


1) Land cost exceeds equipment and labour cost combined
2) At existing TNB tariffs, an EV charging station loaded at 50% of the time may still be
profitable

Result for survey Question 4


4) How much does it cost a premise owner to install an EV charging station, broken
down into equipment, labour & land?
RM Total EV station cost estimates
35000
30000
25000 22kW
EV
20000 station

15000 22kW
EV
Cost of EV stations, RM
10000 station
7kW
5000 EV
station
0
Nissan Mitsubishi Renault

Figure 9: Summary result for Survey Question 4 (Barriers)

From the above results, the following findings may be submitted:


1) 7kW (slow charge) EV station costs about 1/10th of rapid charge EV station
2) Worst-case (highest case) estimate for EV rapid charge station may still be profitable

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Result for survey Question 5


5) ..what would be your highest acceptable recharge price per 100km of EV driving
range which would make you decide on making your next vehicle an EV ?

Willing RM cost per 100km range


25
20
15
Willing RM cost per
10 100km range
5
0
Nissan Mitsubishi Renault

Figure 10: Results for Survey Question 5 (Recommendations)

From the above results, the following findings can be made :

1) Depending on owner budget, respondents were willing to pay between RM5 RM20
per 100km EV charge

2) Applying a conservative estimate of a 3-terminal fast-charge EV station charging one


EV every two hours during daytime, 18 EVs each charged 20kWh per day (roughly a
200km range) at RM10 per 200km range of charge would earn revenue of at least
RM180/day, i.e. at least RM57k annually. As of this report, TNB daytime (peak) tariffs
at RM0.31/kWh (would translate into operating costs of about RM6.10 per 200km
worth of charge. This translates to about RM110 per day, i.e. daily profit of about
RM70, which translates to at least RM24k profit annually.

Using the worst case cost for EV stations of RM30k per station terminal (findings to
research question #4), this would translate to a payback in less than 4 years for a 3-
station terminal, ignoring factors such as vandalism/theft.

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Result for survey Question 6


6) What actions/policies/practices would you recommend to overcome the main
barriers to EV charging station installation progress?

Action/practices/policies to overcome barriers to EV charging stations


16

14

12

10

4
Ranking
2

0
a) Install EV b) Install more EV c) Develop d) Allow free e) Ensure
stations at petrol stations at car regulations that charging sufficient EV
stations parks enforce a indefinitely at all stations to allow
minimum % of EV- EV stations driving anywhere
only parking in Malaysia

Figure 11: Results for Survey Question 6 (Recommendations)

From the above results, the following findings are concluded :


1) The strongest recommendation is to ensure EV charging stations are available to drive
anywhere in Malaysia using an EV
2) Another strong recommendation is to ensure petrol stations have EV charging

In the next chapter, overall conclusions will be presented, along with recommendations for
future research.

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Chapter 5. Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction
This chapter provides:
1) Summary findings to the research question "How effective has EV
charging installation been, what are its barriers, and how can they be
overcome?"
2) Information on the report's research limitations
3) Recommendations for future research
4) An overall conclusion for this report

5.2 Summary of research findings


Based on the respondent results in Chapter 4, a brief summary of research
conclusions may be made as follows:
1) Current EV station progress may fall behind targets unless there are more
government/regulatory incentives to increase the installation rate by thirtyfold
compared to the 2013-2015 period (research questions #1 & 2)
2) Significant barriers to EV station installations are land/equipment cost,
regulatory approvals, and vandalism/theft (research question #3)
3) There is potential for EV station operator profit, even at worst-case (highest
TNB) tariff and lowest desired price charged to EV users (research
questions #4 & 5)
4) Strongest recommendation is to install sufficient EV charging stations for
EVs to drive anywhere in Malaysia (research question #6)
5) Another strong recommendation is to install EV charging station(s) at petrol
stations (research question #6)

5.3 Limitations of the research


In addition to the research methodology limitations mentioned in section 3.5 above,
other limitations found during the course of this research included:

1) Limited access to top-level management and decision-makers at Nissan,


Mitsubishi, Renault. Only front-line staff were interviewed and they gave their
views in their personal capacity, not as official spokespersons.

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2) It did not explore whether the existing 1000 or so EV users registered in the
Malaysia faced any problems charging their vehicles at the existing 30 EV
Charging Stations. In the UK, a recommended Charging Station to EV user ratio
to avoid long queues is 2:1 (Larson 2015).

5.4 Recommendations for future research


Opportunities to further research on this report's topic include:
1) Surveying actual owners of EVs, who may have their own idea on how to
expedite EV charging station installation progress.

2) Survey East-Malaysia based distributors and EV operators. The driving ranges


there are typically slower and more winding, yet longer in distance. It would be
interesting to see if a 100km range there would be a sufficient charging level /
pricing benchmark.

3) Survey government agencies and other respondents, e.g. First Energy Networks,
Greentech, and The New Motion. These are the agencies tasked with EV station
installation progress to support EV distributors.

4) Explore whether the existing 1000 or so EV users registered in the Malaysia


faced any problems charging their vehicles at the existing 30 EV Charging
Stations. In the UK, a recommended Charging Station to EV user ratio to avoid
long queues is 2:1 (Larson 2015). It would be interesting as a comparison to the
results seen in the UK, considering that:

i) Malaysian EVs are typically operated with the air-conditioner on & may need
more frequent charging.

ii) Malaysian road ambient temperatures often exceed 30 C, which may be


detrimental to EV battery performance. If the EV does not have an on-board
battery cooling system such as Tesla's to keep batteries under 30 C, even
more charging stations may be required per EV population.

5) Explore which petrol stations already have sufficient incoming 3-phase power
supply to be capable of providing EV charging stations at minimal cost.

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5.5 Overall conclusions


There has been no evidence found in this limited research that can support the
target of 25000 EV stations by 2020 (Lim 2015). However, there is evidence
(research questions 1 & 2) that indicate 300 stations by end 2016 (Archibald 2014 &
Jayaraman 2015) is a reasonable likelihood.

In terms of barriers, factors such as cost, regulatory approvals and vandalism/theft


are affecting EV station progress .

Recommendations to overcome such barriers are to increase the desirability of EV


ownership by enabling sufficient EV charging stations to allow EV driving anywhere
in the country, and to provide EV charging stations at all petrol stations and malls.

Given that sufficient numbers of EV users are required to enable EV station


operation to become a viable business, initial EV station funding to enable sufficient
users of EVs to "drive anywhere in Malaysia" will likely have to come from
government grants and/or subsidies.

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Appendix I References

Amy. (2014). Malaysians Dream of Electric Cars, And This Daring Plan Might Make it
Come True. Vulcan Post. Retrieved on 26th December 2015 from
https://vulcanpost.com/111671/malaysia-electric-cars/
Archibald, L. (2014). RM3m Fund Set Up for 300 EV Charging Stations. Malaysian
Reserve. Retrieved 8th December 2015 from
http://themalaysianreserve.com/new/story/rm3m-fund-set-300-ev-charging-stations
Bryman, A. (1984). The Debate about Quantitative and Qualitative Research: A Question
of Method or Epistemology? The British Journal of Sociology, 35(1), p75-92
Bryman, A. and Bell, E. (2007). Business Research Methods. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford
University Press.
CNN. (2014). Tesla Superchargers Take over America. CNN Money. Retrieved on 3rd
December 2015 from http://money.cnn.com/infographic/pf/autos/tesla-map/
ERS. (2015). About us. Retrieved on 7th December 2015 from
http://www.ers.my/?page_id=566
First Energy Networks. (2012). Launch of first two public EV Charging Stations at KLCC
and Lot 10. Retrieved on 3rd December 2015 from http://www.firstenergy.com.my/news-
events/136-launch-of-first-two-public-electric-vehicle-charging-stations-at-klcc-and-lot-10
First Energy Networks. (2015). Charger Locations. Retrieved on 8th December 2015 from
http://www.firstenergy.com.my/charger-locations/search-charger-locations
Gordon-Bloomfield, N. (2014a). Meet the Latest Electric Car Charging Menace: Copper
Thieves. Transport Evolved. Retrieved on 8th December 2015 from
https://transportevolved.com/2014/08/18/meet-latest-electric-car-charging-station-menace-
copper-theives/
Gordon-Bloomfield, N. (2014b). "Chargemaster Unveils Multiple Tariffs for Uk Electric Car
Charging. We Unveil All." Transport Evolved. Retrieved on 28th December 2015 from
https://transportevolved.com/2014/03/06/chargemaster-unveils-multiple-uk-tariffs-for-
electric-car-charging-we-explain-all/
Greentech. (2013). About us. Retrieved on 7th December 2015 from
http://www.greentechmalaysia.my/content.asp?zoneid=1&cmscategoryid=350#.VmWirmS
GSko
Greentech. (2015). Greentech plans 25,000 electric car charging stations nationwide.
Bernama. Retrieved on 8th December 2015 from
http://www.therakyatpost.com/business/2015/09/10/greentech-plans-25000-electric-car-
charging-stations-nationwide/
Harris, L. (2014). In reply to Meet the Latest Electric Car Charging Menace: Copper
Thieves. Retrieved on 8th December 2015 from
https://transportevolved.com/2014/08/18/meet-latest-electric-car-charging-station-menace-
copper-theives/
IP INFRA. (2015). About us. Retrieved on 9th December 2015 from
http://www.ipinfra.my/aboutus-overview.php#goto

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Ismail, Z., Jamaluddin, F. and Ahmad F.A. (2012). A Review of Forecasting Practices at
TNB. Retrieved on 9th December 2015 from
http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ua
ct=8&ved=0ahUKEwi_wqeb_83JAhXEA44KHXr1DPEQFgghMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fw
ww.researchgate.net%2Fprofile%2FZuhaimy_Ismail%2Fpublication%2F235697124_A_Re
view_on_Forecasting_Practices_at_TNB%2Flinks%2F0912f512add992a51f000000&usg=
AFQjCNH4soqK5GH4ty470MJ5ztYxCKszIw&bvm=bv.109332125,d.c2E
Jayaraman, P. (2015). Greentech to set up 300 Electric Charging Stations by 2016. The
Malaysian Reserve. Retrieved on 3rd December 2015 from
http://www.themalaysianreserve.com/new/story/greentech-set-300-electric-charging-
stations-2016
Kereta.info. (2008). Perodua Viva Details - Fuel Consumption - Monthly Installment Price.
Retrieved on 28th December 2015 from http://kereta.info/perodua-viva-details-fuel-
consumption-monthly-installment-price/
King, D. (2013). Vandalized EV charging stations in Baltimore remain broken after 10
months. Autoblog.com. Retrieved on 8th December 2015 from
http://www.autoblog.com/2013/07/03/vandalized-ev-charging-stations-in-baltimore-remain-
broken-after/
Larson, K.N. (2015). Low supply of EV charging stations creates conflict.
Energytrends.org. Retrieved on 28th December 2015 from
http://www.energytrends.org/low-supply-of-ev-charging-stations-creates-conflict-2/
Lim, A. (2015). Greentech aims to deploy 25000 EV Chargers by 2020, includes ChargEV
Network. Paultan.org. Retrieved on 3rd December 2015 from
http://paultan.org/2015/08/18/greentech-malaysia-launches-chargev-network/
Lim, C.Y. (2015). Electric vehicles are the face of future mobility. The Star Online.
Retrieved on 28th December 2015 from
http://www.thestar.com.my/lifestyle/features/2015/02/02/electric-vehicles-the-face-of-future-
mobility/
Loveday, E. (2013). Tesla says sub-10 minute Supercharging is possible. InsideEVs.com.
Retrieved on 8th December 2015 from http://insideevs.com/tesla-says-sub-10-minute-
supercharging-is-possible-we-doubt-it/
MyRenaultZoe.com. (2013). Charging. Retrieved on 8th December 2015 from
http://myrenaultzoe.com/index.php/zoe-description/charging/
Nelson Nygaard. (2014). Removing Barriers to Electric Vehicle Adoption by Increasing
Access to Public Infrastructure. Retrieved on 8th December 2015 from
http://www.seattle.gov/Documents/Departments/OSE/FINAL%20REPORT_Removing%20
Barriers%20to%20EV%20Adoption_TO%20POST.pdf
Post, L. (2013). Nissan Leaf All-Electric Car launched in Malaysia. ExpatgoMalaysia.
Retrieved 26th December 2015 from http://www.expatgomalaysia.com/2013/11/17/nissan-
leaf-launched-malaysia/
Reloadfood.com. (2015). First time ride Renault Zoe electric car with UberX experience.
Retrieved on 8th December 2015 from http://www.reloadfood.com/2015/02/first-time-ride-
renault-zoe-electric-car-with-uberx-experience.html
Richards, M.G. (2015). Tesla passes 500 Supercharger Stations Milestone (over 2800
individual Superchargers). Treehugger.com. Retrieved on 3rd December 2015 from
http://www.treehugger.com/cars/tesla-passes-500-supercharger-stations-milestone-over-
2800-individuals-superchargers.html

Saunders, M, Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2009). Research Methods for Business

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Students. 5th ed. London: Pearson Education Ltd.

Shah, H. (2013). Mitsubishi i-MiEV launched in Malaysia for RM136k- the first all-electric
vehicle to be sold in this country. Paultan.org. Retrieved on 26th December 2015 from
http://paultan.org/2013/03/21/mitsubishi-i-miev-launched-in-malaysia-for-rm136k-the-first-
all-electric-vehicle-to-be-sold-in-this-country/
Shah, H. (2015a). Nissan Leaf EV price revised to RM180,566 with GST. Paultan.org.
Retrieved on 26th December 2015 from http://paultan.org/2015/04/29/nissan-leaf-ev-price-
revised-to-rm180566-with-gst/
Shah, H. (2015b). Renault Zoe and Twizy EVs now open for booking, estimated to be
priced at under RM140k and 70k. Paultan.org. Retrieved on 26th December 2015 from
http://paultan.org/2015/04/23/renault-zoe-and-twizy-evs-now-open-for-booking-estimated-
to-be-priced-at-under-rm140k-and-rm70k/
Southern California Edison. (2015). Domestic time-of-use Electric Vehicle charging.
Retrieved on 28th December 2015 from https://www.sce.com/NR/sc3/tm2/pdf/ce114-12.pdf
Subhash. (2015). Greentech Malaysia Work with Dutch Company to Roll Our Electric
Vehicle Infrastructure. Drive Safe and Fast. Retrieved on 9th December 2015 from
http://www.dsf.my/2015/09/greentech-malaysia-work-with-dutch-company-to-roll-out-
electric-vehicle-infrastructure/
Tien Chew. (2013). Where are the Electric Car Charging Stations in Malaysia? ExpatGo
Malaysia. Retrieved on 3rd December 2015 from
http://www.expatgomalaysia.com/2013/11/23/electric-vehicle-charges-malaysia/
TNB. (2014). Energy Planning Challenges from TNB perspective. Retrieved on 9th
December 2014 from http://pennwell.websds.net/2014/kl/pga/slideshows/T1S7O3-
slides.pdf

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Appendix II Bibliography

Bernama. (2015). Malaysia's Electric Vehicle production to start in July 2016. Retrieved
on 28th December 2015 from
http://www.themalaysianinsider.com/business/article/malaysias-electric-vehicle-production-
to-start-in-july-2016

EVWorld. (2015). Malaysia to become Electric Car production centre. Retrieved on 28th
December 2015 from http://evworld.com/news.cfm?newsid=34947

Malay Mail. (2015). Malaysia to be regional hub for BAIC electric cars, Mukhriz says.
Retrieved on 28th December 2015 from
http://www.themalaymailonline.com/money/article/malaysia-to-be-regional-hub-for-baic-
electric-cars-mukhriz-says

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Appendix III Abbreviations

EV Electric Vehicle
FEN First Energy Networks
TNB Tenaga Nasional Berhad

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Appendix IV Glossary

Tenaga Nasional Berhad: West Malaysia's Electricity Utility Company

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Appendix V Survey questions

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This questionnaire is intended to gauge Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Station


installation progress effectiveness in Malaysia, barriers faced to install them, and
recommendations to overcome such barriers.

Please circle or tick the most correct answer (if any). Please also elaborate with
written feedback if none of the answer options are correct/suitable. Thanks!
Respondent Name / Company / Agency: _________________________________
Date of response: _________________________________

A) Installation progress effectiveness


1) What are your company's/agency's planned targets for EV Charging Station
installations?
a) 300 Charging Stations by end-2015
b) 300 Charging Stations by end-2016
c) 260 Charging Stations by end-2015
d) 260 Charging Stations by end-2016
e) 25,000 Charging Stations by 2020
f) Other : _______________________

2) What are your company's/agency's current achievements for EV Charging


Stations, in terms of amount of stations installed so far?
a) 31-40 installed
b) 21-30 installed
c) 11-20 installed
d) 1-10 installed
e) Other / more precise amount (if available): _____________________

B) Barriers
3) What barriers do you face when installing such stations?
Please rank in terms of most difficult to overcome:
Rank
a) Equipment cost ____
b) Land cost ____
c) Regulatory approvals ____
d) Poor/uncertain payback ____
e) Lack of shade ____
f) Vandalism ____

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g) Other: ______________ ____

4) How much does it cost a premise owner to install an EV charging station, broken
down into equipment, labour & land? Please tick one row in each column:
Equipment Labour Land
RM1k - <10k
RM 10k - 20k
> RM 20k
Other subjective feedback: ___________________________________________

C) Ways to overcome barriers


5) If the following became a reality:
(i) EVs cost, look and perform similarly to your preferred petrol/diesel/hybrid car
in terms of speed and acceleration, and
(ii) 100km EV range recharge in 10 minutes were available at every petrol
station,
what would be your highest acceptable recharge price per 100km of EV driving
range which would make you decide on making your next vehicle an EV ? *
a) RM5 - <RM10
b) RM10 - <RM15
c) RM15 - <RM20
d) RM20 - <RM30
e) RM30 - <RM50
f) I cannot accept a 100km range limit for every 10 minutes of charging

6) What actions/policies/practices would you recommend to overcome the main


barriers to EV charging station installation progress? Please rank your
recommendations:
Rank
a) Install EV stations at petrol stations ____
b) Install more EV stations at car parks ____
c) Develop regulations that enforce a minimum % of EV-only parking ____
d) Allow free charging indefinitely at all EV stations ____
e) Ensure sufficient EV stations to allow driving anywhere in Malaysia ____
f) Other: ______________ ____

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