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SI Units
temperature: °C
amount: g-mol
AFT-Calc
mass: g
energy: J
An Adiabatic Flame Temperature Calculator for
Combustion of Natural Gas

Calculations based on combustion of 1 gram-mol
this document. fuel
Document
Fuel
Burner Flame:
CO2, H2O, O2, N2
Oxidant

Enter/Edit values in blue-bordered cells only! Heat loss, J
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these

Natural Gas/Fuel Properties Oxidant Properties
Species mol % % O2 in Oxidant
Methane CH4 96.40% Upper limit on % excess oxidant
Ethene C2H4 0.15% Oxidant temperature, °C
Ethane C2H6 0.30% Stoichiometric amount of oxidant
Propane C3H8 0.25%
Butanes & higher C4H10 + 0.10% Fuel temperature, °C
Hydrogen H2 0.20% Element Balance of Fuel
Carbon monoxide CO 0.15% Element moles mass
Carbon dioxide CO2 0.20% C 0.988 11.866
Water vapor H2O 0.00% H 3.914 3.945
Nitrogen (by diff.) N2 2.25% O 0.006 0.088
N 0.045 0.630
Graphite C 0.0% Sum 4.953 16.529

Thermodynamic Data
Table I. Molar H°form at 25 °C Table II. Molar H°reax at 25 °C
J/g-mol Reaction to form H2O(g)
CH4 -74,810 2O2 + CH4 → CO2 + 2H2O(g)
C2H4 52,467 3O2 + C2H4 → 2CO2 + 2H2O(g)
C2H6 -84,684 3½O2 + C2H6 → 2CO2 + 3H2O(g)
NG reactant species C3H8 -103,847 5O2 + C3H8 → 3CO2 + 4H2O(g)

C4H10 -126,148 6½O2 + C4H10 → 4CO2 + 5H2O(g)
H2 0 ½O2 + H2 → H2O(g)
CO -110,529 ½O2 + CO → CO2

Combustion CO2 -393,509 C + O2 → CO2
products H2O(g) -241,814
H2O(liq) -285,830 H2O(g) → H2O(liq)

Table III. Heat Content Above 25 °C, J/g-mol
T, °C O2, (g) N2, (g) H2O, (g) CO2, (g)
1000 32371 30595 37719 48624
1100 35977 34009 42222 54347 Heat Cont
1200 39614 37460 46831 60136 110,000
1300 43278 40944 51541 65982 f(x) = 0.0020055915x^2 + 5
1400 46967 44457 56347 71877 100,000
1500 50680 47998 61243 77817
1600 54416 51563 66223 83795 90,000
1700 58174 55150 71282 89808 heat content,
f(x)J/mol
= 0.0042038585x^2 + 3
1800 61954 58756 76414 95851 80,000
2000 69576 66017 86872 108015
70,000
Data from FREED database program. f(x) = 0.0011726951x^2 + 3
f(x) = 0.0012285294x^2 + 3
Excel's Trendline tool used to fit data to quadratic equation. 60,000
Chart equations valid between 900° - 2100 °C.
50,000

40,000
Process Design & Simulation
30,000
1000 1200 140

For x. Enter 0 for an adiabatic calculation.1283.0% 20.0% 60. -2.0% 100% AFT. use %/100.0% 40.936 1.0% 10. % Excess Oxidant 2200 Flame: f(x) = -308.7164407551 2100 R² = 0. Data will be copied into the Calcs workshee -802. ture Calculator for Excess Air www.043. © 2013 by Arthur E. plus one for stored results.113 The calculator contains a sample system. The oxidant temperature range should be between 0° .net f Natural Gas ustion of 1 gram-mole of AFT vs.323. Enter data only on J/g-mol this worksheet.5138154314 ln(x) + 1258.100°C. Chart and table will reconfigure when any blue-cell entry value is changed.327 Figure 1 summarizes the results. The chart legend shows a quadratic Trendline fit. Excel's Trendline tool can be used to give a quadratic equation fit to the results. Enter the fuel composition in column E. Summary of Results % XS oxidant 0.thermart.0% 80. Th %C (E31) should be 0% (or 100% for graphite combustion). C 1600 Oxidant Properties 1500 21% 1400 100% 25 1300 9.351 1200 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 25 % excess oxidant Figure 1.9702695844 CO2. Morris. °C 2051 1914 1795 1598 1441 1313 1207 AFT-Calc Operation The Calculator has two main worksheets.427. Enter the oxidant properties in range K19:K21 and the heat loss in cell K16. N2 2000 f(x) = 454. -1. Enter the fuel temperature in cell K24. Relationship between the AFT and the % excess oxidant used for combustion.9126915922x + 2042. O2. Changing any blue-bordered cell value will result in recalculatio -1.100°C.0145766696x^2 . 3.2631557013 1900 0 1800 1700 AFT.776 of all other dependent values. in the range should be between 0° . making sure that the value in cell F29 is non-negative. in blue-bordered cells only. .Calc AFT-Calc is a Thermart Software program. 2. Please read cell comments (cells with red corner). H2O. deg. and the document.

0042038585x^2 + 36. Seven values will be -393.3387411164 000 000 ontent.510 used in the % available heat calculation. The chart legend shows a quadratic Trendline fit.980 adiabatic calculation.100°C.814 2. (g) 000 Polynomial (O2. Please read cell comments (cells with red corner). Enter the oxidant properties in range K19:K21 and the heat loss in cell K16. A complete summary of the available heat results are shown on worksheet Calcs.656. Figure 1 summarizes the results. 5. and chart them. 3. The oxidant temperature range should be between 0° . Please read the cell comments and documents. 7.0153732532 000 000 O2. 4. Th -2. plus a chart for other species. making sure that the value in cell F29 is non-negative.020 StoredResults. Enter 0 for an -282.6052926736x . 6.5631055861 000 000 f(x) = 0. -241.6999325847x .4328621367x .0011726951x^2 + 33.1194199172 f(x) = 0. (g)) 000 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 temperature. Heat Content of Offgas Species Above 25°C 000 f(x) = 0. Enter the fuel composition in column E. Changing any blue-bordered cell value will result in recalculatio of all other dependent values. If desired. C .6847.7667882685x .958 %C (E31) should be 0% (or 100% for graphite combustion). in the range should be between 0° . and the document.2417.3123. 1.0012285294x^2 + 31. Enter the upper limit on the range of calculations of % excess air in cell K20. you can copy results for several different fuels or oxidant properties to worksheet -44. f(x)J/mol = 0. This worksheet has results for pure methane combustion for the conditions noted in the IH article. Enter the fuel temperature in cell K24. deg.2509. The calculator contains a sample system.100°C.0020055915x^2 + 53. starting at stoichiometric oxidant (0% excess).

ults. Enter data only on o the Calcs worksheet. lue will result in recalculation orner). For x. The 16. uadratic Trendline fit.100°C. and the document. l F29 is non-negative.100°C. use %/100.51 2042. ts. Enter 0 for an ° . ° .2631557013 80% 90% 100% ombustion. .

K20. Seven values will be 0% excess). lue will result in recalculation orner). and the document.uadratic Trendline fit. eet Calcs. The 16.100°C. erties to worksheet e combustion for the . Enter 0 for an ° . l F29 is non-negative. ° .100°C.

00 0.30% 0.25% 0. 900 .39 H2O produced by combustion 1.56% -773.09 0.70 1.63 3.2100°C A B C A B C -3120 36. 900 . Please read cell comments Calculator created Fuel by Burner A. kJ/g-mol -788. parameters. 900 .04 0.07 0.00 0.01 0.53 moles mass CO2 produced by combustion 0.657 Hydrogen H2 29 2.6 18.173E-03 H2O(g). g Mass % H°comb Methane CH4 36 16.02% -484 Carbon monoxide CO 30 28.11 0. 900 .25% -424 Carbon dioxide CO2 38 44.2100°C CO2.47 93.09 0.06 0.01 2.443 Ethene C2H4 43 28.00 0.110 Butanes & higher C4H10 + 103 58.283 Propane C3H8 75 44.05 0.) N2 29.net Do not edit/enter values in any cells! Legend Values Entered on MainEntry Natural Gas/Fuel Properties Species Cp Mol.10 0.204E-03 -6850 53.10% 0.2100°C O2.67% -5.20% 0.25% 0.006E-03 .01 0.00% 0.00 --- H°comb of Fuel. Morris Thermart Software Oxidant www.12 0.965 62.957 35.25% -1.00% 0.53% 0 Water vapor H2O 33. Heat content eq'n.43 2.61 4. O2 required for combustion 1.985 Ethane C2H6 54 30.986 43.01 0.386 Molecular mass of NG 16.04 96.00% 0 O2 29.15% 0.26 Stoich.77 1.229E-03 -2510 33.4 32. mass Vol % Mass.15% 0.02 0.55% -4.35% -2. E.04 0.00% 0 Nitrogen (by diff. J/g-mol = A + BT + CT2 N2.1 28.20% 0.86 Table IV.02 0.2100°C A B C A B C -2420 31.thermart.81% 0 Graphite C 10 12.40% 15.

Calculate AFT using quadratic formula (M52:S52). °C 25 Calculational Strategy 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 at 25°C 2 H°comb 1 2 1 2 1. Cell I20 Step Values for Quadratic Formula Step 3. Burn fuel at 25°C. Step 4. M47:S47 (HT-H25 of reactants + HT-H25 of products + Hloss + H°comb) = 0 Step 5. Heat products to AFT. 1 2. Quadratic Formula based on: aX2 + bX + c = 0  b  b²  4ac X  2a . Bring reactants Step 1 to 25°C. J 0 Oxidant temperature. AFT Heat loss. °C 25 Fuel temperature. Sum of all heats = 0.

00 0.41 8.09 14.15 8.7% 3.95 19.65 71.4% Heat Balance Calculations % XS oxidant 0.2% 5.41% Oxidant mass 269.095 15.982E-03 1.966 Dry stack gas amount 8.227E-03 8.5% 74.39 0.75 377.982E-03 1.0 2.0% 20.355 11.398 9.8% 8.0% 13. Offgas CO2 9.0% 40.0 2.7% 73. % Offgas N2 71.84 Offgas O2 0.57% 7.36 11.82% 6.65 71.18 Offgas H2O 18.87 3.65 C 8.35 Stoichiometric oxidant inerts 7.333 10.65 71.0 1.22 13.9% 12.0 2.5% 8.3% Composition.0 g-mol Offgas N2 7.77 323.85 26. N2 values in any cells! Material Balance Calculations Vol.79 52.0 1.96 Excess oxidant 0.0% Combustion products 2.74 5.290 12.35 10.65 71.38% Offgas amount 10.9% 17.3% 16.0% 20.67 Oxidant/Fuel mass ratio 16.227E-03 8.94 1.79 52.11 Offgas H2O 2.1% 7.61 %O2 in offgas 0.0% 1.89 10.982E-03 1.982E-03 .79 52.968 Stoichiometric oxidant 9.2% vol.00% 1.79 C 1. H2O.79 52. Flame: CO2.79 296.0 1.0% 10.29 11.0% 40. % O2 in oxidant gas 21.71 431.59 22.227E-03 8.0% 60.0 2.227E-03 A -6768 -6768 -6768 -6768 -6768 Offgas CO2 B 52.2% Offgas O2 0.2% 72.009 %O2 in dry offgas 0.0 1.20 0.138 14.6% 72.0% A -6106 -6106 -6106 -6106 -6106 Offgas H2O B 71.74% 3.0% 60.39 Oxidant gas required 9.268 12. O2.00% % XS oxidant 0.32 17.0 Amount.10% 3.225 14.00 0. Offgas CO2 1.982E-03 1.0% 6.227E-03 8.79 1.21% 5.47% 8.0% 10.6% 7.00% 2.

29 376.045E-02 2.37 a 0 2.35 329.41 258.88 282.94 420.382E-03 c -819192 -821472 -823753 -828314 -832876 Values for Quadratic Formula b 359.23 C 9.615E-02 HT-H25 for oxidant & fuel 0 0 0 0 0 AFT 2051 1914 1795 1598 1441 bX + c = 0 .62 13.02 480.214E-04 1.303E-04 4.159E-02 2.47 39.24 26. A -17932 -19720 -21508 -25083 -28659 Offgas N2 B 235.107E-03 1.85 389.71 C 0 2.274E-02 1.455E-02 A 0 -493 -986 -1972 -2957 Offgas O2 B 0 6.387E-02 2.092E-02 1.20 540.001E-02 1.607E-04 9.

89% 11.48 9.0% tions 80.0 1.0% 9.0% -6106 -6106 71.836 19.9% 5.58 29.79 1.8% 10.63 539.35 8.alculations 80.06% 485.0 1.706 15.5% 5.96 11.65 8.65 71.0% 100% 16.1% 8.227E-03 -6768 -6768 52.70 7.32 14.0% 74.7% 75.0 13.57 1.749 9.97% 17.38 32.879 17.80 1.64 2.0% 100.81% 9.982E-03 1.227E-03 8.83 18.0 2.982E-03 .79 52.

843E-03 2.55 660. -32234 -35810 423.11 1.070E-02 0 0 1313 1207 .819E-02 -3943 -4929 52.94 66.73 2.18 1.17 470.303E-03 -837437 -841998 600.637E-02 1.842E-02 3.

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% O2 in oxidant gas 21.0% % excess oxidant gas 0.968 Stoichiometric oxidant 9.35 Combustion water 1.355 Dry stack gas volume 8.398 %O2 in dry stack gas 0.00 % stoichiometric oxidant gas 100.39 Excess oxidant 0.00% Desired %O2 in comb. Vol.35 Stoichiometric oxidant inerts 7.957 Stack gas volume 10.00% Oxidant mass #REF! Ox/NG mass ratio #REF! .00% Required oxidant 9.00% Combustion products 2. flame 0.

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30 301.754 12.66 1.84% 280.50% 3.75% 5.14 325.25% 2.40 2.010 11.75 11.25 3.0% 115.6% 7.60% 10.07% 34.606 13.96% 24.01 10.59 11.52% 3.24 107.0% 124.1.1% 134.00% Calculator #1 0.591 9.797 10.60 12.053 9.59 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! .649 11.44% 5.634 1.00 352.00% 4.01% 14.

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Excel's Trendline tool can be used to give a quadratic equation fit to the results. Summary of Results--Methane Text Example % XS oxidant 0.0% 40.6932480283x + 2052. For x. C 1600 1500 1400 1300 . Relationship between the AFT and % excess oxidant for article example.1284.0% 10. AFT = 1608°C with 40% excess oxygen.0% 20. Equilibrium AFT 2200 2100 Theo rC 2000 Theo rCH4 1900 1800 1700 AFT. deg. % Excess Oxidant for CH4 Combustion 2200 2100 2000 f(x) = 454. Results of Sample Calculations AFT vs. °C 2061 1924 1805 1608 1451 1323 1217 Theoretical vs. As noted in article text. deg. use %/100.0% 60.6899588877x^2 .2071579021 1900 1800 1700 AFT. Air enters at 38°C and methane at 20°C. C 1600 1500 1400 1300 1200 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% % excess oxidant Figure 1.0% 100% AFT.0% 80.

009% 0.9% 13.000% N2 70.000% 0.92% 2.0% 6.001% O2 0.319% 0.00% NO 0.000% 0.4% 6.016% 0.4% 78.45% 0.00% 0.009% 0. Comparison between theoretical (solid lines) and equilibrium (dashed lines) AFT for combustion Notice the increasing deviation between the two versions above about 1650°C.185% O 0.006% 0.69% 5.294% 0.911% 0.0% 15.1% 17.4% 7.047% 0.41% 0.9% 71.6% 78.4% 7.0% 10.5% 6.000% NO 0.00% 0.4% 7.002% CO2 8.4% 72.024% 0.00% 0.267% 0.00% 0. The difference is caused by increasing thermal disproportion of H 2O and CO2 at elevated temperatures (s Summary of Results--Methane % XS oxidant 0.0% N2O 0.3% 73.1% 16.000% 0.107% 0.042% 0.053% 0.000% 0.00% 0.9% 13.005% 0.7% 74.004% 0.00% 0.29% 0.000% 0.0% 30.002% 0.0% 4.133% 0. C 1600 1500 1400 1300 1200 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% % excess oxidant Figure 3. 1700 AFT.004% 0.9% 7.000% 0. °C 1954 1872 1772 1676 1588 1508 1436 CO 0.7% 3.5% 18.3% H2 0.001% H2O 18.2% N 0. °C 2027 1952 1852 1748 1651 1562 1482 CO 2.000% 0.021% 0.00% 0.308% 0.9% N2O 0.1% 15.889% 0.0% 14.016% 0.002% O2 0.000% 0.35% 0.030% 0.00% 0.034% Summary of Results--Graphite % XS oxidant 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% AFT.265% 0.00% 0.006% CO2 18.014% 0.085% 0.199% 0.0% 20.1% N 0.5% 8.00% N2 77.3% 5.86% 7.003% 0.00% 0.23% O 0.8% 78.42% 4.116% 0.030% 0.23% 0.9% 73.7% 78.224% 0.00% 0.9% 14.84% 6.1% 12.202% 0.011% 0.35% 0.000% 0.000% 0.10% 3.087% 0. deg.9% 78.037% 0.45% 0.000% 0.76% .00% 0.368% 0.326% 0.4% 17.0% AFT.046% 0.0% 40.282% 0.000% 0.5% 1.3% OH 0.017% 0.8% 72.336% 0.0% 60.8% 78.0% 50.0% 13.

0% 40. °C 2119 1975 1850 1644 1480 Theo rC Summary of Results--Graphite Theo % XS oxidant 0.0% AFT.0% 40. °C 2106 1964 1840 1636 1473 Summary of Results--Propane % XS oxidant 0.0% 40.0% 20. °C 2053 1916 1797 1599 1442 Summary of Results--Ethane % XS oxidant 0.0% 60. Summary of Results--Methane % XS oxidant 0.0% AFT. deg. °C 2247 2112 1992 1789 1624 Summary of Results--Carbon Monoxide % XS oxidant 0.0% 20.0% 20.0% AFT.0% 20.0% 40.0% AFT.0% 10.0% 10.0% 60. °C 2185 2024 1886 1662 1488 Summary of Results--Hydrogen % XS oxidant 0.0% 20.0% 60.0% 10. °C 2384 2248 2127 1922 1754 .0% 10.0% 20. Oxidant and fuel enter at 25°C.0% 40. Relationship between the theoretical AFT and % excess oxidant for differ methane at 20°C.0% 60. C 1600 1400 1200 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100 % excess oxidant Figure 2. % Excess Oxidant for Different Fuels WordPad 2400 Document CH 2200 4 C2 H6 2000 1800 AFT. Please read AFT vs.0% AFT.0% 10.0% 40.0% 60.0% 10.0% 60.0% rCH4 AFT.

4% 11.099% 0.6% 11.001% 0.000% 5.00% 78.000% 8.9% 78.00% 0. Link at elevated temperatures (see data below).19% 0.google.000% 0.1% 8.122% 0.8% 9.000% 0.15% 0.013% 0.009% 70% 80% 90% 1410 1344 1285 0.8% 5.000% 0.000% 0.4% 0.00% 0.0% 80.9% 0.000% 0.9% 78.7% 11.002% 0.000% 0.5% 5.26% 9.000% 12.000% 74.55% 9.0% 90% 100% Process Design & Simulation d lines) AFT for combustion of CH 4 and C(graphite).00% 0.0% 10. https://plus.com/+ChemicalEngineeringAspenTech/posts 70.001% 0.3% 74.001% 0.1% 0.000% 0.000% 0.89% .2% 0.000% 0.001% 0.001% 0.0% 90.151% 0.8% 0.000% 8.000% 11.6% 74.00% 0.12% 0.021% 0.00% 0.5% 0.0% 1370 1310 1256 0.

0% 100% 1348 1233 --Hydrogen 80.0% 100% 1341 1232 80.0% 100% 1313 1207 80.0% 100% 1615 1496 .ferent Fuels CH 4 C2 H6 70% 80% 90% 100% d % excess oxidant for different fuels.0% 100% 1488 1373 --Carbon Monoxide 80. 80.0% 100% 1347 1237 80.

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