Several Tests for Drilling Fluid in Field

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Sand content

Step 1. Fill glass measure tube to ³mud´ line with mud. Add water to next scribed mark. Place thumb over mouth of tube and shake vigorously. 2. Pour mixture onto the clean screen. Add more water to tube and shake. Pour onto screen. Discard liquid that passes through the screen 3. Repeat Step 2 until wash water is clean. Then wash sand retained on screen in order to free any adhering mud. 4. Place funnel on top of screen assembly. Slowly invert assembly and insert tip of funnel into glass tube. Wash sand back into tube with a fine spray of water or a wash bottle.

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Methylene blue test (MBT)
The methylene blue capacity test indicates the concentration of reactive clays present in a drilling fluid. Reactive clays are commercial bentonite and formation solids such as shales.

Step 1. If the mud to be tested contains air, stir slowly for 2-3 minutes to release entrapped air. 2. Use a 2.5 or 3.0-cm3 syringe to measure exactly 2.0 cm 3 of drilling fluid. 3. To the Erlenmeyer flask, add 10 cm 3 water and 2 cm3 of mud. 4. Next, add 15 cm3 of 3% hydrogen peroxide to the flask. Then, add 0.5 cm 3 of 5N sulfuric acid. 5. Gently boil the suspension for 10 minutes on the hot plate. 6. After boiling, remove flask from hot plate and bring the total suspension volume in the Erlenmeyer flask to 50 cm3 with distilled water. Allow to cool before proceeding to the next step. 7. With a 1-cm3 pipette, add methylene blue to the flask in 0.5 -cm3 increments. If the approximate amount of methylene blue is

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known from prior testing, larger increments can be added at the beginning of this titration.) After each addition of methylene blue solution, swirl the contents of flask for 30 seconds. While the solids are still suspended, remove a drop of liquid on the end of a glass rod. Place the drop onto a Whatman #1 filter paper. Observe the liquid that wicks out from around the solids on the paper. The solids will be blue. The liquid will become blue (and form a halo) when the initial endpoint of the methylene blue titration is reached. (This initial endpoint means that the active solids are almost saturated with the blue dye, but perhaps not all.) 8. To find the final endpoint, after detecting the initial endpoint, swirl the flask for 2 minutes and place another drop on a clean area of the filter paper. If the blue ring (or halo) is again evident, the final endpoint has been reached. If the blue ring is not evident, continue as before adding 0.5 -cm3 increments of methylene blue solution - until the blue ring is present after 2 minutes of swirling the flask. 9. The methylene blue test results are reported as methylene blue capacity (MBC) or as lb/bbl bentonite equivalent as in equations (a) and (b) below: a. MBC = cm3 methylene blue solution/cm 3 mud sample b. lb/bbl bentonite equivalent = 5 (MBC)

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Mud Alkalinity (PM)
Whole mud (liquid + solids) alkalinity is used to estimate the quan tity of undissolved lime, which is used in controlling lime muds and in treating out cement.

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Step 1. Measure 1.0 cm3 of mud into a titration vessel using a 2.5 or 3.0cm3 syringe 2. Add 50 cm3 of distilled water to the mud sample and stir with stirring rod. 3. Add 5 drops of phenolphthalein indicator solution. A pink color will appear if alkalinity is present. 4. While stirring, rapidly titrate with 0.02 normal (N/50) sulfuric acid until the pink color disappears.

Note: If endpoint color change is masked, a pH meter can be used to determine when the endpoint of pH8.3 is reached.

5. Report the phenolphthalein alkalinity of the mud, PM, as the number of cm3 of 0.02 normal (N/50) acid required per cm 3 of mud.

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Filtrate Alkalinity (PF) Filtrate (liquid only) PF alkalinity can indicate presence of hydroxyl and carbonate ions in most mud systems.

Step 1. Measure 1 cm3 of LPLT (Sec. Low-Temperature/Low-Pressure Filtration) filtrate into titration vessel using a 2.5 - or 3.0-cm3 syringe. 2. Add 3 drops of phenolphthalein indicator solution. 3. If indicator turns pink, titrate (drop by drop) with 0.02 normal (N/50) sulfuric acid until the pink color just disappears. 4. Report the phenolphthalein alkalinity of the filtrate, PF, as the number of cm3 of 0.02 normal acid require per cm 3 of filtrate.

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Note: If the indicator color change is masked because of a dark colored filtrate, the endpoint can be determined using a pH meter. The endpoint is recorded as the cm3 of sulfuric acid required to reduce the filtrate sample pH to 8.3.

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Filtrate Alkalinity (MF)

Filtrate (liquid only) MF alkalinity can indicate presence of carbonate ions and can be roughly related with GGT carbonates.

Step 1. To the same sample which has just been titrated to the PF endpoint, add 3 drops of methyl orange indicator solution. 2. Titrate with 0.02 normal (N/50) sulfuric acid (drop by drop) while stirring until the indicator changes from yellow to pink. 3. Report the methyl orange alkalinity (MF) as the total cm 3 of 0.02 normal acid per cm 3 of filtrate required to reach the methyl orange endpoint. The MF is recorded as the total volume of acid require per cm3 of filtrate. (The total volume includes the cm 3 of acid in the PF titration plus the cm 3 of acid in the MF titration.)

Note: The endpoint can be determined using a pH meter. The endpoint is recorded as the total volume of acid required to reduce the filtrate sample pH to 4.3

Estimated concentrations of hydroxyl, carbonate and bicarbonate ions can be determined using Table below

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Lime Content
Step 1. Determine the PF and PM alkalinities of the mud. 2. Determine the volume fraction of water in the mud, FW, from the retort as follows:  

3. Calculate and report the lb/bbl lime content in the mud using the following equation:   

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Chloride
The chloride ion content is a useful indicator of drilling through salt stringers, taking saltwater flows and for checking the quality of make up water.

Step 1. Measure 1 cm3 filtrate into the titration vessel. 2. Add 2-3 drops phenolphthalein indicator solution.

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3. If indicator turns pink, stir sample with glass stirring rod. While stirring, add 0.02N (N/50) sulfuric acid (drop by drop) until the color disappears. 4. Add 50 cm3 deionized water and 10 drops of potassium chromate solution. 5. Stir continuously while adding silver nitrate solution (Use 0.0282N for chlorides <10,000 mg/L and 0.282N for chlorides >10,000 mg/L.) from pipette until the color changes from yellow to orange red and persists for 30 seconds. 6. Record the number of cm 3 of silver nitrate solution required to reach the endpoint. 7. Calculate and report the chloride ion concentration of filtrate, mg/L, as follows: For Cl-<10,000 mg/L: For Cl - >10,000 mg/L:   
  

 

    

 



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Total Hardness
The hardness of water or mud filtrate is due primarily to the presence of calcium (Ca++) and magnesium (Mg++) ions. The harder the water, the more difficult for many chemicals to function, particularly bentonite clay. Also, hardness decreases efficiency of most polymers.

Step 1. Add 50 cm3 deionized water to titration vessel; then, add 2 cm3 (20 drops) of Versenate Hardness Buffer Solution. 2. Add 10 drops of Versenate Hardness Indicator solution. If calcium and/or magnesium is present in the deionized water, a wine-red color will develop. If not, the solution will remain blue. 3. While stirring, titrate with EDTA (standard versenate) until solution color changes from wine-red to blue. DO NOT GO PAST ENDPOINT!

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Note: Steps 1-3 have removed the hardness from the deionized water if any was present. 4. Add 1 cm3 of filtrate to the deionized water. If calcium and/or magnesium is present, a wine-red color will develop. While stirring, titrate (drop by drop) with EDTA until color indicator ch anges from wine-red to blue. 5. Note the cm3 of EDTA and calculate hardness, mg/L, as follows:     

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Calcium and Magnesium
As mentioned under Total Hardness, divalent cations can adversely affect mud properties. Calcium and Magnesium can affect muds in different ways; therefore, they may need to be analyzed separately.

Step 1. Add 50 cm3 de ionized water to titration vessel, then add 1 cm3 Calcium Hardness Buffer solution. 2. Add a pinch of Calver II indicator powder. If calcium is present, a wine-red color will develop. 3. While stirring, titrate with EDTA (drop by drop) until sample color changes from wine-red to blue. DO NOT GO PAST ENDPOINT! 4. Add 1 cm3 of filtrate to the deionized wa ter. If calcium is present, a wine-red color will develop. 5. While stirring, titrate with EDTA (drop by drop) until the color indicator changes from wine-red to blue. 6. Note the cm3 of EDTA and calculate calcium, mg/L, as follows:    

7. The magnesium ion concentration is determined by difference of the total hardness less the calcium, times a factor of (0.6).    

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