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Three-Storey Residential Building with Roof Deck with

Recycled Glass as Concrete Admixture That Can Withstand


the Wind Load of Super Typhoon Yolanda

Researchers:

Apit, John Carlo T.


Bongalos, Jake Andrew T.
Laggui, John Paul M.

Submitted to the School of Civil, Environmental and Geological


Engineering (SCEGE)

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements


For the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering

Mapua Institute of Technology


Manila City

September/2014
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APPROVAL SHEET
This is to certify that we have supervised the preparation of and read the research directed
study entitled THREE-STOREY RESIDENTIAL BUILDING WITH ROOF DECK WITH
RECYCLED GLASS AS CONCRETE ADMIXTURE THAT CAN WITHSTAND THE
WIND LOAD OF TYPHOON YOLANDA, Prepared by JAKE ANDREW BONGALOS,
JOHN CARLO APIT, and JOHN PAUL LAGGUI, that the said research directed study has
been submitted for final examination by the Oral Examination Committee.

ENGR BIENVENIDO A. CERVANTES


Project Adviser

As members of the Oral Examination Committee, we certify that we have examined this
research directed study, presented before the committee on September 11, 2014, and
hereby recommend that it be accepted as fulfillment of the research directed study
requirement for the degree in Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering.

Engr. Melchor Pilones Engr. Divina R. Gonzales


Panel Member Panel Member

Engr. Victor Sabandeja


Panel Member

This research directed study is hereby approved and accepted by the School as fulfillment
of the research directed study requirement for the degree in Bachelor of Science in Civil
Engineering.

______________________________
DR. FRANCIS ALDRINE A. UY
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This thesis, entitled THREE-STOREY RESIDENTIAL BUILDING WITH ROOF


DECK WITH RECYCLED GLASS AS CONCRETE ADMIXTURE THAT CAN
WITHSTAND THE WIND LOAD OF TYPHOON YOLANDA, prepared and submitted
by, JAKE ANDREW BONGALOS, JOHN CARLO APIT, and JOHN PAUL LAGGUI in
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING is hereby accepted.

THREE-STOREY RESIDENTIAL BUILDING WITH ROOF DECK WITH


RECYCLED GLASS AS CONCRETE ADMIXTURE THAT CAN WITHSTAND
THE WIND LOAD OF TYPHOON YOLANDA.

ENGR. BIENVENIDO A. CERVANTES


Project Adviser

Accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree BACHELOR OF


SCIENCE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING.

DR. FRANCIS ALDRINE A. UY


Dean
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Executive Summary

The researcher will present this project to design a residential building using
alternative structural materials or rather recycled materials which saves space, cost and
energy. The design is a three-storey building that uses a recycled glass aggregate as
concrete admixtures in column pedestal and beam girders. The project also concentrates on
enhancing the capacity of the structure to withstand upcoming typhoons which the recent
one is Yolanda that swept the Visayas region.
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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

Chapter 2 Presenting the Challenges.. 2


2.1 Problem Statement 2
2.2 Project Objective .. 2
2.3 Design Norms Considered 2
2.4 Major and Minor Areas of Civil Engineering. 3
2.5 The Project Beneficiary. 8
2.6 The Innovative Approach. 8
2.7 The Research Component. 8
2.8 The Design Component. 8
2.9 Sustainable Development Concept... 9

Chapter 3 Environmental Examination Report.. 10


3.1 Project Description 10
3.1.1 Project Rationale. 10
3.1.2 Project Location.. 10
3.1.3 Project Information.. 11
3.1.4 Description of Project Phases. 11
3.1.5 Pre-construction/Operational phase. 11
3.1.6 Construction phase.. 12
3.1.6.1 Clearing and Grubbing 12
3.1.6.2 Excavation... 12
3.1.6.3 Building Structure .. 12
3.1.6.4 Water and Sewer Lines 12
3.1.5.5 Power Distribution System.. 12
3.1.7 Operational phase .. 12
3.1.8 Abandonment phase 12

3.2 Description of Environmental Setting and


Receiving Environment 13
3.2.1 Physical Environment. 13
3.2.2 Biological Environment.. 13
3.2.3 Socio-Cultural, Economic and Political Environment. 13
3.2.4 Future Environmental Conditions without the Project 13
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3.3 Impact Assessment and Mitigation.. 13


3.3.1 Summary Matrix of Predicted Environmental
Issues/Impacts and their Level of
Significance at Various Stages of Development.. 14
3.3.2 Brief Discussion of Specific Significant Impacts on
the Physical and Biological Resources 14
3.3.3 Brief Discussion of Significant Socio-economic
Effects/Impacts of the Project. 14
3.4 Environmental Management Plan15
3.4.1 Summary Matrix of Mitigation and
Enhancement Measures, Estimated Cost and Responsibilities 15
3.4.2 Brief Discussion of Mitigation and Enhancement Measures.. 17
3.4.3 Monitoring Plan... 19
3.4.4 Institutional Responsibilities and Agreements 19

Chapter 4 The Research Component 20


4.1 Abstract.......... 20
4.2 Review of Literature. 20
4.2.1 Aspects of Structural Design of Glass 20
4.2.2 Recycling of Materials in Civil Engineering.. 21
4.2.3 Assessment of design procedures for structural glass beams. 21
4.2.4 Glass Masonry 22
4.2.5 Use of waste glass as aggregate in concrete.. 22
4.2.6 The Use of Sheet Glass Powder as
Fine Aggregate Replacement in Concrete.. 23
4.3 Methodology... 24
4.3.1 Research Framework.. 24
4.4 Results and Discussion...25
4.5 Conclusions and Recommendations 26

Chapter 5 Detailed Engineering Design. 36


5.1 Structural Design... 36
5.1.1 Introduction. 36
5.1.2 Dead Loads 36
5.1.3 Live Loads.. 36
5.1.4 Wind Loads. 36
5.1.5 Beam, Column and Slab Design. 37
5.2 Foundation Design. 44
5.2.1 Introduction. 44
5.2.2 Design Considerations ... 44
5.3 Concrete Mix.. 46
5.4 Plan Set... 47
5.4.1 3D Model....... 47
5.4.2 Architectural Plans.... 48
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5.4.3 Structural Plans..56


5.4.4 Typical Framing Plan ... 57
5.4.5 Column Layout Plan.. 58
5.4.6 Foundation Plan. 59

Chapter 6 Cost Estimates.67

Chapter 7 Project Schedule. 70

Chapter 8 Promotional Material... 72

Chapter 9 Conclusion and Summary...... 73

Chapter 10 Recommendations... 75

Chapter 11 Acknowledgements.. 76

Chapter 12 References.. 77
Appendices 78
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List of Tables, Illustrations, Charts or Graphs

FIGURES:

Figure 1 Location where the project will be constructed with existing


infrastructure........................................... 10

Figure 2 Location of the project showing the streets ... 11

Figure 3 Research framework... 24

Figure 4 7th Day Compressive Strength Test Result Part 1... 27

Figure 5 7th Day Compressive Strength Test Result Part 2... 28

Figure 6 28th Day Compressive Strength Test Result Part 1. 29

Figure 7 28th Day Compressive Strength Test Result Part 2. 30

Figure 8 Crushing of Glass................................................................................... 31

Figure 9 Sieving of Glass.. 31

Figure 10 Mixing of Concrete Materials...32

Figure 11 Pouring of Concrete into Slump Cone.. 32

Figure 12 Testing for Slump Test.. 33

Figure 13 Concrete Cylinders ready for curing 33

Figure 14 Concrete Cylinders... 34

Figure 15 Universal Testing Machine (UTM)...... 34

Figure 16 Testing of Concrete Cylinders.. 35

Figure 17 Crushed Concrete Cylinder after Testing..35

Figure 18 Stress Distribution View from Z-axis... 37

Figure 19 Stress Distribution View from X-axis...38


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Figure 20 Stress Distribution Isometric View... 39

Figure 21 Typical Girder Framing 40

Figure 22 Typical Girder Detailing... 41

Figure 23 Typical Beam Detailing.... 42

Figure 24 Typical Slab Detailing.. 43

Figure 25 Typical Footing Detailing.... 44

Figure 26 Wall Footing Detail 45

Figure 27 Footing Tie Beam. 46

Figure 28 Sketch UP Model. 47

Figure 29 Ground Floor 48

Figure 30 Second Floor. 49

Figure 31 Third Floor 50

Figure 32 Roof Deck. 51

Figure 33 Front Elevation. 52

Figure 34 Left Side Elevation................... 53

Figure 35 Right Side Elevation. 54

Figure 36 Rear Elevation.. 55

Figure 37 STAAD Model.. 56

Figure 38 Typical Framing Plan 57

Figure 39 Column Layout Plan. 58

Figure 40 Foundation Plan 59

Figure 41 A Gantt chart of the Project Schedule.. 71

Figure 42 Building Faade 72


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Figure 43 Test Results of Concrete with Glass Aggregates for 20th Day Compressive
Strength 78

Figure 44 Test Results of Concrete with Glass Aggregates for 7th Day Compressive
Strength. 79

Figure 45 Borehole Log 83

Figure 46 Soil Report of the adjacent lot.. 84

Figure 47 Distribution Curve 85

Figure 48 Distribution Curve Table. 86


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TABLES:

Table 1 Summary Matrix of Predicted Environmental Issues/Impacts


and their Level of Significance at Various Stages of Development... 10

Table 2 Summary Matrix of Mitigation and


Enhancement Measures, Estimated Cost and Responsibilities.. 15

Table 3 Brief Discussion of Mitigation and Enhancement Measures... 17

Table 4 Monitoring Plan 23

Table 5 Wind Considerations.... 36

Table 6 Girder Details... 41

Table 7 Beam Details.... 42

Table 8 Slab Details. 43

Table 9 Footing Details 44

Table 10 Concrete Mix 46

Table 11 Cost Estimates 68


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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
Global cement industry contributes a large percentage of greenhouse gas emission to
Earth. Concrete and cement production requires 700 and 1750 kW-hour of energy. The
energy is somehow smaller than the aluminum, steel and PVC production (141,500, 46,000
and 24,700), but concrete and cement are widely used in construction. Hence, producing
these materials definitely requires a large amount of energy which affects the environment
due to CO2 emissions (Bacani, 2013).

Because of this, efforts have been made to introduce coarse or fine aggregate waste
materials. In this study the group focused on recycled waste glass material to determine if
this could be used as an admixture for concrete.

Glass waste is increasing year by year in shops, factories and construction areas. Glass
is a common material used as bottles, glass wares and sheet glass. Glass is an ideal material
for recycling and using recycled glass would definitely help the environment and will save
energy. The increasing awareness of glass recycling facilitates the use of waste glass into
different forms in various fields. One of these fields is construction, where waste glass is
recycled and reused for concrete production. In addition, using waste glass in the concrete
production is advantageous, because it lessens the production cost of concrete.

For the design parameter of the structure, the researchers considered the recent calamity
that hit eastern Visayas, Super typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda). Typhoon Haiyan devastated the
province of Samar and Leyte resulting to a damage cost of 12-Billion with a death toll of
4,011. This serves as an inspiration for the researchers to introduce a higher Wind Load in
considering the design parameters of the building.
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CHAPTER 2

Presenting the Challenges

2.1 Problem Statement


In this study, the group focused on recycled glass material and also to determine if this
type of material could be used as an admixture for the concrete that is going to be used in
a residential structure that can sustain the wind load of Typhoon Yolanda. Other problems
that are connected in this project includes analyzing whether the recycled glass aggregates
will affect the compressive strength of a concrete mixture, and determining if using
recycled glass aggregate would be more economical than using normal aggregate.

2.2 Project Objective


This study aims to first research on the strength of the concrete using waste recycled
glass as an admixture. Material testing will also be conducted to determine the 28th day
compressive strength of the concrete. The data that will be gathered from the material
testing will be compared to the data of commercially available and widely used concrete.

This also includes the design of a three-storey residential building with roof deck on
which the researchers will apply the waste recycled glass as an admixture and to adopt a
new maximum wind load based on the recent calamities. The objective also includes
estimation of the overall cost of the building and research on glass as construction material.

In addition, the group would also like to address what engineers should reconsider in
light of Typhoon Yolanda, that is using glass as a wall for structures, since glass is very
brittle and the effort is to introduce a new approach in which the glass can be used. Finally,
the study aims to provide additional research on the use of recycled glass aggregates here
in the Philippines.

2.3 Design Norms Considered


Engineers involved in projects must ensure safety of occupants of the building thus
following the standard procedure. Making the structure economical is also an important
factor without impairing the quality of the structure. Another important norm considered
is aesthetics.
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2.4 Major and Minor Areas of Civil Engineering

Major Field in Civil Engineering


STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING

The major area of engineering here is mainly structural engineering, which include
forming the calculations on design and the estimation of the building cost. The minor areas
where other fields of engineering are required are electrical engineering for wirings,
architectural engineering for the aesthetic of building, and water engineering for the water
pipes and pressure.

Reinforced concrete design principles and design were done by taking into
consideration the provisions from the National Structural Code of the Philippines (NSCP
2010) and the Uniform Building Code (UBC 1997). Earthquake loads and wind loads were
also taken into consideration for a more conservative and safe design. Different load
combinations were used and applied to the design of the reinforced concrete members in
accordance to both the National Structural Code of the Philippines (NSCP 2010) and the
Uniform Building Code (UBC 1992). The designs of the structural members were made
using STAAD Pro V8i, excluding the design of the isolated footings. The isolated footings
were designed using Microsoft Excel.

DEAD LOADS

As stated in Section 204 of the National Structural of the Philippines: Dead loads
consist of the weight of all materials of construction incorporated into the building or other
structure, including but not limited to walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in
partitions, finishes, cladding and other similarly incorporated architectural and structural
items, and fixed equipment, including the weight of cranes.

From Table 204-2 (Minimum Design Loads), the researchers determined the
superimposed dead loads incorporated in the structure.

Superimposed dead loads

As per the National Structural Code of the Philippines 2010:

a. Partition and interior walls = 1.0 kPa


b. Gympsum board (per mm thickness) = 0.008KPa
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LIVE LOADS

As stated in Section 205 of the National Structural Code of the Philippines: Live loads
shall be the maximum loads expected by the intended use or occupancy but in no case shall
be less than the loads required be this section.

From Table 205-1 (Minimum Uniform and Concentrated Live Loads), the group
determined the superimposed live loads into the structure.

As per the National Structural Code of the Philippines 2010:

a. Residential = 1.9 kPa


b. Roof Deck = 1.9 kPa
c. exterior balcony = 2.9kPa

WIND LOADS

Section 207 of the National Structural Code of the Philippines states that: Buildings,
towers, and other vertical structures, including the Main Wind-Force Resisting System
(MWFRS) and all components and cladding thereof, shall be designed and constructed to
resist wind loads as specified herein. In the design wind loads for the MWFRS and for the
components and cladding for buildings, the algebraic sum of the pressures acting on
opposite faces of each building surface shall be taken into account.

The researchers used Microsoft Excel to solve and calculate for the wind loads that the
structure is experiencing.

Wind Considerations

Wind Velocity is taken from the recent data from PAG-ASA and NDRRMC. The
following datas are used for the design of the residential building.

Type of Structure Standard Occupancy


Zone Classification 1
Wind Speed, V 275 kph
Importance Factor, I 1.00
Exposure Type B
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COMBINATION OF LOADS

As defined on the National Structural Code of the Philippines, Buildings, towers and
other vertical structures and all portions thereof shall be designed to resist load
combinations specified of Section 203 of this code. In the designing process, all design
loads were considered including earthquake loads and wind loads on the roofing. Basic
load combinations were employed from Section 203.3.1 of the code.

Four major load combinations were considered in designing the structural members of the
project:

Load Combination 1: DL + LL + WL
Load Combination 2: 1.2DL + 0.5LL
Load Combination 3: 1.2DL + 0.5LL + 1.6WL
Load Combination 4: 0.9DL + 1.6WL

Minor Field in Civil Engineering


CONSTRUCTION METHODS

Construction methods focuses on the fundamentals of structural and construction


engineering like design and analysis, material testing and quality assurance, building
systems, construction technologies, and surveying. It also studies the deep understanding
of management principles and their applications that are essential in construction projects.

The researchers chose the construction method engineering as one of the minor fields
of the study because the researchers promotes the use of waste glass aggregate as an
admixture in concrete. Using recycled glass waste as concrete admixture could not only
lessen the amount of increasing glass waste in our country but it could also improve the
compressive strength of concrete.

Construction Innovation (Alternative Aggregates)

As an innovation of the project, the proponents went with the growing list of alternative
aggregates being substituted to concrete. Some alternatives that had already been touched
upon were using fly ash, blast furnace slag, quarry dust, brick bats, and broken glass waste.

Glass is being used as a structural material. The most recent developments have seen
glass used as beams and columns. These new applications present a series of design
problems that need to be addressed. Addressing these shortfalls has been a primary object
of this thesis. In this thesis, the researchers studied the effect of waste glass on concrete.
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Laboratory experiments were conducted to further explore the use of waste glass as
coarse and fine aggregates for both ASR alleviation as well as the decorative purpose in
concrete. This study presents the latter aspect, in which study, both fresh and hardened
properties of architectural concrete were tested. The results demonstrate that the use of
waste glass as aggregate facilitates the development of concrete towards a high
architectural level besides its high performances, thereafter, the increasing market in
industry.

According to studies about the use of glass wastes as fine aggregate in concrete, this
material can significantly enhance the concrete. By substituting up to 10% of recycled glass
wastes in concrete aggregate shows a marginal increase the compressive strength of the
concrete. They also concluded that the optimum replacement percentage of the glass to the
fine aggregate is 10%. There are also other researches and related literatures which claims
the same conclusion that the use of glass wastes as a fine aggregate affects the compressive
strength of the concrete.

Even though the researchers prove that using glass wastes as a fine aggregate produce
a minimal increase in concrete, the use of this recycled glass aggregate admixture for the
concrete still needs to be studied further. Because thing material could revolutionize the
conventional concrete mix in such a way that recycling wastes material into a more useful
product.

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

Through recycling of glass as an admixture, the environment would be save from waste
materials because recycling is a process to change waste materials into new products to
prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw
materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution
(from landfilling) by reducing the need for conventional waste disposal, and lower
greenhouse gas emissions as compared to plastic production. Recycling is a key component
of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse and Recycle"
waste hierarchy.

By recycling, this act to improve the natural environment, to provide healthy water, air,
and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to clean up pollution sites are
the basic principles of environmental engineering.

The crushing of glass is an act of recycling which not only helps the community get rid
of the waste materials but also to help the environment clean and to help the other people
making a profit from it. There are so many people selling glass bottles to be recycled in
glass plants which these factories will then use high powered machine to remolded these
glasses. These machine uses produces heat from incineration and thus polluting the air
through the production of carbon dioxide and the chemical solutions used to disinfect the
materials which is then dropped to a nearby rivers and lakes and thus polluting the water.
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Sample of Glass Aggregate

The figure shows the sample of the crushed glass sieve in the sieve # 100. The size of
aggregate is 4.75mm. It will be used as a concrete admixture which covers the 10% of the
total volume of the ASTM standard concrete cylinder for material testing.

In this research silicate glass is used. This type of glass generally has the property of
being transparent, because of this it has many applications; bottles for alcoholic beverages,
light bulbs, and etc. Therefore making this type of glass as an abundant waste material.
Silica (SiO2) is the common fundamental constituent of this glass type. The property of
Silica has been used to advantage by grinding it into a fine glass powder (GLP) for
incorporation into concrete as a pozzolanic material. Pozzolanic material like Silica does
not contain cementing property but in a finely divided form and in the presence of moisture
and chemically react to calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperature to form compounds
possessing cementitious properties.
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2.5 The Project Beneficiary


The beneficiary of this project is Juan B. Apit. The design statistics will be given to
them and they will be occupying the said structure.

2.6 The Innovative Approach


The project will be utilizing software and other technology that give better outputs and
hasten the completion of the project. These software and technology are as follows:

AutoCAD
This software will provide mostly the architectural and structural plans of the
structure.
Staad PRO V8i
This software will help in designing the structure frames. It uses mainly on
beams, columns, foundations, and trusses. It also checks the stability of the
structure and its adequacy.
Google SketchUp
This is used to create better perspective view on the structure.

2.7 The Research Component


This project also includes material testing to determine the strength of the concrete when
the glass admixture is added. This will also support the different data researched by other
people in terms of recycled glass admixtures. This project will also determine the most
economical materials needed to build the structure.

2.8 The Design Component


In this project, the following components are to be build:
Substructure

The design of the substructure will depend on the strength or soil


bearing capacity of the site. Included here is the conduct of soil
investigation of the site. This will shows what kind of footing is needed
for the said building.
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Superstructure

The design of our super structure will be made up of reinforced


concrete. It includes the following structural elements:

Design of beams
Design of columns
Design of slabs
Design of walls
Design of trusses

2.9 Sustainable Development Concept

For the environmental protection and conservation, the materials to be used for the
construction of the said project will meet the norms for green design and will help in
reducing the emission of carbon dioxide as much as possible. Improved ventilation design
will be incorporated with the structure so that power consumption will be minimized.
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Chapter 3

Environmental Examination Report

3.1 Project Description

3.1.1 Project Rationale


The main goal of this paper is to present a new purpose for the glass material in the
field of construction as well to be able to use a new wind load for the structure to promote
a change in the NSCP, because of the recent calamities that devastate the country.

3.1.2 Project Location

The three-storey residential building will be situated at Lot 14 Block 2 Newton Street
Filinvest 2-Heights Quezon City.

Figure 1 Location where the project will be constructed with existing infrastructure
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Figure 2 Location of the project showing the streets

3.1.3 Project Information

This project is a design of a three-storey residential building with roof deck is located at
Lot 14 Block 2 Newton Street Filinvest 2-Heights Quezon City. The materials used in the
structure will be economical and the added admixture will enhance the strength of the
concrete thus making the structure safe and compliant.

3.1.4 Description of Project Phases


The project will have four phases, pre-construction/operational phase, construction
phase, operational phase and abandonment phase. The pre-construction/operational phase
includes the requirements of the City Hall before the construction. The construction phase
includes the preparation of the site. Operational phase mostly discusses the structures
operations. The abandonment phase includes the discussion of what should be done if the
structure is unoccupied.

3.1.5 Pre-construction/Operational Phase

Survey, canvassing of construction materials and performing soil tests


Detailed Engineering study, review and designs
Secure of permits and clearance from the municipalities of Quezon City
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3.1.6 Construction Phase

3.1.6.1 Clearing and Grubbing


Removal/Disposal of trees, slumps, brush, roots, logs, rubbish and other objectionable
matter.

3.1.6.2 Excavation
Excavation and cut/fill of land.

3.1.6.3 Building Structure


Construction of foundation footings, columns, beams, slabs, walls and truss.

Finishing

3.1.6.3 Water and Sewer Lines

Installation and organization of water and sewer lines.

3.1.6.4 Power Distribution System


MERALCO

3.1.7 Operational Phase

Since this is a residential building; the structure will only be operational right after the
beneficiary occupied/take-over the said building.

3.1.8 Abandonment Phase

Unless the beneficiary ceases to fund the said project, abandonment phase is not
expected. Because the project is a residential building, therefore the structure will be built
to be occupied.
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3.2 Description of Environmental Setting and Receiving Environment

3.2.1 Physical Environment

The project is located where there are lots of grasses. There are houses on the left and
the rear when facing the road. The project location is located inside a subdivision. The lot
area of the site is estimated to be 280 square meters.

3.2.2 Biological Environment

The project location can sustain life since there are grasses and likely a plant since the
owner planted a plant on two corners of the lot area at the rear. Theres no animals sighted
on the project site.

3.2.3 Socio-Cultural, Economic and Political Environment

The effect of this project to the socio-cultural and economic is insignificant since it is a
residential building that will be occupied by more or less 4 people but on political term its
on a different matter. It will affect the home owners organization and also their decision
making system.

3.2.4 Future Environmental Conditions without the Project

The effect of this project being undone is also insignificant, even without the completion
of the project; the area will remain as it was before.
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3.3 Impact Assessment and Mitigation

3.3.1 Summary Matrix of Predicted Environmental Issues/Impacts and


their Level of Significance at Various Stages of Development
Table 1. Summary Matrix of Predicted Environmental Issues/Impacts and their Level of
Significance at Various Stages of Development.

Environmental Issues Level of Significance


Noise Generated Low Impact
Population Increase Medium Impact
Air Quality Medium Impact
Water Quality Medium Impact

3.3.2 Brief Discussion of Specific Significant Impacts on the Physical and


Biological Resources

The environmental issues are noise generated, air quality, and water quality. Noise
generated in the site greatly affects the surrounding area, since it is a residential
subdivision, people might complain about it. Other factor like air and water quality also
affects the area. The air is quite critical because of the dust and debris that could lead to
accidents. Water quality needed to secure for the workers and the removal of water during
rainy season in the site.

3.3.3 Brief Discussion of Significant Socio-economic Effects/Impacts of


the Project
The population increase in the subdivision affects the lives of the residents since the
people voting for the organization within will increase. It will also affect the traffic in the
area due to the falling debris from the construction.
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3.4 Environmental Management Plan

3.4.1 Summary Matrix of Mitigation and Enhancement Measures, Estimated Cost and Responsibilities
Table 2. Summary Matrix of Mitigation and Enhancement Measures, Estimated Cost and Responsibilities

Significant Mitigating/Enhancement
Environmental Impact Possible Impacts Measure Responsibilities

1. Air quality Increase in noise levels. Regular maintenance of Contractor


heavy equipment & transport
machineries to check on
noise.
Increase in level of particulate matter.
Disseminate scheme of
Deliveries.

Access road and dusty civil


work areas shall be sprinkled
with water to reduce re-
suspension of dust.

2. Solid waste Causes pollution and spread of disease By employing a good solid Association
waste management program

Regular garbage collection


shall be done

3. Traffic Falling debris Provide adequate caution Contractor


signs and warnings
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4. Ecological Existing plants will almost likely to be Planting plants on every Developer
completely wiped out available space will
compensate the plants and
trees that was removed
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3.4.2 Brief Discussion of Mitigation and Enhancement Measures

Table 3. Brief Discussion of Mitigation and Enhancement Measures


Project activities Impact description Time Magnitude Recommended
source of impact per parameter Classification scale of of impact mitigating measures
impacts

Construction Stage

Excavation/site 1. Water quality Negative Short Moderate Turbidity/siltation


clearing operations situation of Impact term Impact control measures
drainage by continuous
system due to cleaning of
washed soil drainage system
from Conservation
excavation practices to
maximize the use
Building of water supply
construction ground Increase water Negative Short Low
preparation, and demand in the Impact term Impact When needed,
other construction construction water will be
activities site sourced externally

Excavation/site 2. Air Quality Negative Short Low Constant wetting


clearing operation, Increase in Impact term Impact of ground surface
movement/operation ambient total
of heavy suspended
construction particulate
equipment
18

Noise Negative Short Low Regular


generation Impact term Impact maintenance of
equipment/
limiting operation
to daytime only
Collection and
storage, disposal
19

3.4.3 Monitoring Plan

Table 4. Monitoring Plan


Environmental Problem Enhancement Measure Monitoring

1. Construction Waste Proper waste D


management aily
2. Noise D
Noise control
aily
3. Dust Sprinkle with water to W
reduce re-suspension of dust eekly
4.Water Proper water W
management eekly
Signs and Cautions D
5. Traffic
Traffic management aily

3.4.5 Institutional Responsibilities and Agreements


For institutional responsibilities and agreements of this project, the design needs to meet
the NSCP standards except the wind load adoption. It will also comply with the
requirements implemented by the association of the subdivision and the city building
official of Quezon City.
20

CHAPTER 4

Research Component
4.1 Abstract
The terms global warming and climate change has been commonly used and hear
recently. This is due to the erratic weather the planet Earth has been undergoing lately. It
can be attributed to the growth of population, and the subsequent destruction of the
environment. Super Typhoons are beginning to reach never-before-heard-of speeds
surpassing the 250kph mark wind velocity, which greatly affects the structural integrity as
the NSCP codes for wind velocity. As a possible response to this, the proponents thought
that a residential structure with roof deck for additional spaces and for safety purposes
seemed like a viable project to do. Coupled with the innovation of using substitute
aggregates in a form of recycled glass, it also keeps within the theme of being
environmental-friendly, and economical by helping to reduce waste that damages the
surrounding environment.

Refrain from using glass cladding for your structure (Engr. Cervantes, 2013).

From the above statement; the researchers gained the inspiration to present a new field
on where the glass material can be used. Since the recent typhoon that hit the Visayas region
results to devastating damages to residential structures, specifically in windows and glass
structures. The researchers will try to promote the awareness in the society that nowadays
normal glass structures may not be able to withstand the future typhoon wind loads, and
for the authorities to consider revising the structural codes of the Philippines.

4.2 Review of Literature

4.2.1 Aspects of Structural Design of Glass


Glass is being used as a structural material. The most recent developments have seen
glass used as beams and columns. These new applications present a series of design
problems that need to be addressed. Addressing these shortfalls has been a primary object
of this thesis.

There has been much work on out-of-plane loading of glass, and in-plane loading of
traditional materials is well described. In reality engineers have been borrowing design
concepts from the two former areas to try and satisfy the latter. It was shown that the current
design methods for glass, based predominantly on design against transient lateral loading
for windows, do not adequately account for the behavior of glass when used in these new
applications. In this thesis it is demonstrated that this is not satisfactory.
21

A new design method was then developed, based on the principles of fracture mechanics
and incorporating limit state design concepts. This new Crack Size Design method was
as an alternative to the allowable stress method currently used in structural glass design
(Porter, 2001).

4.2.2 Recycling of Materials in Civil Engineering


Britain is one of the countries which have many sources with regards to the natural
aggregate and its approvals to develop new quarries are running at about half the rate of
extraction. The use of secondary materials would not create a major source of aggregate
but the quantity of natural aggregate required by the construction industry would be
reduced significantly.

This reports mainly on laboratory tests conducted on crushed concrete and demolition
debris to examine the potential use of these materials in new construction. Other tests were
conducted to check the compliance with the Specification for Highway Works (1986) and
more detailed tests conducted with regard to CBR. Frost susceptibility where the influences
of moisture content, density and particle packing on these properties were investigated.
From the frost susceptibility results, further work would be required in this area to
determine the main factors which influence the frost heave of recycled aggregates. The
comparison of recycled aggregate and natural aggregate concrete appeared to be of superior
quality than that produced in other research.

During the study, the recycled aggregates could perform as well as limestone and can
be considered for many potential uses. It only involved physical properties of recycled
materials therefore their ability to perform as construction aggregates could be enhance
further (O'Mahoney, M.M., 1990).

4.2.3 Assessment of design procedures for structural glass beams


This is about the structural use of glass. Glass is the most perfectly brittle materials that
exist. Glass also demonstrates linear elastic behavior right up to the point of failure. This
study reviews the current design methods tracing their development through the century.
Current code formers are keen to bring all materials under the umbrella of Limit State
Design. This philosophy is somewhat inappropriate for materials where the main design
criterion is not ultimate strength.
22

Glass cannot be made to conform to a design method created for ductile materials. The
so-called plastic design theory of structures applies therefore to steel and to reinforced
concrete frames but not to materials like cast iron and glass which are brittle(Heyman
1995). The multi-ply beam shows that statistically two or more beams are always better
than one equivalent thickness. This method reduces the thickness of glass beams without
affecting its probability to failure.

This is not about face-loaded glass elements where designs are governed by deflection
but about edge-loaded elements where strength governs and more rigorous design rules is
required. The strength of multi-ply beams are predicted from the strength distribution load
found for single beams (Crompton, P.R., 1999).

4.2.4 Glass masonry


Glass masonry units are used in the openings of typical masonry exterior or interior
walls. These non-load bearing filler panels must be at least 3 inch thick and the mortared
surfaces of the blocks have to be treated to provide an adequate mortar-bonding effect. The
glass panels should also be restrained laterally to resist lateral force effects of winds or
earthquakes. The sizes of the exterior panels are limited to a maximum vertical or
horizontal dimension of 15feet and an area of 144ft2 of unsupported wall surface. For
interior glass block panels, these limits are increased to 25ft and 250ft2.

The glass blocks must be laid in type S or N mortar with both vertical and horizontal
joints being and 3/8-in. thick and completely filled. Exterior glass block panels have to
be provided with in. expansion joints at the sides and at the top, and must be entirely
free of mortar so that the space can be filled with resilient material to provide for needed
in-plane movement. The expansion joint must also provide for lateral support while
permitting expansion and contraction of the glass panel (Schneider, R.R. and Dickey, W.
L., 1994).

4.2.5 Use of waste glass as aggregate in concrete


In many countries, waste glass is one of the major components of the solid waste stream.
It can be found in many forms, including container glass, flat glass such as bulb glass,
windows and cathode ray tube glass. The increasing awareness of glass recycling speeds
up inspections on the use of waste glass with different forms in various fields. One of its
significant contributions is to the construction field where the waste glass was reused for
value-added concrete production. Literature survey indicates that the use of waste glass as
aggregates in concrete was first reported over 50 years ago. The concomitant alkali-silica
reaction (ASR) by using glass in concrete and its unique aesthetic properties have been
investigated since then. However, no complete solution to ASR has been found and the
application of glass in architectural concrete still needs improving. Laboratory experiments
were conducted to further explore the use of waste glass as coarse and fine aggregates for
both ASR alleviation as well as the decorative purpose in concrete.
23

This study presents the latter aspect, in which study, both fresh and hardened properties
of architectural concrete were tested. The results demonstrate that the use of waste glass as
aggregate facilitates the development of concrete towards a high architectural level besides
its high performances, thereafter, the increasing market in industry (Liang, H et al., 2007).

4.2.6 The Use of Sheet Glass Powder as Fine Aggregate Replacement in


Concrete
The use of sheet glass powder (SGP) in concrete leads to a greener environment. In
shops, many sheet glass cuttings go to waste, which are not recycled at present and usually
delivered to landfills for disposal. Using sheet glass powder in concrete is an interesting
possibility for economy on waste disposal sites and also for the conservation of natural
resources. This study examines the possibility of using sheet glass powder as a replacement
in fine aggregate for a new concrete. Natural sand was partially replaced with SGP (10%,
20%, 30%, 40% and 50%). The Compressive strength, Tensile strength (cubes and
cylinders) and Flexural strength up to 180 days of age were compared with those of
concrete made with natural fine aggregates. The water absorption, fineness modulus,
moisture content, specific gravity, bulk density, percentage of porosity, percentage of voids
(loose and compact) state for sand (S) and SDA were also studied. The results indicate that
it is possible to manufacture concrete containing Sheet glass powder (SGP) with
characteristics similar to those of natural sand aggregate concrete provided that the
percentage of SGP as fine aggregate is limited to 10-20%, respectively (M. Mageswari and
Dr. B. Vidivelli, 2010).
24

4.3 Methodology

4.3.1 RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

In order for the researchers to obtain all their objectives for material testing, the research
framework should be followed

START

LITERATURE
REVIEW

DATA OF
DATA TECHNICAL CONCRETE
GATHERING DATA WITH GLASS
AGGREGATE

END

Figure 3 The research framework

The first step is to propose their topic to the panels so that the researchers could get an
approval for them to start their study about their chosen topic. After the approval, the
researchers are to collect data and to review literatures that are connected to their study. In
order to collect the data that will be used for their chosen topic, the researchers will be
using a wide variety of sources available. One of the most important materials to be used
in the study is the internet. The internet provided easier access for the related literatures
and other innovative methods and designs that were suitable in the design of the three-
storey residential building with roof deck. In addition to this, the researchers also go to
libraries to gather more related literatures that may add more ideas to their project.

The researchers are also required to have beneficiaries in which their designs will be
given to. In addition, the beneficiaries were consulted to provide details for the design of
the structure. The beneficiaries for this study would be Juan B. Apit. The researchers were
to provide them the design of a three-storey residential building with roof deck in which
the researchers will apply the use of recycled glass as a concrete admixture and also a
building that would resist a strong wind load similar to the wind load of the recent typhoon
Yolanda.
25

The next step is for the researchers to now gather technical data for their study and one
of it is by material testing since their topic is about waste glass admixture for concrete. The
soil bearing capacity test will be also conducted in the lot.

4.4 Results and Discussion


In this study, the researchers determined that recycled glass has a potential and could
be used as a concrete admixture. Laboratory tests showed that with the addition of recycled
glass per 10 percent volume of concrete helped the concrete to gain a minimal increase in
its 28th day compressive strength, though further research is still needed. And the data
gathered in this research is used in designing the structure to observe what could be the
effect of increasing the compressive strength of concrete to disaster resilient residential
building. Based from the laboratory tests the 7th day compressive strength of the concrete
cylinder with recycled glass as admixture is 20.56MPa and the 28th day compressive
strength is 30.19MPa.

After some thorough discussions and design analysis, the proponents of the project have
come up with a full design of a three-story residential building thats constructed with the
use of 28th day compressive strength from the test results of the recycled glass as a concrete
admixture.

The use of computer software such as STAAD was observed to analyze the structural
design of the building including its foundation. On the other hand, the architectural or
aesthetic design was created using AutoCAD and SketchUp to be able to illustrate the
supposed outside appearance of the structure.

The structural design of the building is done with the recent onslaught of disasters in
mind. Since several super typhoons have been hitting the Philippines in the recent years,
the researchers considered to enhance the capacity of the structure to withstand wind loads
just like the recent Super Typhoon Yolanda that swept the Visayas region. With these
factors, the design of the residential building is made to conform to building codes that take
in consideration the effects of forces of nature.

For the design wind load; the researchers considered the highest wind velocity that hit
the Visayas region during the Super Typhoon Yolanda which is 275 KPH. By using the
Bernoullis energy equation and considering air flow with a density of 1.225 Kg/m, the
researcher came up with the equation;
1 2
=
2
0.6125 2 =
Where: V = wind velocity (m/s)
P = Equivalent pressure (N/m) (Pa)
26

Substituting the wind velocity of 76.889m/s to the conversion of wind speed to free
stream dynamic pressure, the equivalent pressure that the Super Typhoon Yolanda
produced is 3.621 KPa. Take note that this computation is to compare what is the effect of
this wind velocity converted to pressure and it is not included in the NSCP, thus the purpose
of this research is to introduce a higher wind velocity as compared to the NSCP and to
examine the effects of this wind velocity to the structure. As of NSCP 2010, figure 207-24
Referenced Wind Zone Map of the Philippines; the highest wind velocity is at Zone 1
which is 250KPH but the recent calamities that stroked the Philippines bearing a wind
velocity of 275KPH.

4.5 Conclusion and Recommendations


The use of recycled materials in construction is now becoming popular; countries such
as Britain conducted laboratory tests and found out that materials such as glass could be
used as a concrete additive. During the study, they found out that recycled aggregates such
as glass could perform as well as limestone and can be considered for many potential uses.

According to the studies of S.P. Gautam, Vikas Srivastava and V.C. Agarwal which are
all about the use of glass wastes as fine aggregate in concrete, this material can significantly
enhance the concrete. They concluded that by substituting up to 10% of recycled glass
wastes in concrete aggregate shows a marginal increase the compressive strength of the
concrete. They also concluded that the optimum replacement percentage of the glass to the
fine aggregate is 10%. There are also other researches and related literatures which claims
the same conclusion that the use of glass wastes as a fine aggregate affects the compressive
strength of the concrete. But the study of S.P. Gautam, Vikas Srivastava and V.C. Agarwal
is not reliable in a sense that the concrete sample used did not conform accordingly to the
ASTM standards of testing of materials, because they use a cubical sample to dimension
of 100mm which is should be a cylindrical sample with a height which is twice of the width
of the sample.

Even though the researchers prove that using glass wastes as a fine aggregate produce
a minimal increase in concrete, the use of this recycled glass aggregate admixture for the
concrete still needs to be studied further. Because thing material could revolutionize the
conventional concrete mix in such a way that recycling wastes material into a more useful
product.
27

Initial test results

Figure 4 7th day compressive strength test result part 1


28

Figure 5 7th day compressive strength test result part 2


29

Figure 6 28th day compressive strength test results part 1


30

Figure 7 28th day compressive strength test results part 2


31

Proof of Work

Figure 8 Crushing of Glass

Figure 9 Sieving of Glass


32

Figure 10 Mixing of Concrete materials

Figure 11 Pouring of concrete into slump cone


33

Figure 12 Testing for slump test

Figure 13Concrete cylinders ready for curing


34

Figure 14 Concrete cylinders

Figure 15 Universal Testing Machine (UTM)


35

Figure 16 Testing of Concrete cylinders

Figure 17 Crushed concrete cylinder after testing


36

Chapter 5
Detailed Engineering Design
5.1 Structural Design

5.1.1 Introduction

The assumptions, analysis and design of the three-story structure conform to code
provisions found in the National Structural Code of the Philippines (NSCP) 2010 Volume
1: Buildings, Towers, and other Vertical Structures. Tables of loads were taken from the
minimum loads indicated on the codes; live loads, dead loads, and for the wind load is
taken from the recent data of the PAG-ASA (Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical, and
Astronomical Service Administration) and also from NDRRMC (National Disaster and
Risk Reduction Management Council)

5.1.2 Dead Loads

As per the National Structural Code of the Philippines 2010:

a. Partition and interior walls = 1.0 kPa


b. Gympsum board (per mm thickness) = 0.008KPa

5.1.3 Live Loads

As per the National Structural Code of the Philippines 2010:

a. Residential = 1.9 kPa


b. Roof Deck = 1.9 kPa
c. exterior balcony = 2.9kPa

5.1.4 Wind Loads

Table 5: Wind Considerations


*Wind Velocity is taken from the recent data from PAG-ASA and NDRRMC
Type of Structure Standard Occupancy
Zone Classification 1
Wind Speed, V 275 kph
Importance Factor, I 1.00
Exposure Type B
37

5.1.5 Beam, Column and Slab Design

Software such as STAAD V8i is used in designing the beams, columns, and slabs. This
particular software was chosen because of its ease of use in analyzing the said structural
elements.

Figure 18 Stress Distribution View From Z -axis


38

Figure 19 Stress Distribution View from X-axis


39

Figure 20 Stress Distribution Isometric View


40

Typical Framing Plan:

Figure 21: Typical Girder Framing


41

Figure 22: Typical Girder Detailing

Table 6: Girder Details


Girder Girder Bar Bar Longitudinal Reinforcements Stirrup No./Set
Mark Size, Dia. Loc. and Spacing,
mm A B C D E 10mm

G-1 200x400 12 Top 2 2 2 2 2; 1@50,


25 Bot 4 Rest@170 to CL
G-2 200x400 12 Top 2 2 2 2 2; 1@50,
25 Bot 4 Rest@600 to CL
G-3 200x400 12 Top 2 2 2 2 2; 1@50,
25 Bot 4 Rest@170 to CL
G-4 200x400 12 Top 2 2 2 2 2; 1@50,
25 Bot 4 Rest@170 to CL
42

Beam Design:

Figure 23: Typical Beam Detailing


Table 7: Beam Details
Beam Beam Bar Bar Longitudinal Reinforcements Stirrup No./Set
Mark Size, mm Dia. Loc. and Spacing,
A B C D E 10mm
B-1 200x400 12 Top 2 2 2 2 2; 1@50,
25 Bot 4 Rest@170 to CL
B-2 200x400 12 Top 2 2 2 2 2; 1@50,
25 Bot 4 Rest@600 to CL
B-3 200x400 12 Top 2 2 2 2 2; 1@50,
12 Bot 4 Rest@170 to CL
B-4 200x400 12 Top 2 2 2 2 2; 1@50,
12 Bot 4 Rest@170 to CL
FTB - 1 150x200 16 Top 2 2 2 2 2;1@50, Rest@170
16 Bot 2 to CL
43

Slab Design:

Figure 24: Typical Slab Detailing

Table 8: Slab Details


Slab Thickness, Bar Dia., Spacing
Mark mm mm
mm

S-1 100 12 300 OC

S-2 100 12 300 OC

S-3 100 12 300 OC

S-4 100 12 300 OC

S-5 100 12 300 OC


44

5.2 Foundation Design


5.2.1 Introduction

Soil properties are important so that the researchers may determine the proper type of
footing to be used. According to the soil investigation report, the soil bearing capacity of
the land in Quezon City is 125KPa. The soil bearing capacity is said to be strong therefore
the researchers used an isolated square footing for their project.

5.2.2 Design Considerations

b. Soil bearing capacity = 125 kPa


c. Water depth = 2.5 m
d. Water unit weight = 9.81 kN/m3

Figure 25: Typical Footing Detailing

Table 9: Footing Details


Ftg Thickness Width Length Bar 1 Bar 2 Remarks
Mark mm mm mm Dia., mm Dia., mm

Isolated
Square
F-1 500 2000 2000 20 20 Footing
45

Wall Footing Detail:

Figure 26 Wall Footing Detail


46

Figure 27 Footing Tie Beam

2-16mm bar

5.3 Concrete Mix

The table show the percentage of recycled glass aggregate that can be substituted to
enhance the concrete properties in relation to the results provided by the studies. The
final mix used was 1:2:3; which is almost similar with the computations using ACI
method.
Table 10: Concrete Mix
CONCRETE MIX
Conventional Recycled Glass
90% 10%

Through the ACI method the amount of conventional concrete were estimated thus
providing also the amount recycled glass aggregates to be used.

Total Volume of Concrete = 75.895 cu.m


47

5.4 Plan Set


5.4.1 3D Model

Figure 28 SkechUp Model


48

5.4.2 Architectural Plans

Figure 29 Ground Floor


49

Figure 30 Second Floor


50

Figure 31: Third Floor


51

Figure 32 Roof Deck


52

Elevation plan:

Figure 33 Front Elevation


53

Figure 34 Left Side Elevation


54

Figure 35 Rear Elevation


55

Figure 36 Right Side Elevation


56

5.4.3 Structural Plan

Figure 37 STAAD Model


57

5.4.4 Typical Framing Plan

Figure 38 Typical Framing Plan


58

5.4.5 Column Layout Plan

Figure 39 Column Layout Plan


59

5.4.6 Foundation Plan

Figure 40 Foundation Plan


60

Major Field in Civil Engineering


STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING

The major area of engineering here is mainly structural engineering, which include
forming the calculations on design and the estimation of the building cost. The minor areas
where other fields of engineering are required are electrical engineering for wirings,
architectural engineering for the aesthetic of building, and water engineering for the water
pipes and pressure.

Reinforced concrete design principles and design were done by taking into
consideration the provisions from the National Structural Code of the Philippines (NSCP
2010) and the Uniform Building Code (UBC 1997). Earthquake loads and wind loads were
also taken into consideration for a more conservative and safe design. Different load
combinations were used and applied to the design of the reinforced concrete members in
accordance to both the National Structural Code of the Philippines (NSCP 2010) and the
Uniform Building Code (UBC 1992). The designs of the structural members were made
using STAAD Pro V8i, excluding the design of the isolated footings. The isolated footings
were designed using Microsoft Excel.

DEAD LOADS

As stated in Section 204 of the National Structural of the Philippines: Dead loads
consist of the weight of all materials of construction incorporated into the building or other
structure, including but not limited to walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in
partitions, finishes, cladding and other similarly incorporated architectural and structural
items, and fixed equipment, including the weight of cranes.

From Table 204-2 (Minimum Design Loads), the researchers determined the
superimposed dead loads incorporated in the structure.

Superimposed dead loads:

As per the National Structural Code of the Philippines 2010:

a. Partition and interior walls = 1.0 kPa


b. Gympsum board (per mm thickness) = 0.008KPa

LIVE LOADS

As stated in Section 205 of the National Structural Code of the Philippines: Live loads
shall be the maximum loads expected by the intended use or occupancy but in no case shall
be less than the loads required be this section.
61

From Table 205-1 (Minimum Uniform and Concentrated Live Loads), the group
determined the superimposed live loads into the structure.

As per the National Structural Code of the Philippines 2010:

a. Residential = 1.9 kPa


b. Roof Deck = 1.9 kPa
c. exterior balcony = 2.9kPa

WIND LOADS

Section 207 of the National Structural Code of the Philippines states that: Buildings,
towers, and other vertical structures, including the Main Wind-Force Resisting System
(MWFRS) and all components and cladding thereof, shall be designed and constructed to
resist wind loads as specified herein. In the design wind loads for the MWFRS and for the
components and cladding for buildings, the algebraic sum of the pressures acting on
opposite faces of each building surface shall be taken into account.

The researchers used Microsoft Excel to solve and calculate for the wind loads that
the structure is experiencing.

Wind Considerations

Wind Velocity is taken from the recent data from PAG-ASA and NDRRMC. The
following datas are used for the design of the residential building.

Type of Structure Standard Occupancy


Zone Classification 1
Wind Speed, V 275 kph
Importance Factor, I 1.00
Exposure Type B

COMBINATION OF LOADS

As defined on the National Structural Code of the Philippines, Buildings, towers and
other vertical structures and all portions thereof shall be designed to resist load
combinations specified of Section 203 of this code. In the designing process, all design
loads were considered including earthquake loads and wind loads on the roofing. Basic
load combinations were employed from Section 203.3.1 of the code.
62

Four major load combinations were considered in designing the structural members of
the project:

Load Combination 1: DL + LL + WL
Load Combination 2: 1.2DL + 0.5LL
Load Combination 3: 1.2DL + 0.5LL + 1.6WL
Load Combination 4: 0.9DL + 1.6WL

Minor Field in Civil Engineering


Construction Methods

Construction methods focuses on the fundamentals of structural and construction


engineering like design and analysis, material testing and quality assurance, building
systems and construction technologies. It also studies the deep understanding of
management principles and their applications that are essential in construction projects.

People have constructed buildings and other structures which includes bridges,
amphitheaters, dams, roads and canals. Building materials in present use have a long
history and some of the structures built thousands of years ago are regarded as remarkable.

The researchers chose the construction method engineering as one of the minor fields
of the study because the researchers promotes the use of waste glass aggregate as an
admixture in concrete. Using recycled glass waste as concrete admixture could not only
lessen the amount of increasing glass waste in our country but could also improve the
compressive strength of concrete.

Construction Innovation (Alternative Aggregates)

As an innovation of the project, the proponents went with the growing list of alternative
aggregates being substituted to concrete. Some alternatives that had already been touched
upon were using fly ash, blast furnace slag, quarry dust, brick bats, and broken glass waste.

Glass is being used as a structural material. The most recent developments have seen
glass used as beams and columns. These new applications present a series of design
problems that need to be addressed. Addressing these shortfalls has been a primary object
of this thesis. In this thesis, the researchers studied the effect of waste glass on concrete.

Using different materials that can substitute various parts of a concrete mix are slowly
getting recognized. In this project, recycled glass would be used as a substitute aggregate.
Concrete mix substitutes are advantageous in a number of ways. Also, production of glass
waste is said to be increasing every year and by utilizing these trash can eliminate glass
waste production. In construction, recycled glass is also a reliable substitute to the
conventional aggregates provided that only a certain percentage will be replaced.
63

Waste Glass as Concrete Admixture

Waste glass is one of the major components of the solid waste stream. It can be found
in many forms, including container glass, flat glass such as bulb glass, windows and
cathode ray tube glass. The increasing awareness of glass recycling speeds up inspections
on the use of waste glass with different forms in various fields. One of its significant
contributions is to the construction field where the waste glass was reused for value-added
concrete production. Literature survey indicates that the use of waste glass as aggregates
in concrete was first reported over 50 years ago. The concomitant alkali-silica reaction
(ASR) by using glass in concrete and its unique aesthetic properties have been investigated
since then. However, no complete solution to ASR has been found and the application of
glass in architectural concrete still needs improving.

Laboratory experiments were conducted to further explore the use of waste glass as
coarse and fine aggregates for both ASR alleviation as well as the decorative purpose in
concrete. This study presents the latter aspect, in which study, both fresh and hardened
properties of architectural concrete were tested. The results demonstrate that the use of
waste glass as aggregate facilitates the development of concrete towards a high
architectural level besides its high performances, thereafter, the increasing market in
industry.

According to studies about the use of glass wastes as fine aggregate in concrete, this
material can significantly enhance the concrete. By substituting up to 10% of recycled glass
wastes in concrete aggregate shows a marginal increase the compressive strength of the
concrete. They also concluded that the optimum replacement percentage of the glass to the
fine aggregate is 10%. There are also other researches and related literatures which claims
the same conclusion that the use of glass wastes as a fine aggregate affects the compressive
strength of the concrete.

Even though the researchers prove that using glass wastes as a fine aggregate produce
a minimal increase in concrete, the use of this recycled glass aggregate admixture for the
concrete still needs to be studied further. Because thing material could revolutionize the
conventional concrete mix in such a way that recycling wastes material into a more useful
product.

Concrete Mix Design

For the design of concrete mix, the researchers used the ACI concrete mix design
method. With this type of design method, the researchers were able to determine the
amount of cement, sand, gravel, water and the amount of the glass that will be used as an
admixture for the concrete sample.
64

Total weight of materials to be used for 7 cylinder samples

Weight (kg)
Cement 13.97
Sand 24.72
Gravel 40.41
Glass 2.747
Water 6.49

The researchers used 7 concrete cylinder samples in which all will be tested for its 7th
and 28th day compressive strength. The amount of the glass admixture would be 10% of
the volume of the concrete. Using the ACI concrete mix design, the researchers were able
to compute weight of each of the materials needed to create a concrete cylinder. Using this,
the researchers could also estimate how many sacks of cement, sand and gravel is needed
to create 7 concrete cylinder samples.

Minor Field in Civil Engineering


Environmental Engineering

Through recycling of glass as an admixture, the environment would be save from waste
materials because recycling is a process to change waste materials into new products to
prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw
materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution
(from landfilling) by reducing the need for conventional waste disposal, and lower
greenhouse gas emissions as compared to plastic production. Recycling is a key component
of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse and Recycle"
waste hierarchy.

By recycling, this act to improve the natural environment, to provide healthy water, air,
and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to clean up pollution sites are
the basic principles of environmental engineering.

The crushing of glass is an act of recycling which not only helps the community get rid
of the waste materials but also to help the environment clean and to help the other people
making a profit from it. There are so many people selling glass bottles to be recycled in
glass plants which these factories will then use high powered machine to remolded these
glasses. These machine uses produces heat from incineration and thus polluting the air
through the production of carbon dioxide and the chemical solutions used to disinfect the
materials which is then dropped to a nearby rivers and lakes and thus polluting the water.
65

Use of recycled glass waste in construction

The use of secondary materials would not create a major source of aggregate but the
quantity of natural aggregate required by the construction industry would be reduced
significantly.

During the study, the recycled aggregates could perform as well as limestone and can
be considered for many potential uses. It only involved physical properties of recycled
materials therefore their ability to perform as construction aggregates could be enhance
further.

Glass is being used as a structural material. The most recent developments have seen
glass used as beams and columns. These new applications present a series of design
problems that need to be addressed.

Glass is the most perfectly brittle materials that exist. Glass also demonstrates linear
elastic behavior right up to the point of failure. This study reviews the current design
methods tracing their development through the century. Current code formers are keen to
bring all materials under the umbrella of Limit State Design. This philosophy is somewhat
inappropriate for materials where the main design criterion is not ultimate strength.

Waste glass is one of the major components of the solid waste stream. It can be found
in many forms, including container glass, flat glass such as bulb glass, windows and
cathode ray tube glass. The increasing awareness of glass recycling speeds up inspections
on the use of waste glass with different forms in various fields. One of its significant
contributions is to the construction field where the waste glass was reused for value-added
concrete production.

The use of sheet glass powder (SGP) in concrete leads to a greener environment. In
shops, many sheet glass cuttings go to waste, which are not recycled at present and usually
delivered to landfills for disposal. Using sheet glass powder in concrete is an interesting
possibility for economy on waste disposal sites and also for the conservation of natural
resources.
66

Sample of Glass Aggregate

The figure shows the sample of the crushed glass sieve in the sieve # 100. The size of
aggregate is 4.75mm. It will be used as a concrete admixture which covers the 10% of the
total volume of the ASTM standard concrete cylinder for material testing.

In this research silicate glass is used. This type of glass generally has the property of
being transparent, because of this it has many applications; bottles for alcoholic beverages,
light bulbs, and etc. Therefore making this type of glass as an abundant waste material.
Silica (SiO2) is the common fundamental constituent of this glass type. The property of
Silica has been used to advantage by grinding it into a fine glass powder (GLP) for
incorporation into concrete as a pozzolanic material. Pozzolanic material like Silica does
not contain cementing property but in a finely divided form and in the presence of
moisture and chemically react to calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperature to form
compounds possessing cementitious properties.
67

Chapter 6
Cost Estimates

Budget Estimation

The researchers provided the budget estimation using the conventional method of
construction. The budget estimation was broken down to 7 main components:
1. General Requirements
2. Earthworks
3. Civil and Structural works
4. Architectural works
5. Waterproofing
6. Electrical works
7. Sanitary works

These 7 components were summed up as the total material cost. The researchers also
included the labor cost for each of the 7 components.
The computation of the general requirements includes the mobilization and
demobilization cost consisted of the mobilization of materials from the manufacturers of
suppliers to the project site, cost of temporary facilities, permits, licenses and other required
papers, and also the water and power supply.
The computation of the civil and structural works included concreting, rebar works,
masonry works, formworks and also the labor cost.
The computation of the architectural works included the cost of the interior and exterior
walls, flooring and ceiling.
The total project cost for the conventional design is 6,178,500.00
68

Table 11: Cost Estimates


ITEM Description of Work Qty. Unit MATERIAL
I GENERAL REQUIREMENT Unit Cost Amount
1 Mobilization 1 Lot 30,000.00 30,000.00
2 Demobilization 1 Lot 30,000.00 30,000.00
3 Temporary Facilities 1 Lot 40,000.00 40,000.00
4 Plans, Documentation, and Fees 1 Lot 250,000.00 250,000.00
5 Permits and Licenses 1 Lot 130,000.00 130,000.00
6 Bonds and Insurance 1 Lot 120,000.00 120,000.00
7 Temp. Water & Power Supplies 1 Lot 80,000.00 80,000.00
8 Contractors All risk ensurance 200,000.00
Sub-total 880,000.00
II EARTH WORKS
1 Excavation:
Manual 77.76 cu.m 550.00 45,000.00
Earthfill/ backfilling with
2 58.356 cu.m 250.00 20,000.00
compaction
3 Gravel Fill 1.8 cu.m 720.00 3,000.00
4 Soil poisoning 84 sq.m 75.00 7,000.00
5 Moisture Protection 84 sq.m 60.00 6,000.00
6 Labor cost 35,000.00
Sub-total 116,000.00
CIVIL / STRUCTURAL
III
WORKS
A Concreting
Ready mixed concrete class A 80.287 cu.m 3,500.00 282,000.00
Labor cost 450,000.00
Sub-total 732,000.00
B Rebar works
Reinforcing Bars
Total Rebars 11,228,95 kgs. 34.00 382,000.00
Labor cost 450,000.00
Sub-total 832,000.00
C Masonry Works
6 thk CHB ordinary Pcs 6592 8.00 53,000.00
Portland cement bags 3000 220.00 660,000.00
White sand Cu. m 400 500.00 200,000.00
S1 Gravel Cu. m 250 500.00 125,000.00
Labor Cost 450,000.00
Sub-total 1,488,000.00
D Formworks
Coco lumber b. ft. 5000 8.00 40,000.00
Ordinary plywood Pcs 60 650.00 39,000.00
#16 G.I. Wire Kgs 50 50.00 2,500.00
Nails Kgs 150 50.00 7,500.00
Labor cost 100,000.00
Sub-total 189,000.00

IV ARCHITECTURAL
69

A. Walls
Partition Walls 203.76 sq.m 500.00 102,000.00
Exterior Walls 255.56 sq.m 500.00 128,000.00
Labor 70,000.00
B Floorings 336q.m
Tileworks
Polished Tiles (300mmx300mm) 2800 pcs 30 84,000.00
Labor 70,000.00
C Ceiling
Gypsum board (0.60mx0.60m) 700 pcs 110.00 77,000.00
Others
ABC Tile Adhesive 50 bags 970.00 49,000.00
Labor 70,000.00
Sub-total 650,000.00

V WATERPROOFING
Cement waterproofing solution
gallons 5 5,000.00 25,000.00
(Integral type)
Cementicious water proofing
gallons 5 5,000.00 25,000.00
compound (Top Coat)
Labor Cost 1,000.00
Sub-total 51,000.00

VI Electrical + Labor cost Sub-total 600,000.00


VII Sanitary + Labor Cost Sub-total 640,000.00

TOTAL COST = 6,178,500.00


70

Chapter 7
Project Schedule

The researchers proposed three-storey residential building with roof deck with recycled
glass as concrete admixture has a duration of 167 days or roughly six (6) months. The first
stage of the project includes the permit acquisition which includes the barangay and
municipal permit. After it, sourcing and purchasing of the needed materials and
construction equipment is done. The next stage is the implementation of the project which
includes the foundation works (20 days), substructure construction (10 days) and the
superstructure construction (120 days). The last stage of the project includes the testing and
commissioning, and the awarding of final acceptance tests and certificates.

Once all major construction works are done, finishing works will follow including tile
and welding works, schedule of doors and windows, hardware, electrical, plumbing, and
lastly painting works.
71

Figure 41 A Gantt Chart of the Project Schedule


72

Chapter 8
Promotional Material

Figure 42 Building Facade


73

Chapter 9
Conclusion and Summary
This project, Three-story residential building with roof deck using recycled glass as
aggregates and designed in fulfillment of the course CE Project, is a type of residential
building that is designed to withstand a huge amount of wind load such as the wind load of
the recent Super Typhoon Yolanda. This project is also for the benefit of residents of
Quezon City in case such typhoon with a high wind load hit the place.

Using different materials that can substitute various parts of a concrete mix are slowly
getting recognized. In this project, recycled glass would be used as a substitute aggregate.
Concrete mix substitutes are advantageous in a number of ways. Also, production of glass
waste is said to be increasing every year and by utilizing these trash can eliminate glass
waste production. In construction, recycled glass is also a reliable substitute to the
conventional aggregates provided that only a certain percentage will be replaced, in this
case, 10% of the volume of the concrete.

In this research silicate glass is used. This type of glass generally has the property of
being transparent, because of this it has many applications; bottles for alcoholic beverages,
light bulbs, and etc. Therefore making this type of glass as an abundant waste material.
Silica (SiO2) is the common fundamental constituent of this glass type. The property of
Silica has been used to advantage by grinding it into a fine glass powder (GLP) for
incorporation into concrete as a pozzolanic material. Pozzolanic material like Silica does
not contain cementing property but in a finely divided form and in the presence of moisture
and chemically react to calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperature to form compounds
possessing cementitious properties.

The datas from the test results showed that substituting glass as an aggregate does affect
the compressive strength of the concrete though further research is still needed. The effect
of 10% mixture with the 28th day compressive strength of concrete is not very evident. It
is advisable to try a different percentage in the mixture for other researchers in using waste
glass as a concrete admixture.

The objective of the group is to disseminate the idea of using substitute aggregates in
further constructions as it brings benefits to the structure, and the environment. More
people ought to learn of these innovations as to be able to contribute for the greater good
of the gradually disintegrating nature.
74

Overall, the construction of the residential building is a big gain not only for the people
who will live there but also for the environment because by knowing the fact that recycled
glass waste could be used as a substitute aggregate would lessen the increasing number of
glass waste and also lessen the use of traditional gravel and sand, which is usually sourced
from mining and quarrying sites that in turn can be a hazard to the environment.

Also, in lieu of increasing frequency of natural disasters, the said residential building is
designed to resist a huge wind load up to 275KPH. All said, the 3-storey residential project
aims to be a big contribution to the people and to the city it belongs to.
75

Chapter 10
Recommendations
The Philippines is a disaster-prone country. Super typhoons hit every year causing
massive devastations on structures and lives of people, not only in National Capital Region
but on the whole country. These disasters are caused by nature, and thus cant be prevented,
but the people should learn from past experiences and adopt to be prepared for the future
although accidents cant be helped to happen but it can be minimized.

Appropriate measures in response to these disasters are a different matter though. With
proper preparations and facilities, casualties and fatalities can be prevented, or at least
toned down to acceptable values. Having a residential structure that can withstand a super
typhoons should now be considered, and also the researchers would like to recommend a
structure with roof deck instead of having a GI roof of metal sheet roof because it is more
prone to get blown up by the wind pressure on the other hand roof deck is more logical
concept in residential structures.

Roof deck is made of concrete, the weight itself is enough to prevent suction due to
wind pressures and it has no inclination compared to conventional roofing with trusses
therefore it is not affected by the wind pressure directly and the wind pressure will be
carried by the wall around the roof deck. And lastly here in metro manila, space is very
important due to increasing number of structures and occupants, but providing roof decks
will give the owner additional space for recreational activities or for any other means.

The wind load that is used to design the said structure still needs to further analyze by
the experts. Though the purpose of this research is to spread awareness that the wind
velocities listed in the NSCP 2010 needed to be evaluated and to update as per the current
calamities are having a much greater velocities compared to the design criteria of the NSCP
2010. The researchers used the same wind velocity that stroked the Tacloban area to
investigate the effect of this increased wind load to the structure. And it is found out that
using higher wind velocity to the structure with Fc = 30.19MPa and having a roof deck
instead of GI roof would definitely increase the structures capacity against disasters.

For the concrete to be used in the structure the use of admixture is also a gradually
growing concept, though there are many more tests and experiments needed to find more
suitable materials that can qualify as concrete mixtures. Recycled glass is just some of
many available alternates to aggregates for concrete. Though the researchers cannot
conclude that using glass admixture would definitely enhance the concrete, it is advisable
to conduct further analysis and investigation to the said admixture. The 10% by volume
addition of glass aggregates results only to a very minimal increase compared to the design
mix. And it is recommended for other researchers to try a different percentage in the
concrete mix.
76

Chapter 11
Acknowledgements
This CE Project entitled Three-Storey Residential Building with Recycled Glass as
Concrete Admixture That Can Withstand the Wind Load of Super Typhoon Yolanda
would have not been accomplished without the efforts of each and every member. Three
people in a group sometimes cant really be enough, and so external help from friends,
schoolmates, advisers, and various sources are well appreciated.

To our thesis adviser, Engr. Bienvenido Cervantes, we are truly grateful for your help
and supervision. We thank you for answering our every question and inquiry and your
numerous effective advices that helped us improve our work.

Wed also like to thank our beneficiary who backed us up and showed his support for
our cause despite being occupied with his own duties and responsibilities to serve his
constituents.

We offer our gratitude to our families who never tired in supporting us in every endeavor
we underwent in the process of completing this project. And we thank God above all for
none of this is possible without His will, His wisdom, and His guidance bestowed upon us.
77

Chapter 12
References
Bacani, L. (2013). 'Yolanda' death toll jumps to 4,011; Damage cost pegged at P12-B
Retrieved from http://www.philstar.com/headlines/2013/11/20/1258841/yolanda-death-
toll-jumps-4011-damage-cost-pegged-p12-b
Porter, M.I. (2001). Aspects of Structural Design with Glass
Retrieved from http://www.eng.ox.ac.uk/civil/publications/theses/porter.pdf
O'Mahoney, M.M. (1990). Recycling of Materials in Civil Engineering
Retrieved from http://www.eng.ox.ac.uk/civil/publications/theses/o_mahony.pdf
Crompton, P.R. (1999). Assessment of Design Procedures for Structural Glass
Beams Retrieved from http://www.eng.ox.ac.uk/civil/publications/theses/crompton.pdf
Schneider, R.R., & Dickey, W. L. (1994) Reinforced Masonry Design, third edition
Liang, H., Zhu, H. & Byars, E. A. (2007) Use of Waste Glass as Aggregate in
Concrete University of Edinburgh, UK
M. Mageswari, & Dr. B. Vidivelli (2010). The Use of Sheet Glass Powder as Fine
Aggregate Replacement in Concrete The Open Civil Engineering Journal
McCormac J. Design of Reinforced Concrete, Seventh Edition, ACI 318-05 Code
Edition.
Gillesania, D.I.T., (2003). Fundamentals of Reinforced Concrete Design, Second
Edition. Cebu: GERTC.
Sekar, T., Ganesan, N., Nampoothiri, N.V.N., (2011). Studies on strength
characteristics on utilization of waste materials as coarse aggregate in concrete.
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 7.
Fajardo, M., (2000). Simplified Construction Estimate. 5138 Merchandising
Publisher
78

Appendices

Figure 43 Test Result of concrete with Glass aggregates for 28th day compressive strength

.
79

Figure 44 Test Result of concrete with Glass aggregates for 7th day compressive strength.
80

For each batch of concrete, seven cylindrical samples of 150mmx300mm size were
tested to determine its 7th and 28th compressive strength.

Test Results and Discussion

From the test results, it is observed that the recycled glass can be used as conventional
fine aggregate. It can be observed from Figure 20 that the strength of concrete increases
with a minimal value due to the usage of recycled glass as fine aggregate. In Figure 21,
though the strength increases, some sample materials failed due to some possible
experiment errors. The use of recycled glass can be used as fine aggregate but it requires
proper handling.
81

Conventional Concrete and Modified Concrete Comparison

Alternative Aggregates

A conventional concrete aggregate is composed of sand (fine aggregate) and various


sizes and shapes of gravel or stones (course aggregate). However, there is a growing
interest in substituting alternative aggregate materials, largely as potential use for recycled
materials. From the tests and researches done on stone dusts and ceramic scraps, these two
materials have proven to be used as partial alternatives for concrete production.

Even though aggregate usually accounts for 70% to 80% of the concrete volume, it is
commonly thought of as inert filler having small effects on the finished concrete properties.
However, studies have proven that aggregate plays an important role in determining the
workability, strength, dimensional stability, and durability of the concrete. It is also evident
that aggregates can have a significant effect on the cost of the concrete mixture.

Some parameters of aggregates are known to be important for engineered-use concrete:


strength, hardness and durability. Aggregate composed of recycled concrete generally has
a lower specific gravity and a higher absorption than conventional gravel aggregate. New
concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate typically has good workability and
durability. It has been found that recycled glass can be effectively used as fine aggregate
in place of conventional sand in concrete. By substituting recycled glass up to 10% by
volume of concrete could increase its compressive strength.

Installation

The installation of alternative aggregate concrete is basically the same as for


conventional concrete. The use of alternative aggregates addressed in this study (recycled
glass) does not present a significant deviation from standard concrete mixing and
application methods.
82

Benefits

Some of the additional benefits of the alternative aggregates in concrete include:

Use of any recycled material helps to keep that material out of landfills. Recycling
practices also can decrease the environmental impact of obtaining / manufacturing
the material from virgin resources.
New concrete made from recycled concrete aggregate generally has the same
properties as stone or gravel aggregate.
May result to boosting or creating secondary markets around recycling and selling
such materials.
Concrete unit cost is decrease
Freight cost is lowered.
Landfill costs are avoided and waste generation reduced.
And it makes maximum use of the energy already contained in the waste

Together, these factors constitute one of the basic cornerstones of sustainable development.
83

Figure 45: Borehole Log


84

Figure 46 Soil Report of the adjacent lot


85

STATISTICAL DATA
FOR SMALL SAMPLE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION:
(From Appendix: Test results of 28th day compressive strength)

X1 = 29.87 MPA
X2 = 28.91 MPA
X3 = 31.29 MPA
X4 = 30.73 MPA
X5 = 29.49 MPA
X6 = 30.56 MPA
X7 = 30.48 MPA

Xave = 30.19 MPA


S = 0.8117265549
N = 7; V = 7-1 = 6
= 30 ; 30
= 10%

Figure 47 Distribution Curve


Using Normal Distribution formula for the average of a small sample n from a population
in which the mean is and the standard deviation is S, the standard error is S/n:

=


30.19 30
= 0.8117 ; = 0.61931

7
. < < 1.
Therefore, t is within the acceptable range.
86

Figure 48 Distribution Curve Table


ARTICLE
TYPE PAPER
CEGE Journal
ISBN ___________________

THREE-STOREY RESIDENTIAL BUILDING WITH ROOF DECK WITH


RECYCLED GLASS AS CONCRETE ADMIXTURE THAT CAN WITHSTAND
THE WIND LOAD OF SUPER TYPHOON YOLANDA

Project By

APIT, JOHN CARLO T., BONGALOS, JAKE ANDREW T., LAGGUI, JOHN PAUL M.,
ENGR. BIENVENIDO A. CERVANTES

Submitted to the School of Civil, Environmental and Geological Engineering (SCEGE)

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements


For the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering

Mapua Institute of Technology


Intramuros, Manila

SEPTEMBER 2014
CEGE Journal
ISBN ___________________

ABSTRACT

The terms global warming and climate change has been commonly used and hear recently.
This is due to the erratic weather the planet Earth has been undergoing lately. It can be
attributed to the growth of population, and the subsequent destruction of the environment.
Super Typhoons are beginning to reach never-before-heard-of speeds surpassing the
250kph mark wind velocity, which greatly affects the structural integrity as the NSCP codes
for wind velocity. As a possible response to this, the proponents thought that a residential
structure with roof deck for additional spaces and for safety purposes seemed like a viable
project to do. Coupled with the innovation of using substitute aggregates in a form of
recycled glass, it also keeps within the theme of being environmental-friendly, and
economical by helping to reduce waste that damages the surrounding environment.

Keywords: NSCP codes for wind velocity, Glass Aggregates, Environmental-friendly,


and Economical

Acronyms / Abbreviations
ASR Alkali-Silica Reaction
CAD Computer Aided Design
CBR California Bearing Ratio
NCR National Capital Region
NDRRMC National Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council
NSCP National Structural Code of the Philippines
PAG-ASA Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Service
Administration
PVC Polyvinyl Chloride
SGP Sheet Glass Powder
CEGE Journal
ISBN ___________________

1 Introduction
Global cement industry contributes large percentage of greenhouse gas emission to
Earth. Concrete and cement production requires 700 and 1750 kW-hour of energy. The
energy is somehow smaller than the aluminum, steel and PVC production (141,500, 46,000
and 24,700) but concrete and cement are widely used in construction so therefore,
producing these materials definitely requires a large amount of energy which affects the
environment due to CO2 emissions.

Because of this, efforts have been made to introduce coarse or fine aggregate waste
materials and in this study; the group will focus on recycled waste glass material and also
to determine if this could be used as an admixture for concrete.

It has been recognized that glass waste is increasing year by year in the shops, factories
and construction areas. Glass is commonly used in our lives because of products such as
bottles, glass wares and sheet glass. Glass is an ideal material for recycling and using
recycled glass would definitely help the environment and will save energy. The increasing
awareness of glass recycling makes the use of waste glass into different forms in various
fields. One of this is in the construction field where waste glass is recycled and reused for
concrete production. In addition to this, using waste glass in the concrete production is
advantageous, because this would lessen the production cost of concrete.

And for the design parameter of the proposed structure the researchers consider the
recent calamity that attacked the eastern Visayas; Super typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda).
Typhoon Haiyan devastated the province of Samar and Leyte resulting to a damage cost of
12-Billion with a death toll of 4,011. This serves as an inspiration for the researchers to
introduce a higher Wind Load in considering the design parameters of the proposed
building. [1]

1.1 Problem Statement

In this study, the group focused on recycled glass material and also to determine if this type
of material could be used as an admixture for the concrete that is going to be used in a
residential structure that can sustain the wind load of Typhoon Yolanda. Other problems
that are connected in this project includes analyzing whether the recycled glass aggregates
will affect the compressive strength of a concrete mixture, and determining if using
recycled glass aggregate would be more economical than using normal aggregate.

___________________
1 Bacani, L. (2013). 'Yolanda' death toll jumps to 4,011; Damage cost pegged at P12-B Retrieved
from http://www.philstar.com/headlines/2013/11/20/1258841/yolanda-death-toll-jumps-4011-
damage-cost-pegged-p12-b
CEGE Journal
ISBN ___________________
1.2 Project Objective

This study aims to first research on the strength of the concrete using waste recycled
glass as an admixture. Material testing will also be conducted to determine the 28th day
compressive strength of the concrete. The data that will be gathered from the material
testing will be compared to the data of commercially available and widely used concrete.

This also includes the design of a three-storey residential building with roof deck on
which the researchers will apply the waste recycled glass as an admixture and to adopt a
new maximum wind load based on the recent calamities. The objective also includes
estimation of the overall cost of the proposed building and research on glass as construction
material.

In addition, the group would also like to address what engineers should reconsider in
light of Typhoon Yolanda, that is using glass as a wall for structures, since glass is very
brittle and the effort is to introduce a new approach in which the glass can be used. Finally,
the study aims to provide additional research on the use of recycled glass aggregates here
in the Philippines.

1.3 Design Norms Considered


Engineers involved in projects must ensure safety of occupants of the building thus
following the standard procedure. Making the structure economical is also an important
factor without impairing the quality of the structure. Another important norm considered is
aesthetics.

1.4 The Project Beneficiary


The beneficiary of this project is Juan B. Apit. The design statistics will be given to them
and they will be occupying the said structure.

1.5 The Innovative Approach


The project will be utilizing software and other technology that give better outputs and
hasten the completion of the project. These software and technology are as follows:
AutoCAD
This software will provide mostly the architectural and structural plans of the
structure.
Staad PRO V8i
This software will help in designing the structure frames. It uses mainly on
beams, columns, foundations, and trusses. It also checks the stability of the
structure and its adequacy.
Google SketchUp
This is used to create better perspective view on the structure.
CEGE Journal
ISBN ___________________
1.6 The Research Component
This project also includes material testing to determine the strength of the concrete
when the glass admixture is added. This will also support the different data researched by
other people in terms of recycled glass admixtures. This project will also determine the
most economical materials needed to build the structure.

1.7 The Design Component


The design component will cover the design of the superstructure and substructure.
Superstructure will include the design of structural members which are roof truss, slabs,
columns, beams and walls; while the substructure is composed of the foundation. The
design of the project will refer to the NSCP (National Structural Code of the Philippines)
2010, 6th Edition, Volume 2 for the loadings of the structure and American Concrete
Institute Specifications.

The design of the substructure will depend on the strength or soil bearing capacity
of the site. Included here is the conduct of soil investigation of the site. This will shows
what kind of footing is needed for the said building.

1.8 Sustainable Development Concept


For the environmental protection and conservation, the materials to be used for the
construction of the said project will meet the norms for green design and will help in
reducing the emission of carbon dioxide as much as possible. Improved ventilation design
will be incorporated with the structure so that power consumption will be minimized.

2 Environmental Examination Report

2.1 Project Description


This project is a design of a three-storey residential building with roof deck is
located at Lot 14 Block 2 Newton Street Filinvest 2-Heights Quezon City. The materials
used in the structure will be economical and the added admixture will enhance the strength
of the concrete thus making the structure safe and compliant.

2.2 Impact Assessment and Mitigation

2.2.1 Summary Matrix of Predicted Environmental Issues/Impacts and their Level


of Significance at Various Stages of Development
Environmental Issues Level of Significance
Noise Generated Low Impact
Population Increase Medium Impact
Air Quality Medium Impact
Water Quality Medium Impact
CEGE Journal
ISBN ___________________
2.2.2 Brief Discussion of Specific Significant Impacts on the Physical and Biological
Resources

The environmental issues are noise generated, air quality, and water quality. Noise
generated in the site greatly affects the surrounding area, since it is a residential
subdivision, people might complain about it. Other factor like air and water quality also
affects the area. The air is quite critical because of the dust and debris that could lead to
accidents. Water quality needed to secure for the workers and the removal of water during
rainy season in the site.

2.2.3 Brief Discussion of Significant Socio-economic Effects/Impacts of the Project


The population increase in the subdivision affects the lives of the residents since the
people voting for the organization within will increase. It will also affect the traffic in the
area due to the falling debris from the construction.

3 The Research Component

3.1 Introduction
Refrain from using glass cladding for your structure.
From the above statement; the researchers gained the inspiration to present a new field
on where the glass material can be used. Since the recent typhoon that hit the Visayas region
results to devastating damages to residential structures, specifically in windows and glass
structures. The researchers will try to promote the awareness in the society that nowadays
normal glass structures may not be able to withstand the future typhoon wind loads, and
for the authorities to consider revising the structural codes of the Philippines.

3.2 Review of Related Literature

Aspects of Structural Design of Glass


Glass is being used as a structural material. The most recent developments have
seen glass used as beams and columns. These new applications present a series of design
problems that need to be addressed. Addressing these shortfalls has been a primary object
of this thesis.
CEGE Journal
ISBN ___________________
There has been much work on out-of-plane loading of glass, and in-plane loading
of traditional materials is well described. In reality engineers have been borrowing design
concepts from the two former areas to try and satisfy the latter. It was shown that the current
design methods for glass, based predominantly on design against transient lateral loading
for windows, do not adequately account for the behavior of glass when used in these new
applications. In this thesis it is demonstrated that this is not satisfactory.

A new design method was then developed, based on the principles of fracture
mechanics and incorporating limit state design concepts. This new Crack Size Design
method was proposed as an alternative to the allowable stress method currently used in
structural glass design. [2]

Recycling of Materials in Civil Engineering

Britain is one of the countries which have many sources with regards to the natural
aggregate and its approvals to develop new quarries are running at about half the rate of
extraction. The use of secondary materials would not create a major source of aggregate
but the quantity of natural aggregate required by the construction industry would be
reduced significantly.

This reports mainly on laboratory tests conducted on crushed concrete and


demolition debris to examine the potential use of these materials in new construction. Other
tests were conducted to check the compliance with the Specification for Highway Works
(1986) and more detailed tests conducted with regard to CBR. Frost susceptibility where
the influences of moisture content, density and particle packing on these properties were
investigated. From the frost susceptibility results, further work would be required in this
area to determine the main factors which influence the frost heave of recycled aggregates.
The comparison of recycled aggregate and natural aggregate concrete appeared to be of
superior quality than that produced in other research.

During the study, the recycled aggregates could perform as well as limestone and
can be considered for many potential uses. It only involved physical properties of recycled
materials therefore their ability to perform as construction aggregates could be enhance
further. [3]

___________________
2 Porter, M.I. (2001). Aspects of Structural Design with Glass Retrieved from
http://www.eng.ox.ac.uk/civil/publications/theses/porter.pdf
3 O'Mahoney, M.M. (1990). Recycling of Materials in Civil Engineering Retrieved from
http://www.eng.ox.ac.uk/civil/publications/theses/o_mahony.pdf
CEGE Journal
ISBN ___________________
Assessment of design procedures for structural glass beams
This is about the structural use of glass. Glass is the most perfectly brittle materials
that exist. Glass also demonstrates linear elastic behavior right up to the point of failure.
This study reviews the current design methods tracing their development through the
century. Current code formers are keen to bring all materials under the umbrella of Limit
State Design. This philosophy is somewhat inappropriate for materials where the main
design criterion is not ultimate strength.

Glass cannot be made to conform to a design method created for ductile materials.
The so-called plastic design theory of structures applies therefore to steel and to reinforced
concrete frames but not to materials like cast iron and glass which are brittle. The
multi-ply beam shows that statistically two or more beams are always better than one
equivalent thickness. This method reduces the thickness of glass beams without affecting
its probability to failure.

This is not about face-loaded glass elements where designs are governed by
deflection but about edge-loaded elements where strength governs and more rigorous
design rules is required. The strength of multi-ply beams are predicted from the strength
distribution load found for single beams. [4]

Glass Masonry
Glass masonry units are used in the openings of typical masonry exterior or interior
walls. These non-load bearing filler panels must be at least 3 inch thick and the mortared
surfaces of the blocks have to be treated to provide an adequate mortar-bonding effect. The
glass panels should also be restrained laterally to resist lateral force effects of winds or
earthquakes. The sizes of the exterior panels are limited to a maximum vertical or
horizontal dimension of 15feet and an area of 144ft2 of unsupported wall surface. For
interior glass block panels, these limits are increased to 25ft and 250ft2.

The glass blocks must be laid in type S or N mortar with both vertical and horizontal
joints being and 3/8-in. thick and completely filled. Exterior glass block panels have to
be provided with in. expansion joints at the sides and at the top, and must be entirely
free of mortar so that the space can be filled with resilient material to provide for needed
in-plane movement. The expansion joint must also provide for lateral support while
permitting expansion and contraction of the glass panel. [5]

___________________
4 Crompton, P.R. (1999). Assessment of Design Procedures for Structural Glass Beams Retrieved from
http://www.eng.ox.ac.uk/civil/publications/theses/crompton.pdf
5 Schneider, R.R., & Dickey, W. L. (1994) Reinforced Masonry Design, third edition
CEGE Journal
ISBN ___________________
Use of waste glass as aggregate in concrete
In many countries, waste glass is one of the major components of the solid waste
stream. It can be found in many forms, including container glass, flat glass such as bulb
glass, windows and cathode ray tube glass. The increasing awareness of glass recycling
speeds up inspections on the use of waste glass with different forms in various fields. One
of its significant contributions is to the construction field where the waste glass was reused
for value-added concrete production. Literature survey indicates that the use of waste glass
as aggregates in concrete was first reported over 50 years ago.

The concomitant alkali-silica reaction (ASR) by using glass in concrete and its
unique aesthetic properties have been investigated since then. However, no complete
solution to ASR has been found and the application of glass in architectural concrete still
needs improving. Laboratory experiments were conducted to further explore the use of
waste glass as coarse and fine aggregates for both ASR alleviation as well as the decorative
purpose in concrete. This study presents the latter aspect, in which study, both fresh and
hardened properties of architectural concrete were tested. The results demonstrate that the
use of waste glass as aggregate facilitates the development of concrete towards a high
architectural level besides its high performances, thereafter, the increasing market in
industry. [6]

The Use of Sheet Glass Powder as Fine Aggregate Replacement in Concrete

The use of sheet glass powder (SGP) in concrete leads to a greener environment. In
shops, many sheet glass cuttings go to waste, which are not recycled at present and usually
delivered to landfills for disposal. Using sheet glass powder in concrete is an interesting
possibility for economy on waste disposal sites and also for the conservation of natural
resources. This study examines the possibility of using sheet glass powder as a replacement
in fine aggregate for a new concrete. Natural sand was partially replaced with SGP (10%,
20%, 30%, 40% and 50%). The Compressive strength, Tensile strength (cubes and
cylinders) and Flexural strength up to 180 days of age were compared with those of
concrete made with natural fine aggregates. The water absorption, fineness modulus,
moisture content, specific gravity, bulk density, percentage of porosity, percentage of voids
(loose and compact) state for sand (S) and SDA were also studied. The results indicate that
it is possible to manufacture concrete containing Sheet glass powder (SGP) with
characteristics similar to those of natural sand aggregate concrete provided that the
percentage of SGP as fine aggregate is limited to 10-20%, respectively. [7]

___________________
6 Liang, H., Zhu, H. & Byars, E. A. (2007) Use of Waste Glass as Aggregate in Concrete University
of Edinburgh, UK
7 M. Mageswari, & Dr. B. Vidivelli (2010). The Use of Sheet Glass Powder as Fine Aggregate
Replacement in Concrete The Open Civil Engineering Journal
CEGE Journal
ISBN ___________________
3.3 Methodology
The first step is to propose their topic to the panels so that the researchers could get
an approval for them to start their study about their chosen topic. After the approval, the
researchers are to collect data and to review literatures that are connected to their study. In
order to collect the data that will be used for their chosen topic, the researchers will be
using a wide variety of sources available. One of the most important materials to be used
in the study is the internet. The internet provided easier access for the related literatures
and other innovative methods and designs that were suitable in the design of the proposed
three-storey residential building with roof deck. In addition to this, the researchers also go
to libraries to gather more related literatures that may add more ideas to their proposed
project.

The researchers are also required to have beneficiaries in which their designs will
be given to. In addition, the beneficiaries were consulted to provide details for the design
of the structure. The beneficiaries for this study would be Juan B. Apit. The researchers
were to provide them the design of a three-storey residential building with roof deck in
which the researchers will apply the use of recycled glass as a concrete admixture and also
a building that would resist a strong wind load similar to the wind load of the recent
typhoon Yolanda.

The next step is for the researchers to now gather technical data for their study and
one of it is by material testing since their topic is about waste glass admixture for concrete.
The soil bearing capacity test will be also conducted in the proposed lot.

Statistical Treatment

The gathered data will be analyzed and interpreted in order to come up with an
accurate and a well-engineered structure and provide a new horizon in structural
engineering. The books, articles and previous researches about recycled glass aggregates
will be used as a basis and reference in the design of the structure and come up with a more
thorough understanding of using recycled glass in structures. The researchers also uses
statistical formulas to verify the small sample testing and the validity of the study.

4 Results and Discussions


In this study, the researchers determined that recycled glass has a potential and
could be used as a concrete admixture. Laboratory tests showed that with the addition of
recycled glass per 10 percent volume of concrete helped the concrete to gain a minimal
increase in its 28th day compressive strength, though further research is still needed. And
the data gathered in this research is used in designing the proposed structure to observe
what could be the effect of increasing the compressive strength of concrete to disaster
resilient residential building. Based from the laboratory tests the 7th day compressive
strength of the concrete cylinder with recycled glass as admixture is 20.56MPa and the
28th day compressive strength is 30.19MPa.
CEGE Journal
ISBN ___________________
After some thorough discussions and design analysis, the proponents of the project
have come up with a full design of a three-story residential building thats constructed with
the use of 28th day compressive strength from the test results of the recycled glass as a
concrete admixture.

The use of computer software such as STAAD was observed to analyze the
structural design of the building including its foundation. On the other hand, the
architectural or aesthetic design was created using AutoCAD and SketchUp to be able to
illustrate the supposed outside appearance of the structure.

The structural design of the building is done with the recent onslaught of disasters
in mind. Since several super typhoons have been hitting the Philippines in the recent years,
the researchers considered to enhance the capacity of the structure to withstand wind loads
just like the recent Super Typhoon Yolanda that swept the Visayas region. With these
factors, the design of the residential building is made to conform to building codes that take
in consideration the effects of forces of nature.

For the design wind load; the researchers considered the highest wind velocity that
hit the Visayas region during the Super Typhoon Yolanda which is 275 KPH. By using the
Bernoullis energy equation and considering air flow with a density of 1.225 Kg/m, the
researcher came up with the equation;
1 2
=
2
0.6125 2 =
Where: V = wind velocity (m/s)
P = Equivalent pressure (N/m) (Pa)

Substituting the wind velocity of 76.889m/s to the conversion of wind speed to free
stream dynamic pressure, the equivalent pressure that the Super Typhoon Yolanda
produced is 3.621 KPa. Take note that this computation is to compare what is the effect of
this wind velocity converted to pressure and it is not included in the NSCP, thus the purpose
of this research is to introduce a higher wind velocity as compared to the NSCP and to
examine the effects of this wind velocity to the proposed structure. As of NSCP 2010,
figure 207-24 Referenced Wind Zone Map of the Philippines; the highest wind velocity is
at Zone 1 which is 250KPH but the recent calamities that stroked the Philippines bearing a
wind velocity of 275KPH.
CEGE Journal
ISBN ___________________

5 Conclusion and Recommendation


The use of recycled materials in construction is now becoming popular; countries
such as Britain conducted laboratory tests and found out that materials such as glass could
be used as a concrete additive. During the study, they found out that recycled aggregates
such as glass could perform as well as limestone and can be considered for many potential
uses.

According to the studies of S.P. Gautam, Vikas Srivastava and V.C. Agarwal which
are all about the use of glass wastes as fine aggregate in concrete, this material can
significantly enhance the concrete. They concluded that by substituting up to 10% of
recycled glass wastes in concrete aggregate shows a marginal increase the compressive
strength of the concrete. They also concluded that the optimum replacement percentage of
the glass to the fine aggregate is 10%. There are also other researches and related literatures
which claims the same conclusion that the use of glass wastes as a fine aggregate affects
the compressive strength of the concrete. But the study of S.P. Gautam, Vikas Srivastava
and V.C. Agarwal is not reliable in a sense that the concrete sample used did not conform
accordingly to the ASTM standards of testing of materials, because they use a cubical
sample to dimension of 100mm which is should be a cylindrical sample with a height which
is twice of the width of the sample.

Even though the researchers prove that using glass wastes as a fine aggregate
produce a minimal increase in concrete, the use of this recycled glass aggregate admixture
for the concrete still needs to be studied further. Because thing material could revolutionize
the conventional concrete mix in such a way that recycling wastes material into a more
useful product.

This project, Three-story residential building with roof deck using recycled glass
as aggregatesproposed and designed in fulfillment of the course CE Project, is a type of
residential building that is designed to withstand a huge amount of wind load such as the
wind load of the recent Super Typhoon Yolanda. This project is also for the benefit of
residents of Quezon City in case such typhoon with a high wind load hit the place.

Using different materials that can substitute various parts of a concrete mix are
slowly getting recognized. In this project, recycled glass would be used as a substitute
aggregate. Concrete mix substitutes are advantageous in a number of ways. Also,
production of glass waste is said to be increasing every year and by utilizing these trash
can eliminate glass waste production. In construction, recycled glass is also a reliable
substitute to the conventional aggregates provided that only a certain percentage will be
replaced, in this case, 10% of the volume of the concrete.

In this research silicate glass is used. This type of glass generally has the property
of being transparent, because of this it has many applications; bottles for alcoholic
beverages, light bulbs, and etc. Therefore making this type of glass as an abundant waste
material. Silica (SiO2) is the common fundamental constituent of this glass type. The
property of Silica has been used to advantage by grinding it into a fine glass powder (GLP)
CEGE Journal
ISBN ___________________
for incorporation into concrete as a pozzolanic material. Pozzolanic material like Silica
does not contain cementing property but in a finely divided form and in the presence of
moisture and chemically react to calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperature to form
compounds possessing cementitious properties.

The datas from the test results showed that substituting glass as an aggregate does
affect the compressive strength of the concrete though further research is still needed. The
effect of 10% mixture with the 28th day compressive strength of concrete is not very
evident. It is advisable to try a different percentage in the mixture for other researchers in
using waste glass as a concrete admixture.

The objective of the group is to disseminate the idea of using substitute aggregates
in further constructions as it brings benefits to the structure, and the environment. More
people ought to learn of these innovations as to be able to contribute for the greater good
of the gradually disintegrating nature.

Overall, the construction of the residential building is a big gain not only for the
people who will live there but also for the environment because by knowing the fact that
recycled glass waste could be used as a substitute aggregate would lessen the increasing
number of glass waste and also lessen the use of traditional gravel and sand, which is
usually sourced from mining and quarrying sites that in turn can be a hazard to the
environment.

Also, in lieu of increasing frequency of natural disasters, the said residential


building is designed to resist a huge wind load up to 275KPH. All said, the 3-storey
residential project aims to be a big contribution to the people and to the city it belongs to.

The Philippines is a disaster-prone country. Super typhoons hit every year causing
massive devastations on structures and lives of people, not only in National Capital Region
but on the whole country. These disasters are caused by nature, and thus cant be prevented,
but the people should learn from past experiences and adopt to be prepared for the future
although accidents cant be helped to happen but it can be minimized.

Appropriate measures in response to these disasters are a different matter though.


With proper preparations and facilities, casualties and fatalities can be prevented, or at least
toned down to acceptable values. Having a residential structure that can withstand a super
typhoons should now be considered, and also the researchers would like to recommend a
structure with roof deck instead of having a GI roof of metal sheet roof because it is more
prone to get blown up by the wind pressure on the other hand roof deck is more logical
concept in residential structures.

Roof deck is made of concrete, the weight itself is enough to prevent suction due
to wind pressures and it has no inclination compared to conventional roofing with trusses
therefore it is not affected by the wind pressure directly and the wind pressure will be
carried by the wall around the roof deck. And lastly here in metro manila, space is very
CEGE Journal
ISBN ___________________
important due to increasing number of structures and occupants, but providing roof decks
will give the owner additional space for recreational activities or for any other means.

The wind load that is used to design the said structure still needs to further analyze
by the experts. Though the purpose of this research is to spread awareness that the wind
velocities listed in the NSCP 2010 needed to be evaluated and to update as per the current
calamities are having a much greater velocities compared to the design criteria of the NSCP
2010.

The researchers used the same wind velocity that stroked the Tacloban area to
investigate the effect of this increased wind load to the structure. And it is found out that
using higher wind velocity to the structure with Fc = 30.19MPa and having a roof deck
instead of GI roof would definitely increase the structures capacity against disasters.

For the concrete to be used in the structure the use of admixture is also a gradually
growing concept, though there are many more tests and experiments needed to find more
suitable materials that can qualify as concrete mixtures. Recycled glass is just some of
many available alternates to aggregates for concrete. Though the researchers cannot
conclude that using glass admixture would definitely enhance the concrete, it is advisable
to conduct further analysis and investigation to the said admixture. The 10% by volume
addition of glass aggregates results only to a very minimal increase compared to the design
mix. And it is recommended for other researchers to try a different percentage in the
concrete mix.
CEGE Journal
ISBN ___________________

7 Acknowledgment
This CE Project entitled Proposed Three-Storey Residential Building with
Recycled Glass as Concrete Admixture That Can Withstand the Wind Load of Super
Typhoon Yolanda would have not been accomplished without the efforts of each and
every member. Three people in a group sometimes cant really be enough, and so external
help from friends, schoolmates, advisers, and various sources are well appreciated.

To our thesis adviser, Engr. Bienvenido Cervantes, we are truly grateful for your
help and supervision. We thank you for answering our every question and inquiry and your
numerous effective advices that helped us improve our work.

Wed also like to thank our beneficiary who backed us up and showed his support
for our cause despite being occupied with his own duties and responsibilities to serve his
constituents.

We offer our gratitude to our families who never tired in supporting us in every
endeavor we underwent in the process of completing this project. And we thank God above
all for none of this is possible without His will, His wisdom, and His guidance bestowed
upon us.
CEGE Journal
ISBN ___________________

References

Bacani, L. (2013). 'Yolanda' death toll jumps to 4,011; Damage cost pegged at P12-B
Retrieved from http://www.philstar.com/headlines/2013/11/20/1258841/yolanda-death-
toll-jumps-4011-damage-cost-pegged-p12-b

Porter, M.I. (2001). Aspects of Structural Design with Glass Retrieved from
http://www.eng.ox.ac.uk/civil/publications/theses/porter.pdf

O'Mahoney, M.M. (1990). Recycling of Materials in Civil Engineering Retrieved from


http://www.eng.ox.ac.uk/civil/publications/theses/o_mahony.pdf

Crompton, P.R. (1999). Assessment of Design Procedures for Structural Glass Beams
Retrieved from http://www.eng.ox.ac.uk/civil/publications/theses/crompton.pdf

Schneider, R.R., & Dickey, W. L. (1994) Reinforced Masonry Design, third edition

Liang, H., Zhu, H. & Byars, E. A. (2007) Use of Waste Glass as Aggregate in
Concrete University of Edinburgh, UK

M. Mageswari, & Dr. B. Vidivelli (2010). The Use of Sheet Glass Powder as Fine
Aggregate Replacement in Concrete The Open Civil Engineering Journal

McCormac J. Design of Reinforced Concrete, Seventh Edition, ACI 318-05 Code Edition.

Gillesania, D.I.T., (2003). Fundamentals of Reinforced Concrete Design, Second Edition.


Cebu: GERTC.

Sekar, T., Ganesan, N., Nampoothiri, N.V.N., (2011). Studies on strength characteristics
on utilization of waste materials as coarse aggregate in concrete. International Journal of
Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 7.

Fajardo, M., (2000). Simplified Construction Estimate. 5138 Merchandising Publisher


ORIGINAL PANEL
PROJECT REPORT
ASSESSMENT SHEET
ENGLISH EDITOR
ASSESSMENT
ACCOMPLISHED
CONSULTATION FORMS
COMPILATION OF
ASSESSMENT FORMS
(RUBRICS)
COPY OF ENGINEERING
DRAWING AND
PLANS
Engineering Drawing & Plans

Figure 21: Typical Girder Framing


Figure 22: Typical Girder Detailing

Figure 23: Typical Beam Detailing

Figure 24: Typical Slab Detailing


Figure 25: Typical Footing Detailing

Figure 26 Wall Footing Detail


Figure 27 Footing Tie Beam

Figure 28 SkechUp Model


Figure 29 Ground Floor

Figure 30 Second Floor


Figure 31: Third Floor

Figure 32 Roof Deck


Figure 37 STAAD Model
Figure 38 Typical Framing Plan

Figure 39 Column Layout Plan


Foundation Plan
COPY OF
PROJECT POSTER
Proposed Three-Storey Residential Building with Roof Deck with
Recycled Glass as Concrete Admixture and Adopting the Wind
Load of Super Typhoon Yolanda

PROBLEM STATEMENT CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK


This project aims to:

(1) Determine if recycled glass material could


be used as a concrete admixture,

(2) Design a residential structure that can sustain


the wind load of Typhoon Yolanda,

(3) Analyze whether recycled glass could affect


the compressive strength of a concrete
mixture, and lastly

(4) Determine if using recycled glass as an


admixture would be more economical than
using normal mixture.

DESIGN OBJECTIVES:
To determine the strength of concrete
with admixture through material testing

To design a 3 storey residential building


that can withstand the wind load of
typhoon Yolanda

To estimate the cost of the completion of


the project

For every house is built by


someone, but the builder of all
things is God. RESEARCHERS:
(1 Timothy 6:18-19 RSV) Apit, John Carlo
Bongalos, Jake Andrew
FACULTY ADVISER
Laggui, John Paul
ENGR. Bienvenido A. Cervantes
PHOTOCOPY OF
RECEIPTS
RELEVANT PICTURES
Relevant Pictures

Location where the project will be constructed with existing infrastructure

Location of the project showing the streets


7th day compressive strength test result part 1
7th day compressive strength test result part 2
28th day compressive strength test results part 1
28th day compressive strength test results part 2
Crushing of Glass

Sieving of Glass
Mixing of Concrete materials

Pouring of concrete into slump cone


Figure 12 Testing for slump test

Figure 13Concrete cylinders ready for curing


Figure 14 Concrete cylinders

Figure 15 Universal Testing Machine (UTM)


Testing of Concrete cylinders

Crushed concrete cylinder after testing


Gantt Chart of the Project Schedule

Building Facade
Borehole Log

Soil Report of the adjacent lot


OTHER REQUIRED
FORMS
STUDENT REFLECTIONS
APIT, JOHN CARLO T.
BS CIVIL ENGINEERING
2008103462

STUDENT REFLECTION

My soon to be graduation is finally approaching, I am


reminiscing my college life and it was legendary. Doing school
projects, homework and laboratory reports just a few hours before
the deadline will always be remembered as I venture into the wild
place called reality which it is not always that we are a student. There
are a time when we had to evolve from an infant who barely walk
into the man who will one day shape the future of the next
generation. As a future engineer, it is my duty and obligation to help
the society build a better community through the learnings I had
during my school years, but for now, I will have to repay the favour
my parents did to me. And that is to be the one doing most of the
work and supports my family financially so they will get a rest from
their hard daily work. It is time for me to man up and stand in my
own feet.

I see myself, 5 years from now, as a successful engineer who


diligently works to the fullest of my efforts. I already supporting my
sister financially for her college expenses. I already bought a house
and lot which I designed it.

I see myself in my own construction firm office, sitting in my


own chair, doing some paper works while drinking my coffee in my
own mug and I will say, Youre hired.
Bongalos, Jake Andrew T.
BS CIVIL ENGINEERING
2009107075

REFLECTION

In our thesis which is entitled Proposed Three-Storey Residential


Building with Roof Deck with Recycled Glass as Concrete Admixture That
Can Withstand the Wind Load of Super Typhoon Yolanda. Me and my group
mates as the researchers put up so much hard work to for it to be finished. I
remember when we first think of our subject for our thesis and I am glad that
with all those topics, we picked one of the best subject.

This thesis not only made us knowledgeable with regards to civil


engineering subjects and designs, this thesis also made us ready for what we
may become or what we will do in our future jobs. Honestly, because of this
thesis, I increase my knowledge about using STAAD and how to estimate
residential buildings. I am sure that with those experiences, we will be more
ready for the future.

All in all I am happy that now we are almost done with our thesis and I
am also glad that all of our hard work pays off. I would like to thank our
adviser, Engr. Bienvenido Cervantes for helping us out in our thesis and also
to my group mates, John Paul Laggui and John Carlo Apit for working hard
to finish this thesis.
When I think about what would happen to me after 5 years, I think
positively that I become a successful working person, I also know that it will
take some time for me to be a project manager and I know that it would happen
someday because that is one of my dreams. So since we only talk about after
5 years, I hoped that after 5 years I do have a job and finally, I could give
money to my parents and finally pay them all their hard works just for me to
finish my course. Even though we have so many problems financially, they
still make solutions just only to pay my tuition fee. Honestly, I also hoped that
I will have my own car after 5 years because I love to have one. Even though
it is not a luxury car, I would love to have any car that I will buy with my own
money because of my hard work. I hoped that I would make my parents, my
other relatives and my friends proud to me after 5 years thats all.
LAGGUI, JOHN PAUL M.
BS CIVIL ENGINEERING
2009107754

STUDENT REFLECTION

As my final days here in this Institution is fast approaching,


and my sweet Graduation Day is almost at my door step; there
comes a point that I ask myself, what will it be after the graduation?
I wont need to woke up early and struggle in the Philippine
transportation system to attend in my classes, no more hand written
reports, projects, oral presentations/defence and the last thing that
will really make me feel good about graduation is the fact that there
are no more tuition fees. My parents hardship for my tuition fees
ends now, and I know its time for me to return the favor.

What will I be 3-5 years from now? If there is something that


I can assure is that, I am already a licensed Civil Engineer. 5 years
from now, I already financially assisted my brother to graduate in
his course and as much as possible I dont want my parents to work,
for this should be their time to rest and enjoy life as they are getting
old. 5 years from now, I am thinking that I should have an
investment for myself. I should have a savings for my own house
and for my own family, because I should now live separately from
my parents for this time I am on my own. Though Civil Engineer is
a very in demand job here and abroad, I should have other
investments that will help me. 5 years from now, I want to have my
own hardware stores and apartments for rent which I think is more
stable than working in abroad. If I already achieved those things, I
will now settle and start my own family, having kids and raising
them to the best that I could, just like how my parents raised me.
RESUME OF
EACH MEMBER
John Carlo Tamondong Apit
Address: #021 Quail Street Veterans Bagong Silangan Quezon City
Contact #: 09273761784
Email: apitjohncarlo@yahoo.com.ph

OBJECTIVE:

To pursue a venerable career in a professional organization enable achieving


companys objectives of development, customer pleasure and service.

EDUCATIONAL BACKROUND

Tertiary: Mapua Institute of Technology 2008 Present


Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering
Intramuros, Manila

Secondary: Our Lade of Mercy School 2004 2008


Commonwealth Avenue, Quezon City

Elementary: Golden Vineyard School 1996 2004


Filinvest II, Quezon City

SKILLS

Oriented in Microsoft Office applications such as:


o Microsoft Office Word
o Microsoft Office Excel
o Microsoft Office Powerpoint
o Microsoft Project

Capable of using Engineering applications such as:


o STAAD
o AutoCAD
o Google SketchUP

SEMINAR AND TRAINING EXPERIENCES

Student Conference on Transportation Research 2013


February 21-23, 2013
Mapua Institute of Technology
Intramuros, Manila
Building Information Modelling (BIM) Seminar
October 23, 2013
Mapua Institute of Technology
Intramuros, Manila

Solstice Project of Makati Development Corporation


January 2014 March 2014
Onsite Civil Engineering Trainee
Makati Circuit, Makati City

References available upon request


Jake Andrew T. Bongalos
Address: L16 BLK 65 Kalayaan Street
Karangalan Village, Cainta Rizal
Mobile number: 091 7 -984-1191
Email: jakeandrew22 @yahoo.com

Objectives: I am looking for a suitable Job and an opportunity where I could


practice my knowledge with regards to civil engineering and to
develop my personality as a career person while utilizing my skills.

Personal Qualifications

Computer literate (M.S. Word, PowerPoint, Excel, AutoCAD, Sketch Up, STAAD)
Highly trustworthy, discreet and ethical
Can work properly under time pressure
Can establish good relationship with others
Adaptable with working environment
With good analytical skills

Educational Background

Tertiary
Level: College Degree
Degree: Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering
Name of Institution: Mapua Institute of Technology
Location: Intramuros, Manila

Secondary
Name of Institution: Lorenzo Ruiz de Manila School
Graduation Date: Location: March 2009
Vista Verde, Cainta, Rizal

Other Information

2013 American Concrete Institute, Mapua student


chapter
Member
2014 Makati Development Corporation
On-the-Job trainee
2014 DDT Konstract Inc.
On-the-Job trainee

2014 Department of Public Works and Highways


On-the-Job trainee

Seminars Attended

2013 Building Information Modelling (BIM) Seminar

2013 National Civil Engineering Symposium 2013

Personal Information

Age: 21 Status: Single


Date of Birth: January/12/1993 Religion: Roman Catholic
Place of Birth: Marikina City
Fathers Name: Andie B. Bongalos
Occupation: Seaman
Mothers Name: Juliet T. Bongalos
Occupation: Housewife

This is to certify that the above information is true and correct.

Jake Andrew T. Bongalos


LAGGUI, John Paul M.
Address: Block 33 Lot 39 Phase 2, Pinagsama Village,
Taguig City
Contact #: 09364283785
E-mail: johnpaullaggui@yahoo.com

Objective
To be able practice and enhance my ability as a Civil Engineering student and
develop my personality towards my career through hands on experience.

Education
TERTIARY: MAPUA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, INTRAMUROS, MANILA
BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
2009 - 2014

SECONDARY: FORT BONIFACIO HIGH SCHOOL, MAKATI


2008 - 2009

MCA MONTESSORI SCHOOL, TAGUIG 2005 - 2008

PRIMARY: VILLAMOR AIR BASE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, PASAY


2000 2005

PAGRAI COMMUNITY LEARNING CENTER, RIZAL


1999 - 2000

Skills & Abilities


KNOWLEDGEABLE IN MS OFFICE (WORD, EXCEL, POWERPOINT, & PROJECT)
KNOWLEDGEABLE IN THE FOLLOWING SOFTWARES:
O STAAD V8i
O ETABS
O AUTOCAD
O SKETCHUP PRO
STRONG DESIRE AND KEEN INTEREST TO LEARN, ENERGETIC, ADOPTABLE, AND
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATOR WHO EXHIBITS OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE

Seminars Attended On the Job Trainings


Environmental Engineering on Green Building Suntrust Parkview Towers
SB 13 Manila Conference Millennium Erectors Corporation
BIM Seminar (Using tekla softwares)
Designing and Constructing Sustainable Buildings Shell Residences
Student Conference on Transportation Research 2013 DDT Konstract Inc.

DPWH Project (Bitis, Pampanga)


W.A.N.N. Construction Company